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Overview
Comment:Improvements to comments. No code changes. (CVS 618)
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 7e10e60bb78b680bb822908a0b7763f8f5e3ee5a
User & Date: drh 2002-06-14 20:58:45
Context
2002-06-14
22:38
Make the LIMIT clause work even if the destination of the SELECT is something other than a callback. (Ticket #66) (CVS 619) check-in: 699cf362 user: drh tags: trunk
20:58
Improvements to comments. No code changes. (CVS 618) check-in: 7e10e60b user: drh tags: trunk
20:54
Fix for bug #72: Make sure the file descriptors are properly closed if sqliteInit() fails for any reason. (CVS 617) check-in: e67ac0fe user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
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Changes to src/util.c.

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**
*************************************************************************
** Utility functions used throughout sqlite.
**
** This file contains functions for allocating memory, comparing
** strings, and stuff like that.
**
** $Id: util.c,v 1.45 2002/05/31 15:51:25 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <ctype.h>

/*
** If malloc() ever fails, this global variable gets set to 1.
................................................................................
** Return an error (non-zero) if the magic was not SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN
** when this routine is called.
**
** This routine is a attempt to detect if two threads use the
** same sqlite* pointer at the same time.  There is a race 
** condition so it is possible that the error is not detected.
** But usually the problem will be seen.  The result will be an
** error which can be used to debugging the application that is
** using SQLite incorrectly.
*/
int sqliteSafetyOn(sqlite *db){
  if( db->magic==SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN ){
    db->magic = SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY;
    return 0;
  }else{







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**
*************************************************************************
** Utility functions used throughout sqlite.
**
** This file contains functions for allocating memory, comparing
** strings, and stuff like that.
**
** $Id: util.c,v 1.46 2002/06/14 20:58:45 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <ctype.h>

/*
** If malloc() ever fails, this global variable gets set to 1.
................................................................................
** Return an error (non-zero) if the magic was not SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN
** when this routine is called.
**
** This routine is a attempt to detect if two threads use the
** same sqlite* pointer at the same time.  There is a race 
** condition so it is possible that the error is not detected.
** But usually the problem will be seen.  The result will be an
** error which can be used to debug the application that is
** using SQLite incorrectly.
*/
int sqliteSafetyOn(sqlite *db){
  if( db->magic==SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN ){
    db->magic = SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY;
    return 0;
  }else{

Changes to src/where.c.

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**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This module contains C code that generates VDBE code used to process
** the WHERE clause of SQL statements.  Also found here are subroutines
** to generate VDBE code to evaluate expressions.
**
** $Id: where.c,v 1.50 2002/06/09 01:55:20 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"

/*
** The query generator uses an array of instances of this structure to
** help it analyze the subexpressions of the WHERE clause.  Each WHERE
** clause subexpression is separated from the others by an AND operator.
................................................................................
  }
  return mask;
}

/*
** Return TRUE if the given operator is one of the operators that is
** allowed for an indexable WHERE clause.  The allowed operators are
** "=", "<", ">", "<=", and ">=".
*/
static int allowedOp(int op){
  switch( op ){
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
................................................................................
** Generating the beginning of the loop used for WHERE clause processing.
** The return value is a pointer to an (opaque) structure that contains
** information needed to terminate the loop.  Later, the calling routine
** should invoke sqliteWhereEnd() with the return value of this function
** in order to complete the WHERE clause processing.
**
** If an error occurs, this routine returns NULL.




















































*/
WhereInfo *sqliteWhereBegin(
  Parse *pParse,       /* The parser context */
  int base,            /* VDBE cursor index for left-most table in pTabList */
  SrcList *pTabList,   /* A list of all tables to be scanned */
  Expr *pWhere,        /* The WHERE clause */
  int pushKey          /* If TRUE, leave the table key on the stack */
................................................................................
  int haveKey;         /* True if KEY is on the stack */
  int aDirect[32];     /* If TRUE, then index this table using ROWID */
  int iDirectEq[32];   /* Term of the form ROWID==X for the N-th table */
  int iDirectLt[32];   /* Term of the form ROWID<X or ROWID<=X */
  int iDirectGt[32];   /* Term of the form ROWID>X or ROWID>=X */
  ExprInfo aExpr[50];  /* The WHERE clause is divided into these expressions */






  /* Allocate space for aOrder[] and aiMem[]. */
  aOrder = sqliteMalloc( sizeof(int) * pTabList->nSrc );

  /* Allocate and initialize the WhereInfo structure that will become the
  ** return value.
  */
  pWInfo = sqliteMalloc( sizeof(WhereInfo) + pTabList->nSrc*sizeof(WhereLevel));
................................................................................
    ** This scoring system is designed so that the score can later be
    ** used to determine how the index is used.  If the score&3 is 0
    ** then all constraints are equalities.  If score&1 is not 0 then
    ** there is an inequality used as a termination key.  (ex: "x<...")
    ** If score&2 is not 0 then there is an inequality used as the
    ** start key.  (ex: "x>...");
    **
    ** The IN operator as in "<expr> IN (...)" is treated the same as
    ** an equality comparison.



    */
    for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      int eqMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x=... constraint */
      int ltMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x<... constraint */
      int gtMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x>... constraint */
      int inMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x IN .. constraint */
      int nEq, m, score;

      if( pIdx->isDropped ) continue;   /* Ignore dropped indices */
      if( pIdx->nColumn>32 ) continue;  /* Ignore indices too many columns */
      for(j=0; j<nExpr; j++){
        if( aExpr[j].idxLeft==idx 
             && (aExpr[j].prereqRight & loopMask)==aExpr[j].prereqRight ){
................................................................................
    int j, k;
    int idx = aOrder[i];
    Index *pIdx;
    WhereLevel *pLevel = &pWInfo->a[i];

    /* If this is the right table of a LEFT OUTER JOIN, allocate and
    ** initialize a memory cell that record if this table matches any
    ** row of the left table in the join.
    */
    if( i>0 && (pTabList->a[i-1].jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
      if( !pParse->nMem ) pParse->nMem++;
      pLevel->iLeftJoin = pParse->nMem++;
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_String, 0, 0);
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iLeftJoin, 1);
    }

    pIdx = pLevel->pIdx;
    pLevel->inOp = OP_Noop;
    if( i<ARRAYSIZE(iDirectEq) && iDirectEq[i]>=0 ){
      /* Case 1:  We can directly reference a single row using an
      **          equality comparison against the ROWID field.


      */
      k = iDirectEq[i];
      assert( k<nExpr );
      assert( aExpr[k].p!=0 );
      assert( aExpr[k].idxLeft==idx || aExpr[k].idxRight==idx );
      brk = pLevel->brk = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      if( aExpr[k].idxLeft==idx ){
................................................................................
      aExpr[k].p = 0;
      cont = pLevel->cont = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MustBeInt, 0, brk);
      haveKey = 0;
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_NotExists, base+idx, brk);
      pLevel->op = OP_Noop;
    }else if( pIdx!=0 && pLevel->score%4==0 ){
      /* Case 2:  All index constraints are equality operators.

      */
      int start;
      int testOp;
      int nColumn = pLevel->score/4;
      brk = pLevel->brk = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      for(j=0; j<nColumn; j++){
        for(k=0; k<nExpr; k++){
................................................................................
      if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Recno, base+idx, 0);
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemLoad, pLevel->iMem, 0);
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, testOp, 0, brk);
      }
      haveKey = 0;
    }else if( pIdx==0 ){
      /* Case 4:  There was no usable index.  We must do a complete
      **          scan of the entire database table.
      */
      int start;

      brk = pLevel->brk = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      cont = pLevel->cont = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Rewind, base+idx, brk);
      start = sqliteVdbeCurrentAddr(v);
      pLevel->op = OP_Next;
      pLevel->p1 = base+idx;
      pLevel->p2 = start;
      haveKey = 0;
    }else{
      /* Case 5: The contraint on the right-most index field is




      **         an inequality.
      */
      int score = pLevel->score;
      int nEqColumn = score/4;
      int start;
      int leFlag, geFlag;
      int testOp;

................................................................................
            sqliteExprCode(pParse, aExpr[k].p->pLeft);
            aExpr[k].p = 0;
            break;
          }
        }
      }

      /* Duplicate the equality contraint values because they will all be
      ** used twice: once to make the termination key and once to make the
      ** start key.
      */
      for(j=0; j<nEqColumn; j++){
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Dup, nEqColumn-1, 0);
      }

      /* Generate the termination key.  This is the key value that
      ** will end the search.  There is no termination key if there
      ** are no equality contraints and no "X<..." constraint.
      */
      if( (score & 1)!=0 ){
        for(k=0; k<nExpr; k++){
          Expr *pExpr = aExpr[k].p;
          if( pExpr==0 ) continue;
          if( aExpr[k].idxLeft==idx 
             && (pExpr->op==TK_LT || pExpr->op==TK_LE)
................................................................................
        if( leFlag ){
          sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_IncrKey, 0, 0);
        }
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 1);
      }

      /* Generate the start key.  This is the key that defines the lower
      ** bound on the search.  There is no start key if there are not
      ** equality constraints and if there is no "X>..." constraint.  In
      ** that case, generate a "Rewind" instruction in place of the
      ** start key search.
      */
      if( (score & 2)!=0 ){
        for(k=0; k<nExpr; k++){
          Expr *pExpr = aExpr[k].p;
          if( pExpr==0 ) continue;
................................................................................
    sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Recno, base, 0);
  }
  sqliteFree(aOrder);
  return pWInfo;
}

/*
** Generate the end of the WHERE loop.

*/
void sqliteWhereEnd(WhereInfo *pWInfo){
  Vdbe *v = pWInfo->pParse->pVdbe;
  int i;
  int base = pWInfo->base;
  WhereLevel *pLevel;
  SrcList *pTabList = pWInfo->pTabList;







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**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This module contains C code that generates VDBE code used to process
** the WHERE clause of SQL statements.  Also found here are subroutines
** to generate VDBE code to evaluate expressions.
**
** $Id: where.c,v 1.51 2002/06/14 20:58:45 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"

/*
** The query generator uses an array of instances of this structure to
** help it analyze the subexpressions of the WHERE clause.  Each WHERE
** clause subexpression is separated from the others by an AND operator.
................................................................................
  }
  return mask;
}

/*
** Return TRUE if the given operator is one of the operators that is
** allowed for an indexable WHERE clause.  The allowed operators are
** "=", "<", ">", "<=", ">=", and "IN".
*/
static int allowedOp(int op){
  switch( op ){
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
................................................................................
** Generating the beginning of the loop used for WHERE clause processing.
** The return value is a pointer to an (opaque) structure that contains
** information needed to terminate the loop.  Later, the calling routine
** should invoke sqliteWhereEnd() with the return value of this function
** in order to complete the WHERE clause processing.
**
** If an error occurs, this routine returns NULL.
**
** The basic idea is to do a nested loop, one loop for each table in
** the FROM clause of a select.  (INSERT and UPDATE statements are the
** same as a SELECT with only a single table in the FROM clause.)  For
** example, if the SQL is this:
**
**       SELECT * FROM t1, t2, t3 WHERE ...;
**
** Then the code generated is conceptually like the following:
**
**      foreach row1 in t1 do       \    Code generated
**        foreach row2 in t2 do      |-- by sqliteWhereBegin()
**          foreach row3 in t3 do   /
**            ...
**          end                     \    Code generated
**        end                        |-- by sqliteWhereEnd()
**      end                         /
**
** There are Btree cursors associated with each table.  t1 uses cursor
** "base".  t2 uses cursor "base+1".  And so forth.  This routine generates
** the code to open those cursors.  sqliteWhereEnd() generates the code
** to close them.
**
** If the WHERE clause is empty, the foreach loops must each scan their
** entire tables.  Thus a three-way join is an O(N^3) operation.  But if
** the tables have indices and there are terms in the WHERE clause that
** refer to those indices, a complete table scan can be avoided and the
** code will run much faster.  Most of the work of this routine is checking
** to see if there are indices that can be used to speed up the loop.
**
** Terms of the WHERE clause are also used to limit which rows actually
** make it to the "..." in the middle of the loop.  After each "foreach",
** terms of the WHERE clause that use only terms in that loop and outer
** loops are evaluated and if false a jump is made around all subsequent
** inner loops (or around the "..." if the test occurs within the inner-
** most loop)
**
** OUTER JOINS
**
** An outer join of tables t1 and t2 is conceptally coded as follows:
**
**    foreach row1 in t1 do
**      flag = 0
**      foreach row2 in t2 do
**        start:
**          ...
**          flag = 1
**      end
**      if flag==0 goto start
**    end
**
** In words, if the right
*/
WhereInfo *sqliteWhereBegin(
  Parse *pParse,       /* The parser context */
  int base,            /* VDBE cursor index for left-most table in pTabList */
  SrcList *pTabList,   /* A list of all tables to be scanned */
  Expr *pWhere,        /* The WHERE clause */
  int pushKey          /* If TRUE, leave the table key on the stack */
................................................................................
  int haveKey;         /* True if KEY is on the stack */
  int aDirect[32];     /* If TRUE, then index this table using ROWID */
  int iDirectEq[32];   /* Term of the form ROWID==X for the N-th table */
  int iDirectLt[32];   /* Term of the form ROWID<X or ROWID<=X */
  int iDirectGt[32];   /* Term of the form ROWID>X or ROWID>=X */
  ExprInfo aExpr[50];  /* The WHERE clause is divided into these expressions */

  /* pushKey is only allowed if there is a single table (as in an INSERT or
  ** UPDATE statement)
  */
  assert( pushKey==0 || pTabList->nSrc==1 );
  
  /* Allocate space for aOrder[] and aiMem[]. */
  aOrder = sqliteMalloc( sizeof(int) * pTabList->nSrc );

  /* Allocate and initialize the WhereInfo structure that will become the
  ** return value.
  */
  pWInfo = sqliteMalloc( sizeof(WhereInfo) + pTabList->nSrc*sizeof(WhereLevel));
................................................................................
    ** This scoring system is designed so that the score can later be
    ** used to determine how the index is used.  If the score&3 is 0
    ** then all constraints are equalities.  If score&1 is not 0 then
    ** there is an inequality used as a termination key.  (ex: "x<...")
    ** If score&2 is not 0 then there is an inequality used as the
    ** start key.  (ex: "x>...");
    **
    ** The IN operator (as in "<expr> IN (...)") is treated the same as
    ** an equality comparison except that it can only be used on the
    ** left-most column of an index and other terms of the WHERE clause
    ** cannot be used in conjunction with the IN operator to help satisfy
    ** other columns of the index.
    */
    for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      int eqMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x=... term */
      int ltMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x<... term */
      int gtMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x>... term */
      int inMask = 0;  /* Index columns covered by an x IN .. term */
      int nEq, m, score;

      if( pIdx->isDropped ) continue;   /* Ignore dropped indices */
      if( pIdx->nColumn>32 ) continue;  /* Ignore indices too many columns */
      for(j=0; j<nExpr; j++){
        if( aExpr[j].idxLeft==idx 
             && (aExpr[j].prereqRight & loopMask)==aExpr[j].prereqRight ){
................................................................................
    int j, k;
    int idx = aOrder[i];
    Index *pIdx;
    WhereLevel *pLevel = &pWInfo->a[i];

    /* If this is the right table of a LEFT OUTER JOIN, allocate and
    ** initialize a memory cell that record if this table matches any
    ** row of the left table of the join.
    */
    if( i>0 && (pTabList->a[i-1].jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
      if( !pParse->nMem ) pParse->nMem++;
      pLevel->iLeftJoin = pParse->nMem++;
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_String, 0, 0);
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iLeftJoin, 1);
    }

    pIdx = pLevel->pIdx;
    pLevel->inOp = OP_Noop;
    if( i<ARRAYSIZE(iDirectEq) && iDirectEq[i]>=0 ){
      /* Case 1:  We can directly reference a single row using an
      **          equality comparison against the ROWID field.  Or
      **          we reference multiple rows using a "rowid IN (...)"
      **          construct.
      */
      k = iDirectEq[i];
      assert( k<nExpr );
      assert( aExpr[k].p!=0 );
      assert( aExpr[k].idxLeft==idx || aExpr[k].idxRight==idx );
      brk = pLevel->brk = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      if( aExpr[k].idxLeft==idx ){
................................................................................
      aExpr[k].p = 0;
      cont = pLevel->cont = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MustBeInt, 0, brk);
      haveKey = 0;
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_NotExists, base+idx, brk);
      pLevel->op = OP_Noop;
    }else if( pIdx!=0 && pLevel->score%4==0 ){
      /* Case 2:  There is an index and all terms of the WHERE clause that
      **          refer to the index use the "==" or "IN" operators.
      */
      int start;
      int testOp;
      int nColumn = pLevel->score/4;
      brk = pLevel->brk = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      for(j=0; j<nColumn; j++){
        for(k=0; k<nExpr; k++){
................................................................................
      if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Recno, base+idx, 0);
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemLoad, pLevel->iMem, 0);
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, testOp, 0, brk);
      }
      haveKey = 0;
    }else if( pIdx==0 ){
      /* Case 4:  There is no usable index.  We must do a complete
      **          scan of the entire database table.
      */
      int start;

      brk = pLevel->brk = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      cont = pLevel->cont = sqliteVdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Rewind, base+idx, brk);
      start = sqliteVdbeCurrentAddr(v);
      pLevel->op = OP_Next;
      pLevel->p1 = base+idx;
      pLevel->p2 = start;
      haveKey = 0;
    }else{
      /* Case 5: The WHERE clause term that refers to the right-most
      **         column of the index is an inequality.  For example, if
      **         the index is on (x,y,z) and the WHERE clause is of the
      **         form "x=5 AND y<10" then this case is used.  Only the
      **         right-most column can be an inequality - the rest must
      **         use the "==" operator.
      */
      int score = pLevel->score;
      int nEqColumn = score/4;
      int start;
      int leFlag, geFlag;
      int testOp;

................................................................................
            sqliteExprCode(pParse, aExpr[k].p->pLeft);
            aExpr[k].p = 0;
            break;
          }
        }
      }

      /* Duplicate the equality term values because they will all be
      ** used twice: once to make the termination key and once to make the
      ** start key.
      */
      for(j=0; j<nEqColumn; j++){
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Dup, nEqColumn-1, 0);
      }

      /* Generate the termination key.  This is the key value that
      ** will end the search.  There is no termination key if there
      ** are no equality terms and no "X<..." term.
      */
      if( (score & 1)!=0 ){
        for(k=0; k<nExpr; k++){
          Expr *pExpr = aExpr[k].p;
          if( pExpr==0 ) continue;
          if( aExpr[k].idxLeft==idx 
             && (pExpr->op==TK_LT || pExpr->op==TK_LE)
................................................................................
        if( leFlag ){
          sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_IncrKey, 0, 0);
        }
        sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 1);
      }

      /* Generate the start key.  This is the key that defines the lower
      ** bound on the search.  There is no start key if there are no
      ** equality terms and if there is no "X>..." term.  In
      ** that case, generate a "Rewind" instruction in place of the
      ** start key search.
      */
      if( (score & 2)!=0 ){
        for(k=0; k<nExpr; k++){
          Expr *pExpr = aExpr[k].p;
          if( pExpr==0 ) continue;
................................................................................
    sqliteVdbeAddOp(v, OP_Recno, base, 0);
  }
  sqliteFree(aOrder);
  return pWInfo;
}

/*
** Generate the end of the WHERE loop.  See comments on 
** sqliteWhereBegin() for additional information.
*/
void sqliteWhereEnd(WhereInfo *pWInfo){
  Vdbe *v = pWInfo->pParse->pVdbe;
  int i;
  int base = pWInfo->base;
  WhereLevel *pLevel;
  SrcList *pTabList = pWInfo->pTabList;