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Overview
Comment:Modify the way the costs of various query plans are estimated. If the user supplies a likelihood() value (or equivalent) on an indexed WHERE constraint, use it to estimate the number of index rows visited.
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SHA1: 90e36676476e8db00658772e6c938242f766d306
User & Date: dan 2014-04-30 15:22:25
References
2019-08-15
14:28 New ticket [e4598ecb] Division by zero in the query planner.. artifact: d93508fc user: drh
2015-04-11
11:06 New ticket [7b4fee9f] Expressions like (a IS NULL AND b = ?) optimized by a UNIQUE index matching a single row only. artifact: a72fb3c9 user: dan
Context
2014-04-30
18:11
Fix a problem in calculating the costs of "OR" scans. check-in: 9bbca48b user: dan tags: trunk
15:22
Modify the way the costs of various query plans are estimated. If the user supplies a likelihood() value (or equivalent) on an indexed WHERE constraint, use it to estimate the number of index rows visited. check-in: 90e36676 user: dan tags: trunk
15:00
Add text to the header comment of whereLoopAddBtree() describing how the costs of various b-tree loops are estimated. Closed-Leaf check-in: 05e6e16c user: dan tags: experimental-costs
2014-04-28
17:56
Add the sqlite3_rtree_query_callback() API to the RTree virtual table. (Cherrypick from the sessions branch.) check-in: af2cbe64 user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Show Whitespace Changes Patch

Changes to src/analyze.c.

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** list of space separated integers. Read the first nOut of these into
** the array aOut[].
*/
static void decodeIntArray(
  char *zIntArray,       /* String containing int array to decode */
  int nOut,              /* Number of slots in aOut[] */
  tRowcnt *aOut,         /* Store integers here */

  Index *pIndex          /* Handle extra flags for this index, if not NULL */
){
  char *z = zIntArray;
  int c;
  int i;
  tRowcnt v;

................................................................................
#endif
  for(i=0; *z && i<nOut; i++){
    v = 0;
    while( (c=z[0])>='0' && c<='9' ){
      v = v*10 + c - '0';
      z++;
    }

    aOut[i] = v;



    if( *z==' ' ) z++;
  }
#ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  assert( pIndex!=0 );
#else
  if( pIndex )
#endif
................................................................................
    pIndex = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTable);
  }else{
    pIndex = sqlite3FindIndex(pInfo->db, argv[1], pInfo->zDatabase);
  }
  z = argv[2];

  if( pIndex ){
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, pIndex->nKeyCol+1, pIndex->aiRowEst, pIndex);
    if( pIndex->pPartIdxWhere==0 ) pTable->nRowEst = pIndex->aiRowEst[0];
  }else{
    Index fakeIdx;
    fakeIdx.szIdxRow = pTable->szTabRow;
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, 1, &pTable->nRowEst, &fakeIdx);
    pTable->szTabRow = fakeIdx.szIdxRow;
  }

  return 0;
}

/*
................................................................................
    nCol = pIdx->nSampleCol;
    if( bStat3 && nCol>1 ) continue;
    if( pIdx!=pPrevIdx ){
      initAvgEq(pPrevIdx);
      pPrevIdx = pIdx;
    }
    pSample = &pIdx->aSample[pIdx->nSample];
    decodeIntArray((char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,1), nCol, pSample->anEq, 0);
    decodeIntArray((char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,2), nCol, pSample->anLt, 0);
    decodeIntArray((char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,3), nCol, pSample->anDLt,0);

    /* Take a copy of the sample. Add two 0x00 bytes the end of the buffer.
    ** This is in case the sample record is corrupted. In that case, the
    ** sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare() may read up to two varints past the
    ** end of the allocated buffer before it realizes it is dealing with
    ** a corrupt record. Adding the two 0x00 bytes prevents this from causing
    ** a buffer overread.  */







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** list of space separated integers. Read the first nOut of these into
** the array aOut[].
*/
static void decodeIntArray(
  char *zIntArray,       /* String containing int array to decode */
  int nOut,              /* Number of slots in aOut[] */
  tRowcnt *aOut,         /* Store integers here */
  LogEst *aLog,          /* Or, if aOut==0, here */
  Index *pIndex          /* Handle extra flags for this index, if not NULL */
){
  char *z = zIntArray;
  int c;
  int i;
  tRowcnt v;

................................................................................
#endif
  for(i=0; *z && i<nOut; i++){
    v = 0;
    while( (c=z[0])>='0' && c<='9' ){
      v = v*10 + c - '0';
      z++;
    }
    if( aOut ){
      aOut[i] = v;
    }else{
      aLog[i] = sqlite3LogEst(v);
    }
    if( *z==' ' ) z++;
  }
#ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  assert( pIndex!=0 );
#else
  if( pIndex )
#endif
................................................................................
    pIndex = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTable);
  }else{
    pIndex = sqlite3FindIndex(pInfo->db, argv[1], pInfo->zDatabase);
  }
  z = argv[2];

  if( pIndex ){
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, pIndex->nKeyCol+1, 0, pIndex->aiRowLogEst, pIndex);
    if( pIndex->pPartIdxWhere==0 ) pTable->nRowLogEst = pIndex->aiRowLogEst[0];
  }else{
    Index fakeIdx;
    fakeIdx.szIdxRow = pTable->szTabRow;
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, 1, 0, &pTable->nRowLogEst, &fakeIdx);
    pTable->szTabRow = fakeIdx.szIdxRow;
  }

  return 0;
}

/*
................................................................................
    nCol = pIdx->nSampleCol;
    if( bStat3 && nCol>1 ) continue;
    if( pIdx!=pPrevIdx ){
      initAvgEq(pPrevIdx);
      pPrevIdx = pIdx;
    }
    pSample = &pIdx->aSample[pIdx->nSample];
    decodeIntArray((char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,1),nCol,pSample->anEq,0,0);
    decodeIntArray((char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,2),nCol,pSample->anLt,0,0);
    decodeIntArray((char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,3),nCol,pSample->anDLt,0,0);

    /* Take a copy of the sample. Add two 0x00 bytes the end of the buffer.
    ** This is in case the sample record is corrupted. In that case, the
    ** sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare() may read up to two varints past the
    ** end of the allocated buffer before it realizes it is dealing with
    ** a corrupt record. Adding the two 0x00 bytes prevents this from causing
    ** a buffer overread.  */

Changes to src/build.c.

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    pParse->nErr++;
    goto begin_table_error;
  }
  pTable->zName = zName;
  pTable->iPKey = -1;
  pTable->pSchema = db->aDb[iDb].pSchema;
  pTable->nRef = 1;
  pTable->nRowEst = 1048576;
  assert( pParse->pNewTable==0 );
  pParse->pNewTable = pTable;

  /* If this is the magic sqlite_sequence table used by autoincrement,
  ** then record a pointer to this table in the main database structure
  ** so that INSERT can find the table easily.
  */
................................................................................
  char **ppExtra       /* Pointer to the "extra" space */
){
  Index *p;            /* Allocated index object */
  int nByte;           /* Bytes of space for Index object + arrays */

  nByte = ROUND8(sizeof(Index)) +              /* Index structure  */
          ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol) +         /* Index.azColl     */
          ROUND8(sizeof(tRowcnt)*(nCol+1) +    /* Index.aiRowEst   */
                 sizeof(i16)*nCol +            /* Index.aiColumn   */
                 sizeof(u8)*nCol);             /* Index.aSortOrder */
  p = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte + nExtra);
  if( p ){
    char *pExtra = ((char*)p)+ROUND8(sizeof(Index));
    p->azColl = (char**)pExtra;      pExtra += ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol);
    p->aiRowEst = (tRowcnt*)pExtra;  pExtra += sizeof(tRowcnt)*(nCol+1);
    p->aiColumn = (i16*)pExtra;      pExtra += sizeof(i16)*nCol;
    p->aSortOrder = (u8*)pExtra;
    p->nColumn = nCol;
    p->nKeyCol = nCol - 1;
    *ppExtra = ((char*)p) + nByte;
  }
  return p;
................................................................................
  nName = sqlite3Strlen30(zName);
  nExtraCol = pPk ? pPk->nKeyCol : 1;
  pIndex = sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(db, pList->nExpr + nExtraCol,
                                      nName + nExtra + 1, &zExtra);
  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    goto exit_create_index;
  }
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->aiRowEst) );
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->azColl) );
  pIndex->zName = zExtra;
  zExtra += nName + 1;
  memcpy(pIndex->zName, zName, nName+1);
  pIndex->pTable = pTab;
  pIndex->onError = (u8)onError;
  pIndex->uniqNotNull = onError!=OE_None;
................................................................................
** Fill the Index.aiRowEst[] array with default information - information
** to be used when we have not run the ANALYZE command.
**
** aiRowEst[0] is suppose to contain the number of elements in the index.
** Since we do not know, guess 1 million.  aiRowEst[1] is an estimate of the
** number of rows in the table that match any particular value of the
** first column of the index.  aiRowEst[2] is an estimate of the number
** of rows that match any particular combiniation of the first 2 columns
** of the index.  And so forth.  It must always be the case that
*
**           aiRowEst[N]<=aiRowEst[N-1]
**           aiRowEst[N]>=1
**
** Apart from that, we have little to go on besides intuition as to
** how aiRowEst[] should be initialized.  The numbers generated here
** are based on typical values found in actual indices.
*/
void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index *pIdx){


  tRowcnt *a = pIdx->aiRowEst;

  int i;
  tRowcnt n;
  assert( a!=0 );




  a[0] = pIdx->pTable->nRowEst;
  if( a[0]<10 ) a[0] = 10;
  n = 10;





  for(i=1; i<=pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){
    a[i] = n;
    if( n>5 ) n--;

  }
  if( pIdx->onError!=OE_None ){
    a[pIdx->nKeyCol] = 1;
  }


}

/*
** This routine will drop an existing named index.  This routine
** implements the DROP INDEX statement.
*/
void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse *pParse, SrcList *pName, int ifExists){







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    pParse->nErr++;
    goto begin_table_error;
  }
  pTable->zName = zName;
  pTable->iPKey = -1;
  pTable->pSchema = db->aDb[iDb].pSchema;
  pTable->nRef = 1;
  pTable->nRowLogEst = 200; assert( 200==sqlite3LogEst(1048576) );
  assert( pParse->pNewTable==0 );
  pParse->pNewTable = pTable;

  /* If this is the magic sqlite_sequence table used by autoincrement,
  ** then record a pointer to this table in the main database structure
  ** so that INSERT can find the table easily.
  */
................................................................................
  char **ppExtra       /* Pointer to the "extra" space */
){
  Index *p;            /* Allocated index object */
  int nByte;           /* Bytes of space for Index object + arrays */

  nByte = ROUND8(sizeof(Index)) +              /* Index structure  */
          ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol) +         /* Index.azColl     */
          ROUND8(sizeof(LogEst)*(nCol+1) +     /* Index.aiRowLogEst   */
                 sizeof(i16)*nCol +            /* Index.aiColumn   */
                 sizeof(u8)*nCol);             /* Index.aSortOrder */
  p = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte + nExtra);
  if( p ){
    char *pExtra = ((char*)p)+ROUND8(sizeof(Index));
    p->azColl = (char**)pExtra;       pExtra += ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol);
    p->aiRowLogEst = (LogEst*)pExtra; pExtra += sizeof(LogEst)*(nCol+1);
    p->aiColumn = (i16*)pExtra;       pExtra += sizeof(i16)*nCol;
    p->aSortOrder = (u8*)pExtra;
    p->nColumn = nCol;
    p->nKeyCol = nCol - 1;
    *ppExtra = ((char*)p) + nByte;
  }
  return p;
................................................................................
  nName = sqlite3Strlen30(zName);
  nExtraCol = pPk ? pPk->nKeyCol : 1;
  pIndex = sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(db, pList->nExpr + nExtraCol,
                                      nName + nExtra + 1, &zExtra);
  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    goto exit_create_index;
  }
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->aiRowLogEst) );
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->azColl) );
  pIndex->zName = zExtra;
  zExtra += nName + 1;
  memcpy(pIndex->zName, zName, nName+1);
  pIndex->pTable = pTab;
  pIndex->onError = (u8)onError;
  pIndex->uniqNotNull = onError!=OE_None;
................................................................................
** Fill the Index.aiRowEst[] array with default information - information
** to be used when we have not run the ANALYZE command.
**
** aiRowEst[0] is suppose to contain the number of elements in the index.
** Since we do not know, guess 1 million.  aiRowEst[1] is an estimate of the
** number of rows in the table that match any particular value of the
** first column of the index.  aiRowEst[2] is an estimate of the number
** of rows that match any particular combination of the first 2 columns
** of the index.  And so forth.  It must always be the case that
*
**           aiRowEst[N]<=aiRowEst[N-1]
**           aiRowEst[N]>=1
**
** Apart from that, we have little to go on besides intuition as to
** how aiRowEst[] should be initialized.  The numbers generated here
** are based on typical values found in actual indices.
*/
void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index *pIdx){
  /*                10,  9,  8,  7,  6 */
  LogEst aVal[] = { 33, 32, 30, 28, 26 };
  LogEst *a = pIdx->aiRowLogEst;
  int nCopy = MIN(ArraySize(aVal), pIdx->nKeyCol);
  int i;



  /* Set the first entry (number of rows in the index) to the estimated 
  ** number of rows in the table. Or 10, if the estimated number of rows 
  ** in the table is less than that.  */
  a[0] = pIdx->pTable->nRowLogEst;


  if( a[0]<33 ) a[0] = 33;        assert( 33==sqlite3LogEst(10) );

  /* Estimate that a[1] is 10, a[2] is 9, a[3] is 8, a[4] is 7, a[5] is
  ** 6 and each subsequent value (if any) is 5.  */
  memcpy(&a[1], aVal, nCopy*sizeof(LogEst));
  for(i=nCopy+1; i<=pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){


    a[i] = 23;                    assert( 23==sqlite3LogEst(5) );
  }



  assert( 0==sqlite3LogEst(1) );
  if( pIdx->onError!=OE_None ) a[pIdx->nKeyCol] = 0;
}

/*
** This routine will drop an existing named index.  This routine
** implements the DROP INDEX statement.
*/
void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse *pParse, SrcList *pName, int ifExists){

Changes to src/pragma.c.

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    sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 3, COLNAME_NAME, "height", SQLITE_STATIC);
    for(i=sqliteHashFirst(&pDb->pSchema->tblHash); i; i=sqliteHashNext(i)){
      Table *pTab = sqliteHashData(i);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, 1, 0, pTab->zName, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, 2);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer,
                           (int)sqlite3LogEstToInt(pTab->szTabRow), 3);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, (int)pTab->nRowEst, 4);

      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, 1, 4);
      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, 2, 0, pIdx->zName, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer,
                             (int)sqlite3LogEstToInt(pIdx->szIdxRow), 3);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, (int)pIdx->aiRowEst[0], 4);

        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, 1, 4);
      }
    }
  }
  break;

  case PragTyp_INDEX_INFO: if( zRight ){







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    sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 3, COLNAME_NAME, "height", SQLITE_STATIC);
    for(i=sqliteHashFirst(&pDb->pSchema->tblHash); i; i=sqliteHashNext(i)){
      Table *pTab = sqliteHashData(i);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, 1, 0, pTab->zName, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, 2);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer,
                           (int)sqlite3LogEstToInt(pTab->szTabRow), 3);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 
          (int)sqlite3LogEstToInt(pTab->nRowLogEst), 4);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, 1, 4);
      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, 2, 0, pIdx->zName, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer,
                             (int)sqlite3LogEstToInt(pIdx->szIdxRow), 3);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 
            (int)sqlite3LogEstToInt(pIdx->aiRowLogEst[0]), 4);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, 1, 4);
      }
    }
  }
  break;

  case PragTyp_INDEX_INFO: if( zRight ){

Changes to src/select.c.

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    return 0;
  }
  /* The sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect() is only used n contexts where lookaside
  ** is disabled */
  assert( db->lookaside.bEnabled==0 );
  pTab->nRef = 1;
  pTab->zName = 0;
  pTab->nRowEst = 1048576;
  selectColumnsFromExprList(pParse, pSelect->pEList, &pTab->nCol, &pTab->aCol);
  selectAddColumnTypeAndCollation(pParse, pTab, pSelect);
  pTab->iPKey = -1;
  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    sqlite3DeleteTable(db, pTab);
    return 0;
  }
................................................................................

    assert( pFrom->pTab==0 );
    pFrom->pTab = pTab = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(Table));
    if( pTab==0 ) return WRC_Abort;
    pTab->nRef = 1;
    pTab->zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pCte->zName);
    pTab->iPKey = -1;
    pTab->nRowEst = 1048576;
    pTab->tabFlags |= TF_Ephemeral;
    pFrom->pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, pCte->pSelect, 0);
    if( db->mallocFailed ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    assert( pFrom->pSelect );

    /* Check if this is a recursive CTE. */
    pSel = pFrom->pSelect;
................................................................................
      pFrom->pTab = pTab = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(Table));
      if( pTab==0 ) return WRC_Abort;
      pTab->nRef = 1;
      pTab->zName = sqlite3MPrintf(db, "sqlite_sq_%p", (void*)pTab);
      while( pSel->pPrior ){ pSel = pSel->pPrior; }
      selectColumnsFromExprList(pParse, pSel->pEList, &pTab->nCol, &pTab->aCol);
      pTab->iPKey = -1;
      pTab->nRowEst = 1048576;
      pTab->tabFlags |= TF_Ephemeral;
#endif
    }else{
      /* An ordinary table or view name in the FROM clause */
      assert( pFrom->pTab==0 );
      pFrom->pTab = pTab = sqlite3LocateTableItem(pParse, 0, pFrom);
      if( pTab==0 ) return WRC_Abort;
................................................................................
      pItem->regReturn = ++pParse->nMem;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InitCoroutine, pItem->regReturn, 0, addrTop);
      VdbeComment((v, "%s", pItem->pTab->zName));
      pItem->addrFillSub = addrTop;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Coroutine, pItem->regReturn);
      explainSetInteger(pItem->iSelectId, (u8)pParse->iNextSelectId);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSub, &dest);
      pItem->pTab->nRowEst = (unsigned)pSub->nSelectRow;
      pItem->viaCoroutine = 1;
      pItem->regResult = dest.iSdst;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_EndCoroutine, pItem->regReturn);
      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrTop-1);
      sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
    }else{
      /* Generate a subroutine that will fill an ephemeral table with
................................................................................
        VdbeComment((v, "materialize \"%s\"", pItem->pTab->zName));
      }else{
        VdbeNoopComment((v, "materialize \"%s\"", pItem->pTab->zName));
      }
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_EphemTab, pItem->iCursor);
      explainSetInteger(pItem->iSelectId, (u8)pParse->iNextSelectId);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSub, &dest);
      pItem->pTab->nRowEst = (unsigned)pSub->nSelectRow;
      if( onceAddr ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, onceAddr);
      retAddr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Return, pItem->regReturn);
      VdbeComment((v, "end %s", pItem->pTab->zName));
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(v, topAddr, retAddr);
      sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
    }
    if( /*pParse->nErr ||*/ db->mallocFailed ){







|







 







|







 







|







 







|







 







|







1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
....
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
....
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
....
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
....
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
    return 0;
  }
  /* The sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect() is only used n contexts where lookaside
  ** is disabled */
  assert( db->lookaside.bEnabled==0 );
  pTab->nRef = 1;
  pTab->zName = 0;
  pTab->nRowLogEst = 200; assert( 200==sqlite3LogEst(1048576) );
  selectColumnsFromExprList(pParse, pSelect->pEList, &pTab->nCol, &pTab->aCol);
  selectAddColumnTypeAndCollation(pParse, pTab, pSelect);
  pTab->iPKey = -1;
  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    sqlite3DeleteTable(db, pTab);
    return 0;
  }
................................................................................

    assert( pFrom->pTab==0 );
    pFrom->pTab = pTab = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(Table));
    if( pTab==0 ) return WRC_Abort;
    pTab->nRef = 1;
    pTab->zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pCte->zName);
    pTab->iPKey = -1;
    pTab->nRowLogEst = 200; assert( 200==sqlite3LogEst(1048576) );
    pTab->tabFlags |= TF_Ephemeral;
    pFrom->pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, pCte->pSelect, 0);
    if( db->mallocFailed ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    assert( pFrom->pSelect );

    /* Check if this is a recursive CTE. */
    pSel = pFrom->pSelect;
................................................................................
      pFrom->pTab = pTab = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(Table));
      if( pTab==0 ) return WRC_Abort;
      pTab->nRef = 1;
      pTab->zName = sqlite3MPrintf(db, "sqlite_sq_%p", (void*)pTab);
      while( pSel->pPrior ){ pSel = pSel->pPrior; }
      selectColumnsFromExprList(pParse, pSel->pEList, &pTab->nCol, &pTab->aCol);
      pTab->iPKey = -1;
      pTab->nRowLogEst = 200; assert( 200==sqlite3LogEst(1048576) );
      pTab->tabFlags |= TF_Ephemeral;
#endif
    }else{
      /* An ordinary table or view name in the FROM clause */
      assert( pFrom->pTab==0 );
      pFrom->pTab = pTab = sqlite3LocateTableItem(pParse, 0, pFrom);
      if( pTab==0 ) return WRC_Abort;
................................................................................
      pItem->regReturn = ++pParse->nMem;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InitCoroutine, pItem->regReturn, 0, addrTop);
      VdbeComment((v, "%s", pItem->pTab->zName));
      pItem->addrFillSub = addrTop;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Coroutine, pItem->regReturn);
      explainSetInteger(pItem->iSelectId, (u8)pParse->iNextSelectId);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSub, &dest);
      pItem->pTab->nRowLogEst = sqlite3LogEst(pSub->nSelectRow);
      pItem->viaCoroutine = 1;
      pItem->regResult = dest.iSdst;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_EndCoroutine, pItem->regReturn);
      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrTop-1);
      sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
    }else{
      /* Generate a subroutine that will fill an ephemeral table with
................................................................................
        VdbeComment((v, "materialize \"%s\"", pItem->pTab->zName));
      }else{
        VdbeNoopComment((v, "materialize \"%s\"", pItem->pTab->zName));
      }
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_EphemTab, pItem->iCursor);
      explainSetInteger(pItem->iSelectId, (u8)pParse->iNextSelectId);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSub, &dest);
      pItem->pTab->nRowLogEst = sqlite3LogEst(pSub->nSelectRow);
      if( onceAddr ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, onceAddr);
      retAddr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Return, pItem->regReturn);
      VdbeComment((v, "end %s", pItem->pTab->zName));
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(v, topAddr, retAddr);
      sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(pParse);
    }
    if( /*pParse->nErr ||*/ db->mallocFailed ){

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
....
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
....
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690

/*
** Estimated quantities used for query planning are stored as 16-bit
** logarithms.  For quantity X, the value stored is 10*log2(X).  This
** gives a possible range of values of approximately 1.0e986 to 1e-986.
** But the allowed values are "grainy".  Not every value is representable.
** For example, quantities 16 and 17 are both represented by a LogEst
** of 40.  However, since LogEst quantatites are suppose to be estimates,
** not exact values, this imprecision is not a problem.
**
** "LogEst" is short for "Logarithimic Estimate".
**
** Examples:
**      1 -> 0              20 -> 43          10000 -> 132
**      2 -> 10             25 -> 46          25000 -> 146
**      3 -> 16            100 -> 66        1000000 -> 199
**      4 -> 20           1000 -> 99        1048576 -> 200
**     10 -> 33           1024 -> 100    4294967296 -> 320
................................................................................
  Index *pIndex;       /* List of SQL indexes on this table. */
  Select *pSelect;     /* NULL for tables.  Points to definition if a view. */
  FKey *pFKey;         /* Linked list of all foreign keys in this table */
  char *zColAff;       /* String defining the affinity of each column */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  ExprList *pCheck;    /* All CHECK constraints */
#endif
  tRowcnt nRowEst;     /* Estimated rows in table - from sqlite_stat1 table */
  int tnum;            /* Root BTree node for this table (see note above) */
  i16 iPKey;           /* If not negative, use aCol[iPKey] as the primary key */
  i16 nCol;            /* Number of columns in this table */
  u16 nRef;            /* Number of pointers to this Table */
  LogEst szTabRow;     /* Estimated size of each table row in bytes */
  u8 tabFlags;         /* Mask of TF_* values */
  u8 keyConf;          /* What to do in case of uniqueness conflict on iPKey */
................................................................................
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
*/
struct Index {
  char *zName;             /* Name of this index */
  i16 *aiColumn;           /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  tRowcnt *aiRowEst;       /* From ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;           /* The SQL table being indexed */
  char *zColAff;           /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;            /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema;         /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;          /* for each column: True==DESC, False==ASC */
  char **azColl;           /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
  Expr *pPartIdxWhere;     /* WHERE clause for partial indices */







|


|







 







|







 







|







521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
....
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
....
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690

/*
** Estimated quantities used for query planning are stored as 16-bit
** logarithms.  For quantity X, the value stored is 10*log2(X).  This
** gives a possible range of values of approximately 1.0e986 to 1e-986.
** But the allowed values are "grainy".  Not every value is representable.
** For example, quantities 16 and 17 are both represented by a LogEst
** of 40.  However, since LogEst quantaties are suppose to be estimates,
** not exact values, this imprecision is not a problem.
**
** "LogEst" is short for "Logarithmic Estimate".
**
** Examples:
**      1 -> 0              20 -> 43          10000 -> 132
**      2 -> 10             25 -> 46          25000 -> 146
**      3 -> 16            100 -> 66        1000000 -> 199
**      4 -> 20           1000 -> 99        1048576 -> 200
**     10 -> 33           1024 -> 100    4294967296 -> 320
................................................................................
  Index *pIndex;       /* List of SQL indexes on this table. */
  Select *pSelect;     /* NULL for tables.  Points to definition if a view. */
  FKey *pFKey;         /* Linked list of all foreign keys in this table */
  char *zColAff;       /* String defining the affinity of each column */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  ExprList *pCheck;    /* All CHECK constraints */
#endif
  LogEst nRowLogEst;   /* Estimated rows in table - from sqlite_stat1 table */
  int tnum;            /* Root BTree node for this table (see note above) */
  i16 iPKey;           /* If not negative, use aCol[iPKey] as the primary key */
  i16 nCol;            /* Number of columns in this table */
  u16 nRef;            /* Number of pointers to this Table */
  LogEst szTabRow;     /* Estimated size of each table row in bytes */
  u8 tabFlags;         /* Mask of TF_* values */
  u8 keyConf;          /* What to do in case of uniqueness conflict on iPKey */
................................................................................
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
*/
struct Index {
  char *zName;             /* Name of this index */
  i16 *aiColumn;           /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  LogEst *aiRowLogEst;     /* From ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;           /* The SQL table being indexed */
  char *zColAff;           /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;            /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema;         /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;          /* for each column: True==DESC, False==ASC */
  char **azColl;           /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
  Expr *pPartIdxWhere;     /* WHERE clause for partial indices */

Changes to src/util.c.

1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
    if( b>a+49 ) return b;
    if( b>a+31 ) return b+1;
    return b+x[b-a];
  }
}

/*
** Convert an integer into a LogEst.  In other words, compute a
** good approximatation for 10*log2(x).
*/
LogEst sqlite3LogEst(u64 x){
  static LogEst a[] = { 0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 };
  LogEst y = 40;
  if( x<8 ){
    if( x<2 ) return 0;
    while( x<8 ){  y -= 10; x <<= 1; }







|
|







1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
    if( b>a+49 ) return b;
    if( b>a+31 ) return b+1;
    return b+x[b-a];
  }
}

/*
** Convert an integer into a LogEst.  In other words, compute an
** approximation for 10*log2(x).
*/
LogEst sqlite3LogEst(u64 x){
  static LogEst a[] = { 0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 };
  LogEst y = 40;
  if( x<8 ){
    if( x<2 ) return 0;
    while( x<8 ){  y -= 10; x <<= 1; }

Changes to src/where.c.

223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
....
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958

1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
....
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976























1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
....
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
....
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140

2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
....
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236

2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
....
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762

3763
3764
3765

3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
....
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990


3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996





3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
....
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
....
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065







4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083



4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103







4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118

4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143


4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156

4157




4158



4159



4160







4161

4162
4163
4164
4165


4166
4167
4168
4169
4170

4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177


4178
4179
4180

4181
4182

4183


















4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190




4191
4192







4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
....
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275























4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
....
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321

4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
....
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381

4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
....
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
....
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429

4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441


4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456


4457

4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
....
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743
....
5175
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182




5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190




5191
5192
5193
5194

5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
    }
    pWC->nSlot = sqlite3DbMallocSize(db, pWC->a)/sizeof(pWC->a[0]);
  }
  pTerm = &pWC->a[idx = pWC->nTerm++];
  if( p && ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Unlikely) ){
    pTerm->truthProb = sqlite3LogEst(p->iTable) - 99;
  }else{
    pTerm->truthProb = -1;
  }
  pTerm->pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(p);
  pTerm->wtFlags = wtFlags;
  pTerm->pWC = pWC;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  return idx;
}
................................................................................
    aStat[1] = aSample[i].anEq[iCol];
  }else{
    tRowcnt iLower, iUpper, iGap;
    if( i==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
      iUpper = aSample[0].anLt[iCol];
    }else{

      iUpper = i>=pIdx->nSample ? pIdx->aiRowEst[0] : aSample[i].anLt[iCol];
      iLower = aSample[i-1].anEq[iCol] + aSample[i-1].anLt[iCol];
    }
    aStat[1] = (pIdx->nKeyCol>iCol ? pIdx->aAvgEq[iCol] : 1);
    if( iLower>=iUpper ){
      iGap = 0;
    }else{
      iGap = iUpper - iLower;
................................................................................
    }else{
      iGap = iGap/3;
    }
    aStat[0] = iLower + iGap;
  }
}
#endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 */
























/*
** This function is used to estimate the number of rows that will be visited
** by scanning an index for a range of values. The range may have an upper
** bound, a lower bound, or both. The WHERE clause terms that set the upper
** and lower bounds are represented by pLower and pUpper respectively. For
** example, assuming that index p is on t1(a):
................................................................................
      aff = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    }else{
      aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq]].affinity;
    }
    /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
    if( nEq==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
      iUpper = p->aiRowEst[0];
    }else{
      /* Note: this call could be optimized away - since the same values must 
      ** have been requested when testing key $P in whereEqualScanEst().  */
      whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
      iLower = a[0];
      iUpper = a[0] + a[1];
    }
................................................................................
    }
  }
#else
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pParse);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pBuilder);
#endif
  assert( pLower || pUpper );
  /* TUNING:  Each inequality constraint reduces the search space 4-fold.
  ** A BETWEEN operator, therefore, reduces the search space 16-fold */
  nNew = nOut;
  if( pLower && (pLower->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 ){
    nNew -= 20;        assert( 20==sqlite3LogEst(4) );
    nOut--;
  }
  if( pUpper ){
    nNew -= 20;        assert( 20==sqlite3LogEst(4) );
    nOut--;
  }

  if( nNew<10 ) nNew = 10;
  if( nNew<nOut ) nOut = nNew;
  pLoop->nOut = (LogEst)nOut;
  return rc;
}

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
................................................................................
static int whereInScanEst(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing & code generating context */
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,
  ExprList *pList,     /* The value list on the RHS of "x IN (v1,v2,v3,...)" */
  tRowcnt *pnRow       /* Write the revised row estimate here */
){
  Index *p = pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.pIndex;

  int nRecValid = pBuilder->nRecValid;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;     /* Subfunction return code */
  tRowcnt nEst;           /* Number of rows for a single term */
  tRowcnt nRowEst = 0;    /* New estimate of the number of rows */
  int i;                  /* Loop counter */

  assert( p->aSample!=0 );
  for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<pList->nExpr; i++){
    nEst = p->aiRowEst[0];
    rc = whereEqualScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pList->a[i].pExpr, &nEst);
    nRowEst += nEst;
    pBuilder->nRecValid = nRecValid;
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    if( nRowEst > p->aiRowEst[0] ) nRowEst = p->aiRowEst[0];
    *pnRow = nRowEst;
    WHERETRACE(0x10,("IN row estimate: est=%g\n", nRowEst));
  }
  assert( pBuilder->nRecValid==nRecValid );
  return rc;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 */
................................................................................
**
** To say "WhereLoop X is a proper subset of Y" means that X uses fewer
** WHERE clause terms than Y and that every WHERE clause term used by X is
** also used by Y.
*/
static void whereLoopAdjustCost(const WhereLoop *p, WhereLoop *pTemplate){
  if( (pTemplate->wsFlags & WHERE_INDEXED)==0 ) return;

  for(; p; p=p->pNextLoop){
    if( p->iTab!=pTemplate->iTab ) continue;
    if( (p->wsFlags & WHERE_INDEXED)==0 ) continue;

    if( whereLoopCheaperProperSubset(p, pTemplate) ){
      /* Adjust pTemplate cost downward so that it is cheaper than its 
      ** subset p */
      pTemplate->rRun = p->rRun;
      pTemplate->nOut = p->nOut - 1;
    }else if( whereLoopCheaperProperSubset(pTemplate, p) ){
      /* Adjust pTemplate cost upward so that it is costlier than p since
................................................................................
    if( (pTerm->prereqAll & notAllowed)!=0 ) continue;
    for(j=pLoop->nLTerm-1; j>=0; j--){
      pX = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( pX==0 ) continue;
      if( pX==pTerm ) break;
      if( pX->iParent>=0 && (&pWC->a[pX->iParent])==pTerm ) break;
    }
    if( j<0 ) pLoop->nOut += pTerm->truthProb;


  }
}

/*
** We have so far matched pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.nEq terms of the index pIndex.
** Try to match one more.





**
** If pProbe->tnum==0, that means pIndex is a fake index used for the
** INTEGER PRIMARY KEY.
*/
static int whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,     /* The WhereLoop factory */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc,      /* FROM clause term being analyzed */
................................................................................
  u16 saved_nLTerm;               /* Original value of pNew->nLTerm */
  u16 saved_nEq;                  /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nEq */
  u16 saved_nSkip;                /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nSkip */
  u32 saved_wsFlags;              /* Original value of pNew->wsFlags */
  LogEst saved_nOut;              /* Original value of pNew->nOut */
  int iCol;                       /* Index of the column in the table */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  LogEst nRowEst;                 /* Estimated index selectivity */
  LogEst rLogSize;                /* Logarithm of table size */
  WhereTerm *pTop = 0, *pBtm = 0; /* Top and bottom range constraints */

  pNew = pBuilder->pNew;
  if( db->mallocFailed ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;

  assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 );
................................................................................
    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_ISNULL|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }
  if( pProbe->bUnordered ) opMask &= ~(WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE);

  assert( pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nKeyCol );
  if( pNew->u.btree.nEq < pProbe->nKeyCol ){
    iCol = pProbe->aiColumn[pNew->u.btree.nEq];
    nRowEst = sqlite3LogEst(pProbe->aiRowEst[pNew->u.btree.nEq+1]);
    if( nRowEst==0 && pProbe->onError==OE_None ) nRowEst = 1;
  }else{
    iCol = -1;
    nRowEst = 0;
  }
  pTerm = whereScanInit(&scan, pBuilder->pWC, pSrc->iCursor, iCol,
                        opMask, pProbe);
  saved_nEq = pNew->u.btree.nEq;
  saved_nSkip = pNew->u.btree.nSkip;
  saved_nLTerm = pNew->nLTerm;
  saved_wsFlags = pNew->wsFlags;
  saved_prereq = pNew->prereq;
  saved_nOut = pNew->nOut;
  pNew->rSetup = 0;
  rLogSize = estLog(sqlite3LogEst(pProbe->aiRowEst[0]));

  /* Consider using a skip-scan if there are no WHERE clause constraints
  ** available for the left-most terms of the index, and if the average
  ** number of repeats in the left-most terms is at least 18.  The magic
  ** number 18 was found by experimentation to be the payoff point where
  ** skip-scan become faster than a full-scan.
  */







  if( pTerm==0
   && saved_nEq==saved_nSkip
   && saved_nEq+1<pProbe->nKeyCol
   && pProbe->aiRowEst[saved_nEq+1]>=18  /* TUNING: Minimum for skip-scan */
   && (rc = whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1))==SQLITE_OK
  ){
    LogEst nIter;
    pNew->u.btree.nEq++;
    pNew->u.btree.nSkip++;
    pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = 0;
    pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_SKIPSCAN;
    nIter = sqlite3LogEst(pProbe->aiRowEst[0]/pProbe->aiRowEst[saved_nEq+1]);
    pNew->rRun = rLogSize + nIter;
    pNew->nOut += nIter;
    whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(pBuilder, pSrc, pProbe, nIter);
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
  }
  for(; rc==SQLITE_OK && pTerm!=0; pTerm = whereScanNext(&scan)){



    int nIn = 0;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
    int nRecValid = pBuilder->nRecValid;
#endif
    if( (pTerm->eOperator==WO_ISNULL || (pTerm->wtFlags&TERM_VNULL)!=0)
     && (iCol<0 || pSrc->pTab->aCol[iCol].notNull)
    ){
      continue; /* ignore IS [NOT] NULL constraints on NOT NULL columns */
    }
    if( pTerm->prereqRight & pNew->maskSelf ) continue;

    assert( pNew->nOut==saved_nOut );

    pNew->wsFlags = saved_wsFlags;
    pNew->u.btree.nEq = saved_nEq;
    pNew->nLTerm = saved_nLTerm;
    if( whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1) ) break; /* OOM */
    pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = pTerm;
    pNew->prereq = (saved_prereq | pTerm->prereqRight) & ~pNew->maskSelf;
    pNew->rRun = rLogSize; /* Baseline cost is log2(N).  Adjustments below */







    if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_IN;
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        /* "x IN (SELECT ...)":  TUNING: the SELECT returns 25 rows */
        nIn = 46;  assert( 46==sqlite3LogEst(25) );
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList && pExpr->x.pList->nExpr) ){
        /* "x IN (value, value, ...)" */
        nIn = sqlite3LogEst(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr);
      }
      assert( nIn>0 );  /* RHS always has 2 or more terms...  The parser
                        ** changes "x IN (?)" into "x=?". */
      pNew->rRun += nIn;
      pNew->u.btree.nEq++;
      pNew->nOut = nRowEst + nInMul + nIn;

    }else if( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_EQ) ){
      assert(
        (pNew->wsFlags & (WHERE_COLUMN_NULL|WHERE_COLUMN_IN|WHERE_SKIPSCAN))!=0
        || nInMul==0
      );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      if( iCol<0 || (nInMul==0 && pNew->u.btree.nEq==pProbe->nKeyCol-1)){
        assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_IN)==0 || iCol<0 );
        if( iCol>=0 && pProbe->onError==OE_None ){
          pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_UNQ_WANTED;
        }else{
          pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_ONEROW;
        }
      }
      pNew->u.btree.nEq++;
      pNew->nOut = nRowEst + nInMul;
    }else if( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_ISNULL) ){
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_NULL;
      pNew->u.btree.nEq++;
      /* TUNING: IS NULL selects 2 rows */
      nIn = 10;  assert( 10==sqlite3LogEst(2) );
      pNew->nOut = nRowEst + nInMul + nIn;
    }else if( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_GT|WO_GE) ){
      testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_GT );
      testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_GE );


      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_BTM_LIMIT;
      pBtm = pTerm;
      pTop = 0;
    }else{
      assert( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_LT|WO_LE) );
      testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_LT );
      testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_LE );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT;
      pTop = pTerm;
      pBtm = (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT)!=0 ?
                     pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm-2] : 0;
    }
    if( pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE ){

      /* Adjust nOut and rRun for STAT3 range values */




      assert( pNew->nOut==saved_nOut );



      whereRangeScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pBtm, pTop, pNew);



    }







#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4

    if( nInMul==0 
     && pProbe->nSample 
     && pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nSampleCol
     && OptimizationEnabled(db, SQLITE_Stat3) 


    ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      tRowcnt nOut = 0;
      if( (pTerm->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_ISNULL))!=0 ){
        testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_EQ );

        testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_ISNULL );
        rc = whereEqualScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->pRight, &nOut);
      }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN)
             &&  !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect)  ){
        rc = whereInScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->x.pList, &nOut);
      }
      assert( nOut==0 || rc==SQLITE_OK );


      if( nOut ){
        pNew->nOut = sqlite3LogEst(nOut);
        if( pNew->nOut>saved_nOut ) pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;

      }
    }

#endif


















    if( (pNew->wsFlags & (WHERE_IDX_ONLY|WHERE_IPK))==0 ){
      /* Each row involves a step of the index, then a binary search of
      ** the main table */
      pNew->rRun =  sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun,rLogSize>27 ? rLogSize-17 : 10);
    }
    /* Step cost for each output row */
    pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun, pNew->nOut);




    whereLoopOutputAdjust(pBuilder->pWC, pNew);
    rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);







    if( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)==0
     && pNew->u.btree.nEq<(pProbe->nKeyCol + (pProbe->zName!=0))
    ){
      whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(pBuilder, pSrc, pProbe, nInMul+nIn);
    }
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
................................................................................
  return 0;
}

/*
** Add all WhereLoop objects for a single table of the join where the table
** is idenfied by pBuilder->pNew->iTab.  That table is guaranteed to be
** a b-tree table, not a virtual table.























*/
static int whereLoopAddBtree(
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder, /* WHERE clause information */
  Bitmask mExtra              /* Extra prerequesites for using this table */
){
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;          /* WHERE analysis context */
  Index *pProbe;              /* An index we are evaluating */
  Index sPk;                  /* A fake index object for the primary key */
  tRowcnt aiRowEstPk[2];      /* The aiRowEst[] value for the sPk index */
  i16 aiColumnPk = -1;        /* The aColumn[] value for the sPk index */
  SrcList *pTabList;          /* The FROM clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc;  /* The FROM clause btree term to add */
  WhereLoop *pNew;            /* Template WhereLoop object */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;         /* Return code */
  int iSortIdx = 1;           /* Index number */
  int b;                      /* A boolean value */
................................................................................
    ** variable sPk to represent the rowid primary key index.  Make this
    ** fake index the first in a chain of Index objects with all of the real
    ** indices to follow */
    Index *pFirst;                  /* First of real indices on the table */
    memset(&sPk, 0, sizeof(Index));
    sPk.nKeyCol = 1;
    sPk.aiColumn = &aiColumnPk;
    sPk.aiRowEst = aiRowEstPk;
    sPk.onError = OE_Replace;
    sPk.pTable = pTab;

    aiRowEstPk[0] = pTab->nRowEst;
    aiRowEstPk[1] = 1;
    pFirst = pSrc->pTab->pIndex;
    if( pSrc->notIndexed==0 ){
      /* The real indices of the table are only considered if the
      ** NOT INDEXED qualifier is omitted from the FROM clause */
      sPk.pNext = pFirst;
    }
    pProbe = &sPk;
  }
  rSize = sqlite3LogEst(pTab->nRowEst);
  rLogSize = estLog(rSize);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOMATIC_INDEX
  /* Automatic indexes */
  if( !pBuilder->pOrSet
   && (pWInfo->pParse->db->flags & SQLITE_AutoIndex)!=0
   && pSrc->pIndex==0
................................................................................
  /* Loop over all indices
  */
  for(; rc==SQLITE_OK && pProbe; pProbe=pProbe->pNext, iSortIdx++){
    if( pProbe->pPartIdxWhere!=0
     && !whereUsablePartialIndex(pNew->iTab, pWC, pProbe->pPartIdxWhere) ){
      continue;  /* Partial index inappropriate for this query */
    }

    pNew->u.btree.nEq = 0;
    pNew->u.btree.nSkip = 0;
    pNew->nLTerm = 0;
    pNew->iSortIdx = 0;
    pNew->rSetup = 0;
    pNew->prereq = mExtra;
    pNew->nOut = rSize;
................................................................................
    assert( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED)==0 || b==0 );
    if( pProbe->tnum<=0 ){
      /* Integer primary key index */
      pNew->wsFlags = WHERE_IPK;

      /* Full table scan */
      pNew->iSortIdx = b ? iSortIdx : 0;
      /* TUNING: Cost of full table scan is 3*(N + log2(N)).
      **  +  The extra 3 factor is to encourage the use of indexed lookups
      **     over full scans.  FIXME */
      pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(rSize,rLogSize) + 16;
      whereLoopOutputAdjust(pWC, pNew);
      rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
      pNew->nOut = rSize;
      if( rc ) break;
    }else{
      Bitmask m;
      if( pProbe->isCovering ){
................................................................................
         && (pProbe->szIdxRow<pTab->szTabRow)
         && (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED)==0
         && sqlite3GlobalConfig.bUseCis
         && OptimizationEnabled(pWInfo->pParse->db, SQLITE_CoverIdxScan)
          )
      ){
        pNew->iSortIdx = b ? iSortIdx : 0;
        /* TUNING:  The base cost of an index scan is N + log2(N).

        ** The log2(N) is for the initial seek to the beginning and the N
        ** is for the scan itself. */
        pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(rSize, rLogSize);
        if( m==0 ){
          /* TUNING: Cost of a covering index scan is K*(N + log2(N)).
          **  +  The extra factor K of between 1.1 and 3.0 that depends
          **     on the relative sizes of the table and the index.  K
          **     is smaller for smaller indices, thus favoring them.
          **     The upper bound on K (3.0) matches the penalty factor
          **     on a full table scan that tries to encourage the use of
          **     indexed lookups over full scans.
          */


          pNew->rRun +=  1 + (15*pProbe->szIdxRow)/pTab->szTabRow;
        }else{
          /* TUNING: The cost of scanning a non-covering index is multiplied
          ** by log2(N) to account for the binary search of the main table
          ** that must happen for each row of the index.
          ** TODO: Should there be a multiplier here, analogous to the 3x
          ** multiplier for a fulltable scan or covering index scan, to
          ** further discourage the use of an index scan?  Or is the log2(N)
          ** term sufficient discouragement?
          ** TODO: What if some or all of the WHERE clause terms can be
          ** computed without reference to the original table.  Then the
          ** penality should reduce to logK where K is the number of output
          ** rows.
          */
          pNew->rRun += rLogSize;


        }

        whereLoopOutputAdjust(pWC, pNew);
        rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
        pNew->nOut = rSize;
        if( rc ) break;
      }
    }

................................................................................
      pNew->nLTerm = 1;
      pNew->aLTerm[0] = pTerm;
      pNew->wsFlags = WHERE_MULTI_OR;
      pNew->rSetup = 0;
      pNew->iSortIdx = 0;
      memset(&pNew->u, 0, sizeof(pNew->u));
      for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<sSum.n; i++){
        /* TUNING: Multiple by 3.5 for the secondary table lookup */
        pNew->rRun = sSum.a[i].rRun + 18;
        pNew->nOut = sSum.a[i].nOut;
        pNew->prereq = sSum.a[i].prereq;
        rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
      }
    }
  }
  return rc;
................................................................................
        nOut = pFrom->nRow + pWLoop->nOut;
        maskNew = pFrom->maskLoop | pWLoop->maskSelf;
        if( isOrdered<0 ){
          isOrdered = wherePathSatisfiesOrderBy(pWInfo,
                       pWInfo->pOrderBy, pFrom, pWInfo->wctrlFlags,
                       iLoop, pWLoop, &revMask);
          if( isOrdered>=0 && isOrdered<nOrderBy ){
            /* TUNING: Estimated cost of sorting is N*log(N).




            ** If the order-by clause has X terms but only the last Y terms
            ** are out of order, then block-sorting will reduce the sorting
            ** cost to N*log(N)*log(Y/X).  The log(Y/X) term is computed
            ** by rScale.
            ** TODO: Should the sorting cost get a small multiplier to help
            ** discourage the use of sorting and encourage the use of index
            ** scans instead?
            */




            LogEst rScale, rSortCost;
            assert( nOrderBy>0 );
            rScale = sqlite3LogEst((nOrderBy-isOrdered)*100/nOrderBy) - 66;
            rSortCost = nRowEst + estLog(nRowEst) + rScale;

            /* TUNING: The cost of implementing DISTINCT using a B-TREE is
            ** also N*log(N) but it has a larger constant of proportionality.
            ** Multiply by 3.0. */
            if( pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_WANT_DISTINCT ){
              rSortCost += 16;
            }
            WHERETRACE(0x002,
               ("---- sort cost=%-3d (%d/%d) increases cost %3d to %-3d\n",
                rSortCost, (nOrderBy-isOrdered), nOrderBy, rCost,
                sqlite3LogEstAdd(rCost,rSortCost)));







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4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076


4077
4078

4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093


4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113

4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132


4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138

4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157



4158
4159




4160
4161

4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168


4169




4170


4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184

4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216

4217

4218
4219
4220

4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252
4253


4254
4255


4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
....
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
....
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
....
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
....
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501


4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
....
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527

4528
4529





4530





4531
4532
4533














4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
....
4808
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814

4815
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
....
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267




5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
    }
    pWC->nSlot = sqlite3DbMallocSize(db, pWC->a)/sizeof(pWC->a[0]);
  }
  pTerm = &pWC->a[idx = pWC->nTerm++];
  if( p && ExprHasProperty(p, EP_Unlikely) ){
    pTerm->truthProb = sqlite3LogEst(p->iTable) - 99;
  }else{
    pTerm->truthProb = 1;
  }
  pTerm->pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(p);
  pTerm->wtFlags = wtFlags;
  pTerm->pWC = pWC;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  return idx;
}
................................................................................
    aStat[1] = aSample[i].anEq[iCol];
  }else{
    tRowcnt iLower, iUpper, iGap;
    if( i==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
      iUpper = aSample[0].anLt[iCol];
    }else{
      i64 nRow0 = sqlite3LogEstToInt(pIdx->aiRowLogEst[0]);
      iUpper = i>=pIdx->nSample ? nRow0 : aSample[i].anLt[iCol];
      iLower = aSample[i-1].anEq[iCol] + aSample[i-1].anLt[iCol];
    }
    aStat[1] = (pIdx->nKeyCol>iCol ? pIdx->aAvgEq[iCol] : 1);
    if( iLower>=iUpper ){
      iGap = 0;
    }else{
      iGap = iUpper - iLower;
................................................................................
    }else{
      iGap = iGap/3;
    }
    aStat[0] = iLower + iGap;
  }
}
#endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 */

/*
** If it is not NULL, pTerm is a term that provides an upper or lower
** bound on a range scan. Without considering pTerm, it is estimated 
** that the scan will visit nNew rows. This function returns the number
** estimated to be visited after taking pTerm into account.
**
** If the user explicitly specified a likelihood() value for this term,
** then the return value is the likelihood multiplied by the number of
** input rows. Otherwise, this function assumes that an "IS NOT NULL" term
** has a likelihood of 0.50, and any other term a likelihood of 0.25.
*/
static LogEst whereRangeAdjust(WhereTerm *pTerm, LogEst nNew){
  LogEst nRet = nNew;
  if( pTerm ){
    if( pTerm->truthProb<=0 ){
      nRet += pTerm->truthProb;
    }else if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 ){
      nRet -= 20;        assert( 20==sqlite3LogEst(4) );
    }
  }
  return nRet;
}

/*
** This function is used to estimate the number of rows that will be visited
** by scanning an index for a range of values. The range may have an upper
** bound, a lower bound, or both. The WHERE clause terms that set the upper
** and lower bounds are represented by pLower and pUpper respectively. For
** example, assuming that index p is on t1(a):
................................................................................
      aff = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    }else{
      aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq]].affinity;
    }
    /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
    if( nEq==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
      iUpper = sqlite3LogEstToInt(p->aiRowLogEst[0]);
    }else{
      /* Note: this call could be optimized away - since the same values must 
      ** have been requested when testing key $P in whereEqualScanEst().  */
      whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
      iLower = a[0];
      iUpper = a[0] + a[1];
    }
................................................................................
    }
  }
#else
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pParse);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pBuilder);
#endif
  assert( pLower || pUpper );
  assert( pUpper==0 || (pUpper->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
  nNew = whereRangeAdjust(pLower, nOut);
  nNew = whereRangeAdjust(pUpper, nNew);

  /* TUNING: If there is both an upper and lower limit, assume the range is
  ** reduced by an additional 75%. This means that, by default, an open-ended
  ** range query (e.g. col > ?) is assumed to match 1/4 of the rows in the
  ** index. While a closed range (e.g. col BETWEEN ? AND ?) is estimated to
  ** match 1/64 of the index. */ 
  if( pLower && pUpper ) nNew -= 20;

  nOut -= (pLower!=0) + (pUpper!=0);
  if( nNew<10 ) nNew = 10;
  if( nNew<nOut ) nOut = nNew;
  pLoop->nOut = (LogEst)nOut;
  return rc;
}

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
................................................................................
static int whereInScanEst(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing & code generating context */
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,
  ExprList *pList,     /* The value list on the RHS of "x IN (v1,v2,v3,...)" */
  tRowcnt *pnRow       /* Write the revised row estimate here */
){
  Index *p = pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.pIndex;
  i64 nRow0 = sqlite3LogEstToInt(p->aiRowLogEst[0]);
  int nRecValid = pBuilder->nRecValid;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;     /* Subfunction return code */
  tRowcnt nEst;           /* Number of rows for a single term */
  tRowcnt nRowEst = 0;    /* New estimate of the number of rows */
  int i;                  /* Loop counter */

  assert( p->aSample!=0 );
  for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<pList->nExpr; i++){
    nEst = nRow0;
    rc = whereEqualScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pList->a[i].pExpr, &nEst);
    nRowEst += nEst;
    pBuilder->nRecValid = nRecValid;
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    if( nRowEst > nRow0 ) nRowEst = nRow0;
    *pnRow = nRowEst;
    WHERETRACE(0x10,("IN row estimate: est=%g\n", nRowEst));
  }
  assert( pBuilder->nRecValid==nRecValid );
  return rc;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 */
................................................................................
**
** To say "WhereLoop X is a proper subset of Y" means that X uses fewer
** WHERE clause terms than Y and that every WHERE clause term used by X is
** also used by Y.
*/
static void whereLoopAdjustCost(const WhereLoop *p, WhereLoop *pTemplate){
  if( (pTemplate->wsFlags & WHERE_INDEXED)==0 ) return;
  if( (pTemplate->wsFlags & WHERE_SKIPSCAN)!=0 ) return;
  for(; p; p=p->pNextLoop){
    if( p->iTab!=pTemplate->iTab ) continue;
    if( (p->wsFlags & WHERE_INDEXED)==0 ) continue;
    if( (p->wsFlags & WHERE_SKIPSCAN)!=0 ) continue;
    if( whereLoopCheaperProperSubset(p, pTemplate) ){
      /* Adjust pTemplate cost downward so that it is cheaper than its 
      ** subset p */
      pTemplate->rRun = p->rRun;
      pTemplate->nOut = p->nOut - 1;
    }else if( whereLoopCheaperProperSubset(pTemplate, p) ){
      /* Adjust pTemplate cost upward so that it is costlier than p since
................................................................................
    if( (pTerm->prereqAll & notAllowed)!=0 ) continue;
    for(j=pLoop->nLTerm-1; j>=0; j--){
      pX = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( pX==0 ) continue;
      if( pX==pTerm ) break;
      if( pX->iParent>=0 && (&pWC->a[pX->iParent])==pTerm ) break;
    }
    if( j<0 ){
      pLoop->nOut += (pTerm->truthProb<=0 ? pTerm->truthProb : -1);
    }
  }
}

/*
** We have so far matched pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.nEq terms of the 
** index pIndex. Try to match one more.
**
** When this function is called, pBuilder->pNew->nOut contains the 
** number of rows expected to be visited by filtering using the nEq 
** terms only. If it is modified, this value is restored before this 
** function returns.
**
** If pProbe->tnum==0, that means pIndex is a fake index used for the
** INTEGER PRIMARY KEY.
*/
static int whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,     /* The WhereLoop factory */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc,      /* FROM clause term being analyzed */
................................................................................
  u16 saved_nLTerm;               /* Original value of pNew->nLTerm */
  u16 saved_nEq;                  /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nEq */
  u16 saved_nSkip;                /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nSkip */
  u32 saved_wsFlags;              /* Original value of pNew->wsFlags */
  LogEst saved_nOut;              /* Original value of pNew->nOut */
  int iCol;                       /* Index of the column in the table */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */

  LogEst rLogSize;                /* Logarithm of table size */
  WhereTerm *pTop = 0, *pBtm = 0; /* Top and bottom range constraints */

  pNew = pBuilder->pNew;
  if( db->mallocFailed ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;

  assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 );
................................................................................
    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_ISNULL|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }
  if( pProbe->bUnordered ) opMask &= ~(WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE);

  assert( pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nKeyCol );
  if( pNew->u.btree.nEq < pProbe->nKeyCol ){
    iCol = pProbe->aiColumn[pNew->u.btree.nEq];


  }else{
    iCol = -1;

  }
  pTerm = whereScanInit(&scan, pBuilder->pWC, pSrc->iCursor, iCol,
                        opMask, pProbe);
  saved_nEq = pNew->u.btree.nEq;
  saved_nSkip = pNew->u.btree.nSkip;
  saved_nLTerm = pNew->nLTerm;
  saved_wsFlags = pNew->wsFlags;
  saved_prereq = pNew->prereq;
  saved_nOut = pNew->nOut;
  pNew->rSetup = 0;
  rLogSize = estLog(pProbe->aiRowLogEst[0]);

  /* Consider using a skip-scan if there are no WHERE clause constraints
  ** available for the left-most terms of the index, and if the average
  ** number of repeats in the left-most terms is at least 18. 


  **
  ** The magic number 18 is selected on the basis that scanning 17 rows
  ** is almost always quicker than an index seek (even though if the index
  ** contains fewer than 2^17 rows we assume otherwise in other parts of
  ** the code). And, even if it is not, it should not be too much slower. 
  ** On the other hand, the extra seeks could end up being significantly
  ** more expensive.  */
  assert( 42==sqlite3LogEst(18) );
  if( pTerm==0
   && saved_nEq==saved_nSkip
   && saved_nEq+1<pProbe->nKeyCol
   && pProbe->aiRowLogEst[saved_nEq+1]>=42  /* TUNING: Minimum for skip-scan */
   && (rc = whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1))==SQLITE_OK
  ){
    LogEst nIter;
    pNew->u.btree.nEq++;
    pNew->u.btree.nSkip++;
    pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = 0;
    pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_SKIPSCAN;
    nIter = pProbe->aiRowLogEst[saved_nEq] - pProbe->aiRowLogEst[saved_nEq+1];

    pNew->nOut -= nIter;
    whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(pBuilder, pSrc, pProbe, nIter + nInMul);
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
  }
  for(; rc==SQLITE_OK && pTerm!=0; pTerm = whereScanNext(&scan)){
    u16 eOp = pTerm->eOperator;   /* Shorthand for pTerm->eOperator */
    LogEst rCostIdx;
    LogEst nOutUnadjusted;        /* nOut before IN() and WHERE adjustments */
    int nIn = 0;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
    int nRecValid = pBuilder->nRecValid;
#endif
    if( (eOp==WO_ISNULL || (pTerm->wtFlags&TERM_VNULL)!=0)
     && (iCol<0 || pSrc->pTab->aCol[iCol].notNull)
    ){
      continue; /* ignore IS [NOT] NULL constraints on NOT NULL columns */
    }
    if( pTerm->prereqRight & pNew->maskSelf ) continue;



    pNew->wsFlags = saved_wsFlags;
    pNew->u.btree.nEq = saved_nEq;
    pNew->nLTerm = saved_nLTerm;
    if( whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1) ) break; /* OOM */
    pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = pTerm;
    pNew->prereq = (saved_prereq | pTerm->prereqRight) & ~pNew->maskSelf;


    assert( nInMul==0
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_NULL)!=0 
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_IN)!=0 
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_SKIPSCAN)!=0 
    );

    if( eOp & WO_IN ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_IN;
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        /* "x IN (SELECT ...)":  TUNING: the SELECT returns 25 rows */
        nIn = 46;  assert( 46==sqlite3LogEst(25) );
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList && pExpr->x.pList->nExpr) ){
        /* "x IN (value, value, ...)" */
        nIn = sqlite3LogEst(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr);
      }
      assert( nIn>0 );  /* RHS always has 2 or more terms...  The parser
                        ** changes "x IN (?)" into "x=?". */




    }else if( eOp & (WO_EQ) ){




      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      if( iCol<0 || (nInMul==0 && pNew->u.btree.nEq==pProbe->nKeyCol-1) ){

        if( iCol>=0 && pProbe->onError==OE_None ){
          pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_UNQ_WANTED;
        }else{
          pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_ONEROW;
        }
      }
    }else if( eOp & WO_ISNULL ){


      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_NULL;




    }else if( eOp & (WO_GT|WO_GE) ){


      testcase( eOp & WO_GT );
      testcase( eOp & WO_GE );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_BTM_LIMIT;
      pBtm = pTerm;
      pTop = 0;
    }else{
      assert( eOp & (WO_LT|WO_LE) );
      testcase( eOp & WO_LT );
      testcase( eOp & WO_LE );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT;
      pTop = pTerm;
      pBtm = (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT)!=0 ?
                     pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm-2] : 0;
    }


    /* At this point pNew->nOut is set to the number of rows expected to
    ** be visited by the index scan before considering term pTerm, or the
    ** values of nIn and nInMul. In other words, assuming that all 
    ** "x IN(...)" terms are replaced with "x = ?". This block updates
    ** the value of pNew->nOut to account for pTerm (but not nIn/nInMul).  */
    assert( pNew->nOut==saved_nOut );
    if( pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE ){
      /* Adjust nOut using stat3/stat4 data. Or, if there is no stat3/stat4
      ** data, using some other estimate.  */
      whereRangeScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pBtm, pTop, pNew);
    }else{
      int nEq = ++pNew->u.btree.nEq;
      assert( eOp & (WO_ISNULL|WO_EQ|WO_IN) );

      assert( pNew->nOut==saved_nOut );
      if( pTerm->truthProb<=0 && iCol>=0 ){
        assert( (eOp & WO_IN) || nIn==0 );
        pNew->nOut += pTerm->truthProb;
        pNew->nOut -= nIn;
        pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_LIKELIHOOD;
      }else{
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
        tRowcnt nOut = 0;
        if( nInMul==0 
         && pProbe->nSample 
         && pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nSampleCol
         && OptimizationEnabled(db, SQLITE_Stat3) 
         && ((eOp & WO_IN)==0 || !ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_xIsSelect))
         && (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_LIKELIHOOD)==0
        ){
          Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;

          if( (eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_ISNULL))!=0 ){

            testcase( eOp & WO_EQ );
            testcase( eOp & WO_ISNULL );
            rc = whereEqualScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->pRight, &nOut);

          }else{
            rc = whereInScanEst(pParse, pBuilder, pExpr->x.pList, &nOut);
          }
          assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || nOut>0 );
          if( rc==SQLITE_NOTFOUND ) rc = SQLITE_OK;
          if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;          /* Jump out of the pTerm loop */
          if( nOut ){
            pNew->nOut = sqlite3LogEst(nOut);
            if( pNew->nOut>saved_nOut ) pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
            pNew->nOut -= nIn;
          }
        }
        if( nOut==0 )
#endif
        {
          pNew->nOut += (pProbe->aiRowLogEst[nEq] - pProbe->aiRowLogEst[nEq-1]);
          if( eOp & WO_ISNULL ){
            /* TUNING: If there is no likelihood() value, assume that a 
            ** "col IS NULL" expression matches twice as many rows 
            ** as (col=?). */
            pNew->nOut += 10;
          }
        }
      }
    }

    /* Set rCostIdx to the cost of visiting selected rows in index. Add
    ** it to pNew->rRun, which is currently set to the cost of the index
    ** seek only. Then, if this is a non-covering index, add the cost of
    ** visiting the rows in the main table.  */
    rCostIdx = pNew->nOut + 1 + (15*pProbe->szIdxRow)/pSrc->pTab->szTabRow;
    pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(rLogSize, rCostIdx);
    if( (pNew->wsFlags & (WHERE_IDX_ONLY|WHERE_IPK))==0 ){


      pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun, pNew->nOut + 16);
    }



    nOutUnadjusted = pNew->nOut;
    pNew->rRun += nInMul + nIn;
    pNew->nOut += nInMul + nIn;
    whereLoopOutputAdjust(pBuilder->pWC, pNew);
    rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);

    if( pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE ){
      pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
    }else{
      pNew->nOut = nOutUnadjusted;
    }

    if( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)==0
     && pNew->u.btree.nEq<(pProbe->nKeyCol + (pProbe->zName!=0))
    ){
      whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(pBuilder, pSrc, pProbe, nInMul+nIn);
    }
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
................................................................................
  return 0;
}

/*
** Add all WhereLoop objects for a single table of the join where the table
** is idenfied by pBuilder->pNew->iTab.  That table is guaranteed to be
** a b-tree table, not a virtual table.
**
** The costs (WhereLoop.rRun) of the b-tree loops added by this function
** are calculated as follows:
**
** For a full scan, assuming the table (or index) contains nRow rows:
**
**     cost = nRow * 3.0                    // full-table scan
**     cost = nRow * K                      // scan of covering index
**     cost = nRow * (K+3.0)                // scan of non-covering index
**
** where K is a value between 1.1 and 3.0 set based on the relative 
** estimated average size of the index and table records.
**
** For an index scan, where nVisit is the number of index rows visited
** by the scan, and nSeek is the number of seek operations required on 
** the index b-tree:
**
**     cost = nSeek * (log(nRow) + K * nVisit)          // covering index
**     cost = nSeek * (log(nRow) + (K+3.0) * nVisit)    // non-covering index
**
** Normally, nSeek is 1. nSeek values greater than 1 come about if the 
** WHERE clause includes "x IN (....)" terms used in place of "x=?". Or when 
** implicit "x IN (SELECT x FROM tbl)" terms are added for skip-scans.
*/
static int whereLoopAddBtree(
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder, /* WHERE clause information */
  Bitmask mExtra              /* Extra prerequesites for using this table */
){
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;          /* WHERE analysis context */
  Index *pProbe;              /* An index we are evaluating */
  Index sPk;                  /* A fake index object for the primary key */
  LogEst aiRowEstPk[2];       /* The aiRowLogEst[] value for the sPk index */
  i16 aiColumnPk = -1;        /* The aColumn[] value for the sPk index */
  SrcList *pTabList;          /* The FROM clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc;  /* The FROM clause btree term to add */
  WhereLoop *pNew;            /* Template WhereLoop object */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;         /* Return code */
  int iSortIdx = 1;           /* Index number */
  int b;                      /* A boolean value */
................................................................................
    ** variable sPk to represent the rowid primary key index.  Make this
    ** fake index the first in a chain of Index objects with all of the real
    ** indices to follow */
    Index *pFirst;                  /* First of real indices on the table */
    memset(&sPk, 0, sizeof(Index));
    sPk.nKeyCol = 1;
    sPk.aiColumn = &aiColumnPk;
    sPk.aiRowLogEst = aiRowEstPk;
    sPk.onError = OE_Replace;
    sPk.pTable = pTab;
    sPk.szIdxRow = pTab->szTabRow;
    aiRowEstPk[0] = pTab->nRowLogEst;
    aiRowEstPk[1] = 0;
    pFirst = pSrc->pTab->pIndex;
    if( pSrc->notIndexed==0 ){
      /* The real indices of the table are only considered if the
      ** NOT INDEXED qualifier is omitted from the FROM clause */
      sPk.pNext = pFirst;
    }
    pProbe = &sPk;
  }
  rSize = pTab->nRowLogEst;
  rLogSize = estLog(rSize);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOMATIC_INDEX
  /* Automatic indexes */
  if( !pBuilder->pOrSet
   && (pWInfo->pParse->db->flags & SQLITE_AutoIndex)!=0
   && pSrc->pIndex==0
................................................................................
  /* Loop over all indices
  */
  for(; rc==SQLITE_OK && pProbe; pProbe=pProbe->pNext, iSortIdx++){
    if( pProbe->pPartIdxWhere!=0
     && !whereUsablePartialIndex(pNew->iTab, pWC, pProbe->pPartIdxWhere) ){
      continue;  /* Partial index inappropriate for this query */
    }
    rSize = pProbe->aiRowLogEst[0];
    pNew->u.btree.nEq = 0;
    pNew->u.btree.nSkip = 0;
    pNew->nLTerm = 0;
    pNew->iSortIdx = 0;
    pNew->rSetup = 0;
    pNew->prereq = mExtra;
    pNew->nOut = rSize;
................................................................................
    assert( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED)==0 || b==0 );
    if( pProbe->tnum<=0 ){
      /* Integer primary key index */
      pNew->wsFlags = WHERE_IPK;

      /* Full table scan */
      pNew->iSortIdx = b ? iSortIdx : 0;
      /* TUNING: Cost of full table scan is (N*3.0). */
      pNew->rRun = rSize + 16;


      whereLoopOutputAdjust(pWC, pNew);
      rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
      pNew->nOut = rSize;
      if( rc ) break;
    }else{
      Bitmask m;
      if( pProbe->isCovering ){
................................................................................
         && (pProbe->szIdxRow<pTab->szTabRow)
         && (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED)==0
         && sqlite3GlobalConfig.bUseCis
         && OptimizationEnabled(pWInfo->pParse->db, SQLITE_CoverIdxScan)
          )
      ){
        pNew->iSortIdx = b ? iSortIdx : 0;


        /* The cost of visiting the index rows is N*K, where K is





        ** between 1.1 and 3.0, depending on the relative sizes of the





        ** index and table rows. If this is a non-covering index scan,
        ** also add the cost of visiting table rows (N*3.0).  */
        pNew->rRun = rSize + 1 + (15*pProbe->szIdxRow)/pTab->szTabRow;














        if( m!=0 ){
          pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun, rSize+16);
        }

        whereLoopOutputAdjust(pWC, pNew);
        rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
        pNew->nOut = rSize;
        if( rc ) break;
      }
    }

................................................................................
      pNew->nLTerm = 1;
      pNew->aLTerm[0] = pTerm;
      pNew->wsFlags = WHERE_MULTI_OR;
      pNew->rSetup = 0;
      pNew->iSortIdx = 0;
      memset(&pNew->u, 0, sizeof(pNew->u));
      for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<sSum.n; i++){

        pNew->rRun = sSum.a[i].rRun;
        pNew->nOut = sSum.a[i].nOut;
        pNew->prereq = sSum.a[i].prereq;
        rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
      }
    }
  }
  return rc;
................................................................................
        nOut = pFrom->nRow + pWLoop->nOut;
        maskNew = pFrom->maskLoop | pWLoop->maskSelf;
        if( isOrdered<0 ){
          isOrdered = wherePathSatisfiesOrderBy(pWInfo,
                       pWInfo->pOrderBy, pFrom, pWInfo->wctrlFlags,
                       iLoop, pWLoop, &revMask);
          if( isOrdered>=0 && isOrdered<nOrderBy ){
            /* TUNING: Estimated cost of a full external sort, where N is 
            ** the number of rows to sort is:
            **
            **   cost = (3.0 * N * log(N)).
            ** 
            ** Or, if the order-by clause has X terms but only the last Y 
            ** terms are out of order, then block-sorting will reduce the 




            ** sorting cost to:
            **
            **   cost = (3.0 * N * log(N)) * (Y/X)
            **
            ** The (Y/X) term is implemented using stack variable rScale
            ** below.  */
            LogEst rScale, rSortCost;
            assert( nOrderBy>0 && 66==sqlite3LogEst(100) );
            rScale = sqlite3LogEst((nOrderBy-isOrdered)*100/nOrderBy) - 66;
            rSortCost = nRowEst + estLog(nRowEst) + rScale + 16;

            /* TUNING: The cost of implementing DISTINCT using a B-TREE is
            ** similar but with a larger constant of proportionality. 
            ** Multiply by an additional factor of 3.0.  */
            if( pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_WANT_DISTINCT ){
              rSortCost += 16;
            }
            WHERETRACE(0x002,
               ("---- sort cost=%-3d (%d/%d) increases cost %3d to %-3d\n",
                rSortCost, (nOrderBy-isOrdered), nOrderBy, rCost,
                sqlite3LogEstAdd(rCost,rSortCost)));

Changes to src/whereInt.h.

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#define WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE 0x00000400  /* WhereLoop.u.vtab is valid */
#define WHERE_IN_ABLE      0x00000800  /* Able to support an IN operator */
#define WHERE_ONEROW       0x00001000  /* Selects no more than one row */
#define WHERE_MULTI_OR     0x00002000  /* OR using multiple indices */
#define WHERE_AUTO_INDEX   0x00004000  /* Uses an ephemeral index */
#define WHERE_SKIPSCAN     0x00008000  /* Uses the skip-scan algorithm */
#define WHERE_UNQ_WANTED   0x00010000  /* WHERE_ONEROW would have been helpful*/








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#define WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE 0x00000400  /* WhereLoop.u.vtab is valid */
#define WHERE_IN_ABLE      0x00000800  /* Able to support an IN operator */
#define WHERE_ONEROW       0x00001000  /* Selects no more than one row */
#define WHERE_MULTI_OR     0x00002000  /* OR using multiple indices */
#define WHERE_AUTO_INDEX   0x00004000  /* Uses an ephemeral index */
#define WHERE_SKIPSCAN     0x00008000  /* Uses the skip-scan algorithm */
#define WHERE_UNQ_WANTED   0x00010000  /* WHERE_ONEROW would have been helpful*/
#define WHERE_LIKELIHOOD   0x00020000  /* A likelihood() is affecting nOut */

Changes to test/analyze3.test.

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  ifcapable stat4 {
    execsql { SELECT count(*)>0 FROM sqlite_stat4; }
  } else {
    execsql { SELECT count(*)>0 FROM sqlite_stat3; }
  }
} {1}










do_eqp_test analyze3-1.1.2 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>200 AND x<300
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (x>? AND x<?)}}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.1.3 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100 
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (x>? AND x<?)}}

do_test analyze3-1.1.4 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>200 AND x<300 }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.1.5 {
  set l [string range "200" 0 end]
  set u [string range "300" 0 end]
................................................................................
do_test analyze3-1.1.6 {
  set l [expr int(200)]
  set u [expr int(300)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.1.7 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100 }
} {2000 0 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.1.8 {
  set l [string range "0" 0 end]
  set u [string range "1100" 0 end]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {2000 0 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.1.9 {
  set l [expr int(0)]
  set u [expr int(1100)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {2000 0 499500}


# The following tests are similar to the block above. The difference is
# that the indexed column has TEXT affinity in this case. In the tests
# above the affinity is INTEGER.
#
do_test analyze3-1.2.1 {
................................................................................
      CREATE TABLE t2(x TEXT, y);
      INSERT INTO t2 SELECT * FROM t1;
      CREATE INDEX i2 ON t2(x);
    COMMIT;
    ANALYZE;
  }
} {}




do_eqp_test analyze3-1.2.2 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>1 AND x<2
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t2 USING INDEX i2 (x>? AND x<?)}}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.2.3 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>0 AND x<99
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t2 USING INDEX i2 (x>? AND x<?)}}

do_test analyze3-1.2.4 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>12 AND x<20 }
} {161 0 4760}
do_test analyze3-1.2.5 {
  set l [string range "12" 0 end]
  set u [string range "20" 0 end]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
................................................................................
do_test analyze3-1.2.6 {
  set l [expr int(12)]
  set u [expr int(20)]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
} {161 0 integer integer 4760}
do_test analyze3-1.2.7 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>0 AND x<99 }
} {1981 0 490555}
do_test analyze3-1.2.8 {
  set l [string range "0" 0 end]
  set u [string range "99" 0 end]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
} {1981 0 text text 490555}
do_test analyze3-1.2.9 {
  set l [expr int(0)]
  set u [expr int(99)]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
} {1981 0 integer integer 490555}

# Same tests a third time. This time, column x has INTEGER affinity and
# is not the leftmost column of the table. This triggered a bug causing
# SQLite to use sub-optimal query plans in 3.6.18 and earlier.
#
do_test analyze3-1.3.1 {
  execsql {
................................................................................
      CREATE TABLE t3(y TEXT, x INTEGER);
      INSERT INTO t3 SELECT y, x FROM t1;
      CREATE INDEX i3 ON t3(x);
    COMMIT;
    ANALYZE;
  }
} {}




do_eqp_test analyze3-1.3.2 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>200 AND x<300
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t3 USING INDEX i3 (x>? AND x<?)}}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.3.3 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t3 USING INDEX i3 (x>? AND x<?)}}

do_test analyze3-1.3.4 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>200 AND x<300 }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.3.5 {
  set l [string range "200" 0 end]
  set u [string range "300" 0 end]
................................................................................
do_test analyze3-1.3.6 {
  set l [expr int(200)]
  set u [expr int(300)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.3.7 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100 }
} {2000 0 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.3.8 {
  set l [string range "0" 0 end]
  set u [string range "1100" 0 end]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {2000 0 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.3.9 {
  set l [expr int(0)]
  set u [expr int(1100)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {2000 0 499500}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test that the values of bound SQL variables may be used for the LIKE
# optimization.
#
drop_all_tables
do_test analyze3-2.1 {







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  ifcapable stat4 {
    execsql { SELECT count(*)>0 FROM sqlite_stat4; }
  } else {
    execsql { SELECT count(*)>0 FROM sqlite_stat3; }
  }
} {1}

do_execsql_test analyze3-1.1.x {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t1 WHERE x>200 AND x<300;
  SELECT count(*) FROM t1 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100;
} {99 1000}

# The first of the following two SELECT statements visits 99 rows. So
# it is better to use the index. But the second visits every row in 
# the table (1000 in total) so it is better to do a full-table scan.
#
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.1.2 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>200 AND x<300
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (x>? AND x<?)}}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.1.3 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100 
} {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1}}

do_test analyze3-1.1.4 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>200 AND x<300 }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.1.5 {
  set l [string range "200" 0 end]
  set u [string range "300" 0 end]
................................................................................
do_test analyze3-1.1.6 {
  set l [expr int(200)]
  set u [expr int(300)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.1.7 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100 }
} {999 999 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.1.8 {
  set l [string range "0" 0 end]
  set u [string range "1100" 0 end]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {999 999 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.1.9 {
  set l [expr int(0)]
  set u [expr int(1100)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t1 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {999 999 499500}


# The following tests are similar to the block above. The difference is
# that the indexed column has TEXT affinity in this case. In the tests
# above the affinity is INTEGER.
#
do_test analyze3-1.2.1 {
................................................................................
      CREATE TABLE t2(x TEXT, y);
      INSERT INTO t2 SELECT * FROM t1;
      CREATE INDEX i2 ON t2(x);
    COMMIT;
    ANALYZE;
  }
} {}
do_execsql_test analyze3-2.1.x {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t2 WHERE x>1 AND x<2;
  SELECT count(*) FROM t2 WHERE x>0 AND x<99;
} {200 990}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.2.2 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>1 AND x<2
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t2 USING INDEX i2 (x>? AND x<?)}}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.2.3 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>0 AND x<99
} {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2}}

do_test analyze3-1.2.4 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>12 AND x<20 }
} {161 0 4760}
do_test analyze3-1.2.5 {
  set l [string range "12" 0 end]
  set u [string range "20" 0 end]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
................................................................................
do_test analyze3-1.2.6 {
  set l [expr int(12)]
  set u [expr int(20)]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
} {161 0 integer integer 4760}
do_test analyze3-1.2.7 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>0 AND x<99 }
} {999 999 490555}
do_test analyze3-1.2.8 {
  set l [string range "0" 0 end]
  set u [string range "99" 0 end]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
} {999 999 text text 490555}
do_test analyze3-1.2.9 {
  set l [expr int(0)]
  set u [expr int(99)]
  sf_execsql {SELECT typeof($l), typeof($u), sum(y) FROM t2 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u}
} {999 999 integer integer 490555}

# Same tests a third time. This time, column x has INTEGER affinity and
# is not the leftmost column of the table. This triggered a bug causing
# SQLite to use sub-optimal query plans in 3.6.18 and earlier.
#
do_test analyze3-1.3.1 {
  execsql {
................................................................................
      CREATE TABLE t3(y TEXT, x INTEGER);
      INSERT INTO t3 SELECT y, x FROM t1;
      CREATE INDEX i3 ON t3(x);
    COMMIT;
    ANALYZE;
  }
} {}
do_execsql_test analyze3-1.3.x {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t3 WHERE x>200 AND x<300;
  SELECT count(*) FROM t3 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100
} {99 1000}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.3.2 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>200 AND x<300
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t3 USING INDEX i3 (x>? AND x<?)}}
do_eqp_test analyze3-1.3.3 {
  SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100
} {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t3}}

do_test analyze3-1.3.4 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>200 AND x<300 }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.3.5 {
  set l [string range "200" 0 end]
  set u [string range "300" 0 end]
................................................................................
do_test analyze3-1.3.6 {
  set l [expr int(200)]
  set u [expr int(300)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {199 0 14850}
do_test analyze3-1.3.7 {
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>0 AND x<1100 }
} {999 999 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.3.8 {
  set l [string range "0" 0 end]
  set u [string range "1100" 0 end]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {999 999 499500}
do_test analyze3-1.3.9 {
  set l [expr int(0)]
  set u [expr int(1100)]
  sf_execsql { SELECT sum(y) FROM t3 WHERE x>$l AND x<$u }
} {999 999 499500}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test that the values of bound SQL variables may be used for the LIKE
# optimization.
#
drop_all_tables
do_test analyze3-2.1 {

Changes to test/analyze9.test.

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#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Check that affinities are taken into account when using stat4 data to
# estimate the number of rows scanned by a rowid constraint.
#
drop_all_tables
do_test 13.1 {
  execsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c);
    CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a);
    CREATE INDEX i2 ON t1(b, c);
  }
  for {set i 0} {$i<100} {incr i} {
    if {$i %2} {set a abc} else {set a def}
    execsql { INSERT INTO t1(rowid, a, b, c) VALUES($i, $a, $i, $i) }
  }
  execsql ANALYZE
} {}
do_eqp_test 13.2.1 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<15 AND b<20
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1/}
do_eqp_test 13.2.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<'15' AND b<20
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1/}
do_eqp_test 13.3.1 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<100 AND b<20
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i2/}
do_eqp_test 13.3.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<'100' AND b<20
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i2/}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Check also that affinities are taken into account when using stat4 data 
# to estimate the number of rows scanned by any other constraint on a 
# column other than the leftmost.
#







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#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Check that affinities are taken into account when using stat4 data to
# estimate the number of rows scanned by a rowid constraint.
#
drop_all_tables
do_test 13.1 {
  execsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c, d);
    CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a);
    CREATE INDEX i2 ON t1(b, c);
  }
  for {set i 0} {$i<100} {incr i} {
    if {$i %2} {set a abc} else {set a def}
    execsql { INSERT INTO t1(rowid, a, b, c) VALUES($i, $a, $i, $i) }
  }
  execsql ANALYZE
} {}
do_eqp_test 13.2.1 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<15 AND b<12
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1/}
do_eqp_test 13.2.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<'15' AND b<12
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1/}
do_eqp_test 13.3.1 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<100 AND b<12
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i2/}
do_eqp_test 13.3.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a='abc' AND rowid<'100' AND b<12
} {/SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i2/}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Check also that affinities are taken into account when using stat4 data 
# to estimate the number of rows scanned by any other constraint on a 
# column other than the leftmost.
#

Changes to test/autoindex1.test.

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  db status autoindex
} {0}
do_test autoindex1-210 {
  db eval {
    PRAGMA automatic_index=ON;
    ANALYZE;
    UPDATE sqlite_stat1 SET stat='10000' WHERE tbl='t1';


    ANALYZE sqlite_master;
    SELECT b, (SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE c=a) FROM t1;
  }
} {11 911 22 922 33 933 44 944 55 955 66 966 77 977 88 988}
do_test autoindex1-211 {
  db status step
} {7}







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  db status autoindex
} {0}
do_test autoindex1-210 {
  db eval {
    PRAGMA automatic_index=ON;
    ANALYZE;
    UPDATE sqlite_stat1 SET stat='10000' WHERE tbl='t1';
    -- Table t2 actually contains 8 rows.
    UPDATE sqlite_stat1 SET stat='16' WHERE tbl='t2';
    ANALYZE sqlite_master;
    SELECT b, (SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE c=a) FROM t1;
  }
} {11 911 22 922 33 933 44 944 55 955 66 966 77 977 88 988}
do_test autoindex1-211 {
  db status step
} {7}

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# 2014-04-26
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# 

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set testprefix cost


do_execsql_test 1.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t3(id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, b NOT NULL);
  CREATE TABLE t4(c, d, e);
  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX i3 ON t3(b);
  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX i4 ON t4(c, d);
}
do_eqp_test 1.2 {
  SELECT e FROM t3, t4 WHERE b=c ORDER BY b, d;
} {
  0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t3 USING COVERING INDEX i3} 
  0 1 1 {SEARCH TABLE t4 USING INDEX i4 (c=?)}
}


do_execsql_test 2.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b);
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a);
}

# It is better to use an index for ORDER BY than sort externally, even 
# if the index is a non-covering index.
do_eqp_test 2.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY a;
} {
  0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1}
}

do_execsql_test 3.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t5(a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,b,c,d,e,f,g);
  CREATE INDEX t5b ON t5(b);
  CREATE INDEX t5c ON t5(c);
  CREATE INDEX t5d ON t5(d);
  CREATE INDEX t5e ON t5(e);
  CREATE INDEX t5f ON t5(f);
  CREATE INDEX t5g ON t5(g);
}

do_eqp_test 3.2 {
  SELECT a FROM t5 
  WHERE b IS NULL OR c IS NULL OR d IS NULL 
  ORDER BY a;
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t5 USING INDEX t5b (b=?)} 
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t5 USING INDEX t5c (c=?)} 
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t5 USING INDEX t5d (d=?)} 
  0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# If there is no likelihood() or stat3 data, SQLite assumes that a closed
# range scan (e.g. one constrained by "col BETWEEN ? AND ?" constraint)
# visits 1/64 of the rows in a table.
#
# Note: 1/63 =~ 0.016
# Note: 1/65 =~ 0.015
#
reset_db
do_execsql_test 4.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b);
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a);
  CREATE INDEX i2 ON t1(b);
}
do_eqp_test 4.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(a=?, 0.014) AND b BETWEEN ? AND ?;
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a=?)}
}
do_eqp_test 4.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(a=?, 0.016) AND b BETWEEN ? AND ?;
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i2 (b>? AND b<?)}
}


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
reset_db
do_execsql_test 5.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t2(x, y);
  CREATE INDEX t2i1 ON t2(x);
}

do_eqp_test 5.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t2 ORDER BY x, y;
} {
  0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2i1} 
  0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR RIGHT PART OF ORDER BY}
}

do_eqp_test 5.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE x BETWEEN ? AND ? ORDER BY rowid;
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2i1 (x>? AND x<?)} 
  0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
}

# where7.test, where8.test:
#
do_execsql_test 6.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t3(a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX t3i1 ON t3(b);
  CREATE INDEX t3i2 ON t3(c);
}

do_eqp_test 6.2 {
  SELECT a FROM t3 WHERE (b BETWEEN 2 AND 4) OR c=100 ORDER BY a
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t3 USING INDEX t3i1 (b>? AND b<?)} 
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t3 USING INDEX t3i2 (c=?)}
  0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
reset_db
do_execsql_test 7.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,b,c,d,e,f,g);
  CREATE INDEX t1b ON t1(b);
  CREATE INDEX t1c ON t1(c);
  CREATE INDEX t1d ON t1(d);
  CREATE INDEX t1e ON t1(e);
  CREATE INDEX t1f ON t1(f);
  CREATE INDEX t1g ON t1(g);
}

do_eqp_test 7.2 {
  SELECT a FROM t1
     WHERE (b>=950 AND b<=1010) OR (b IS NULL AND c NOT NULL)
  ORDER BY a
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX t1b (b>? AND b<?)} 
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX t1b (b=?)} 
  0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
}

#set sqlite_where_trace 0xfff
do_eqp_test 7.3 {
  SELECT rowid FROM t1
  WHERE (+b IS NULL AND c NOT NULL AND d NOT NULL)
        OR (b NOT NULL AND c IS NULL AND d NOT NULL)
        OR (b NOT NULL AND c NOT NULL AND d IS NULL)
} {
  0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
reset_db
do_execsql_test 8.1 {
  CREATE TABLE composer(
    cid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    cname TEXT
  );
  CREATE TABLE album(
    aid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    aname TEXT
  );
  CREATE TABLE track(
    tid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    cid INTEGER REFERENCES composer,
    aid INTEGER REFERENCES album,
    title TEXT
  );
  CREATE INDEX track_i1 ON track(cid);
  CREATE INDEX track_i2 ON track(aid);
}

do_eqp_test 8.2 {
  SELECT DISTINCT aname
    FROM album, composer, track
   WHERE cname LIKE '%bach%'
     AND unlikely(composer.cid=track.cid)
     AND unlikely(album.aid=track.aid);
} {
  0 0 2 {SCAN TABLE track} 
  0 1 0 {SEARCH TABLE album USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)}
  0 2 1 {SEARCH TABLE composer USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)}
  0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR DISTINCT}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
do_execsql_test 9.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(
    a,b,c,d,e, f,g,h,i,j,
    k,l,m,n,o, p,q,r,s,t
  );
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t);
}
do_test 9.2 {
  for {set i 0} {$i < 100} {incr i} {
    execsql { INSERT INTO t1 DEFAULT VALUES }
  }
  execsql {
    ANALYZE;
    CREATE INDEX i2 ON t1(a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j);
  }
} {}

set L [list a=? b=? c=? d=? e=? f=? g=? h=? i=? j=?]
foreach {tn nTerm nRow} {
  1   1 10
  2   2  9
  3   3  8
  4   4  7
  5   5  6
  6   6  5
  7   7  5
  8   8  5
  9   9  5
  10 10  5
} {
  set w [join [lrange $L 0 [expr $nTerm-1]] " AND "]
  set p1 [expr ($nRow-1) / 100.0]
  set p2 [expr ($nRow+1) / 100.0]

  set sql1 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(k=?, $p1) AND $w"
  set sql2 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(k=?, $p2) AND $w"

  do_eqp_test 9.3.$tn.1 $sql1 {/INDEX i1/}
  do_eqp_test 9.3.$tn.2 $sql2 {/INDEX i2/}
}



finish_test



Changes to test/eqp.test.

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  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (UNION ALL)} 
}
do_eqp_test 4.2.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT * FROM t2 ORDER BY 1
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 
  1 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  2 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2} 
  2 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (UNION)} 
}
do_eqp_test 4.2.4 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM t2 ORDER BY 1
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 
  1 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  2 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2} 
  2 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (INTERSECT)} 
}
do_eqp_test 4.2.5 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM t2 ORDER BY 1
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 
  1 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  2 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2} 
  2 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (EXCEPT)} 
}

do_eqp_test 4.3.1 {
  SELECT x FROM t1 UNION SELECT x FROM t2
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 







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  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (UNION ALL)} 
}
do_eqp_test 4.2.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT * FROM t2 ORDER BY 1
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 
  1 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  2 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2i1} 
  2 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR RIGHT PART OF ORDER BY}
  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (UNION)} 
}
do_eqp_test 4.2.4 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM t2 ORDER BY 1
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 
  1 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  2 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2i1} 
  2 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR RIGHT PART OF ORDER BY}
  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (INTERSECT)} 
}
do_eqp_test 4.2.5 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM t2 ORDER BY 1
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 
  1 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}
  2 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2i1} 
  2 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR RIGHT PART OF ORDER BY}
  0 0 0 {COMPOUND SUBQUERIES 1 AND 2 (EXCEPT)} 
}

do_eqp_test 4.3.1 {
  SELECT x FROM t1 UNION SELECT x FROM t2
} {
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 

Changes to test/index6.test.

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# Queries use partial indices as appropriate times.
#
do_test index6-2.1 {
  execsql {
    CREATE TABLE t2(a,b);
    INSERT INTO t2(a,b) SELECT value, value FROM nums WHERE value<1000;
    UPDATE t2 SET a=NULL WHERE b%5==0;
    CREATE INDEX t2a1 ON t2(a) WHERE a IS NOT NULL;
    SELECT count(*) FROM t2 WHERE a IS NOT NULL;
  }
} {800}
do_test index6-2.2 {
  execsql {
    EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a=5;
  }
} {/.* TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2a1 .*/}
ifcapable stat4||stat3 {

  do_test index6-2.3stat4 {
    execsql {
      EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
      SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IS NOT NULL;
    }
  } {/.* TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2a1 .*/}
} else {







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# Queries use partial indices as appropriate times.
#
do_test index6-2.1 {
  execsql {
    CREATE TABLE t2(a,b);
    INSERT INTO t2(a,b) SELECT value, value FROM nums WHERE value<1000;
    UPDATE t2 SET a=NULL WHERE b%2==0;
    CREATE INDEX t2a1 ON t2(a) WHERE a IS NOT NULL;
    SELECT count(*) FROM t2 WHERE a IS NOT NULL;
  }
} {500}
do_test index6-2.2 {
  execsql {
    EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a=5;
  }
} {/.* TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2a1 .*/}
ifcapable stat4||stat3 {
  execsql ANALYZE
  do_test index6-2.3stat4 {
    execsql {
      EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
      SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IS NOT NULL;
    }
  } {/.* TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2a1 .*/}
} else {

Changes to test/orderby5.test.

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  INSERT INTO sqlite_stat1 VALUES('t1','t1bc','1000000 10 9');
  INSERT INTO sqlite_stat1 VALUES('t2','t2bc','100 10 5');
  ANALYZE sqlite_master;

  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
  SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a=0 ORDER BY a, b, c;
} {~/B-TREE/}

do_execsql_test 2.1b {
  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a=0 ORDER BY a, b, c;
} {/B-TREE/}


do_execsql_test 2.2 {
  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE +a=0 ORDER BY a, b, c;
} {/B-TREE/}
do_execsql_test 2.3 {
  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN







>


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  INSERT INTO sqlite_stat1 VALUES('t1','t1bc','1000000 10 9');
  INSERT INTO sqlite_stat1 VALUES('t2','t2bc','100 10 5');
  ANALYZE sqlite_master;

  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
  SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a=0 ORDER BY a, b, c;
} {~/B-TREE/}

do_execsql_test 2.1b {
  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(a=0, 0.05) ORDER BY a, b, c;
} {/B-TREE/}


do_execsql_test 2.2 {
  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE +a=0 ORDER BY a, b, c;
} {/B-TREE/}
do_execsql_test 2.3 {
  EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN

Changes to test/skipscan2.test.

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#
do_execsql_test skipscan2-1.4 {
  ANALYZE;
  -- We do not have enough people above to actually force the use
  -- of a skip-scan.  So make a manual adjustment to the stat1 table
  -- to make it seem like there are many more.
  UPDATE sqlite_stat1 SET stat='10000 5000 20' WHERE idx='people_idx1';

  ANALYZE sqlite_master;
}
db cache flush
do_execsql_test skipscan2-1.5 {
  SELECT name FROM people WHERE height>=180 ORDER BY +name;
} {David Jack Patrick Quiana Xavier}
do_execsql_test skipscan2-1.5eqp {







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#
do_execsql_test skipscan2-1.4 {
  ANALYZE;
  -- We do not have enough people above to actually force the use
  -- of a skip-scan.  So make a manual adjustment to the stat1 table
  -- to make it seem like there are many more.
  UPDATE sqlite_stat1 SET stat='10000 5000 20' WHERE idx='people_idx1';
  UPDATE sqlite_stat1 SET stat='10000 1' WHERE idx='sqlite_autoindex_people_1';
  ANALYZE sqlite_master;
}
db cache flush
do_execsql_test skipscan2-1.5 {
  SELECT name FROM people WHERE height>=180 ORDER BY +name;
} {David Jack Patrick Quiana Xavier}
do_execsql_test skipscan2-1.5eqp {

Changes to test/unordered.test.

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  }
  db close
  sqlite3 db test.db
  foreach {tn sql r(ordered) r(unordered)} {
    1   "SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY a"
        {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1}}
        {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}}
    2   "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a >?"
        {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a>?)}}
        {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1}}
    3   "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a = ? ORDER BY rowid"
        {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a=?)}}
        {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a=?)} 
         0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}}
    4   "SELECT max(a) FROM t1"







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  }
  db close
  sqlite3 db test.db
  foreach {tn sql r(ordered) r(unordered)} {
    1   "SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY a"
        {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1}}
        {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1} 0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}}
    2   "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a > 100"
        {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a>?)}}
        {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1}}
    3   "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a = ? ORDER BY rowid"
        {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a=?)}}
        {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a=?)} 
         0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY}}
    4   "SELECT max(a) FROM t1"

Changes to test/where3.test.

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# the planner into use a table for the outer loop that might be indexable
# if held until an inner loop.
# 
do_execsql_test where3-3.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t301(a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,b,c);
  CREATE INDEX t301c ON t301(c);
  INSERT INTO t301 VALUES(1,2,3);

  CREATE TABLE t302(x, y);
  INSERT INTO t302 VALUES(4,5);
  ANALYZE;
  explain query plan SELECT * FROM t302, t301 WHERE t302.x=5 AND t301.a=t302.y;
} {
  0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t302} 
  0 1 1 {SEARCH TABLE t301 USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)}
................................................................................
  0 1 0 {SEARCH TABLE t301 USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)}
}
do_execsql_test where3-3.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t301 WHERE c=3 AND a IS NULL;
} {}
do_execsql_test where3-3.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t301 WHERE c=3 AND a IS NOT NULL;
} {1 2 3}

if 0 {  # Query planner no longer does this
# Verify that when there are multiple tables in a join which must be
# full table scans that the query planner attempts put the table with
# the fewest number of output rows as the outer loop.
#
do_execsql_test where3-4.0 {







>







 







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# the planner into use a table for the outer loop that might be indexable
# if held until an inner loop.
# 
do_execsql_test where3-3.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t301(a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,b,c);
  CREATE INDEX t301c ON t301(c);
  INSERT INTO t301 VALUES(1,2,3);
  INSERT INTO t301 VALUES(2,2,3);
  CREATE TABLE t302(x, y);
  INSERT INTO t302 VALUES(4,5);
  ANALYZE;
  explain query plan SELECT * FROM t302, t301 WHERE t302.x=5 AND t301.a=t302.y;
} {
  0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t302} 
  0 1 1 {SEARCH TABLE t301 USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)}
................................................................................
  0 1 0 {SEARCH TABLE t301 USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)}
}
do_execsql_test where3-3.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t301 WHERE c=3 AND a IS NULL;
} {}
do_execsql_test where3-3.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t301 WHERE c=3 AND a IS NOT NULL;
} {1 2 3 2 2 3}

if 0 {  # Query planner no longer does this
# Verify that when there are multiple tables in a join which must be
# full table scans that the query planner attempts put the table with
# the fewest number of output rows as the outer loop.
#
do_execsql_test where3-4.0 {

Changes to test/whereG.test.

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#***********************************************************************
# 
# Test cases for query planning decisions and the unlikely() and
# likelihood() functions.

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl


do_execsql_test whereG-1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE composer(
    cid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    cname TEXT
  );
  CREATE TABLE album(
................................................................................
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES('right'),('wrong');
  SELECT DISTINCT x
   FROM (SELECT x FROM t4 GROUP BY x)
   WHERE x='right'
   ORDER BY x;
} {right}










































finish_test








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#***********************************************************************
# 
# Test cases for query planning decisions and the unlikely() and
# likelihood() functions.

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set testprefix whereG

do_execsql_test whereG-1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE composer(
    cid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    cname TEXT
  );
  CREATE TABLE album(
................................................................................
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES('right'),('wrong');
  SELECT DISTINCT x
   FROM (SELECT x FROM t4 GROUP BY x)
   WHERE x='right'
   ORDER BY x;
} {right}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test that likelihood() specifications on indexed terms are taken into 
# account by various forms of loops.
#
#   5.1.*: open ended range scans
#   5.2.*: skip-scans
#
reset_db

do_execsql_test 5.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a, b);
}
do_eqp_test 5.1.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a>?
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a>?)}}
do_eqp_test 5.1.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(a>?, 0.9)
} {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1}}

do_test 5.2 {
  for {set i 0} {$i < 100} {incr i} {
    execsql { INSERT INTO t1 VALUES('abc', $i, $i); }
  }
  execsql { INSERT INTO t1 SELECT 'def', b, c FROM t1; }
  execsql { ANALYZE }
} {}
do_eqp_test 5.2.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(b>?, 0.01)
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (ANY(a) AND b>?)}}
do_eqp_test 5.2.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(b>?, 0.9)
} {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1}}

do_eqp_test 5.3.1 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a=?
} {0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INDEX i1 (a=?)}}
do_eqp_test 5.3.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE likelihood(a=?, 0.9)
} {0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE t1}}

finish_test

Changes to tool/logest.c.

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  return (n+8)>>(3-x);
}
static LogEst logEstFromDouble(double x){
  sqlite3_uint64 a;
  LogEst e;
  assert( sizeof(x)==8 && sizeof(a)==8 );
  if( x<=0.0 ) return -32768;
  if( x<1.0 ) return -logEstFromDouble(1/x);

  if( x<1024.0 ) return logEstFromInteger((sqlite3_uint64)(1024.0*x)) - 100;
  if( x<=2000000000.0 ) return logEstFromInteger((sqlite3_uint64)x);
  memcpy(&a, &x, 8);
  e = (a>>52) - 1022;
  return e*10;
}

................................................................................
    }else if( isFloat(z) && z[0]!='-' ){
      a[n++] = logEstFromDouble(atof(z));
    }else{
      showHelp(argv[0]);
    }
  }
  for(i=n-1; i>=0; i--){
    if( a[i]<0 ){
      printf("%5d (%f)\n", a[i], 1.0/(double)logEstToInt(-a[i]));


    }else{
      sqlite3_uint64 x = logEstToInt(a[i]+100)*100/1024;
      printf("%5d (%lld.%02lld)\n", a[i], x/100, x%100);
    }
  }
  return 0;
}







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  return (n+8)>>(3-x);
}
static LogEst logEstFromDouble(double x){
  sqlite3_uint64 a;
  LogEst e;
  assert( sizeof(x)==8 && sizeof(a)==8 );
  if( x<=0.0 ) return -32768;
  if( x<0.01 ) return -logEstFromDouble(1.0/x);
  if( x<1.0 ) return logEstFromDouble(100.0*x) - 66;
  if( x<1024.0 ) return logEstFromInteger((sqlite3_uint64)(1024.0*x)) - 100;
  if( x<=2000000000.0 ) return logEstFromInteger((sqlite3_uint64)x);
  memcpy(&a, &x, 8);
  e = (a>>52) - 1022;
  return e*10;
}

................................................................................
    }else if( isFloat(z) && z[0]!='-' ){
      a[n++] = logEstFromDouble(atof(z));
    }else{
      showHelp(argv[0]);
    }
  }
  for(i=n-1; i>=0; i--){
    if( a[i]<-40 ){
      printf("%5d (%f)\n", a[i], 1.0/(double)logEstToInt(-a[i]));
    }else if( a[i]<10 ){
      printf("%5d (%f)\n", a[i], logEstToInt(a[i]+100)/1024.0);
    }else{
      sqlite3_uint64 x = logEstToInt(a[i]+100)*100/1024;
      printf("%5d (%lld.%02lld)\n", a[i], x/100, x%100);
    }
  }
  return 0;
}