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Overview
Comment:Merge in trunk enhancements.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | prepare_v3
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA3-256: f8bbb608cbf6c245628e3d362e9181fb3dc402b1d8241bcb687caf395f63c916
User & Date: drh 2017-06-07 16:25:25
Context
2017-06-09
15:14
Merge enhancements and fixes from trunk. check-in: 3fd050c3 user: drh tags: prepare_v3
2017-06-07
16:25
Merge in trunk enhancements. check-in: f8bbb608 user: drh tags: prepare_v3
2017-06-06
18:20
Add the SQLITE_DEFAULT_ROWEST compile-time option for changing the estimated number of rows in tables that lack sqlite_stat1 entries. check-in: 234ede26 user: drh tags: trunk
2017-06-01
00:54
Add interfaces sqlite3_prepare_v3() and sqlite3_prepare16_v3() with the extra prepFlags argument. Add the SQLITE_PREPARE_PERSISTENT option as one bit in that argument. check-in: 4a25c588 user: drh tags: prepare_v3
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to doc/lemon.html.

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Lemon also implements features that can be used
to eliminate resource leaks, making is suitable for use
in long-running programs such as graphical user interfaces
or embedded controllers.</p>

<p>This document is an introduction to the Lemon
parser generator.</p>





















<h2>Theory of Operation</h2>

<p>The main goal of Lemon is to translate a context free grammar (CFG)
for a particular language into C code that implements a parser for
that language.
The program has two inputs:







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Lemon also implements features that can be used
to eliminate resource leaks, making is suitable for use
in long-running programs such as graphical user interfaces
or embedded controllers.</p>

<p>This document is an introduction to the Lemon
parser generator.</p>

<h2>Security Note</h2>

<p>The language parser code created by Lemon is very robust and
is well-suited for use in internet-facing applications that need to
safely process maliciously crafted inputs.

<p>The "lemon.exe" command-line tool itself works great when given a valid
input grammar file and almost always gives helpful
error messages for malformed inputs.  However,  it is possible for
a malicious user to craft a grammar file that will cause 
lemon.exe to crash.
We do not see this as a problem, as lemon.exe is not intended to be used
with hostile inputs.
To summarize:</p>

<ul>
<li>Parser code generated by lemon &rarr; Robust and secure
<li>The "lemon.exe" command line tool itself &rarr; Not so much
</ul>

<h2>Theory of Operation</h2>

<p>The main goal of Lemon is to translate a context free grammar (CFG)
for a particular language into C code that implements a parser for
that language.
The program has two inputs:

Changes to ext/misc/series.c.

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
** Integers 20 through 29.
**
** HOW IT WORKS
**
** The generate_series "function" is really a virtual table with the
** following schema:
**
**     CREATE FUNCTION generate_series(
**       value,
**       start HIDDEN,
**       stop HIDDEN,
**       step HIDDEN
**     );
**
** Function arguments in queries against this virtual table are translated







|







29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
** Integers 20 through 29.
**
** HOW IT WORKS
**
** The generate_series "function" is really a virtual table with the
** following schema:
**
**     CREATE TABLE generate_series(
**       value,
**       start HIDDEN,
**       stop HIDDEN,
**       step HIDDEN
**     );
**
** Function arguments in queries against this virtual table are translated

Changes to src/build.c.

935
936
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941



942

943
944
945
946
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948
949
    pParse->nErr++;
    goto begin_table_error;
  }
  pTable->zName = zName;
  pTable->iPKey = -1;
  pTable->pSchema = db->aDb[iDb].pSchema;
  pTable->nTabRef = 1;



  pTable->nRowLogEst = 200; assert( 200==sqlite3LogEst(1048576) );

  assert( pParse->pNewTable==0 );
  pParse->pNewTable = pTable;

  /* If this is the magic sqlite_sequence table used by autoincrement,
  ** then record a pointer to this table in the main database structure
  ** so that INSERT can find the table easily.
  */







>
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>

>







935
936
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939
940
941
942
943
944
945
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949
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951
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953
    pParse->nErr++;
    goto begin_table_error;
  }
  pTable->zName = zName;
  pTable->iPKey = -1;
  pTable->pSchema = db->aDb[iDb].pSchema;
  pTable->nTabRef = 1;
#ifdef SQLITE_DEFAULT_ROWEST
  pTable->nRowLogEst = sqlite3LogEst(SQLITE_DEFAULT_ROWEST);
#else
  pTable->nRowLogEst = 200; assert( 200==sqlite3LogEst(1048576) );
#endif
  assert( pParse->pNewTable==0 );
  pParse->pNewTable = pTable;

  /* If this is the magic sqlite_sequence table used by autoincrement,
  ** then record a pointer to this table in the main database structure
  ** so that INSERT can find the table easily.
  */

Changes to src/delete.c.

455
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        iKey = ++pParse->nMem;
        nKey = 0;   /* Zero tells OP_Found to use a composite key */
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, iPk, nPk, iKey,
            sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(pParse->db, pPk), nPk);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, iEphCur, iKey, iPk, nPk);
      }else{
        /* Add the rowid of the row to be deleted to the RowSet */
        nKey = 1;  /* OP_Seek always uses a single rowid */
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowSetAdd, iRowSet, iKey);
      }
    }
  
    /* If this DELETE cannot use the ONEPASS strategy, this is the 
    ** end of the WHERE loop */
    if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_OFF ){







|







455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
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467
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469
        iKey = ++pParse->nMem;
        nKey = 0;   /* Zero tells OP_Found to use a composite key */
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, iPk, nPk, iKey,
            sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(pParse->db, pPk), nPk);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, iEphCur, iKey, iPk, nPk);
      }else{
        /* Add the rowid of the row to be deleted to the RowSet */
        nKey = 1;  /* OP_DeferredSeek always uses a single rowid */
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowSetAdd, iRowSet, iKey);
      }
    }
  
    /* If this DELETE cannot use the ONEPASS strategy, this is the 
    ** end of the WHERE loop */
    if( eOnePass!=ONEPASS_OFF ){

Changes to src/insert.c.

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526

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  int tmask;                  /* Mask of trigger times */
#endif

  db = pParse->db;
  if( pParse->nErr || db->mallocFailed ){
    goto insert_cleanup;
  }


  /* If the Select object is really just a simple VALUES() list with a
  ** single row (the common case) then keep that one row of values
  ** and discard the other (unused) parts of the pSelect object
  */
  if( pSelect && (pSelect->selFlags & SF_Values)!=0 && pSelect->pPrior==0 ){
    pList = pSelect->pEList;







>







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  int tmask;                  /* Mask of trigger times */
#endif

  db = pParse->db;
  if( pParse->nErr || db->mallocFailed ){
    goto insert_cleanup;
  }
  dest.iSDParm = 0;  /* Suppress a harmless compiler warning */

  /* If the Select object is really just a simple VALUES() list with a
  ** single row (the common case) then keep that one row of values
  ** and discard the other (unused) parts of the pSelect object
  */
  if( pSelect && (pSelect->selFlags & SF_Values)!=0 && pSelect->pPrior==0 ){
    pList = pSelect->pEList;

Changes to src/shell.c.

504
505
506
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510












511
512
513
514
515
516
517
....
1913
1914
1915
1916
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1920
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....
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1951
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1958
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1965
** lower 30 bits of a 32-bit signed integer.
*/
static int strlen30(const char *z){
  const char *z2 = z;
  while( *z2 ){ z2++; }
  return 0x3fffffff & (int)(z2 - z);
}













/*
** This routine reads a line of text from FILE in, stores
** the text in memory obtained from malloc() and returns a pointer
** to the text.  NULL is returned at end of file, or if malloc()
** fails.
**
................................................................................
          int w, n;
          if( i<ArraySize(p->colWidth) ){
            w = colWidth[i];
          }else{
            w = 0;
          }
          if( w==0 ){
            w = strlen30(azCol[i] ? azCol[i] : "");
            if( w<10 ) w = 10;
            n = strlen30(azArg && azArg[i] ? azArg[i] : p->nullValue);
            if( w<n ) w = n;
          }
          if( i<ArraySize(p->actualWidth) ){
            p->actualWidth[i] = w;
          }
          if( showHdr ){
            utf8_width_print(p->out, w, azCol[i]);
................................................................................
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        int w;
        if( i<ArraySize(p->actualWidth) ){
           w = p->actualWidth[i];
        }else{
           w = 10;
        }
        if( p->cMode==MODE_Explain && azArg[i] && strlen30(azArg[i])>w ){
          w = strlen30(azArg[i]);
        }
        if( i==1 && p->aiIndent && p->pStmt ){
          if( p->iIndent<p->nIndent ){
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%*.s", p->aiIndent[p->iIndent], "");
          }
          p->iIndent++;
        }







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....
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....
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** lower 30 bits of a 32-bit signed integer.
*/
static int strlen30(const char *z){
  const char *z2 = z;
  while( *z2 ){ z2++; }
  return 0x3fffffff & (int)(z2 - z);
}

/*
** Return the length of a string in characters.  Multibyte UTF8 characters
** count as a single character.
*/
static int strlenChar(const char *z){
  int n = 0;
  while( *z ){
    if( (0xc0&*(z++))!=0x80 ) n++;
  }
  return n;
}

/*
** This routine reads a line of text from FILE in, stores
** the text in memory obtained from malloc() and returns a pointer
** to the text.  NULL is returned at end of file, or if malloc()
** fails.
**
................................................................................
          int w, n;
          if( i<ArraySize(p->colWidth) ){
            w = colWidth[i];
          }else{
            w = 0;
          }
          if( w==0 ){
            w = strlenChar(azCol[i] ? azCol[i] : "");
            if( w<10 ) w = 10;
            n = strlenChar(azArg && azArg[i] ? azArg[i] : p->nullValue);
            if( w<n ) w = n;
          }
          if( i<ArraySize(p->actualWidth) ){
            p->actualWidth[i] = w;
          }
          if( showHdr ){
            utf8_width_print(p->out, w, azCol[i]);
................................................................................
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        int w;
        if( i<ArraySize(p->actualWidth) ){
           w = p->actualWidth[i];
        }else{
           w = 10;
        }
        if( p->cMode==MODE_Explain && azArg[i] && strlenChar(azArg[i])>w ){
          w = strlenChar(azArg[i]);
        }
        if( i==1 && p->aiIndent && p->pStmt ){
          if( p->iIndent<p->nIndent ){
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%*.s", p->aiIndent[p->iIndent], "");
          }
          p->iIndent++;
        }

Changes to src/test_fs.c.

541
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547

548
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554
      for(i=nPrefix; zQuery[i]; i++){
        if( zQuery[i]==aWild[0] || zQuery[i]==aWild[1] ) break;
        if( zQuery[i]=='/' ) nDir = i;
      }
      zDir = zQuery;
    }
  }


  sqlite3_bind_text(pCsr->pStmt, 1, zDir, nDir, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  sqlite3_bind_text(pCsr->pStmt, 2, zRoot, nRoot, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  sqlite3_bind_text(pCsr->pStmt, 3, zPrefix, nPrefix, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);

#if SQLITE_OS_WIN
  sqlite3_free(zPrefix);







>







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544
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548
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      for(i=nPrefix; zQuery[i]; i++){
        if( zQuery[i]==aWild[0] || zQuery[i]==aWild[1] ) break;
        if( zQuery[i]=='/' ) nDir = i;
      }
      zDir = zQuery;
    }
  }
  if( nDir==0 ) nDir = 1;

  sqlite3_bind_text(pCsr->pStmt, 1, zDir, nDir, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  sqlite3_bind_text(pCsr->pStmt, 2, zRoot, nRoot, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  sqlite3_bind_text(pCsr->pStmt, 3, zPrefix, nPrefix, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);

#if SQLITE_OS_WIN
  sqlite3_free(zPrefix);

Changes to src/vdbe.c.

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2500


2501
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2506
2507
....
5261
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5264
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5266
5267
5268
5269
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5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
....
5289
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
....
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
  u32 avail;         /* Number of bytes of available data */
  u32 t;             /* A type code from the record header */
  Mem *pReg;         /* PseudoTable input register */

  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  p2 = pOp->p2;

  /* If the cursor cache is stale, bring it up-to-date */


  rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(&pC, &p2);
  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;

  assert( pOp->p3>0 && pOp->p3<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor) );
  pDest = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  memAboutToChange(p, pDest);
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
................................................................................
  }
  assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
  pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  pC->seekResult = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Seek P1 * P3 P4 *
** Synopsis: Move P3 to P1.rowid
**
** P1 is an open index cursor and P3 is a cursor on the corresponding
** table.  This opcode does a deferred seek of the P3 table cursor
** to the row that corresponds to the current row of P1.
**
** This is a deferred seek.  Nothing actually happens until
** the cursor is used to read a record.  That way, if no reads
................................................................................
**
** Write into register P2 an integer which is the last entry in the record at
** the end of the index key pointed to by cursor P1.  This integer should be
** the rowid of the table entry to which this index entry points.
**
** See also: Rowid, MakeRecord.
*/
case OP_Seek:
case OP_IdxRowid: {              /* out2 */
  VdbeCursor *pC;                /* The P1 index cursor */
  VdbeCursor *pTabCur;           /* The P2 table cursor (OP_Seek only) */
  i64 rowid;                     /* Rowid that P1 current points to */

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
  assert( pC->uc.pCursor!=0 );
  assert( pC->isTable==0 );
................................................................................

  if( !pC->nullRow ){
    rowid = 0;  /* Not needed.  Only used to silence a warning. */
    rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(db, pC->uc.pCursor, &rowid);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
    if( pOp->opcode==OP_Seek ){
      assert( pOp->p3>=0 && pOp->p3<p->nCursor );
      pTabCur = p->apCsr[pOp->p3];
      assert( pTabCur!=0 );
      assert( pTabCur->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
      assert( pTabCur->uc.pCursor!=0 );
      assert( pTabCur->isTable );
      pTabCur->nullRow = 0;







|
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>







 







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2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
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2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
....
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
....
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
....
5321
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5324
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5326
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5328
5329
5330
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5332
5333
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5335
  u32 avail;         /* Number of bytes of available data */
  u32 t;             /* A type code from the record header */
  Mem *pReg;         /* PseudoTable input register */

  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  p2 = pOp->p2;

  /* If the cursor cache is stale (meaning it is not currently point at
  ** the correct row) then bring it up-to-date by doing the necessary 
  ** B-Tree seek. */
  rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(&pC, &p2);
  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;

  assert( pOp->p3>0 && pOp->p3<=(p->nMem+1 - p->nCursor) );
  pDest = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  memAboutToChange(p, pDest);
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
................................................................................
  }
  assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
  pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  pC->seekResult = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: DeferredSeek P1 * P3 P4 *
** Synopsis: Move P3 to P1.rowid if needed
**
** P1 is an open index cursor and P3 is a cursor on the corresponding
** table.  This opcode does a deferred seek of the P3 table cursor
** to the row that corresponds to the current row of P1.
**
** This is a deferred seek.  Nothing actually happens until
** the cursor is used to read a record.  That way, if no reads
................................................................................
**
** Write into register P2 an integer which is the last entry in the record at
** the end of the index key pointed to by cursor P1.  This integer should be
** the rowid of the table entry to which this index entry points.
**
** See also: Rowid, MakeRecord.
*/
case OP_DeferredSeek:
case OP_IdxRowid: {           /* out2 */
  VdbeCursor *pC;             /* The P1 index cursor */
  VdbeCursor *pTabCur;        /* The P2 table cursor (OP_DeferredSeek only) */
  i64 rowid;                  /* Rowid that P1 current points to */

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
  assert( pC->uc.pCursor!=0 );
  assert( pC->isTable==0 );
................................................................................

  if( !pC->nullRow ){
    rowid = 0;  /* Not needed.  Only used to silence a warning. */
    rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(db, pC->uc.pCursor, &rowid);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }
    if( pOp->opcode==OP_DeferredSeek ){
      assert( pOp->p3>=0 && pOp->p3<p->nCursor );
      pTabCur = p->apCsr[pOp->p3];
      assert( pTabCur!=0 );
      assert( pTabCur->eCurType==CURTYPE_BTREE );
      assert( pTabCur->uc.pCursor!=0 );
      assert( pTabCur->isTable );
      pTabCur->nullRow = 0;

Changes to src/wherecode.c.

962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
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974
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976
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...
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996
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998
** Cursor iCur is open on an intkey b-tree (a table). Register iRowid contains
** a rowid value just read from cursor iIdxCur, open on index pIdx. This
** function generates code to do a deferred seek of cursor iCur to the 
** rowid stored in register iRowid.
**
** Normally, this is just:
**
**   OP_Seek $iCur $iRowid
**
** However, if the scan currently being coded is a branch of an OR-loop and
** the statement currently being coded is a SELECT, then P3 of the OP_Seek
** is set to iIdxCur and P4 is set to point to an array of integers
** containing one entry for each column of the table cursor iCur is open 
** on. For each table column, if the column is the i'th column of the 
** index, then the corresponding array entry is set to (i+1). If the column
** does not appear in the index at all, the array entry is set to 0.
*/
static void codeDeferredSeek(
................................................................................
){
  Parse *pParse = pWInfo->pParse; /* Parse context */
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;        /* Vdbe to generate code within */

  assert( iIdxCur>0 );
  assert( pIdx->aiColumn[pIdx->nColumn-1]==-1 );
  
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Seek, iIdxCur, 0, iCur);
  if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE)
   && DbMaskAllZero(sqlite3ParseToplevel(pParse)->writeMask)
  ){
    int i;
    Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;
    int *ai = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, sizeof(int)*(pTab->nCol+1));
    if( ai ){







|


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** Cursor iCur is open on an intkey b-tree (a table). Register iRowid contains
** a rowid value just read from cursor iIdxCur, open on index pIdx. This
** function generates code to do a deferred seek of cursor iCur to the 
** rowid stored in register iRowid.
**
** Normally, this is just:
**
**   OP_DeferredSeek $iCur $iRowid
**
** However, if the scan currently being coded is a branch of an OR-loop and
** the statement currently being coded is a SELECT, then P3 of OP_DeferredSeek
** is set to iIdxCur and P4 is set to point to an array of integers
** containing one entry for each column of the table cursor iCur is open 
** on. For each table column, if the column is the i'th column of the 
** index, then the corresponding array entry is set to (i+1). If the column
** does not appear in the index at all, the array entry is set to 0.
*/
static void codeDeferredSeek(
................................................................................
){
  Parse *pParse = pWInfo->pParse; /* Parse context */
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;        /* Vdbe to generate code within */

  assert( iIdxCur>0 );
  assert( pIdx->aiColumn[pIdx->nColumn-1]==-1 );
  
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_DeferredSeek, iIdxCur, 0, iCur);
  if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE)
   && DbMaskAllZero(sqlite3ParseToplevel(pParse)->writeMask)
  ){
    int i;
    Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;
    int *ai = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, sizeof(int)*(pTab->nCol+1));
    if( ai ){

Changes to test/kvtest.c.

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"\n"
"        Generate a new test database file named DBFILE containing N\n"
"        BLOBs each of size M bytes.  The page size of the new database\n"
"        file will be X.  Additional options:\n"
"\n"
"           --variance V           Randomly vary M by plus or minus V\n"
"\n"
"   kvtest export DBFILE DIRECTORY\n"
"\n"
"        Export all the blobs in the kv table of DBFILE into separate\n"
"        files in DIRECTORY.\n"





"\n"
"   kvtest stat DBFILE\n"
"\n"
"        Display summary information about DBFILE\n"


"\n"
"   kvtest run DBFILE [options]\n"
"\n"
"        Run a performance test.  DBFILE can be either the name of a\n"
"        database or a directory containing sample files.  Options:\n"
"\n"
"           --asc                  Read blobs in ascending order\n"
"           --blob-api             Use the BLOB API\n"
"           --cache-size N         Database cache size\n"
"           --count N              Read N blobs\n"
"           --desc                 Read blobs in descending order\n"


"           --max-id N             Maximum blob key to use\n"
"           --mmap N               Mmap as much as N bytes of DBFILE\n"



"           --jmode MODE           Set MODE journal mode prior to starting\n"
"           --random               Read blobs in a random order\n"
"           --start N              Start reading with this blob key\n"
"           --stats                Output operating stats before exiting\n"

;

/* Reference resources used */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
................................................................................
#include <string.h>
#include "sqlite3.h"

#ifndef _WIN32
# include <unistd.h>
#else
  /* Provide Windows equivalent for the needed parts of unistd.h */

# include <io.h>
# define R_OK 2
# define S_ISREG(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFREG)
# define S_ISDIR(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFDIR)
# define access _access
#endif



























/*
** Show thqe help text and quit.
*/
static void showHelp(void){
  fprintf(stdout, "%s", zHelp);
  exit(1);
................................................................................
  return isNeg? -v : v;
}


/*
** Check the filesystem object zPath.  Determine what it is:
**
**    PATH_DIR     A directory

**    PATH_DB      An SQLite database
**    PATH_NEXIST  Does not exist
**    PATH_OTHER   Something else








*/
#define PATH_DIR     1

#define PATH_DB      2
#define PATH_NEXIST  0
#define PATH_OTHER   99
static int pathType(const char *zPath){
  struct stat x;
  int rc;
  if( access(zPath,R_OK) ) return PATH_NEXIST;
  memset(&x, 0, sizeof(x));
  rc = stat(zPath, &x);
  if( rc<0 ) return PATH_OTHER;






  if( S_ISDIR(x.st_mode) ) return PATH_DIR;


  if( (x.st_size%512)==0 ) return PATH_DB;
  return PATH_OTHER;
}

/*
** Return the size of a file in bytes.  Or return -1 if the
** named object is not a regular file or does not exist.
................................................................................
*/
static int statMain(int argc, char **argv){
  char *zDb;
  int i, rc;
  sqlite3 *db;
  char *zSql;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;


  assert( strcmp(argv[1],"stat")==0 );
  assert( argc>=3 );
  zDb = argv[2];
  for(i=3; i<argc; i++){
    char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]!='-' ) fatalError("unknown argument: \"%s\"", z);
    if( z[1]=='-' ) z++;




    fatalError("unknown option: \"%s\"", argv[i]);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
  if( rc ){
    fatalError("cannot open database \"%s\": %s", zDb, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  }





  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
    "SELECT count(*), min(length(v)), max(length(v)), avg(length(v))"
    "  FROM kv"
  );
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare SQL [%s]: %s", zSql, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
................................................................................
  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA page_count");
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare SQL [%s]: %s", zSql, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    printf("Page-count:         %8d\n", sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0));
  }














  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  sqlite3_close(db);
  return 0;
}

/*
** Implementation of the "writefile(X,Y)" SQL function.  The argument Y
** is written into file X.  The number of bytes written is returned.  Or
** NULL is returned if something goes wrong, such as being unable to open
** file X for writing.
*/
static void writefileFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  FILE *out;
  const char *z;
  sqlite3_int64 rc;
  const char *zFile;

  zFile = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  if( zFile==0 ) return;
  out = fopen(zFile, "wb");
  if( out==0 ) return;
  z = (const char*)sqlite3_value_blob(argv[1]);
  if( z==0 ){
    rc = 0;
  }else{
    rc = fwrite(z, 1, sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[1]), out);
  }
  fclose(out);
  printf("\r%s   ", zFile); fflush(stdout);
  sqlite3_result_int64(context, rc);
}

/*
** Export the kv table to individual files in the filesystem
*/
static int exportMain(int argc, char **argv){
  char *zDb;
  char *zDir;
  sqlite3 *db;
  char *zSql;
  int rc;


  char *zErrMsg = 0;




  assert( strcmp(argv[1],"export")==0 );
  assert( argc>=3 );

  zDb = argv[2];
  if( argc!=4 ) fatalError("Usage: kvtest export DATABASE DIRECTORY");
  zDir = argv[3];












  if( pathType(zDir)!=PATH_DIR ){

    fatalError("object \"%s\" is not a directory", zDir);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
  if( rc ){
    fatalError("cannot open database \"%s\": %s", zDb, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  }
  sqlite3_create_function(db, "writefile", 2, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                          writefileFunc, 0, 0);





  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
    "SELECT writefile(printf('%s/%%06d',k),v) FROM kv;",
    zDir
  );
  rc = sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, &zErrMsg);
  if( rc ) fatalError("database create failed: %s", zErrMsg);




























  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  sqlite3_close(db);

  printf("\n");
  return 0;
}

/*
** Read the content of file zName into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc64()
** and return a pointer to the buffer. The caller is responsible for freeing 
................................................................................
** For convenience, a nul-terminator byte is always appended to the data read
** from the file before the buffer is returned. This byte is not included in
** the final value of (*pnByte), if applicable.
**
** NULL is returned if any error is encountered. The final value of *pnByte
** is undefined in this case.
*/
static unsigned char *readFile(const char *zName, int *pnByte){
  FILE *in;               /* FILE from which to read content of zName */
  sqlite3_int64 nIn;      /* Size of zName in bytes */
  size_t nRead;           /* Number of bytes actually read */
  unsigned char *pBuf;    /* Content read from disk */

  nIn = fileSize(zName);
  if( nIn<0 ) return 0;
................................................................................
  if( pBuf==0 ) return 0;
  nRead = fread(pBuf, (size_t)nIn, 1, in);
  fclose(in);
  if( nRead!=1 ){
    sqlite3_free(pBuf);
    return 0;
  }
  if( pnByte ) *pnByte = (int)nIn;
  return pBuf;
}














































/*
** Return the current time in milliseconds since the beginning of
** the Julian epoch.
*/
static sqlite3_int64 timeOfDay(void){
  static sqlite3_vfs *clockVfs = 0;
................................................................................
  int iKey = 1;               /* Next blob key */
  int iMax = 0;               /* Largest allowed key */
  int iPagesize = 0;          /* Database page size */
  int iCache = 1000;          /* Database cache size in kibibytes */
  int bBlobApi = 0;           /* Use the incremental blob I/O API */
  int bStats = 0;             /* Print stats before exiting */
  int eOrder = ORDER_ASC;     /* Access order */






  sqlite3 *db = 0;            /* Database connection */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;    /* Prepared statement for SQL access */
  sqlite3_blob *pBlob = 0;    /* Handle for incremental Blob I/O */
  sqlite3_int64 tmStart;      /* Start time */
  sqlite3_int64 tmElapsed;    /* Elapsed time */
  int mmapSize = 0;           /* --mmap N argument */
  int nData = 0;              /* Bytes of data */
  sqlite3_int64 nTotal = 0;   /* Total data read */
  unsigned char *pData = 0;   /* Content of the blob */
  int nAlloc = 0;             /* Space allocated for pData[] */
  const char *zJMode = 0;     /* Journal mode */
  

  assert( strcmp(argv[1],"run")==0 );
  assert( argc>=3 );
  zDb = argv[2];
  eType = pathType(zDb);
  if( eType==PATH_OTHER ) fatalError("unknown object type: \"%s\"", zDb);
  if( eType==PATH_NEXIST ) fatalError("object does not exist: \"%s\"", zDb);
  for(i=3; i<argc; i++){
    char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]!='-' ) fatalError("unknown argument: \"%s\"", z);
    if( z[1]=='-' ) z++;













    if( strcmp(z, "-count")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      nCount = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      if( nCount<1 ) fatalError("the --count must be positive");
      continue;

















    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-mmap")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      mmapSize = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      if( nCount<0 ) fatalError("the --mmap must be non-negative");
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-max-id")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      iMax = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-start")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      iKey = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      if( iKey<1 ) fatalError("the --start must be positive");
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-cache-size")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      iCache = integerValue(argv[++i]);

      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-jmode")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      zJMode = argv[++i];

      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-random")==0 ){
      eOrder = ORDER_RANDOM;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-asc")==0 ){
      eOrder = ORDER_ASC;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-desc")==0 ){
      eOrder = ORDER_DESC;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-blob-api")==0 ){
      bBlobApi = 1;

      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-stats")==0 ){
      bStats = 1;
      continue;
    }




    fatalError("unknown option: \"%s\"", argv[i]);







  }
  tmStart = timeOfDay();
  if( eType==PATH_DB ){
    char *zSql;
    rc = sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
    if( rc ){
      fatalError("cannot open database \"%s\": %s", zDb, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    }
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA mmap_size=%d", mmapSize);
    sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);

    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA cache_size=%d", iCache);
    sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);



    pStmt = 0;
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA page_size", -1, &pStmt, 0);
    if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      iPagesize = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA cache_size", -1, &pStmt, 0);
................................................................................
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    pStmt = 0;
    if( zJMode ){
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA journal_mode=%Q", zJMode);
      sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);



    }
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA journal_mode", -1, &pStmt, 0);
    if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      zJMode = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0));
    }else{
      zJMode = "???";
    }
................................................................................
      sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT max(k) FROM kv", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        iMax = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }
    pStmt = 0;
    sqlite3_exec(db, "BEGIN", 0, 0, 0);
  }
  if( iMax<=0 ) iMax = 1000;
  for(i=0; i<nCount; i++){
    if( eType==PATH_DIR ){
      /* CASE 1: Reading blobs out of separate files */
      char *zKey;

      zKey = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/%06d", zDb, iKey);




      nData = 0;



      pData = readFile(zKey, &nData);
      sqlite3_free(zKey);

      sqlite3_free(pData);
    }else if( bBlobApi ){
      /* CASE 2: Reading from database using the incremental BLOB I/O API */
      if( pBlob==0 ){
        rc = sqlite3_blob_open(db, "main", "kv", "v", iKey, 0, &pBlob);

        if( rc ){
          fatalError("could not open sqlite3_blob handle: %s",
                     sqlite3_errmsg(db));
        }
      }else{
        rc = sqlite3_blob_reopen(pBlob, iKey);
      }
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        nData = sqlite3_blob_bytes(pBlob);
        if( nAlloc<nData+1 ){
          nAlloc = nData+100;
          pData = sqlite3_realloc(pData, nAlloc);
        }
        if( pData==0 ) fatalError("cannot allocate %d bytes", nData+1);








        rc = sqlite3_blob_read(pBlob, pData, nData, 0);
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
          fatalError("could not read the blob at %d: %s", iKey,
                     sqlite3_errmsg(db));

        }
      }
    }else{
      /* CASE 3: Reading from database using SQL */
      if( pStmt==0 ){




        rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, 





               "SELECT v FROM kv WHERE k=?1", -1, &pStmt, 0);

        if( rc ){
          fatalError("cannot prepare query: %s", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
        }
      }else{
        sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
      }
      sqlite3_bind_int(pStmt, 1, iKey);

      rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt);
      if( rc==SQLITE_ROW ){
        nData = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, 0);
        pData = (unsigned char*)sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, 0);
      }else{
        nData = 0;
      }
    }
    if( eOrder==ORDER_ASC ){
      iKey++;
      if( iKey>iMax ) iKey = 1;
    }else if( eOrder==ORDER_DESC ){
      iKey--;
................................................................................
  }
  if( nAlloc ) sqlite3_free(pData);
  if( pStmt ) sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  if( pBlob ) sqlite3_blob_close(pBlob);
  if( bStats ){
    display_stats(db, 0);
  }



  if( db ) sqlite3_close(db);



  tmElapsed = timeOfDay() - tmStart;




  if( nExtra ){
    printf("%d cycles due to %d misses\n", nCount, nExtra);
  }
  if( eType==PATH_DB ){
    printf("SQLite version: %s\n", sqlite3_libversion());










  }
  printf("--count %d --max-id %d", nCount-nExtra, iMax);
  switch( eOrder ){
    case ORDER_RANDOM:  printf(" --random\n");  break;
    case ORDER_DESC:    printf(" --desc\n");    break;
    default:            printf(" --asc\n");     break;
  }
  if( eType==PATH_DB ){
    printf("--cache-size %d --jmode %s\n", iCache, zJMode);
    printf("--mmap %d%s\n", mmapSize, bBlobApi ? " --blob-api" : "");

  }
  if( iPagesize ) printf("Database page size: %d\n", iPagesize);
  printf("Total elapsed time: %.3f\n", tmElapsed/1000.0);




  printf("Microseconds per BLOB read: %.3f\n", tmElapsed*1000.0/nCount);
  printf("Content read rate: %.1f MB/s\n", nTotal/(1000.0*tmElapsed));

  return 0;
}


int main(int argc, char **argv){
  if( argc<3 ) showHelp();
  if( strcmp(argv[1],"init")==0 ){







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"\n"
"        Generate a new test database file named DBFILE containing N\n"
"        BLOBs each of size M bytes.  The page size of the new database\n"
"        file will be X.  Additional options:\n"
"\n"
"           --variance V           Randomly vary M by plus or minus V\n"
"\n"
"   kvtest export DBFILE DIRECTORY [--tree]\n"
"\n"
"        Export all the blobs in the kv table of DBFILE into separate\n"
"        files in DIRECTORY.  DIRECTORY is created if it does not previously\n"
"        exist.  If the --tree option is used, then the blobs are written\n"
"        into a hierarchy of directories, using names like 00/00/00,\n"
"        00/00/01, 00/00/02, and so forth.  Without the --tree option, all\n"
"        files are in the top-level directory with names like 000000, 000001,\n"
"        000002, and so forth.\n"
"\n"
"   kvtest stat DBFILE [options]\n"
"\n"
"        Display summary information about DBFILE.  Options:\n"
"\n"
"           --vacuum               Run VACUUM on the database file\n"
"\n"
"   kvtest run DBFILE [options]\n"
"\n"
"        Run a performance test.  DBFILE can be either the name of a\n"
"        database or a directory containing sample files.  Options:\n"
"\n"
"           --asc                  Read blobs in ascending order\n"
"           --blob-api             Use the BLOB API\n"
"           --cache-size N         Database cache size\n"
"           --count N              Read N blobs\n"
"           --desc                 Read blobs in descending order\n"
"           --fsync                Synchronous file writes\n"
"           --integrity-check      Run \"PRAGMA integrity_check\" after test\n"
"           --max-id N             Maximum blob key to use\n"
"           --mmap N               Mmap as much as N bytes of DBFILE\n"
"           --multitrans           Each read or write in its own transaction\n"
"           --nocheckpoint         Omit the checkpoint on WAL mode writes\n"
"           --nosync               Set \"PRAGMA synchronous=OFF\"\n"
"           --jmode MODE           Set MODE journal mode prior to starting\n"
"           --random               Read blobs in a random order\n"
"           --start N              Start reading with this blob key\n"
"           --stats                Output operating stats before exiting\n"
"           --update               Do an overwrite test\n"
;

/* Reference resources used */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
................................................................................
#include <string.h>
#include "sqlite3.h"

#ifndef _WIN32
# include <unistd.h>
#else
  /* Provide Windows equivalent for the needed parts of unistd.h */
# include <direct.h>
# include <io.h>
# define R_OK 2
# define S_ISREG(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFREG)
# define S_ISDIR(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFDIR)
# define access _access
#endif

#include <stdint.h>

/*
** The following macros are used to cast pointers to integers and
** integers to pointers.  The way you do this varies from one compiler
** to the next, so we have developed the following set of #if statements
** to generate appropriate macros for a wide range of compilers.
**
** The correct "ANSI" way to do this is to use the intptr_t type.
** Unfortunately, that typedef is not available on all compilers, or
** if it is available, it requires an #include of specific headers
** that vary from one machine to the next.
**
** Ticket #3860:  The llvm-gcc-4.2 compiler from Apple chokes on
** the ((void*)&((char*)0)[X]) construct.  But MSVC chokes on ((void*)(X)).
** So we have to define the macros in different ways depending on the
** compiler.
*/
#if defined(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)  /* This case should work for GCC */
# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((sqlite3_int64)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
#else
# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(intptr_t)(X))
# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((sqlite3_int64)(intptr_t)(X))
#endif

/*
** Show thqe help text and quit.
*/
static void showHelp(void){
  fprintf(stdout, "%s", zHelp);
  exit(1);
................................................................................
  return isNeg? -v : v;
}


/*
** Check the filesystem object zPath.  Determine what it is:
**
**    PATH_DIR     A single directory holding many files
**    PATH_TREE    A directory hierarchy with files at the leaves
**    PATH_DB      An SQLite database
**    PATH_NEXIST  Does not exist
**    PATH_OTHER   Something else
**
** PATH_DIR means all of the separate files are grouped together
** into a single directory with names like 000000, 000001, 000002, and
** so forth.  PATH_TREE means there is a hierarchy of directories so
** that no single directory has too many entries.  The files have names
** like 00/00/00, 00/00/01, 00/00/02 and so forth.  The decision between
** PATH_DIR and PATH_TREE is determined by the presence of a subdirectory
** named "00" at the top-level.
*/
#define PATH_DIR     1
#define PATH_TREE    2
#define PATH_DB      3
#define PATH_NEXIST  0
#define PATH_OTHER   99
static int pathType(const char *zPath){
  struct stat x;
  int rc;
  if( access(zPath,R_OK) ) return PATH_NEXIST;
  memset(&x, 0, sizeof(x));
  rc = stat(zPath, &x);
  if( rc<0 ) return PATH_OTHER;
  if( S_ISDIR(x.st_mode) ){
    char *zLayer1 = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/00", zPath);
    memset(&x, 0, sizeof(x));
    rc = stat(zLayer1, &x);
    sqlite3_free(zLayer1);
    if( rc<0 ) return PATH_DIR;
    if( S_ISDIR(x.st_mode) ) return PATH_TREE;
    return PATH_DIR;
  }
  if( (x.st_size%512)==0 ) return PATH_DB;
  return PATH_OTHER;
}

/*
** Return the size of a file in bytes.  Or return -1 if the
** named object is not a regular file or does not exist.
................................................................................
*/
static int statMain(int argc, char **argv){
  char *zDb;
  int i, rc;
  sqlite3 *db;
  char *zSql;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  int doVacuum = 0;

  assert( strcmp(argv[1],"stat")==0 );
  assert( argc>=3 );
  zDb = argv[2];
  for(i=3; i<argc; i++){
    char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]!='-' ) fatalError("unknown argument: \"%s\"", z);
    if( z[1]=='-' ) z++;
    if( strcmp(z, "-vacuum")==0 ){
      doVacuum = 1;
      continue;
    }
    fatalError("unknown option: \"%s\"", argv[i]);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
  if( rc ){
    fatalError("cannot open database \"%s\": %s", zDb, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  }
  if( doVacuum ){
    printf("Vacuuming...."); fflush(stdout);
    sqlite3_exec(db, "VACUUM", 0, 0, 0);
    printf("       done\n");
  }
  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
    "SELECT count(*), min(length(v)), max(length(v)), avg(length(v))"
    "  FROM kv"
  );
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare SQL [%s]: %s", zSql, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
................................................................................
  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA page_count");
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare SQL [%s]: %s", zSql, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    printf("Page-count:         %8d\n", sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0));
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA freelist_count");
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare SQL [%s]: %s", zSql, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    printf("Freelist-count:     %8d\n", sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0));
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA integrity_check(10)", -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare integrity check: %s", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    printf("Integrity-check:    %s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0));
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  sqlite3_close(db);
  return 0;
}

/*
**      remember(V,PTR)
**
** Return the integer value V.  Also save the value of V in a
** C-language variable whose address is PTR.
*/
static void rememberFunc(
  sqlite3_context *pCtx,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  sqlite3_int64 v;
  sqlite3_int64 ptr;
  assert( argc==2 );
  v = sqlite3_value_int64(argv[0]);
  ptr = sqlite3_value_int64(argv[1]);
  *(sqlite3_int64*)SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(ptr) = v;
  sqlite3_result_int64(pCtx, v);
}

/*
** Make sure a directory named zDir exists.
*/
static void kvtest_mkdir(const char *zDir){
#if defined(_WIN32)
  (void)mkdir(zDir);
#else
  (void)mkdir(zDir, 0755);
#endif
}

/*
** Export the kv table to individual files in the filesystem
*/
static int exportMain(int argc, char **argv){
  char *zDb;
  char *zDir;
  sqlite3 *db;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  int rc;
  int ePathType;
  int nFN;
  char *zFN;
  char *zTail;
  size_t nWrote;
  int i;

  assert( strcmp(argv[1],"export")==0 );
  assert( argc>=3 );
  if( argc<4 ) fatalError("Usage: kvtest export DATABASE DIRECTORY [OPTIONS]");
  zDb = argv[2];

  zDir = argv[3];
  kvtest_mkdir(zDir);
  for(i=4; i<argc; i++){
    const char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]=='-' && z[1]=='-' ) z++;
    if( strcmp(z,"-tree")==0 ){
      zFN = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/00", zDir);
      kvtest_mkdir(zFN);
      sqlite3_free(zFN);
      continue;
    }
    fatalError("unknown argument: \"%s\"\n", argv[i]);
  }
  ePathType = pathType(zDir);
  if( ePathType!=PATH_DIR && ePathType!=PATH_TREE ){
    fatalError("object \"%s\" is not a directory", zDir);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
  if( rc ){
    fatalError("cannot open database \"%s\": %s", zDb, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  }


  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT k, v FROM kv ORDER BY k", -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ){
    fatalError("prepare_v2 failed: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  }
  nFN = (int)strlen(zDir);
  zFN = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/00/00/00.extra---------------------", zDir);





  if( zFN==0 ){
    fatalError("malloc failed\n");
  }
  zTail = zFN + nFN + 1;
  while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    int iKey = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
    sqlite3_int64 nData = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, 1);
    const void *pData = sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, 1);
    FILE *out;
    if( ePathType==PATH_DIR ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(20, zTail, "%06d", iKey);
    }else{
      sqlite3_snprintf(20, zTail, "%02d", iKey/10000);
      kvtest_mkdir(zFN);
      sqlite3_snprintf(20, zTail, "%02d/%02d", iKey/10000, (iKey/100)%100);
      kvtest_mkdir(zFN);
      sqlite3_snprintf(20, zTail, "%02d/%02d/%02d",
                       iKey/10000, (iKey/100)%100, iKey%100);
    }
    out = fopen(zFN, "wb");      
    nWrote = fwrite(pData, 1, nData, out);
    fclose(out);
    printf("\r%s   ", zTail); fflush(stdout);
    if( nWrote!=nData ){
      fatalError("Wrote only %d of %d bytes to %s\n",
                  (int)nWrote, nData, zFN);
    }
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  sqlite3_close(db);
  sqlite3_free(zFN);
  printf("\n");
  return 0;
}

/*
** Read the content of file zName into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc64()
** and return a pointer to the buffer. The caller is responsible for freeing 
................................................................................
** For convenience, a nul-terminator byte is always appended to the data read
** from the file before the buffer is returned. This byte is not included in
** the final value of (*pnByte), if applicable.
**
** NULL is returned if any error is encountered. The final value of *pnByte
** is undefined in this case.
*/
static unsigned char *readFile(const char *zName, sqlite3_int64 *pnByte){
  FILE *in;               /* FILE from which to read content of zName */
  sqlite3_int64 nIn;      /* Size of zName in bytes */
  size_t nRead;           /* Number of bytes actually read */
  unsigned char *pBuf;    /* Content read from disk */

  nIn = fileSize(zName);
  if( nIn<0 ) return 0;
................................................................................
  if( pBuf==0 ) return 0;
  nRead = fread(pBuf, (size_t)nIn, 1, in);
  fclose(in);
  if( nRead!=1 ){
    sqlite3_free(pBuf);
    return 0;
  }
  if( pnByte ) *pnByte = nIn;
  return pBuf;
}

/*
** Overwrite a file with randomness.  Do not change the size of the
** file.
*/
static void updateFile(const char *zName, sqlite3_int64 *pnByte, int doFsync){
  FILE *out;              /* FILE from which to read content of zName */
  sqlite3_int64 sz;       /* Size of zName in bytes */
  size_t nWritten;        /* Number of bytes actually read */
  unsigned char *pBuf;    /* Content to store on disk */
  const char *zMode = "wb";   /* Mode for fopen() */

  sz = fileSize(zName);
  if( sz<0 ){
    fatalError("No such file: \"%s\"", zName);
  }
  *pnByte = sz;
  if( sz==0 ) return;
  pBuf = sqlite3_malloc64( sz );
  if( pBuf==0 ){
    fatalError("Cannot allocate %lld bytes\n", sz);
  }
  sqlite3_randomness((int)sz, pBuf); 
#if defined(_WIN32)
  if( doFsync ) zMode = "wbc";
#endif
  out = fopen(zName, zMode);
  if( out==0 ){
    fatalError("Cannot open \"%s\" for writing\n", zName);
  }
  nWritten = fwrite(pBuf, 1, (size_t)sz, out);
  if( doFsync ){
#if defined(_WIN32)
    fflush(out);
#else
    fsync(fileno(out));
#endif
  }
  fclose(out);
  if( nWritten!=(size_t)sz ){
    fatalError("Wrote only %d of %d bytes to \"%s\"\n",
               (int)nWritten, (int)sz, zName);
  }
  sqlite3_free(pBuf);
}

/*
** Return the current time in milliseconds since the beginning of
** the Julian epoch.
*/
static sqlite3_int64 timeOfDay(void){
  static sqlite3_vfs *clockVfs = 0;
................................................................................
  int iKey = 1;               /* Next blob key */
  int iMax = 0;               /* Largest allowed key */
  int iPagesize = 0;          /* Database page size */
  int iCache = 1000;          /* Database cache size in kibibytes */
  int bBlobApi = 0;           /* Use the incremental blob I/O API */
  int bStats = 0;             /* Print stats before exiting */
  int eOrder = ORDER_ASC;     /* Access order */
  int isUpdateTest = 0;       /* Do in-place updates rather than reads */
  int doIntegrityCk = 0;      /* Run PRAGMA integrity_check after the test */
  int noSync = 0;             /* Disable synchronous mode */
  int doFsync = 0;            /* Update disk files synchronously */
  int doMultiTrans = 0;       /* Each operation in its own transaction */
  int noCheckpoint = 0;       /* Omit the checkpoint in WAL mode */
  sqlite3 *db = 0;            /* Database connection */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;    /* Prepared statement for SQL access */
  sqlite3_blob *pBlob = 0;    /* Handle for incremental Blob I/O */
  sqlite3_int64 tmStart;      /* Start time */
  sqlite3_int64 tmElapsed;    /* Elapsed time */
  int mmapSize = 0;           /* --mmap N argument */
  sqlite3_int64 nData = 0;    /* Bytes of data */
  sqlite3_int64 nTotal = 0;   /* Total data read */
  unsigned char *pData = 0;   /* Content of the blob */
  sqlite3_int64 nAlloc = 0;   /* Space allocated for pData[] */
  const char *zJMode = 0;     /* Journal mode */
  

  assert( strcmp(argv[1],"run")==0 );
  assert( argc>=3 );
  zDb = argv[2];
  eType = pathType(zDb);
  if( eType==PATH_OTHER ) fatalError("unknown object type: \"%s\"", zDb);
  if( eType==PATH_NEXIST ) fatalError("object does not exist: \"%s\"", zDb);
  for(i=3; i<argc; i++){
    char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]!='-' ) fatalError("unknown argument: \"%s\"", z);
    if( z[1]=='-' ) z++;
    if( strcmp(z, "-asc")==0 ){
      eOrder = ORDER_ASC;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-blob-api")==0 ){
      bBlobApi = 1;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-cache-size")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      iCache = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-count")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      nCount = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      if( nCount<1 ) fatalError("the --count must be positive");
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-desc")==0 ){
      eOrder = ORDER_DESC;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-fsync")==0 ){
      doFsync = 1;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-integrity-check")==0 ){
      doIntegrityCk = 1;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-jmode")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      zJMode = argv[++i];
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-mmap")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      mmapSize = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      if( nCount<0 ) fatalError("the --mmap must be non-negative");
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-max-id")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      iMax = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-multitrans")==0 ){
      doMultiTrans = 1;


      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-nocheckpoint")==0 ){


      noCheckpoint = 1;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-nosync")==0 ){


      noSync = 1;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-random")==0 ){
      eOrder = ORDER_RANDOM;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-start")==0 ){
      if( i==argc-1 ) fatalError("missing argument on \"%s\"", argv[i]);
      iKey = integerValue(argv[++i]);







      if( iKey<1 ) fatalError("the --start must be positive");
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-stats")==0 ){
      bStats = 1;
      continue;
    }
    if( strcmp(z, "-update")==0 ){
      isUpdateTest = 1;
      continue;
    }
    fatalError("unknown option: \"%s\"", argv[i]);
  }
  if( eType==PATH_DB ){
    /* Recover any prior crashes prior to starting the timer */
    sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
    sqlite3_exec(db, "SELECT rowid FROM sqlite_master LIMIT 1", 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_close(db);
    db = 0;
  }
  tmStart = timeOfDay();
  if( eType==PATH_DB ){
    char *zSql;
    rc = sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
    if( rc ){
      fatalError("cannot open database \"%s\": %s", zDb, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    }
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA mmap_size=%d", mmapSize);
    sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA cache_size=%d", iCache);
    sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    if( noSync ){
      sqlite3_exec(db, "PRAGMA synchronous=OFF", 0, 0, 0);
    }
    pStmt = 0;
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA page_size", -1, &pStmt, 0);
    if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      iPagesize = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA cache_size", -1, &pStmt, 0);
................................................................................
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    pStmt = 0;
    if( zJMode ){
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA journal_mode=%Q", zJMode);
      sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
      if( noCheckpoint ){
        sqlite3_exec(db, "PRAGMA wal_autocheckpoint=0", 0, 0, 0);
      }
    }
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA journal_mode", -1, &pStmt, 0);
    if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      zJMode = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0));
    }else{
      zJMode = "???";
    }
................................................................................
      sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT max(k) FROM kv", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        iMax = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }
    pStmt = 0;
    if( !doMultiTrans ) sqlite3_exec(db, "BEGIN", 0, 0, 0);
  }
  if( iMax<=0 ) iMax = 1000;
  for(i=0; i<nCount; i++){
    if( eType==PATH_DIR || eType==PATH_TREE ){
      /* CASE 1: Reading or writing blobs out of separate files */
      char *zKey;
      if( eType==PATH_DIR ){
        zKey = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/%06d", zDb, iKey);
      }else{
        zKey = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/%02d/%02d/%02d", zDb, iKey/10000,
                               (iKey/100)%100, iKey%100);
      }
      nData = 0;
      if( isUpdateTest ){
        updateFile(zKey, &nData, doFsync);
      }else{
        pData = readFile(zKey, &nData);
        sqlite3_free(pData);
      }
      sqlite3_free(zKey);
    }else if( bBlobApi ){
      /* CASE 2: Reading from database using the incremental BLOB I/O API */
      if( pBlob==0 ){
        rc = sqlite3_blob_open(db, "main", "kv", "v", iKey,
                               isUpdateTest, &pBlob);
        if( rc ){
          fatalError("could not open sqlite3_blob handle: %s",
                     sqlite3_errmsg(db));
        }
      }else{
        rc = sqlite3_blob_reopen(pBlob, iKey);
      }
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        nData = sqlite3_blob_bytes(pBlob);
        if( nAlloc<nData+1 ){
          nAlloc = nData+100;
          pData = sqlite3_realloc64(pData, nAlloc);
        }
        if( pData==0 ) fatalError("cannot allocate %d bytes", nData+1);
        if( isUpdateTest ){
          sqlite3_randomness((int)nData, pData);
          rc = sqlite3_blob_write(pBlob, pData, (int)nData, 0);
          if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
            fatalError("could not write the blob at %d: %s", iKey,
                      sqlite3_errmsg(db));
          }
        }else{
          rc = sqlite3_blob_read(pBlob, pData, (int)nData, 0);
          if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
            fatalError("could not read the blob at %d: %s", iKey,
                      sqlite3_errmsg(db));
          }
        }
      }
    }else{
      /* CASE 3: Reading from database using SQL */
      if( pStmt==0 ){
        if( isUpdateTest ){
          sqlite3_create_function(db, "remember", 2, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                                  rememberFunc, 0, 0);

          rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, 
            "UPDATE kv SET v=randomblob(remember(length(v),?2))"
            " WHERE k=?1", -1, &pStmt, 0);
          sqlite3_bind_int64(pStmt, 2, SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(&nData));
        }else{
          rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, 
                 "SELECT v FROM kv WHERE k=?1", -1, &pStmt, 0);
        }
        if( rc ){
          fatalError("cannot prepare query: %s", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
        }
      }else{
        sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
      }
      sqlite3_bind_int(pStmt, 1, iKey);
      nData = 0;
      rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt);
      if( rc==SQLITE_ROW ){
        nData = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, 0);
        pData = (unsigned char*)sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, 0);


      }
    }
    if( eOrder==ORDER_ASC ){
      iKey++;
      if( iKey>iMax ) iKey = 1;
    }else if( eOrder==ORDER_DESC ){
      iKey--;
................................................................................
  }
  if( nAlloc ) sqlite3_free(pData);
  if( pStmt ) sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  if( pBlob ) sqlite3_blob_close(pBlob);
  if( bStats ){
    display_stats(db, 0);
  }
  if( db ){
    if( !doMultiTrans ) sqlite3_exec(db, "COMMIT", 0, 0, 0);
    if( !noCheckpoint ){
      sqlite3_close(db);
      db = 0;
    }
  }
  tmElapsed = timeOfDay() - tmStart;
  if( db && noCheckpoint ){
    sqlite3_close(db);
    db = 0;
  }
  if( nExtra ){
    printf("%d cycles due to %d misses\n", nCount, nExtra);
  }
  if( eType==PATH_DB ){
    printf("SQLite version: %s\n", sqlite3_libversion());
    if( doIntegrityCk ){
      sqlite3_open(zDb, &db);
      sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA integrity_check", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        printf("integrity-check: %s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0));
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      sqlite3_close(db);
      db = 0;
    }
  }
  printf("--count %d --max-id %d", nCount-nExtra, iMax);
  switch( eOrder ){
    case ORDER_RANDOM:  printf(" --random\n");  break;
    case ORDER_DESC:    printf(" --desc\n");    break;
    default:            printf(" --asc\n");     break;
  }
  if( eType==PATH_DB ){
    printf("--cache-size %d --jmode %s\n", iCache, zJMode);
    printf("--mmap %d%s\n", mmapSize, bBlobApi ? " --blob-api" : "");
    if( noSync ) printf("--nosync\n");
  }
  if( iPagesize ) printf("Database page size: %d\n", iPagesize);
  printf("Total elapsed time: %.3f\n", tmElapsed/1000.0);
  if( isUpdateTest ){
    printf("Microseconds per BLOB write: %.3f\n", tmElapsed*1000.0/nCount);
    printf("Content write rate: %.1f MB/s\n", nTotal/(1000.0*tmElapsed));
  }else{
    printf("Microseconds per BLOB read: %.3f\n", tmElapsed*1000.0/nCount);
    printf("Content read rate: %.1f MB/s\n", nTotal/(1000.0*tmElapsed));
  }
  return 0;
}


int main(int argc, char **argv){
  if( argc<3 ) showHelp();
  if( strcmp(argv[1],"init")==0 ){

Changes to test/vtabH.test.

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      set fd [open $path w]
      puts -nonewline $fd [string repeat 1 $sz]
      close $fd
    }
  } {}

  set pwd [pwd]

  do_execsql_test 3.5 {

    SELECT path, size FROM fstree WHERE path GLOB $pwd || '/subdir/*' ORDER BY 1
  } [list \
    "$pwd/subdir/x1.txt" 143 \
    "$pwd/subdir/x2.txt" 153 \
  ]
  do_execsql_test 3.6 {

    SELECT path, size FROM fstree WHERE path LIKE $pwd || '/subdir/%' ORDER BY 1
  } [list \
    "$pwd/subdir/x1.txt" 143 \
    "$pwd/subdir/x2.txt" 153 \
  ]
  do_execsql_test 3.7 {
    SELECT sum(size) FROM fstree WHERE path LIKE $pwd || '/subdir/%'
  } 296
  do_execsql_test 3.8 {
    SELECT size FROM fstree WHERE path = $pwd || '/subdir/x1.txt'
  } 143

}



finish_test







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      set fd [open $path w]
      puts -nonewline $fd [string repeat 1 $sz]
      close $fd
    }
  } {}

  set pwd [pwd]
  if {![string match {*[_%]*} $pwd]} {
    do_execsql_test 3.5 {
      SELECT path, size FROM fstree 
       WHERE path GLOB $pwd || '/subdir/*' ORDER BY 1
    } [list \
      "$pwd/subdir/x1.txt" 143 \
      "$pwd/subdir/x2.txt" 153 \
    ]
    do_execsql_test 3.6 {
      SELECT path, size FROM fstree
       WHERE path LIKE $pwd || '/subdir/%' ORDER BY 1
    } [list \
      "$pwd/subdir/x1.txt" 143 \
      "$pwd/subdir/x2.txt" 153 \
    ]
    do_execsql_test 3.7 {
      SELECT sum(size) FROM fstree WHERE path LIKE $pwd || '/subdir/%'
    } 296
    do_execsql_test 3.8 {
      SELECT size FROM fstree WHERE path = $pwd || '/subdir/x1.txt'
    } 143
  }

}


finish_test