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Overview
Comment:Add support for row-value comparisons, including IN operators, and row-value updates in the UPDATE statement.
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Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: ddb5f0558c44569913d22781ab78f3e9b58d7aea
User & Date: drh 2016-09-07 19:54:24
References
2016-11-11
03:36 New ticket [2f1b168a] Crash following syntax error on DETACH. artifact: e12fe9da user: drh
2016-09-16
13:57 New ticket [0eab1ac7] O(N*N) behavior where it should be O(N). artifact: 62ca7f9b user: drh
Context
2016-09-08
23:12
Issue a warning and prompt the user to continue if the releasetest.tcl script is run in a checkout with uncommitted changes. check-in: 30e917ff user: drh tags: trunk
2016-09-07
19:54
Add support for row-value comparisons, including IN operators, and row-value updates in the UPDATE statement. check-in: ddb5f055 user: drh tags: trunk
19:37
Fix a problem handling expressions like "(a, b) IN (SELECT ... ORDER BY 1, 2)" when there is an index on "a" but not "b". Closed-Leaf check-in: 7f2c5c9e user: dan tags: rowvalue
18:11
Add the ext/misc/memvfs.c extension that implements a VFS for read-only database files contained in memory. check-in: 12b7782a user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
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Changes to src/expr.c.

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**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains routines used for analyzing expressions and
** for generating VDBE code that evaluates expressions in SQLite.
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"













/*
** Return the 'affinity' of the expression pExpr if any.
**
** If pExpr is a column, a reference to a column via an 'AS' alias,
** or a sub-select with a column as the return value, then the 
** affinity of that column is returned. Otherwise, 0x00 is returned,
................................................................................
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
  if( pExpr->flags & EP_Generic ) return 0;
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pExpr->flags&EP_xIsSelect );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr);
  }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
  if( op==TK_CAST ){
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
    return sqlite3AffinityType(pExpr->u.zToken, 0);
  }
#endif
  if( (op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN || op==TK_REGISTER) 
   && pExpr->pTab!=0
  ){
    /* op==TK_REGISTER && pExpr->pTab!=0 happens when pExpr was originally
    ** a TK_COLUMN but was previously evaluated and cached in a register */
    int j = pExpr->iColumn;
    if( j<0 ) return SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    assert( pExpr->pTab && j<pExpr->pTab->nCol );
    return pExpr->pTab->aCol[j].affinity;
  }
  return pExpr->affinity;
}

/*
** Set the collating sequence for expression pExpr to be the collating
** sequence named by pToken.   Return a pointer to a new Expr node that
................................................................................
          pExpr->op==TK_NE || pExpr->op==TK_IS || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT );
  assert( pExpr->pLeft );
  aff = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->pRight ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->pRight, aff);
  }else if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr, aff);
  }else if( !aff ){
    aff = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
  }
  return aff;
}

/*
** pExpr is a comparison expression, eg. '=', '<', IN(...) etc.
................................................................................
  p4 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLeft, pRight);
  p5 = binaryCompareP5(pLeft, pRight, jumpIfNull);
  addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(pParse->pVdbe, opcode, in2, dest, in1,
                           (void*)p4, P4_COLLSEQ);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(pParse->pVdbe, (u8)p5);
  return addr;
}









































































































































































































































































#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
/*
** Check that argument nHeight is less than or equal to the maximum
** expression depth allowed. If it is not, leave an error message in
** pParse.
*/
................................................................................
static SQLITE_NOINLINE void sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p){
  assert( p!=0 );
  /* Sanity check: Assert that the IntValue is non-negative if it exists */
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_IntValue) || p->u.iValue>=0 );
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly) ){
    /* The Expr.x union is never used at the same time as Expr.pRight */
    assert( p->x.pList==0 || p->pRight==0 );
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLeft);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pRight);
    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_MemToken) ) sqlite3DbFree(db, p->u.zToken);
    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){
      sqlite3SelectDelete(db, p->x.pSelect);
    }else{
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->x.pList);
    }
................................................................................
                       exprDup(db, p->pRight, EXPRDUP_REDUCE, &zAlloc) : 0;
      }
      if( pzBuffer ){
        *pzBuffer = zAlloc;
      }
    }else{
      if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly) ){



        pNew->pLeft = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pLeft, 0);

        pNew->pRight = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pRight, 0);
      }
    }
  }
  return pNew;
}

................................................................................

no_mem:     
  /* Avoid leaking memory if malloc has failed. */
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pList);
  return 0;
}























































/*
** Set the sort order for the last element on the given ExprList.
*/
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList *p, int iSortOrder){
  if( p==0 ) return;
  assert( SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED<0 && SQLITE_SO_ASC>=0 && SQLITE_SO_DESC>0 );
................................................................................
** table, then return NULL.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
static Select *isCandidateForInOpt(Expr *pX){
  Select *p;
  SrcList *pSrc;
  ExprList *pEList;
  Expr *pRes;
  Table *pTab;

  if( !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ) return 0;  /* Not a subquery */
  if( ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_VarSelect)  ) return 0;  /* Correlated subq */
  p = pX->x.pSelect;
  if( p->pPrior ) return 0;              /* Not a compound SELECT */
  if( p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate) ){
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Distinct );
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Aggregate );
................................................................................
  if( pSrc->nSrc!=1 ) return 0;          /* Single term in FROM clause */
  if( pSrc->a[0].pSelect ) return 0;     /* FROM is not a subquery or view */
  pTab = pSrc->a[0].pTab;
  assert( pTab!=0 );
  assert( pTab->pSelect==0 );            /* FROM clause is not a view */
  if( IsVirtual(pTab) ) return 0;        /* FROM clause not a virtual table */
  pEList = p->pEList;
  if( pEList->nExpr!=1 ) return 0;       /* One column in the result set */


  pRes = pEList->a[0].pExpr;
  if( pRes->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return 0;    /* Result is a column */
  assert( pRes->iTable==pSrc->a[0].iCursor );  /* Not a correlated subquery */

  return p;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

/*
** Code an OP_Once instruction and allocate space for its flag. Return the 
** address of the new instruction.
*/
int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *pParse){
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);      /* Virtual machine being coded */
  return sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Once, pParse->nOnce++);
}


/*
** Generate code that checks the left-most column of index table iCur to see if
** it contains any NULL entries.  Cause the register at regHasNull to be set
** to a non-NULL value if iCur contains no NULLs.  Cause register regHasNull
** to be set to NULL if iCur contains one or more NULL values.
*/
static void sqlite3SetHasNullFlag(Vdbe *v, int iCur, int regHasNull){
................................................................................
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, regHasNull);
  addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Rewind, iCur); VdbeCoverage(v);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iCur, 0, regHasNull);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG);
  VdbeComment((v, "first_entry_in(%d)", iCur));
  sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
}



#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** The argument is an IN operator with a list (not a subquery) on the 
** right-hand side.  Return TRUE if that list is constant.
*/
................................................................................
**                         populated epheremal table.
**   IN_INDEX_NOOP       - No cursor was allocated.  The IN operator must be
**                         implemented as a sequence of comparisons.
**
** An existing b-tree might be used if the RHS expression pX is a simple
** subquery such as:
**
**     SELECT <column> FROM <table>
**
** If the RHS of the IN operator is a list or a more complex subquery, then
** an ephemeral table might need to be generated from the RHS and then
** pX->iTable made to point to the ephemeral table instead of an
** existing table.
**
** The inFlags parameter must contain exactly one of the bits
................................................................................
** IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP, then the generated table will be used for a
** fast membership test.  When the IN_INDEX_LOOP bit is set, the
** IN index will be used to loop over all values of the RHS of the
** IN operator.
**
** When IN_INDEX_LOOP is used (and the b-tree will be used to iterate
** through the set members) then the b-tree must not contain duplicates.
** An epheremal table must be used unless the selected <column> is guaranteed
** to be unique - either because it is an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY or it
** has a UNIQUE constraint or UNIQUE index.
**
** When IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP is used (and the b-tree will be used 
** for fast set membership tests) then an epheremal table must 
** be used unless <column> is an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY or an index can 
** be found with <column> as its left-most column.
**
** If the IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK and IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP are both set and
** if the RHS of the IN operator is a list (not a subquery) then this
** routine might decide that creating an ephemeral b-tree for membership
** testing is too expensive and return IN_INDEX_NOOP.  In that case, the
** calling routine should implement the IN operator using a sequence
** of Eq or Ne comparison operations.
................................................................................
** to *prRhsHasNull. If there is no chance that the (...) contains a
** NULL value, then *prRhsHasNull is left unchanged.
**
** If a register is allocated and its location stored in *prRhsHasNull, then
** the value in that register will be NULL if the b-tree contains one or more
** NULL values, and it will be some non-NULL value if the b-tree contains no
** NULL values.











*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *pParse, Expr *pX, u32 inFlags, int *prRhsHasNull){






  Select *p;                            /* SELECT to the right of IN operator */
  int eType = 0;                        /* Type of RHS table. IN_INDEX_* */
  int iTab = pParse->nTab++;            /* Cursor of the RHS table */
  int mustBeUnique;                     /* True if RHS must be unique */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);     /* Virtual machine being coded */

  assert( pX->op==TK_IN );
  mustBeUnique = (inFlags & IN_INDEX_LOOP)!=0;

















  /* Check to see if an existing table or index can be used to
  ** satisfy the query.  This is preferable to generating a new 
  ** ephemeral table.
  */
  if( pParse->nErr==0 && (p = isCandidateForInOpt(pX))!=0 ){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;              /* Database connection */
    Table *pTab;                           /* Table <table>. */
    Expr *pExpr;                           /* Expression <column> */
    i16 iCol;                              /* Index of column <column> */
    i16 iDb;                               /* Database idx for pTab */



    assert( p->pEList!=0 );             /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList->a[0].pExpr!=0 ); /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pSrc!=0 );               /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    pTab = p->pSrc->a[0].pTab;
    pExpr = p->pEList->a[0].pExpr;
    iCol = (i16)pExpr->iColumn;
   
    /* Code an OP_Transaction and OP_TableLock for <table>. */
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pTab->pSchema);
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
    sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, pTab->tnum, 0, pTab->zName);

    /* This function is only called from two places. In both cases the vdbe
    ** has already been allocated. So assume sqlite3GetVdbe() is always
    ** successful here.
    */
    assert(v);
    if( iCol<0 ){
      int iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);
      VdbeCoverage(v);

      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTab, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
      eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;

      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, iAddr);
    }else{
      Index *pIdx;                         /* Iterator variable */



      /* The collation sequence used by the comparison. If an index is to
      ** be used in place of a temp-table, it must be ordered according
      ** to this collation sequence.  */
      CollSeq *pReq = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pX->pLeft, pExpr);

      /* Check that the affinity that will be used to perform the 
      ** comparison is the same as the affinity of the column. If
      ** it is not, it is not possible to use any index.
      */



















      int affinity_ok = sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(pX, pTab->aCol[iCol].affinity);





      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx && eType==0 && affinity_ok; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        if( (pIdx->aiColumn[0]==iCol)
         && sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), pIdx->azColl[0], 0)==pReq
         && (!mustBeUnique || (pIdx->nKeyCol==1 && IsUniqueIndex(pIdx)))











        ){






























          int iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse); VdbeCoverage(v);





          sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenRead, iTab, pIdx->tnum, iDb);
          sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(pParse, pIdx);
          VdbeComment((v, "%s", pIdx->zName));
          assert( IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC == IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC+1 );
          eType = IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC + pIdx->aSortOrder[0];

          if( prRhsHasNull && !pTab->aCol[iCol].notNull ){

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_USED_MASK
            const i64 sOne = 1;

            sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Dup8(v, OP_ColumnsUsed, 
                iTab, 0, 0, (u8*)&sOne, P4_INT64);
#endif
            *prRhsHasNull = ++pParse->nMem;

            sqlite3SetHasNullFlag(v, iTab, *prRhsHasNull);
          }

          sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, iAddr);
        }
      }
    }
  }





  /* If no preexisting index is available for the IN clause
  ** and IN_INDEX_NOOP is an allowed reply
  ** and the RHS of the IN operator is a list, not a subquery
  ** and the RHS is not constant or has two or fewer terms,
  ** then it is not worth creating an ephemeral table to evaluate
  ** the IN operator so return IN_INDEX_NOOP.
................................................................................
  if( eType==0
   && (inFlags & IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK)
   && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect)
   && (!sqlite3InRhsIsConstant(pX) || pX->x.pList->nExpr<=2)
  ){
    eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
  }
     

  if( eType==0 ){
    /* Could not find an existing table or index to use as the RHS b-tree.
    ** We will have to generate an ephemeral table to do the job.
    */
    u32 savedNQueryLoop = pParse->nQueryLoop;
    int rMayHaveNull = 0;
................................................................................
      *prRhsHasNull = rMayHaveNull = ++pParse->nMem;
    }
    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX, rMayHaveNull, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);
    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
  }else{
    pX->iTable = iTab;
  }






  return eType;
}
#endif
















































/*
** Generate code for scalar subqueries used as a subquery expression, EXISTS,
** or IN operators.  Examples:
**
**     (SELECT a FROM b)          -- subquery
**     EXISTS (SELECT a FROM b)   -- EXISTS subquery
................................................................................
** If rMayHaveNull is non-zero, that means that the operation is an IN
** (not a SELECT or EXISTS) and that the RHS might contains NULLs.
** All this routine does is initialize the register given by rMayHaveNull
** to NULL.  Calling routines will take care of changing this register
** value to non-NULL if the RHS is NULL-free.
**
** For a SELECT or EXISTS operator, return the register that holds the


** result.  For IN operators or if an error occurs, the return value is 0.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pExpr,            /* The IN, SELECT, or EXISTS operator */
  int rHasNullFlag,       /* Register that records whether NULLs exist in RHS */
  int isRowid             /* If true, LHS of IN operator is a rowid */
................................................................................
){
  int jmpIfDynamic = -1;                      /* One-time test address */
  int rReg = 0;                           /* Register storing resulting */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
  if( NEVER(v==0) ) return 0;
  sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);

  /* This code must be run in its entirety every time it is encountered
  ** if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  The right-hand side is a correlated subquery
  **    *  The right-hand side is an expression list containing variables
  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
................................................................................
    );
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
#endif

  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_IN: {
      char affinity;              /* Affinity of the LHS of the IN */
      int addr;                   /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral instruction */
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft; /* the LHS of the IN operator */
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = 0;      /* Key information */


      affinity = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft);


      /* Whether this is an 'x IN(SELECT...)' or an 'x IN(<exprlist>)'
      ** expression it is handled the same way.  An ephemeral table is 
      ** filled with single-field index keys representing the results
      ** from the SELECT or the <exprlist>.
      **
      ** If the 'x' expression is a column value, or the SELECT...
      ** statement returns a column value, then the affinity of that
      ** column is used to build the index keys. If both 'x' and the
      ** SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity is used
      ** if either column has NUMERIC or INTEGER affinity. If neither
      ** 'x' nor the SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity
      ** is used.
      */
      pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, pExpr->iTable, !isRowid);

      pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, 1, 1);

      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        /* Case 1:     expr IN (SELECT ...)
        **
        ** Generate code to write the results of the select into the temporary
        ** table allocated and opened above.
        */
        Select *pSelect = pExpr->x.pSelect;
        SelectDest dest;
        ExprList *pEList;

        assert( !isRowid );





        sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Set, pExpr->iTable);
        dest.affSdst = (u8)affinity;

        assert( (pExpr->iTable&0x0000FFFF)==pExpr->iTable );
        pSelect->iLimit = 0;
        testcase( pSelect->selFlags & SF_Distinct );
        testcase( pKeyInfo==0 ); /* Caused by OOM in sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc() */
        if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest) ){

          sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(pKeyInfo);
          return 0;
        }
        pEList = pSelect->pEList;

        assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
        assert( pEList!=0 );
        assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
        assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );


        pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft,
                                                         pEList->a[0].pExpr);



      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList!=0) ){
        /* Case 2:     expr IN (exprlist)
        **
        ** For each expression, build an index key from the evaluation and
        ** store it in the temporary table. If <expr> is a column, then use
        ** that columns affinity when building index keys. If <expr> is not
        ** a column, use numeric affinity.
        */

        int i;
        ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
        struct ExprList_item *pItem;
        int r1, r2, r3;


        if( !affinity ){
          affinity = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
        }
        if( pKeyInfo ){
          assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
          pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
        }
................................................................................
      }
      break;
    }

    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT:
    default: {
      /* If this has to be a scalar SELECT.  Generate code to put the
      ** value of this select in a memory cell and record the number
      ** of the memory cell in iColumn.  If this is an EXISTS, write




      ** an integer 0 (not exists) or 1 (exists) into a memory cell
      ** and record that memory cell in iColumn.




      */
      Select *pSel;                         /* SELECT statement to encode */
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECt result */


      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );

      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;

      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, 0, ++pParse->nMem);

      if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
        dest.eDest = SRT_Mem;
        dest.iSdst = dest.iSDParm;

        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, dest.iSDParm);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init subquery result"));
      }else{
        dest.eDest = SRT_Exists;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, dest.iSDParm);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init EXISTS result"));
      }
      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pSel->pLimit);
................................................................................
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmpIfDynamic);
  }
  sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);

  return rReg;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */



























#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Generate code for an IN expression.
**
**      x IN (SELECT ...)
**      x IN (value, value, ...)
**
** The left-hand side (LHS) is a scalar expression.  The right-hand side (RHS)
** is an array of zero or more values.  The expression is true if the LHS is
** contained within the RHS.  The value of the expression is unknown (NULL)
** if the LHS is NULL or if the LHS is not contained within the RHS and the
** RHS contains one or more NULL values.





**
** This routine generates code that jumps to destIfFalse if the LHS is not 
** contained within the RHS.  If due to NULLs we cannot determine if the LHS
** is contained in the RHS then jump to destIfNull.  If the LHS is contained
** within the RHS then fall through.



*/
static void sqlite3ExprCodeIN(
  Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing and code generating context */
  Expr *pExpr,          /* The IN expression */
  int destIfFalse,      /* Jump here if LHS is not contained in the RHS */
  int destIfNull        /* Jump here if the results are unknown due to NULLs */
){
  int rRhsHasNull = 0;  /* Register that is true if RHS contains NULL values */
  char affinity;        /* Comparison affinity to use */
  int eType;            /* Type of the RHS */

  int r1;               /* Temporary use register */
  Vdbe *v;              /* Statement under construction */












  /* Compute the RHS.   After this step, the table with cursor











  ** pExpr->iTable will contains the values that make up the RHS.
  */

  v = pParse->pVdbe;
  assert( v!=0 );       /* OOM detected prior to this routine */
  VdbeNoopComment((v, "begin IN expr"));
  eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pExpr,
                             IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP | IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK,
                             destIfFalse==destIfNull ? 0 : &rRhsHasNull);

  /* Figure out the affinity to use to create a key from the results
  ** of the expression. affinityStr stores a static string suitable for
  ** P4 of OP_MakeRecord.
  */


  affinity = comparisonAffinity(pExpr);








  /* Code the LHS, the <expr> from "<expr> IN (...)".







  */
  sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);







  r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, r1);





  /* If sqlite3FindInIndex() did not find or create an index that is
  ** suitable for evaluating the IN operator, then evaluate using a
  ** sequence of comparisons.


  */
  if( eType==IN_INDEX_NOOP ){
    ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
    CollSeq *pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
    int labelOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
    int r2, regToFree;
    int regCkNull = 0;
    int ii;
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
    if( destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
      regCkNull = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, r1, r1, regCkNull);
    }
    for(ii=0; ii<pList->nExpr; ii++){
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pList->a[ii].pExpr, &regToFree);
      if( regCkNull && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pList->a[ii].pExpr) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, regCkNull, r2, regCkNull);
      }
      if( ii<pList->nExpr-1 || destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Eq, r1, labelOk, r2,
                          (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ);
        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii<pList->nExpr-1);
        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii==pList->nExpr-1);
        sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, affinity);
      }else{
        assert( destIfNull==destIfFalse );
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Ne, r1, destIfFalse, r2,
                          (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ); VdbeCoverage(v);
        sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, affinity | SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      }
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regToFree);
    }
    if( regCkNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regCkNull, destIfNull); VdbeCoverage(v);
      sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, destIfFalse);
    }
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, labelOk);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regCkNull);
  }else{
  
    /* If the LHS is NULL, then the result is either false or NULL depending

    ** on whether the RHS is empty or not, respectively.


    */
    if( sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pExpr->pLeft) ){
      if( destIfNull==destIfFalse ){
        /* Shortcut for the common case where the false and NULL outcomes are
        ** the same. */
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, r1, destIfNull); VdbeCoverage(v);
      }else{
        int addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_NotNull, r1); VdbeCoverage(v);





        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, pExpr->iTable, destIfFalse);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, destIfNull);
        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
      }
    }
  




    if( eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID ){
      /* In this case, the RHS is the ROWID of table b-tree
      */


      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SeekRowid, pExpr->iTable, destIfFalse, r1);
      VdbeCoverage(v);

    }else{
      /* In this case, the RHS is an index b-tree.
      */
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Affinity, r1, 1, 0, &affinity, 1);





  
      /* If the set membership test fails, then the result of the 
      ** "x IN (...)" expression must be either 0 or NULL. If the set
      ** contains no NULL values, then the result is 0. If the set 
      ** contains one or more NULL values, then the result of the
      ** expression is also NULL.







      */
      assert( destIfFalse!=destIfNull || rRhsHasNull==0 );
      if( rRhsHasNull==0 ){
        /* This branch runs if it is known at compile time that the RHS
        ** cannot contain NULL values. This happens as the result
        ** of a "NOT NULL" constraint in the database schema.












        **
        ** Also run this branch if NULL is equivalent to FALSE
        ** for this particular IN operator.


        */

        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, pExpr->iTable, destIfFalse, r1, 1);
        VdbeCoverage(v);


      }else{
        /* In this branch, the RHS of the IN might contain a NULL and
        ** the presence of a NULL on the RHS makes a difference in the
        ** outcome.
        */
        int addr1;



  
        /* First check to see if the LHS is contained in the RHS.  If so,
        ** then the answer is TRUE the presence of NULLs in the RHS does
        ** not matter.  If the LHS is not contained in the RHS, then the
        ** answer is NULL if the RHS contains NULLs and the answer is
        ** FALSE if the RHS is NULL-free.
        */
        addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, pExpr->iTable, 0, r1, 1);









        VdbeCoverage(v);


        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, rRhsHasNull, destIfNull);



        VdbeCoverage(v);
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, destIfFalse);
        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
      }



    }
  }




  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
  sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);
  VdbeComment((v, "end IN expr"));



}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
/*
** Generate an instruction that will put the floating point
** value described by z[0..n-1] into register iMem.
................................................................................
  }
  return 0;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG || SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST */


/*
** Convert an expression node to a TK_REGISTER


*/
static void exprToRegister(Expr *p, int iReg){
  p->op2 = p->op;
  p->op = TK_REGISTER;
  p->iTable = iReg;
  ExprClearProperty(p, EP_Skip);
}

































/*
** Generate code into the current Vdbe to evaluate the given
** expression.  Attempt to store the results in register "target".
** Return the register where results are stored.
**
** With this routine, there is no guarantee that results will
................................................................................
*/
int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, int target){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;  /* The VM under construction */
  int op;                   /* The opcode being coded */
  int inReg = target;       /* Results stored in register inReg */
  int regFree1 = 0;         /* If non-zero free this temporary register */
  int regFree2 = 0;         /* If non-zero free this temporary register */
  int r1, r2, r3, r4;       /* Various register numbers */
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db; /* The database connection */
  Expr tempX;               /* Temporary expression node */


  assert( target>0 && target<=pParse->nMem );
  if( v==0 ){
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    return 0;
  }

................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Cast, target,
                        sqlite3AffinityType(pExpr->u.zToken, 0));
      testcase( usedAsColumnCache(pParse, inReg, inReg) );
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, inReg, 1);
      break;
    }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */





    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {




      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, inReg, SQLITE_STOREP2);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
      assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
      assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
      assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Eq);
      assert(TK_NE==OP_Ne); testcase(op==OP_Ne); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ne);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_IS:
    case TK_ISNOT: {
      testcase( op==TK_IS );
      testcase( op==TK_ISNOT );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      op = (op==TK_IS) ? TK_EQ : TK_NE;
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, inReg, SQLITE_STOREP2 | SQLITE_NULLEQ);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_EQ);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_NE);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_AND:
    case TK_OR:
    case TK_PLUS:
    case TK_STAR:
    case TK_MINUS:
................................................................................
        sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, r1, nFarg);
      }
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT: {

      testcase( op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( op==TK_SELECT );



      inReg = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr, 0, 0);








      break;
    }
    case TK_IN: {
      int destIfFalse = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      int destIfNull = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, target);
      sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, destIfFalse, destIfNull);
................................................................................
    **    x>=y AND x<=z
    **
    ** X is stored in pExpr->pLeft.
    ** Y is stored in pExpr->pList->a[0].pExpr.
    ** Z is stored in pExpr->pList->a[1].pExpr.
    */
    case TK_BETWEEN: {
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
      struct ExprList_item *pLItem = pExpr->x.pList->a;
      Expr *pRight = pLItem->pExpr;

      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pLeft, &regFree1);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pRight, &regFree2);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      r3 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      r4 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pRight, OP_Ge,
                  r1, r2, r3, SQLITE_STOREP2);  VdbeCoverage(v);
      pLItem++;
      pRight = pLItem->pExpr;
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regFree2);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pRight, &regFree2);
      testcase( regFree2==0 );
      codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pRight, OP_Le, r1, r2, r4, SQLITE_STOREP2);
      VdbeCoverage(v);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_And, r3, r4, target);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r3);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r4);
      break;
    }
    case TK_SPAN:
    case TK_COLLATE: 
    case TK_UPLUS: {
      inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, target);
      break;
................................................................................
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_RealAffinity, target);
      }
#endif
      break;
    }






    /*
    ** Form A:
    **   CASE x WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END
    **
    ** Form B:
    **   CASE WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END
................................................................................
      pEList = pExpr->x.pList;
      aListelem = pEList->a;
      nExpr = pEList->nExpr;
      endLabel = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      if( (pX = pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){
        tempX = *pX;
        testcase( pX->op==TK_COLUMN );
        exprToRegister(&tempX, sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pX, &regFree1));
        testcase( regFree1==0 );

        opCompare.op = TK_EQ;
        opCompare.pLeft = &tempX;
        pTest = &opCompare;
        /* Ticket b351d95f9cd5ef17e9d9dbae18f5ca8611190001:
        ** The value in regFree1 might get SCopy-ed into the file result.
        ** So make sure that the regFree1 register is not reused for other
        ** purposes and possibly overwritten.  */
................................................................................
**
** The above is equivalent to 
**
**    x>=y AND x<=z
**
** Code it as such, taking care to do the common subexpression
** elimination of x.








*/
static void exprCodeBetween(
  Parse *pParse,    /* Parsing and code generating context */
  Expr *pExpr,      /* The BETWEEN expression */
  int dest,         /* Jump here if the jump is taken */
  int jumpIfTrue,   /* Take the jump if the BETWEEN is true */
  int jumpIfNull    /* Take the jump if the BETWEEN is NULL */
){
  Expr exprAnd;     /* The AND operator in  x>=y AND x<=z  */
  Expr compLeft;    /* The  x>=y  term */
  Expr compRight;   /* The  x<=z  term */
  Expr exprX;       /* The  x  subexpression */
  int regFree1 = 0; /* Temporary use register */






  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
  exprX = *pExpr->pLeft;
  exprAnd.op = TK_AND;
  exprAnd.pLeft = &compLeft;
  exprAnd.pRight = &compRight;
  compLeft.op = TK_GE;
  compLeft.pLeft = &exprX;
  compLeft.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
  compRight.op = TK_LE;
  compRight.pLeft = &exprX;
  compRight.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;
  exprToRegister(&exprX, sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, &exprX, &regFree1));
  if( jumpIfTrue ){
    sqlite3ExprIfTrue(pParse, &exprAnd, dest, jumpIfNull);
  }else{

    sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, &exprAnd, dest, jumpIfNull);
  }
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regFree1);

  /* Ensure adequate test coverage */
  testcase( jumpIfTrue==0 && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( jumpIfTrue==0 && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1!=0 );
  testcase( jumpIfTrue==0 && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( jumpIfTrue==0 && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1!=0 );
  testcase( jumpIfTrue!=0 && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( jumpIfTrue!=0 && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1!=0 );
  testcase( jumpIfTrue!=0 && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( jumpIfTrue!=0 && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1!=0 );

}

/*
** Generate code for a boolean expression such that a jump is made
** to the label "dest" if the expression is true but execution
** continues straight thru if the expression is false.
**
................................................................................
      /* Fall thru */
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {

      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
................................................................................
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_ISNULL);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_NOTNULL);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_BETWEEN: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      exprCodeBetween(pParse, pExpr, dest, 1, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_IN: {
      int destIfFalse = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      int destIfNull = jumpIfNull ? dest : destIfFalse;
      sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, destIfFalse, destIfNull);
      sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, dest);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, destIfFalse);
      break;
    }
#endif
    default: {

      if( exprAlwaysTrue(pExpr) ){
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, dest);
      }else if( exprAlwaysFalse(pExpr) ){
        /* No-op */
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr, &regFree1);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_If, r1, dest, jumpIfNull!=0);
................................................................................
      /* Fall thru */
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {

      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
................................................................................
      testcase( op==TK_ISNULL );   VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_ISNULL);
      testcase( op==TK_NOTNULL );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_NOTNULL);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_BETWEEN: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      exprCodeBetween(pParse, pExpr, dest, 0, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_IN: {
      if( jumpIfNull ){
        sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, dest, dest);
      }else{
................................................................................
        sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, dest, destIfNull);
        sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, destIfNull);
      }
      break;
    }
#endif
    default: {

      if( exprAlwaysFalse(pExpr) ){
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, dest);
      }else if( exprAlwaysTrue(pExpr) ){
        /* no-op */
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr, &regFree1);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IfNot, r1, dest, jumpIfNull!=0);
................................................................................
      }
    }
    pParse->aTempReg[pParse->nTempReg++] = iReg;
  }
}

/*
** Allocate or deallocate a block of nReg consecutive registers
*/
int sqlite3GetTempRange(Parse *pParse, int nReg){
  int i, n;

  i = pParse->iRangeReg;
  n = pParse->nRangeReg;
  if( nReg<=n ){
    assert( !usedAsColumnCache(pParse, i, i+n-1) );
    pParse->iRangeReg += nReg;
    pParse->nRangeReg -= nReg;
  }else{
    i = pParse->nMem+1;
    pParse->nMem += nReg;
  }
  return i;
}
void sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(Parse *pParse, int iReg, int nReg){




  sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(pParse, iReg, nReg);
  if( nReg>pParse->nRangeReg ){
    pParse->nRangeReg = nReg;
    pParse->iRangeReg = iReg;
  }
}








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**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains routines used for analyzing expressions and
** for generating VDBE code that evaluates expressions in SQLite.
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"

/* Forward declarations */
static void exprCodeBetween(Parse*,Expr*,int,void(*)(Parse*,Expr*,int,int),int);
static int exprCodeVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int *piToFree);

/*
** Return the affinity character for a single column of a table.
*/
char sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(Table *pTab, int iCol){
  assert( iCol<pTab->nCol );
  return iCol>=0 ? pTab->aCol[iCol].affinity : SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
}

/*
** Return the 'affinity' of the expression pExpr if any.
**
** If pExpr is a column, a reference to a column via an 'AS' alias,
** or a sub-select with a column as the return value, then the 
** affinity of that column is returned. Otherwise, 0x00 is returned,
................................................................................
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);
  if( pExpr->flags & EP_Generic ) return 0;
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pExpr->flags&EP_xIsSelect );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr);
  }
  if( op==TK_REGISTER ) op = pExpr->op2;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
  if( op==TK_CAST ){
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_IntValue) );
    return sqlite3AffinityType(pExpr->u.zToken, 0);
  }
#endif
  if( op==TK_AGG_COLUMN || op==TK_COLUMN ){
    return sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pExpr->pTab, pExpr->iColumn);
  }
  if( op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN ){
    assert( pExpr->pLeft->flags&EP_xIsSelect );
    return sqlite3ExprAffinity(
        pExpr->pLeft->x.pSelect->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr
    );

  }
  return pExpr->affinity;
}

/*
** Set the collating sequence for expression pExpr to be the collating
** sequence named by pToken.   Return a pointer to a new Expr node that
................................................................................
          pExpr->op==TK_NE || pExpr->op==TK_IS || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT );
  assert( pExpr->pLeft );
  aff = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pExpr->pLeft);
  if( pExpr->pRight ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->pRight, aff);
  }else if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->a[0].pExpr, aff);
  }else if( NEVER(aff==0) ){
    aff = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
  }
  return aff;
}

/*
** pExpr is a comparison expression, eg. '=', '<', IN(...) etc.
................................................................................
  p4 = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLeft, pRight);
  p5 = binaryCompareP5(pLeft, pRight, jumpIfNull);
  addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(pParse->pVdbe, opcode, in2, dest, in1,
                           (void*)p4, P4_COLLSEQ);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(pParse->pVdbe, (u8)p5);
  return addr;
}

/*
** Return true if expression pExpr is a vector, or false otherwise.
**
** A vector is defined as any expression that results in two or more
** columns of result.  Every TK_VECTOR node is an vector because the
** parser will not generate a TK_VECTOR with fewer than two entries.
** But a TK_SELECT might be either a vector or a scalar. It is only
** considered a vector if it has two or more result columns.
*/
int sqlite3ExprIsVector(Expr *pExpr){
  return sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr)>1;
}

/*
** If the expression passed as the only argument is of type TK_VECTOR 
** return the number of expressions in the vector. Or, if the expression
** is a sub-select, return the number of columns in the sub-select. For
** any other type of expression, return 1.
*/
int sqlite3ExprVectorSize(Expr *pExpr){
  u8 op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_REGISTER ) op = pExpr->op2;
  if( op==TK_VECTOR ){
    return pExpr->x.pList->nExpr;
  }else if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    return pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr;
  }else{
    return 1;
  }
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Return a pointer to a subexpression of pVector that is the i-th
** column of the vector (numbered starting with 0).  The caller must
** ensure that i is within range.
**
** If pVector is really a scalar (and "scalar" here includes subqueries
** that return a single column!) then return pVector unmodified.
**
** pVector retains ownership of the returned subexpression.
**
** If the vector is a (SELECT ...) then the expression returned is
** just the expression for the i-th term of the result set, and may
** not be ready for evaluation because the table cursor has not yet
** been positioned.
*/
Expr *sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(Expr *pVector, int i){
  assert( i<sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pVector) );
  if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pVector) ){
    assert( pVector->op2==0 || pVector->op==TK_REGISTER );
    if( pVector->op==TK_SELECT || pVector->op2==TK_SELECT ){
      return pVector->x.pSelect->pEList->a[i].pExpr;
    }else{
      return pVector->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
    }
  }
  return pVector;
}
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY) */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Compute and return a new Expr object which when passed to
** sqlite3ExprCode() will generate all necessary code to compute
** the iField-th column of the vector expression pVector.
**
** It is ok for pVector to be a scalar (as long as iField==0).  
** In that case, this routine works like sqlite3ExprDup().
**
** The caller owns the returned Expr object and is responsible for
** ensuring that the returned value eventually gets freed.
**
** The caller retains ownership of pVector.  If pVector is a TK_SELECT,
** then the returned object will reference pVector and so pVector must remain
** valid for the life of the returned object.  If pVector is a TK_VECTOR
** or a scalar expression, then it can be deleted as soon as this routine
** returns.
**
** A trick to cause a TK_SELECT pVector to be deleted together with
** the returned Expr object is to attach the pVector to the pRight field
** of the returned TK_SELECT_COLUMN Expr object.
*/
Expr *sqlite3ExprForVectorField(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pVector,       /* The vector.  List of expressions or a sub-SELECT */
  int iField           /* Which column of the vector to return */
){
  Expr *pRet;
  if( pVector->op==TK_SELECT ){
    assert( pVector->flags & EP_xIsSelect );
    /* The TK_SELECT_COLUMN Expr node:
    **
    ** pLeft:           pVector containing TK_SELECT
    ** pRight:          not used.  But recursively deleted.
    ** iColumn:         Index of a column in pVector
    ** pLeft->iTable:   First in an array of register holding result, or 0
    **                  if the result is not yet computed.
    **
    ** sqlite3ExprDelete() specifically skips the recursive delete of
    ** pLeft on TK_SELECT_COLUMN nodes.  But pRight is followed, so pVector
    ** can be attached to pRight to cause this node to take ownership of
    ** pVector.  Typically there will be multiple TK_SELECT_COLUMN nodes
    ** with the same pLeft pointer to the pVector, but only one of them
    ** will own the pVector.
    */
    pRet = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_SELECT_COLUMN, 0, 0, 0);
    if( pRet ){
      pRet->iColumn = iField;
      pRet->pLeft = pVector;
    }
    assert( pRet==0 || pRet->iTable==0 );
  }else{
    if( pVector->op==TK_VECTOR ) pVector = pVector->x.pList->a[iField].pExpr;
    pRet = sqlite3ExprDup(pParse->db, pVector, 0);
  }
  return pRet;
}
#endif /* !define(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY) */

/*
** If expression pExpr is of type TK_SELECT, generate code to evaluate
** it. Return the register in which the result is stored (or, if the 
** sub-select returns more than one column, the first in an array
** of registers in which the result is stored).
**
** If pExpr is not a TK_SELECT expression, return 0.
*/
static int exprCodeSubselect(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  int reg = 0;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
    reg = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr, 0, 0);
  }
#endif
  return reg;
}

/*
** Argument pVector points to a vector expression - either a TK_VECTOR
** or TK_SELECT that returns more than one column. This function returns
** the register number of a register that contains the value of
** element iField of the vector.
**
** If pVector is a TK_SELECT expression, then code for it must have 
** already been generated using the exprCodeSubselect() routine. In this
** case parameter regSelect should be the first in an array of registers
** containing the results of the sub-select. 
**
** If pVector is of type TK_VECTOR, then code for the requested field
** is generated. In this case (*pRegFree) may be set to the number of
** a temporary register to be freed by the caller before returning.
**
** Before returning, output parameter (*ppExpr) is set to point to the
** Expr object corresponding to element iElem of the vector.
*/
static int exprVectorRegister(
  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
  Expr *pVector,                  /* Vector to extract element from */
  int iField,                     /* Field to extract from pVector */
  int regSelect,                  /* First in array of registers */
  Expr **ppExpr,                  /* OUT: Expression element */
  int *pRegFree                   /* OUT: Temp register to free */
){
  u8 op = pVector->op;
  assert( op==TK_VECTOR || op==TK_REGISTER || op==TK_SELECT );
  if( op==TK_REGISTER ){
    *ppExpr = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pVector, iField);
    return pVector->iTable+iField;
  }
  if( op==TK_SELECT ){
    *ppExpr = pVector->x.pSelect->pEList->a[iField].pExpr;
     return regSelect+iField;
  }
  *ppExpr = pVector->x.pList->a[iField].pExpr;
  return sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, *ppExpr, pRegFree);
}

/*
** Expression pExpr is a comparison between two vector values. Compute
** the result of the comparison (1, 0, or NULL) and write that
** result into register dest.
**
** The caller must satisfy the following preconditions:
**
**    if pExpr->op==TK_IS:      op==TK_EQ and p5==SQLITE_NULLEQ
**    if pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT:   op==TK_NE and p5==SQLITE_NULLEQ
**    otherwise:                op==pExpr->op and p5==0
*/
static void codeVectorCompare(
  Parse *pParse,        /* Code generator context */
  Expr *pExpr,          /* The comparison operation */
  int dest,             /* Write results into this register */
  u8 op,                /* Comparison operator */
  u8 p5                 /* SQLITE_NULLEQ or zero */
){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
  int nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
  int i;
  int regLeft = 0;
  int regRight = 0;
  u8 opx = op;
  int addrDone = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);

  assert( nLeft==sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pRight) );
  assert( pExpr->op==TK_EQ || pExpr->op==TK_NE 
       || pExpr->op==TK_IS || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT 
       || pExpr->op==TK_LT || pExpr->op==TK_GT 
       || pExpr->op==TK_LE || pExpr->op==TK_GE 
  );
  assert( pExpr->op==op || (pExpr->op==TK_IS && op==TK_EQ)
            || (pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT && op==TK_NE) );
  assert( p5==0 || pExpr->op!=op );
  assert( p5==SQLITE_NULLEQ || pExpr->op==op );

  p5 |= SQLITE_STOREP2;
  if( opx==TK_LE ) opx = TK_LT;
  if( opx==TK_GE ) opx = TK_GT;

  regLeft = exprCodeSubselect(pParse, pLeft);
  regRight = exprCodeSubselect(pParse, pRight);

  for(i=0; 1 /*Loop exits by "break"*/; i++){
    int regFree1 = 0, regFree2 = 0;
    Expr *pL, *pR; 
    int r1, r2;
    assert( i>=0 && i<nLeft );
    if( i>0 ) sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);
    r1 = exprVectorRegister(pParse, pLeft, i, regLeft, &pL, &regFree1);
    r2 = exprVectorRegister(pParse, pRight, i, regRight, &pR, &regFree2);
    codeCompare(pParse, pL, pR, opx, r1, r2, dest, p5);
    testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
    testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
    testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
    testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
    testcase(op==OP_Eq); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Eq);
    testcase(op==OP_Ne); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ne);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regFree1);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regFree2);
    if( i>0 ) sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);
    if( i==nLeft-1 ){
      break;
    }
    if( opx==TK_EQ ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IfNot, dest, addrDone); VdbeCoverage(v);
      p5 |= SQLITE_KEEPNULL;
    }else if( opx==TK_NE ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_If, dest, addrDone); VdbeCoverage(v);
      p5 |= SQLITE_KEEPNULL;
    }else{
      assert( op==TK_LT || op==TK_GT || op==TK_LE || op==TK_GE );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ElseNotEq, 0, addrDone);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_LT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_GT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_LE);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_GE);
      if( i==nLeft-2 ) opx = op;
    }
  }
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrDone);
}

#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
/*
** Check that argument nHeight is less than or equal to the maximum
** expression depth allowed. If it is not, leave an error message in
** pParse.
*/
................................................................................
static SQLITE_NOINLINE void sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(sqlite3 *db, Expr *p){
  assert( p!=0 );
  /* Sanity check: Assert that the IntValue is non-negative if it exists */
  assert( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_IntValue) || p->u.iValue>=0 );
  if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly) ){
    /* The Expr.x union is never used at the same time as Expr.pRight */
    assert( p->x.pList==0 || p->pRight==0 );
    if( p->pLeft && p->op!=TK_SELECT_COLUMN ) sqlite3ExprDeleteNN(db, p->pLeft);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pRight);
    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_MemToken) ) sqlite3DbFree(db, p->u.zToken);
    if( ExprHasProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect) ){
      sqlite3SelectDelete(db, p->x.pSelect);
    }else{
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->x.pList);
    }
................................................................................
                       exprDup(db, p->pRight, EXPRDUP_REDUCE, &zAlloc) : 0;
      }
      if( pzBuffer ){
        *pzBuffer = zAlloc;
      }
    }else{
      if( !ExprHasProperty(p, EP_TokenOnly) ){
        if( pNew->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN ){
          pNew->pLeft = p->pLeft;
        }else{
          pNew->pLeft = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pLeft, 0);
        }
        pNew->pRight = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pRight, 0);
      }
    }
  }
  return pNew;
}

................................................................................

no_mem:     
  /* Avoid leaking memory if malloc has failed. */
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pList);
  return 0;
}

/*
** pColumns and pExpr form a vector assignment which is part of the SET
** clause of an UPDATE statement.  Like this:
**
**        (a,b,c) = (expr1,expr2,expr3)
** Or:    (a,b,c) = (SELECT x,y,z FROM ....)
**
** For each term of the vector assignment, append new entries to the
** expression list pList.  In the case of a subquery on the LHS, append
** TK_SELECT_COLUMN expressions.
*/
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(
  Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing context */
  ExprList *pList,       /* List to which to append. Might be NULL */
  IdList *pColumns,      /* List of names of LHS of the assignment */
  Expr *pExpr            /* Vector expression to be appended. Might be NULL */
){
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  int n;
  int i;
  int iFirst = pList ? pList->nExpr : 0;
  /* pColumns can only be NULL due to an OOM but an OOM will cause an
  ** exit prior to this routine being invoked */
  if( NEVER(pColumns==0) ) goto vector_append_error;
  if( pExpr==0 ) goto vector_append_error;
  n = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr);
  if( pColumns->nId!=n ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%d columns assigned %d values",
                    pColumns->nId, n);
    goto vector_append_error;
  }
  for(i=0; i<n; i++){
    Expr *pSubExpr = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr, i);
    pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pList, pSubExpr);
    if( pList ){
      assert( pList->nExpr==iFirst+i+1 );
      pList->a[pList->nExpr-1].zName = pColumns->a[i].zName;
      pColumns->a[i].zName = 0;
    }
  }
  if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
    if( pList && pList->a[iFirst].pExpr ){
      assert( pList->a[iFirst].pExpr->op==TK_SELECT_COLUMN );
      pList->a[iFirst].pExpr->pRight = pExpr;
      pExpr = 0;
    }
  }

vector_append_error:
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
  sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pColumns);
  return pList;
}

/*
** Set the sort order for the last element on the given ExprList.
*/
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList *p, int iSortOrder){
  if( p==0 ) return;
  assert( SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED<0 && SQLITE_SO_ASC>=0 && SQLITE_SO_DESC>0 );
................................................................................
** table, then return NULL.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
static Select *isCandidateForInOpt(Expr *pX){
  Select *p;
  SrcList *pSrc;
  ExprList *pEList;

  Table *pTab;
  int i;
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ) return 0;  /* Not a subquery */
  if( ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_VarSelect)  ) return 0;  /* Correlated subq */
  p = pX->x.pSelect;
  if( p->pPrior ) return 0;              /* Not a compound SELECT */
  if( p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate) ){
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Distinct );
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Aggregate );
................................................................................
  if( pSrc->nSrc!=1 ) return 0;          /* Single term in FROM clause */
  if( pSrc->a[0].pSelect ) return 0;     /* FROM is not a subquery or view */
  pTab = pSrc->a[0].pTab;
  assert( pTab!=0 );
  assert( pTab->pSelect==0 );            /* FROM clause is not a view */
  if( IsVirtual(pTab) ) return 0;        /* FROM clause not a virtual table */
  pEList = p->pEList;
  assert( pEList!=0 );
  /* All SELECT results must be columns. */
  for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
    Expr *pRes = pEList->a[i].pExpr;
    if( pRes->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return 0;
    assert( pRes->iTable==pSrc->a[0].iCursor );  /* Not a correlated subquery */
  }
  return p;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

/*
** Code an OP_Once instruction and allocate space for its flag. Return the 
** address of the new instruction.
*/
int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *pParse){
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);      /* Virtual machine being coded */
  return sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Once, pParse->nOnce++);
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Generate code that checks the left-most column of index table iCur to see if
** it contains any NULL entries.  Cause the register at regHasNull to be set
** to a non-NULL value if iCur contains no NULLs.  Cause register regHasNull
** to be set to NULL if iCur contains one or more NULL values.
*/
static void sqlite3SetHasNullFlag(Vdbe *v, int iCur, int regHasNull){
................................................................................
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, regHasNull);
  addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Rewind, iCur); VdbeCoverage(v);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iCur, 0, regHasNull);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG);
  VdbeComment((v, "first_entry_in(%d)", iCur));
  sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
}
#endif


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** The argument is an IN operator with a list (not a subquery) on the 
** right-hand side.  Return TRUE if that list is constant.
*/
................................................................................
**                         populated epheremal table.
**   IN_INDEX_NOOP       - No cursor was allocated.  The IN operator must be
**                         implemented as a sequence of comparisons.
**
** An existing b-tree might be used if the RHS expression pX is a simple
** subquery such as:
**
**     SELECT <column1>, <column2>... FROM <table>
**
** If the RHS of the IN operator is a list or a more complex subquery, then
** an ephemeral table might need to be generated from the RHS and then
** pX->iTable made to point to the ephemeral table instead of an
** existing table.
**
** The inFlags parameter must contain exactly one of the bits
................................................................................
** IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP, then the generated table will be used for a
** fast membership test.  When the IN_INDEX_LOOP bit is set, the
** IN index will be used to loop over all values of the RHS of the
** IN operator.
**
** When IN_INDEX_LOOP is used (and the b-tree will be used to iterate
** through the set members) then the b-tree must not contain duplicates.
** An epheremal table must be used unless the selected columns are guaranteed
** to be unique - either because it is an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY or due to
** a UNIQUE constraint or index.
**
** When IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP is used (and the b-tree will be used 
** for fast set membership tests) then an epheremal table must 
** be used unless <columns> is a single INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column or an 
** index can be found with the specified <columns> as its left-most.
**
** If the IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK and IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP are both set and
** if the RHS of the IN operator is a list (not a subquery) then this
** routine might decide that creating an ephemeral b-tree for membership
** testing is too expensive and return IN_INDEX_NOOP.  In that case, the
** calling routine should implement the IN operator using a sequence
** of Eq or Ne comparison operations.
................................................................................
** to *prRhsHasNull. If there is no chance that the (...) contains a
** NULL value, then *prRhsHasNull is left unchanged.
**
** If a register is allocated and its location stored in *prRhsHasNull, then
** the value in that register will be NULL if the b-tree contains one or more
** NULL values, and it will be some non-NULL value if the b-tree contains no
** NULL values.
**
** If the aiMap parameter is not NULL, it must point to an array containing
** one element for each column returned by the SELECT statement on the RHS
** of the IN(...) operator. The i'th entry of the array is populated with the
** offset of the index column that matches the i'th column returned by the
** SELECT. For example, if the expression and selected index are:
**
**   (?,?,?) IN (SELECT a, b, c FROM t1)
**   CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(b, c, a);
**
** then aiMap[] is populated with {2, 0, 1}.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3FindInIndex(
  Parse *pParse,             /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pX,                  /* The right-hand side (RHS) of the IN operator */
  u32 inFlags,               /* IN_INDEX_LOOP, _MEMBERSHIP, and/or _NOOP_OK */
  int *prRhsHasNull,         /* Register holding NULL status.  See notes */
  int *aiMap                 /* Mapping from Index fields to RHS fields */
){
  Select *p;                            /* SELECT to the right of IN operator */
  int eType = 0;                        /* Type of RHS table. IN_INDEX_* */
  int iTab = pParse->nTab++;            /* Cursor of the RHS table */
  int mustBeUnique;                     /* True if RHS must be unique */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);     /* Virtual machine being coded */

  assert( pX->op==TK_IN );
  mustBeUnique = (inFlags & IN_INDEX_LOOP)!=0;

  /* If the RHS of this IN(...) operator is a SELECT, and if it matters 
  ** whether or not the SELECT result contains NULL values, check whether
  ** or not NULL is actually possible (it may not be, for example, due 
  ** to NOT NULL constraints in the schema). If no NULL values are possible,
  ** set prRhsHasNull to 0 before continuing.  */
  if( prRhsHasNull && (pX->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
    int i;
    ExprList *pEList = pX->x.pSelect->pEList;
    for(i=0; i<pEList->nExpr; i++){
      if( sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pEList->a[i].pExpr) ) break;
    }
    if( i==pEList->nExpr ){
      prRhsHasNull = 0;
    }
  }

  /* Check to see if an existing table or index can be used to
  ** satisfy the query.  This is preferable to generating a new 
  ** ephemeral table.  */

  if( pParse->nErr==0 && (p = isCandidateForInOpt(pX))!=0 ){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;              /* Database connection */
    Table *pTab;                           /* Table <table>. */


    i16 iDb;                               /* Database idx for pTab */
    ExprList *pEList = p->pEList;
    int nExpr = pEList->nExpr;

    assert( p->pEList!=0 );             /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList->a[0].pExpr!=0 ); /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pSrc!=0 );               /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    pTab = p->pSrc->a[0].pTab;



    /* Code an OP_Transaction and OP_TableLock for <table>. */
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pTab->pSchema);
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
    sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, pTab->tnum, 0, pTab->zName);

    assert(v);  /* sqlite3GetVdbe() has always been previously called */
    if( nExpr==1 && pEList->a[0].pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
      /* The "x IN (SELECT rowid FROM table)" case */



      int iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);
      VdbeCoverage(v);

      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTab, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
      eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;

      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, iAddr);
    }else{
      Index *pIdx;                         /* Iterator variable */
      int affinity_ok = 1;
      int i;






      /* Check that the affinity that will be used to perform each 
      ** comparison is the same as the affinity of each column in table
      ** on the RHS of the IN operator.  If it not, it is not possible to

      ** use any index of the RHS table.  */
      for(i=0; i<nExpr && affinity_ok; i++){
        Expr *pLhs = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pX->pLeft, i);
        int iCol = pEList->a[i].pExpr->iColumn;
        char idxaff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pTab,iCol); /* RHS table */
        char cmpaff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pLhs, idxaff);
        testcase( cmpaff==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB );
        testcase( cmpaff==SQLITE_AFF_TEXT );
        switch( cmpaff ){
          case SQLITE_AFF_BLOB:
            break;
          case SQLITE_AFF_TEXT:
            /* sqlite3CompareAffinity() only returns TEXT if one side or the
            ** other has no affinity and the other side is TEXT.  Hence,
            ** the only way for cmpaff to be TEXT is for idxaff to be TEXT
            ** and for the term on the LHS of the IN to have no affinity. */
            assert( idxaff==SQLITE_AFF_TEXT );
            break;
          default:
            affinity_ok = sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(idxaff);
        }
      }

      if( affinity_ok ){
        /* Search for an existing index that will work for this IN operator */
        for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx && eType==0; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){



          Bitmask colUsed;      /* Columns of the index used */
          Bitmask mCol;         /* Mask for the current column */
          if( pIdx->nColumn<nExpr ) continue;
          /* Maximum nColumn is BMS-2, not BMS-1, so that we can compute
          ** BITMASK(nExpr) without overflowing */
          testcase( pIdx->nColumn==BMS-2 );
          testcase( pIdx->nColumn==BMS-1 );
          if( pIdx->nColumn>=BMS-1 ) continue;
          if( mustBeUnique ){
            if( pIdx->nKeyCol>nExpr
             ||(pIdx->nColumn>nExpr && !IsUniqueIndex(pIdx))
            ){
              continue;  /* This index is not unique over the IN RHS columns */
            }
          }
  
          colUsed = 0;   /* Columns of index used so far */
          for(i=0; i<nExpr; i++){
            Expr *pLhs = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pX->pLeft, i);
            Expr *pRhs = pEList->a[i].pExpr;
            CollSeq *pReq = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLhs, pRhs);
            int j;
  
            assert( pReq!=0 || pRhs->iColumn==XN_ROWID || pParse->nErr );
            for(j=0; j<nExpr; j++){
              if( pIdx->aiColumn[j]!=pRhs->iColumn ) continue;
              assert( pIdx->azColl[j] );
              if( pReq!=0 && sqlite3StrICmp(pReq->zName, pIdx->azColl[j])!=0 ){
                continue;
              }
              break;
            }
            if( j==nExpr ) break;
            mCol = MASKBIT(j);
            if( mCol & colUsed ) break; /* Each column used only once */
            colUsed |= mCol;
            if( aiMap ) aiMap[i] = j;
          }
  
          assert( i==nExpr || colUsed!=(MASKBIT(nExpr)-1) );
          if( colUsed==(MASKBIT(nExpr)-1) ){
            /* If we reach this point, that means the index pIdx is usable */
            int iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse); VdbeCoverage(v);
  #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
            sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, 0, 0, 0,
              sqlite3MPrintf(db, "USING INDEX %s FOR IN-OPERATOR",pIdx->zName),
              P4_DYNAMIC);
  #endif
            sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenRead, iTab, pIdx->tnum, iDb);
            sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(pParse, pIdx);
            VdbeComment((v, "%s", pIdx->zName));
            assert( IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC == IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC+1 );
            eType = IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC + pIdx->aSortOrder[0];
  
            if( prRhsHasNull ){
              *prRhsHasNull = ++pParse->nMem;
  #ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_USED_MASK

              i64 mask = (1<<nExpr)-1;
              sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Dup8(v, OP_ColumnsUsed, 
                  iTab, 0, 0, (u8*)&mask, P4_INT64);
  #endif

              if( nExpr==1 ){
                sqlite3SetHasNullFlag(v, iTab, *prRhsHasNull);
              }
            }
            sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, iAddr);
          }



        } /* End loop over indexes */
      } /* End if( affinity_ok ) */
    } /* End if not an rowid index */
  } /* End attempt to optimize using an index */

  /* If no preexisting index is available for the IN clause
  ** and IN_INDEX_NOOP is an allowed reply
  ** and the RHS of the IN operator is a list, not a subquery
  ** and the RHS is not constant or has two or fewer terms,
  ** then it is not worth creating an ephemeral table to evaluate
  ** the IN operator so return IN_INDEX_NOOP.
................................................................................
  if( eType==0
   && (inFlags & IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK)
   && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect)
   && (!sqlite3InRhsIsConstant(pX) || pX->x.pList->nExpr<=2)
  ){
    eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
  }


  if( eType==0 ){
    /* Could not find an existing table or index to use as the RHS b-tree.
    ** We will have to generate an ephemeral table to do the job.
    */
    u32 savedNQueryLoop = pParse->nQueryLoop;
    int rMayHaveNull = 0;
................................................................................
      *prRhsHasNull = rMayHaveNull = ++pParse->nMem;
    }
    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX, rMayHaveNull, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);
    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
  }else{
    pX->iTable = iTab;
  }

  if( aiMap && eType!=IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC && eType!=IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC ){
    int i, n;
    n = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pX->pLeft);
    for(i=0; i<n; i++) aiMap[i] = i;
  }
  return eType;
}
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Argument pExpr is an (?, ?...) IN(...) expression. This 
** function allocates and returns a nul-terminated string containing 
** the affinities to be used for each column of the comparison.
**
** It is the responsibility of the caller to ensure that the returned
** string is eventually freed using sqlite3DbFree().
*/
static char *exprINAffinity(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  int nVal = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
  Select *pSelect = (pExpr->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ? pExpr->x.pSelect : 0;
  char *zRet;

  assert( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
  zRet = sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, nVal+1);
  if( zRet ){
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
      Expr *pA = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pLeft, i);
      char a = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pA);
      if( pSelect ){
        zRet[i] = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pSelect->pEList->a[i].pExpr, a);
      }else{
        zRet[i] = a;
      }
    }
    zRet[nVal] = '\0';
  }
  return zRet;
}
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Load the Parse object passed as the first argument with an error 
** message of the form:
**
**   "sub-select returns N columns - expected M"
*/   
void sqlite3SubselectError(Parse *pParse, int nActual, int nExpect){
  const char *zFmt = "sub-select returns %d columns - expected %d";
  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, zFmt, nActual, nExpect);
}
#endif

/*
** Generate code for scalar subqueries used as a subquery expression, EXISTS,
** or IN operators.  Examples:
**
**     (SELECT a FROM b)          -- subquery
**     EXISTS (SELECT a FROM b)   -- EXISTS subquery
................................................................................
** If rMayHaveNull is non-zero, that means that the operation is an IN
** (not a SELECT or EXISTS) and that the RHS might contains NULLs.
** All this routine does is initialize the register given by rMayHaveNull
** to NULL.  Calling routines will take care of changing this register
** value to non-NULL if the RHS is NULL-free.
**
** For a SELECT or EXISTS operator, return the register that holds the
** result.  For a multi-column SELECT, the result is stored in a contiguous
** array of registers and the return value is the register of the left-most
** result column.  Return 0 for IN operators or if an error occurs.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pExpr,            /* The IN, SELECT, or EXISTS operator */
  int rHasNullFlag,       /* Register that records whether NULLs exist in RHS */
  int isRowid             /* If true, LHS of IN operator is a rowid */
................................................................................
){
  int jmpIfDynamic = -1;                      /* One-time test address */
  int rReg = 0;                           /* Register storing resulting */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
  if( NEVER(v==0) ) return 0;
  sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);

  /* The evaluation of the IN/EXISTS/SELECT must be repeated every time it
  ** is encountered if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  The right-hand side is a correlated subquery
  **    *  The right-hand side is an expression list containing variables
  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
................................................................................
    );
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
#endif

  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_IN: {

      int addr;                   /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral instruction */
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft; /* the LHS of the IN operator */
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = 0;      /* Key information */
      int nVal;                   /* Size of vector pLeft */
      
      nVal = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
      assert( !isRowid || nVal==1 );

      /* Whether this is an 'x IN(SELECT...)' or an 'x IN(<exprlist>)'
      ** expression it is handled the same way.  An ephemeral table is 
      ** filled with index keys representing the results from the 
      ** SELECT or the <exprlist>.
      **
      ** If the 'x' expression is a column value, or the SELECT...
      ** statement returns a column value, then the affinity of that
      ** column is used to build the index keys. If both 'x' and the
      ** SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity is used
      ** if either column has NUMERIC or INTEGER affinity. If neither
      ** 'x' nor the SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity
      ** is used.
      */
      pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, 
          pExpr->iTable, (isRowid?0:nVal));
      pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, nVal, 1);

      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        /* Case 1:     expr IN (SELECT ...)
        **
        ** Generate code to write the results of the select into the temporary
        ** table allocated and opened above.
        */
        Select *pSelect = pExpr->x.pSelect;

        ExprList *pEList = pSelect->pEList;

        assert( !isRowid );
        /* If the LHS and RHS of the IN operator do not match, that
        ** error will have been caught long before we reach this point. */
        if( ALWAYS(pEList->nExpr==nVal) ){
          SelectDest dest;
          int i;
          sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Set, pExpr->iTable);

          dest.zAffSdst = exprINAffinity(pParse, pExpr);
          assert( (pExpr->iTable&0x0000FFFF)==pExpr->iTable );
          pSelect->iLimit = 0;
          testcase( pSelect->selFlags & SF_Distinct );
          testcase( pKeyInfo==0 ); /* Caused by OOM in sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc() */
          if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest) ){
            sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
            sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(pKeyInfo);
            return 0;
          }

          sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
          assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
          assert( pEList!=0 );
          assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
          assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
          for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
            Expr *p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pLeft, i);
            pKeyInfo->aColl[i] = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(
                pParse, p, pEList->a[i].pExpr
            );
          }
        }
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList!=0) ){
        /* Case 2:     expr IN (exprlist)
        **
        ** For each expression, build an index key from the evaluation and
        ** store it in the temporary table. If <expr> is a column, then use
        ** that columns affinity when building index keys. If <expr> is not
        ** a column, use numeric affinity.
        */
        char affinity;            /* Affinity of the LHS of the IN */
        int i;
        ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
        struct ExprList_item *pItem;
        int r1, r2, r3;

        affinity = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft);
        if( !affinity ){
          affinity = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
        }
        if( pKeyInfo ){
          assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
          pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
        }
................................................................................
      }
      break;
    }

    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT:
    default: {
      /* Case 3:    (SELECT ... FROM ...)
      **     or:    EXISTS(SELECT ... FROM ...)
      **
      ** For a SELECT, generate code to put the values for all columns of
      ** the first row into an array of registers and return the index of
      ** the first register.
      **
      ** If this is an EXISTS, write an integer 0 (not exists) or 1 (exists)

      ** into a register and return that register number.
      **
      ** In both cases, the query is augmented with "LIMIT 1".  Any 
      ** preexisting limit is discarded in place of the new LIMIT 1.
      */
      Select *pSel;                         /* SELECT statement to encode */
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECT result */
      int nReg;                             /* Registers to allocate */

      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );

      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
      nReg = pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ? pSel->pEList->nExpr : 1;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, 0, pParse->nMem+1);
      pParse->nMem += nReg;
      if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
        dest.eDest = SRT_Mem;
        dest.iSdst = dest.iSDParm;
        dest.nSdst = nReg;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, dest.iSDParm, dest.iSDParm+nReg-1);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init subquery result"));
      }else{
        dest.eDest = SRT_Exists;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, dest.iSDParm);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init EXISTS result"));
      }
      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pSel->pLimit);
................................................................................
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmpIfDynamic);
  }
  sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);

  return rReg;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Expr pIn is an IN(...) expression. This function checks that the 
** sub-select on the RHS of the IN() operator has the same number of 
** columns as the vector on the LHS. Or, if the RHS of the IN() is not 
** a sub-query, that the LHS is a vector of size 1.
*/
int sqlite3ExprCheckIN(Parse *pParse, Expr *pIn){
  int nVector = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pIn->pLeft);
  if( (pIn->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
    if( nVector!=pIn->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr ){
      sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, pIn->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr, nVector);
      return 1;
    }
  }else if( nVector!=1 ){
    if( (pIn->pLeft->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
      sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, nVector, 1);
    }else{
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
    }
    return 1;
  }
  return 0;
}
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Generate code for an IN expression.
**
**      x IN (SELECT ...)
**      x IN (value, value, ...)
**
** The left-hand side (LHS) is a scalar or vector expression.  The 
** right-hand side (RHS) is an array of zero or more scalar values, or a
** subquery.  If the RHS is a subquery, the number of result columns must
** match the number of columns in the vector on the LHS.  If the RHS is
** a list of values, the LHS must be a scalar. 
**
** The IN operator is true if the LHS value is contained within the RHS.
** The result is false if the LHS is definitely not in the RHS.  The 
** result is NULL if the presence of the LHS in the RHS cannot be 
** determined due to NULLs.
**
** This routine generates code that jumps to destIfFalse if the LHS is not 
** contained within the RHS.  If due to NULLs we cannot determine if the LHS
** is contained in the RHS then jump to destIfNull.  If the LHS is contained
** within the RHS then fall through.
**
** See the separate in-operator.md documentation file in the canonical
** SQLite source tree for additional information.
*/
static void sqlite3ExprCodeIN(
  Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing and code generating context */
  Expr *pExpr,          /* The IN expression */
  int destIfFalse,      /* Jump here if LHS is not contained in the RHS */
  int destIfNull        /* Jump here if the results are unknown due to NULLs */
){
  int rRhsHasNull = 0;  /* Register that is true if RHS contains NULL values */

  int eType;            /* Type of the RHS */
  int rLhs;             /* Register(s) holding the LHS values */
  int rLhsOrig;         /* LHS values prior to reordering by aiMap[] */
  Vdbe *v;              /* Statement under construction */
  int *aiMap = 0;       /* Map from vector field to index column */
  char *zAff = 0;       /* Affinity string for comparisons */
  int nVector;          /* Size of vectors for this IN operator */
  int iDummy;           /* Dummy parameter to exprCodeVector() */
  Expr *pLeft;          /* The LHS of the IN operator */
  int i;                /* loop counter */
  int destStep2;        /* Where to jump when NULLs seen in step 2 */
  int destStep6 = 0;    /* Start of code for Step 6 */
  int addrTruthOp;      /* Address of opcode that determines the IN is true */
  int destNotNull;      /* Jump here if a comparison is not true in step 6 */
  int addrTop;          /* Top of the step-6 loop */ 


  pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
  if( sqlite3ExprCheckIN(pParse, pExpr) ) return;
  zAff = exprINAffinity(pParse, pExpr);
  nVector = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft);
  aiMap = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(
      pParse->db, nVector*(sizeof(int) + sizeof(char)) + 1
  );
  if( pParse->db->mallocFailed ) goto sqlite3ExprCodeIN_oom_error;

  /* Attempt to compute the RHS. After this step, if anything other than
  ** IN_INDEX_NOOP is returned, the table opened ith cursor pExpr->iTable 
  ** contains the values that make up the RHS. If IN_INDEX_NOOP is returned,

  ** the RHS has not yet been coded.  */
  v = pParse->pVdbe;
  assert( v!=0 );       /* OOM detected prior to this routine */
  VdbeNoopComment((v, "begin IN expr"));
  eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pExpr,
                             IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP | IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK,
                             destIfFalse==destIfNull ? 0 : &rRhsHasNull, aiMap);

  assert( pParse->nErr || nVector==1 || eType==IN_INDEX_EPH
       || eType==IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC || eType==IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC 


  );
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  /* Confirm that aiMap[] contains nVector integer values between 0 and
  ** nVector-1. */
  for(i=0; i<nVector; i++){
    int j, cnt;
    for(cnt=j=0; j<nVector; j++) if( aiMap[j]==i ) cnt++;
    assert( cnt==1 );
  }
#endif

  /* Code the LHS, the <expr> from "<expr> IN (...)". If the LHS is a 
  ** vector, then it is stored in an array of nVector registers starting 
  ** at r1.
  **
  ** sqlite3FindInIndex() might have reordered the fields of the LHS vector
  ** so that the fields are in the same order as an existing index.   The
  ** aiMap[] array contains a mapping from the original LHS field order to
  ** the field order that matches the RHS index.
  */
  sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);
  rLhsOrig = exprCodeVector(pParse, pLeft, &iDummy);
  for(i=0; i<nVector && aiMap[i]==i; i++){} /* Are LHS fields reordered? */
  if( i==nVector ){
    /* LHS fields are not reordered */
    rLhs = rLhsOrig;
  }else{
    /* Need to reorder the LHS fields according to aiMap */
    rLhs = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nVector);

    for(i=0; i<nVector; i++){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Copy, rLhsOrig+i, rLhs+aiMap[i], 0);
    }
  }

  /* If sqlite3FindInIndex() did not find or create an index that is
  ** suitable for evaluating the IN operator, then evaluate using a
  ** sequence of comparisons.
  **
  ** This is step (1) in the in-operator.md optimized algorithm.
  */
  if( eType==IN_INDEX_NOOP ){
    ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
    CollSeq *pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
    int labelOk = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
    int r2, regToFree;
    int regCkNull = 0;
    int ii;
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
    if( destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
      regCkNull = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, rLhs, rLhs, regCkNull);
    }
    for(ii=0; ii<pList->nExpr; ii++){
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pList->a[ii].pExpr, &regToFree);
      if( regCkNull && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pList->a[ii].pExpr) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_BitAnd, regCkNull, r2, regCkNull);
      }
      if( ii<pList->nExpr-1 || destIfNull!=destIfFalse ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Eq, rLhs, labelOk, r2,
                          (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ);
        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii<pList->nExpr-1);
        VdbeCoverageIf(v, ii==pList->nExpr-1);
        sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, zAff[0]);
      }else{
        assert( destIfNull==destIfFalse );
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Ne, rLhs, destIfFalse, r2,
                          (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ); VdbeCoverage(v);
        sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, zAff[0] | SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      }
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regToFree);
    }
    if( regCkNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regCkNull, destIfNull); VdbeCoverage(v);
      sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, destIfFalse);
    }
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, labelOk);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regCkNull);
    goto sqlite3ExprCodeIN_finished;
  }


  /* Step 2: Check to see if the LHS contains any NULL columns.  If the
  ** LHS does contain NULLs then the result must be either FALSE or NULL.
  ** We will then skip the binary search of the RHS.
  */

  if( destIfNull==destIfFalse ){

    destStep2 = destIfFalse;

  }else{

    destStep2 = destStep6 = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  }
  for(i=0; i<nVector; i++){
    Expr *p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pExpr->pLeft, i);
    if( sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(p) ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, rLhs+i, destStep2);
      VdbeCoverage(v);


    }
  }

  /* Step 3.  The LHS is now known to be non-NULL.  Do the binary search
  ** of the RHS using the LHS as a probe.  If found, the result is
  ** true.
  */
  if( eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID ){
    /* In this case, the RHS is the ROWID of table b-tree and so we also

    ** know that the RHS is non-NULL.  Hence, we combine steps 3 and 4
    ** into a single opcode. */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SeekRowid, pExpr->iTable, destIfFalse, rLhs);
    VdbeCoverage(v);
    addrTruthOp = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto);  /* Return True */
  }else{


    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Affinity, rLhs, nVector, 0, zAff, nVector);
    if( destIfFalse==destIfNull ){
      /* Combine Step 3 and Step 5 into a single opcode */
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, pExpr->iTable, destIfFalse,
                           rLhs, nVector); VdbeCoverage(v);
      goto sqlite3ExprCodeIN_finished;
    }





    /* Ordinary Step 3, for the case where FALSE and NULL are distinct */
    addrTruthOp = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, pExpr->iTable, 0,
                                      rLhs, nVector); VdbeCoverage(v);
  }

  /* Step 4.  If the RHS is known to be non-NULL and we did not find
  ** an match on the search above, then the result must be FALSE.
  */

  if( rRhsHasNull && nVector==1 ){



    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NotNull, rRhsHasNull, destIfFalse);
    VdbeCoverage(v);
  }

  /* Step 5.  If we do not care about the difference between NULL and
  ** FALSE, then just return false. 
  */
  if( destIfFalse==destIfNull ) sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, destIfFalse);

  /* Step 6: Loop through rows of the RHS.  Compare each row to the LHS.
  ** If any comparison is NULL, then the result is NULL.  If all
  ** comparisons are FALSE then the final result is FALSE.
  **


  ** For a scalar LHS, it is sufficient to check just the first row
  ** of the RHS.
  */
  if( destStep6 ) sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, destStep6);
  addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, pExpr->iTable, destIfFalse);
  VdbeCoverage(v);
  if( nVector>1 ){
    destNotNull = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  }else{





    /* For nVector==1, combine steps 6 and 7 by immediately returning
    ** FALSE if the first comparison is not NULL */
    destNotNull = destIfFalse;
  }







  for(i=0; i<nVector; i++){
    Expr *p;
    CollSeq *pColl;
    int r3 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pLeft, i);
    pColl = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, p);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, pExpr->iTable, i, r3);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Ne, rLhs+i, destNotNull, r3,
                      (void*)pColl, P4_COLLSEQ);
    VdbeCoverage(v);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r3);
  }
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, destIfNull);
  if( nVector>1 ){
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, destNotNull);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, pExpr->iTable, addrTop+1);
    VdbeCoverage(v);



    /* Step 7:  If we reach this point, we know that the result must
    ** be false. */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, destIfFalse);
  }

  /* Jumps here in order to return true. */
  sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrTruthOp);

sqlite3ExprCodeIN_finished:
  if( rLhs!=rLhsOrig ) sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, rLhs);
  sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);
  VdbeComment((v, "end IN expr"));
sqlite3ExprCodeIN_oom_error:
  sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, aiMap);
  sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, zAff);
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
/*
** Generate an instruction that will put the floating point
** value described by z[0..n-1] into register iMem.
................................................................................
  }
  return 0;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG || SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST */


/*
** Convert a scalar expression node to a TK_REGISTER referencing
** register iReg.  The caller must ensure that iReg already contains
** the correct value for the expression.
*/
static void exprToRegister(Expr *p, int iReg){
  p->op2 = p->op;
  p->op = TK_REGISTER;
  p->iTable = iReg;
  ExprClearProperty(p, EP_Skip);
}

/*
** Evaluate an expression (either a vector or a scalar expression) and store
** the result in continguous temporary registers.  Return the index of
** the first register used to store the result.
**
** If the returned result register is a temporary scalar, then also write
** that register number into *piFreeable.  If the returned result register
** is not a temporary or if the expression is a vector set *piFreeable
** to 0.
*/
static int exprCodeVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int *piFreeable){
  int iResult;
  int nResult = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(p);
  if( nResult==1 ){
    iResult = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, p, piFreeable);
  }else{
    *piFreeable = 0;
    if( p->op==TK_SELECT ){
      iResult = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p, 0, 0);
    }else{
      int i;
      iResult = pParse->nMem+1;
      pParse->nMem += nResult;
      for(i=0; i<nResult; i++){
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, i+iResult);
      }
    }
  }
  return iResult;
}


/*
** Generate code into the current Vdbe to evaluate the given
** expression.  Attempt to store the results in register "target".
** Return the register where results are stored.
**
** With this routine, there is no guarantee that results will
................................................................................
*/
int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr, int target){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;  /* The VM under construction */
  int op;                   /* The opcode being coded */
  int inReg = target;       /* Results stored in register inReg */
  int regFree1 = 0;         /* If non-zero free this temporary register */
  int regFree2 = 0;         /* If non-zero free this temporary register */
  int r1, r2;               /* Various register numbers */
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db; /* The database connection */
  Expr tempX;               /* Temporary expression node */
  int p5 = 0;

  assert( target>0 && target<=pParse->nMem );
  if( v==0 ){
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    return 0;
  }

................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Cast, target,
                        sqlite3AffinityType(pExpr->u.zToken, 0));
      testcase( usedAsColumnCache(pParse, inReg, inReg) );
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, inReg, 1);
      break;
    }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */
    case TK_IS:
    case TK_ISNOT:
      op = (op==TK_IS) ? TK_EQ : TK_NE;
      p5 = SQLITE_NULLEQ;
      /* fall-through */
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pLeft) ){
        codeVectorCompare(pParse, pExpr, target, op, p5);
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pLeft, &regFree1);
        r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
        codeCompare(pParse, pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
            r1, r2, inReg, SQLITE_STOREP2 | p5);
        assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
        assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
        assert(TK_GT==OP_Gt); testcase(op==OP_Gt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Gt);
        assert(TK_GE==OP_Ge); testcase(op==OP_Ge); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ge);
        assert(TK_EQ==OP_Eq); testcase(op==OP_Eq); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Eq);
        assert(TK_NE==OP_Ne); testcase(op==OP_Ne); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Ne);
        testcase( regFree1==0 );
        testcase( regFree2==0 );

      }













      break;
    }
    case TK_AND:
    case TK_OR:
    case TK_PLUS:
    case TK_STAR:
    case TK_MINUS:
................................................................................
        sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, r1, nFarg);
      }
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT: {
      int nCol;
      testcase( op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( op==TK_SELECT );
      if( op==TK_SELECT && (nCol = pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr)!=1 ){
        sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, nCol, 1);
      }else{
        inReg = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr, 0, 0);
      }
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
      if( pExpr->pLeft->iTable==0 ){
        pExpr->pLeft->iTable = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, 0, 0);
      }
      inReg = pExpr->pLeft->iTable + pExpr->iColumn;
      break;
    }
    case TK_IN: {
      int destIfFalse = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      int destIfNull = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, target);
      sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, destIfFalse, destIfNull);
................................................................................
    **    x>=y AND x<=z
    **
    ** X is stored in pExpr->pLeft.
    ** Y is stored in pExpr->pList->a[0].pExpr.
    ** Z is stored in pExpr->pList->a[1].pExpr.
    */
    case TK_BETWEEN: {
      exprCodeBetween(pParse, pExpr, target, 0, 0);





















      break;
    }
    case TK_SPAN:
    case TK_COLLATE: 
    case TK_UPLUS: {
      inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, target);
      break;
................................................................................
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_RealAffinity, target);
      }
#endif
      break;
    }

    case TK_VECTOR: {
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
      break;
    }

    /*
    ** Form A:
    **   CASE x WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END
    **
    ** Form B:
    **   CASE WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END
................................................................................
      pEList = pExpr->x.pList;
      aListelem = pEList->a;
      nExpr = pEList->nExpr;
      endLabel = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      if( (pX = pExpr->pLeft)!=0 ){
        tempX = *pX;
        testcase( pX->op==TK_COLUMN );
        exprToRegister(&tempX, exprCodeVector(pParse, &tempX, &regFree1));
        testcase( regFree1==0 );
        memset(&opCompare, 0, sizeof(opCompare));
        opCompare.op = TK_EQ;
        opCompare.pLeft = &tempX;
        pTest = &opCompare;
        /* Ticket b351d95f9cd5ef17e9d9dbae18f5ca8611190001:
        ** The value in regFree1 might get SCopy-ed into the file result.
        ** So make sure that the regFree1 register is not reused for other
        ** purposes and possibly overwritten.  */
................................................................................
**
** The above is equivalent to 
**
**    x>=y AND x<=z
**
** Code it as such, taking care to do the common subexpression
** elimination of x.
**
** The xJumpIf parameter determines details:
**
**    NULL:                   Store the boolean result in reg[dest]
**    sqlite3ExprIfTrue:      Jump to dest if true
**    sqlite3ExprIfFalse:     Jump to dest if false
**
** The jumpIfNull parameter is ignored if xJumpIf is NULL.
*/
static void exprCodeBetween(
  Parse *pParse,    /* Parsing and code generating context */
  Expr *pExpr,      /* The BETWEEN expression */
  int dest,         /* Jump destination or storage location */
  void (*xJump)(Parse*,Expr*,int,int), /* Action to take */
  int jumpIfNull    /* Take the jump if the BETWEEN is NULL */
){
 Expr exprAnd;     /* The AND operator in  x>=y AND x<=z  */
  Expr compLeft;    /* The  x>=y  term */
  Expr compRight;   /* The  x<=z  term */
  Expr exprX;       /* The  x  subexpression */
  int regFree1 = 0; /* Temporary use register */


  memset(&compLeft, 0, sizeof(Expr));
  memset(&compRight, 0, sizeof(Expr));
  memset(&exprAnd, 0, sizeof(Expr));

  assert( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
  exprX = *pExpr->pLeft;
  exprAnd.op = TK_AND;
  exprAnd.pLeft = &compLeft;
  exprAnd.pRight = &compRight;
  compLeft.op = TK_GE;
  compLeft.pLeft = &exprX;
  compLeft.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
  compRight.op = TK_LE;
  compRight.pLeft = &exprX;
  compRight.pRight = pExpr->x.pList->a[1].pExpr;
  exprToRegister(&exprX, exprCodeVector(pParse, &exprX, &regFree1));
  if( xJump ){
    xJump(pParse, &exprAnd, dest, jumpIfNull);
  }else{
    exprX.flags |= EP_FromJoin;
    sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, &exprAnd, dest);
  }
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regFree1);

  /* Ensure adequate test coverage */
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfTrue  && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfTrue  && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1!=0 );
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfTrue  && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfTrue  && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1!=0 );
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfFalse && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfFalse && jumpIfNull==0 && regFree1!=0 );
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfFalse && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1==0 );
  testcase( xJump==sqlite3ExprIfFalse && jumpIfNull!=0 && regFree1!=0 );
  testcase( xJump==0 );
}

/*
** Generate code for a boolean expression such that a jump is made
** to the label "dest" if the expression is true but execution
** continues straight thru if the expression is false.
**
................................................................................
      /* Fall thru */
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pExpr->pLeft) ) goto default_expr;
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
................................................................................
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_ISNULL);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_NOTNULL);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_BETWEEN: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      exprCodeBetween(pParse, pExpr, dest, sqlite3ExprIfTrue, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_IN: {
      int destIfFalse = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      int destIfNull = jumpIfNull ? dest : destIfFalse;
      sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, destIfFalse, destIfNull);
      sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, dest);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, destIfFalse);
      break;
    }
#endif
    default: {
    default_expr:
      if( exprAlwaysTrue(pExpr) ){
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, dest);
      }else if( exprAlwaysFalse(pExpr) ){
        /* No-op */
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr, &regFree1);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_If, r1, dest, jumpIfNull!=0);
................................................................................
      /* Fall thru */
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_EQ: {
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pExpr->pLeft) ) goto default_expr;
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, &regFree1);
      r2 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr->pRight, &regFree2);
      codeCompare(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, pExpr->pRight, op,
                  r1, r2, dest, jumpIfNull);
      assert(TK_LT==OP_Lt); testcase(op==OP_Lt); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Lt);
      assert(TK_LE==OP_Le); testcase(op==OP_Le); VdbeCoverageIf(v,op==OP_Le);
................................................................................
      testcase( op==TK_ISNULL );   VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_ISNULL);
      testcase( op==TK_NOTNULL );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==TK_NOTNULL);
      testcase( regFree1==0 );
      break;
    }
    case TK_BETWEEN: {
      testcase( jumpIfNull==0 );
      exprCodeBetween(pParse, pExpr, dest, sqlite3ExprIfFalse, jumpIfNull);
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_IN: {
      if( jumpIfNull ){
        sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, dest, dest);
      }else{
................................................................................
        sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, dest, destIfNull);
        sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, destIfNull);
      }
      break;
    }
#endif
    default: {
    default_expr: 
      if( exprAlwaysFalse(pExpr) ){
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, dest);
      }else if( exprAlwaysTrue(pExpr) ){
        /* no-op */
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pExpr, &regFree1);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IfNot, r1, dest, jumpIfNull!=0);
................................................................................
      }
    }
    pParse->aTempReg[pParse->nTempReg++] = iReg;
  }
}

/*
** Allocate or deallocate a block of nReg consecutive registers.
*/
int sqlite3GetTempRange(Parse *pParse, int nReg){
  int i, n;
  if( nReg==1 ) return sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  i = pParse->iRangeReg;
  n = pParse->nRangeReg;
  if( nReg<=n ){
    assert( !usedAsColumnCache(pParse, i, i+n-1) );
    pParse->iRangeReg += nReg;
    pParse->nRangeReg -= nReg;
  }else{
    i = pParse->nMem+1;
    pParse->nMem += nReg;
  }
  return i;
}
void sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(Parse *pParse, int iReg, int nReg){
  if( nReg==1 ){
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, iReg);
    return;
  }
  sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(pParse, iReg, nReg);
  if( nReg>pParse->nRangeReg ){
    pParse->nRangeReg = nReg;
    pParse->iRangeReg = iReg;
  }
}

Added src/in-operator.md.























































































































































































































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IN-Operator Implementation Notes
================================

## Definitions:

An IN operator has one of the following formats:

>
     x IN (y1,y2,y3,...,yN)
     x IN (subquery)

The "x" is referred to as the LHS (left-hand side).  The list or subquery
on the right is called the RHS (right-hand side).  If the RHS is a list
it must be a non-empty list.  But if the RHS is a subquery, it can be an
empty set.

The LHS can be a scalar (a single quantity) or a vector (a list of
two or or more values) or a subquery that returns one or more columns.
We use the term "vector" to mean an actually list of values or a
subquery that returns two or more columns.  An isolated value or
a subquery that returns a single columns is called a scalar.

The RHS can be a subquery that returns a single column, a subquery
that returns two or more columns, or a list of scalars.  It is not
currently support for the RHS to be a list of vectors.

The number of columns for LHS must match the number of columns for
the RHS.  If the RHS is a list of values, then the LHS must be a 
scalar.  If the RHS is a subquery returning N columns, then the LHS
must be a vector of size N.

NULL values can occur in either or both of the LHS and RHS.
If the LHS contains only
NULL values then we say that it is a "total-NULL".  If the LHS contains
some NULL values and some non-NULL values, then it is a "partial-NULL".
For a scalar, there is no difference between a partial-NULL and a total-NULL.
The RHS is a partial-NULL if any row contains a NULL value.  The RHS is
a total-NULL if it contains one or more rows that contain only NULL values.
The LHS is called "non-NULL" if it contains no NULL values.  The RHS is
called "non-NULL" if it contains no NULL values in any row.

The result of an IN operator is one of TRUE, FALSE, or NULL.  A NULL result
means that it cannot be determined if the LHS is contained in the RHS due
to the presence of NULL values.  In some contexts (for example, when the IN
operator occurs in a WHERE clause)
the system only needs a binary result: TRUE or NOT-TRUE.  One can also
to define a binary result of FALSE and NOT-FALSE, but
it turns out that no extra optimizations are possible in that case, so if
the FALSE/NOT-FALSE binary is needed, we have to compute the three-state
TRUE/FALSE/NULL result and then combine the TRUE and NULL values into 
NOT-FALSE.

A "NOT IN" operator is computed by first computing the equivalent IN
operator, then interchanging the TRUE and FALSE results.

## Simple Full-Scan Algorithm

The following algorithm always compute the correct answer.  However, this
algorithm is suboptimal, especially if there are many rows on the RHS.

  1.  Set the null-flag to false
  2.  For each row in the RHS:
      <ol type='a'>
      <li>  Compare the LHS against the RHS
      <li>  If the LHS exactly matches the RHS, immediately return TRUE
      <li>  If the comparison result is NULL, set the null-flag to true
      </ol>
  3.  If the null-flag is true, return NULL.
  4.  Return FALSE

## Optimized Algorithm

The following procedure computes the same answer as the simple full-scan
algorithm, though it does so with less work in the common case.  This
is the algorithm that is implemented in SQLite.

  1.  If the RHS is a constant list of length 1 or 2, then rewrite the
      IN operator as a simple expression.  Implement

            x IN (y1,y2)

      as if it were

            x=y1 OR x=y2

      This is the INDEX_NOOP optimization and is only undertaken if the
      IN operator is used for membership testing.  If the IN operator is
      driving a loop, then skip this step entirely.

  2.  Check the LHS to see if it is a partial-NULL and if it is, jump
      ahead to step 5.

  3.  Do a binary search of the RHS using the LHS as a probe.  If
      an exact match is found, return TRUE.

  4.  If the RHS is non-NULL then return FALSE.

  5.  If we do not need to distinguish between FALSE and NULL,
      then return FALSE.
  
  6.  For each row in the RHS, compare that row against the LHS and
      if the result is NULL, immediately return NULL.  In the case
      of a scalar IN operator, we only need to look at the very first
      row the RHS because for a scalar RHS, all NULLs will always come 
      first.  If the RHS is empty, this step is a no-op.

  7.  Return FALSE.

Changes to src/parse.y.

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%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}



setlist(A) ::= nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}




////////////////////////// The INSERT command /////////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= with(W) insert_cmd(R) INTO fullname(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, W, 1);
  sqlite3Insert(pParse, X, S, F, R);
}
................................................................................
  */
  static void exprNot(Parse *pParse, int doNot, ExprSpan *pSpan){
    if( doNot ){
      pSpan->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, pSpan->pExpr, 0, 0);
    }
  }
}












expr(A) ::= expr(A) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) BITAND|BITOR|LSHIFT|RSHIFT(OP) expr(Y).







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%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA LP idlist(X) RP EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(pParse, A, X, Y.pExpr);
}
setlist(A) ::= nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= LP idlist(X) RP EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(pParse, 0, X, Y.pExpr);
}

////////////////////////// The INSERT command /////////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= with(W) insert_cmd(R) INTO fullname(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, W, 1);
  sqlite3Insert(pParse, X, S, F, R);
}
................................................................................
  */
  static void exprNot(Parse *pParse, int doNot, ExprSpan *pSpan){
    if( doNot ){
      pSpan->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, pSpan->pExpr, 0, 0);
    }
  }
}

expr(A) ::= LP(L) nexprlist(X) COMMA expr(Y) RP(R). {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, X, Y.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_VECTOR, 0, 0, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = pList;
    spanSet(&A, &L, &R);
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  }
}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) BITAND|BITOR|LSHIFT|RSHIFT(OP) expr(Y).

Changes to src/resolve.c.

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        }
      }
      break;
    }
    case TK_VARIABLE: {
      notValid(pParse, pNC, "parameters", NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr);
      break;



























    }
  }
  return (pParse->nErr || pParse->db->mallocFailed) ? WRC_Abort : WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** pEList is a list of expressions which are really the result set of the







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        }
      }
      break;
    }
    case TK_VARIABLE: {
      notValid(pParse, pNC, "parameters", NC_IsCheck|NC_PartIdx|NC_IdxExpr);
      break;
    }
    case TK_EQ:
    case TK_NE:
    case TK_LT:
    case TK_LE:
    case TK_GT:
    case TK_GE:
    case TK_IS:
    case TK_ISNOT: {
      int nLeft, nRight;
      if( pParse->db->mallocFailed ) break;
      assert( pExpr->pRight!=0 );
      assert( pExpr->pLeft!=0 );
      nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft);
      nRight = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pRight);
      if( nLeft!=nRight ){
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EQ );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_NE );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LT );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_LE );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GT );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_GE );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_IS );
        testcase( pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT );
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
      }
      break; 
    }
  }
  return (pParse->nErr || pParse->db->mallocFailed) ? WRC_Abort : WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** pEList is a list of expressions which are really the result set of the

Changes to src/select.c.

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/*
** Initialize a SelectDest structure.
*/
void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest *pDest, int eDest, int iParm){
  pDest->eDest = (u8)eDest;
  pDest->iSDParm = iParm;
  pDest->affSdst = 0;
  pDest->iSdst = 0;
  pDest->nSdst = 0;
}


/*
** Allocate a new Select structure and return a pointer to that
................................................................................
  r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, iTab, addrRepeat, iMem, N); VdbeCoverage(v);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, iMem, N, r1);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iTab, r1);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*
** Generate an error message when a SELECT is used within a subexpression
** (example:  "a IN (SELECT * FROM table)") but it has more than 1 result
** column.  We do this in a subroutine because the error used to occur
** in multiple places.  (The error only occurs in one place now, but we
** retain the subroutine to minimize code disruption.)
*/
static int checkForMultiColumnSelectError(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parse context. */
  SelectDest *pDest,   /* Destination of SELECT results */
  int nExpr            /* Number of result columns returned by SELECT */
){
  int eDest = pDest->eDest;
  if( nExpr>1 && (eDest==SRT_Mem || eDest==SRT_Set) ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "only a single result allowed for "
       "a SELECT that is part of an expression");
    return 1;
  }else{
    return 0;
  }
}
#endif

/*
** This routine generates the code for the inside of the inner loop
** of a SELECT.
**
** If srcTab is negative, then the pEList expressions
** are evaluated in order to get the data for this row.  If srcTab is
** zero or more, then data is pulled from srcTab and pEList is used only 
................................................................................

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    /* If we are creating a set for an "expr IN (SELECT ...)" construct,
    ** then there should be a single item on the stack.  Write this
    ** item into the set table with bogus data.
    */
    case SRT_Set: {
      assert( nResultCol==1 );
      pDest->affSdst =
                  sqlite3CompareAffinity(pEList->a[0].pExpr, pDest->affSdst);
      if( pSort ){
        /* At first glance you would think we could optimize out the
        ** ORDER BY in this case since the order of entries in the set
        ** does not matter.  But there might be a LIMIT clause, in which
        ** case the order does matter */

        pushOntoSorter(pParse, pSort, p, regResult, regResult, 1, nPrefixReg);
      }else{
        int r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);

        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, regResult,1,r1, &pDest->affSdst, 1);

        sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, regResult, 1);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iParm, r1);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
      }
      break;
    }

    /* If any row exist in the result set, record that fact and abort.
................................................................................
    case SRT_Exists: {
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, iParm);
      /* The LIMIT clause will terminate the loop for us */
      break;
    }

    /* If this is a scalar select that is part of an expression, then
    ** store the results in the appropriate memory cell and break out
    ** of the scan loop.
    */
    case SRT_Mem: {
      assert( nResultCol==1 );
      if( pSort ){

        pushOntoSorter(pParse, pSort, p, regResult, regResult, 1, nPrefixReg);
      }else{
        assert( regResult==iParm );
        /* The LIMIT clause will jump out of the loop for us */
      }
      break;
    }
#endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */
................................................................................
  assert( addrBreak<0 );
  if( pSort->labelBkOut ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Gosub, pSort->regReturn, pSort->labelBkOut);
    sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, addrBreak);
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, pSort->labelBkOut);
  }
  iTab = pSort->iECursor;
  if( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ){
    regRowid = 0;
    regRow = pDest->iSdst;
    nSortData = nColumn;
  }else{
    regRowid = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    regRow = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    nSortData = 1;
  }
  nKey = pOrderBy->nExpr - pSort->nOBSat;
  if( pSort->sortFlags & SORTFLAG_UseSorter ){
    int regSortOut = ++pParse->nMem;
    iSortTab = pParse->nTab++;
    if( pSort->labelBkOut ){
      addrOnce = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse); VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iParm, regRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iParm, regRow, regRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_APPEND);
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case SRT_Set: {
      assert( nColumn==1 );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, regRow, 1, regRowid,
                        &pDest->affSdst, 1);
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, regRow, 1);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iParm, regRowid);
      break;
    }
    case SRT_Mem: {
      assert( nColumn==1 );
      sqlite3ExprCodeMove(pParse, regRow, iParm, 1);
      /* The LIMIT clause will terminate the loop for us */
      break;
    }
#endif
    default: {
      assert( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ); 
      testcase( eDest==SRT_Output );
................................................................................
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Yield, pDest->iSDParm);
      }
      break;
    }
  }
  if( regRowid ){



    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRow);

    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRowid);
  }
  /* The bottom of the loop
  */
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrContinue);
  if( pSort->sortFlags & SORTFLAG_UseSorter ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterNext, iTab, addr); VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................

/*
** Get a VDBE for the given parser context.  Create a new one if necessary.
** If an error occurs, return NULL and leave a message in pParse.
*/
static SQLITE_NOINLINE Vdbe *allocVdbe(Parse *pParse){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe = sqlite3VdbeCreate(pParse);
  if( v ) sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Init);
  if( pParse->pToplevel==0
   && OptimizationEnabled(pParse->db,SQLITE_FactorOutConst)
  ){
    pParse->okConstFactor = 1;
  }
  return v;
}
................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_APPEND);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
      break;
    }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    /* If we are creating a set for an "expr IN (SELECT ...)" construct,
    ** then there should be a single item on the stack.  Write this
    ** item into the set table with bogus data.
    */
    case SRT_Set: {
      int r1;
      assert( pIn->nSdst==1 || pParse->nErr>0 );
      pDest->affSdst = 
         sqlite3CompareAffinity(p->pEList->a[0].pExpr, pDest->affSdst);
      r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, pIn->iSdst, 1, r1, &pDest->affSdst,1);

      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, pIn->iSdst, 1);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, pDest->iSDParm, r1);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
      break;
    }

    /* If this is a scalar select that is part of an expression, then
    ** store the results in the appropriate memory cell and break out
................................................................................
  assert( p->pEList!=0 );
  isAgg = (p->selFlags & SF_Aggregate)!=0;
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  if( sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x100 ){
    SELECTTRACE(0x100,pParse,p, ("after name resolution:\n"));
    sqlite3TreeViewSelect(0, p, 0);
  }
#endif


  /* If writing to memory or generating a set
  ** only a single column may be output.
  */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  if( checkForMultiColumnSelectError(pParse, pDest, p->pEList->nExpr) ){
    goto select_end;
  }
#endif

  /* Try to flatten subqueries in the FROM clause up into the main query
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW)
  for(i=0; !p->pPrior && i<pTabList->nSrc; i++){
    struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pTabList->a[i];







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/*
** Initialize a SelectDest structure.
*/
void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest *pDest, int eDest, int iParm){
  pDest->eDest = (u8)eDest;
  pDest->iSDParm = iParm;
  pDest->zAffSdst = 0;
  pDest->iSdst = 0;
  pDest->nSdst = 0;
}


/*
** Allocate a new Select structure and return a pointer to that
................................................................................
  r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, iTab, addrRepeat, iMem, N); VdbeCoverage(v);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, iMem, N, r1);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iTab, r1);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
}

























/*
** This routine generates the code for the inside of the inner loop
** of a SELECT.
**
** If srcTab is negative, then the pEList expressions
** are evaluated in order to get the data for this row.  If srcTab is
** zero or more, then data is pulled from srcTab and pEList is used only 
................................................................................

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    /* If we are creating a set for an "expr IN (SELECT ...)" construct,
    ** then there should be a single item on the stack.  Write this
    ** item into the set table with bogus data.
    */
    case SRT_Set: {



      if( pSort ){
        /* At first glance you would think we could optimize out the
        ** ORDER BY in this case since the order of entries in the set
        ** does not matter.  But there might be a LIMIT clause, in which
        ** case the order does matter */
        pushOntoSorter(
            pParse, pSort, p, regResult, regResult, nResultCol, nPrefixReg);
      }else{
        int r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        assert( sqlite3Strlen30(pDest->zAffSdst)==nResultCol );
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, regResult, nResultCol, 
            r1, pDest->zAffSdst, nResultCol);
        sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, regResult, nResultCol);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iParm, r1);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
      }
      break;
    }

    /* If any row exist in the result set, record that fact and abort.
................................................................................
    case SRT_Exists: {
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, iParm);
      /* The LIMIT clause will terminate the loop for us */
      break;
    }

    /* If this is a scalar select that is part of an expression, then
    ** store the results in the appropriate memory cell or array of 
    ** memory cells and break out of the scan loop.
    */
    case SRT_Mem: {
      assert( nResultCol==pDest->nSdst );
      if( pSort ){
        pushOntoSorter(
            pParse, pSort, p, regResult, regResult, nResultCol, nPrefixReg);
      }else{
        assert( regResult==iParm );
        /* The LIMIT clause will jump out of the loop for us */
      }
      break;
    }
#endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */
................................................................................
  assert( addrBreak<0 );
  if( pSort->labelBkOut ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Gosub, pSort->regReturn, pSort->labelBkOut);
    sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, addrBreak);
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, pSort->labelBkOut);
  }
  iTab = pSort->iECursor;
  if( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine || eDest==SRT_Mem ){
    regRowid = 0;
    regRow = pDest->iSdst;
    nSortData = nColumn;
  }else{
    regRowid = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    regRow = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nColumn);
    nSortData = nColumn;
  }
  nKey = pOrderBy->nExpr - pSort->nOBSat;
  if( pSort->sortFlags & SORTFLAG_UseSorter ){
    int regSortOut = ++pParse->nMem;
    iSortTab = pParse->nTab++;
    if( pSort->labelBkOut ){
      addrOnce = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse); VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iParm, regRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iParm, regRow, regRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_APPEND);
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case SRT_Set: {
      assert( nColumn==sqlite3Strlen30(pDest->zAffSdst) );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, regRow, nColumn, regRowid,
                        pDest->zAffSdst, nColumn);
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, regRow, nColumn);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iParm, regRowid);
      break;
    }
    case SRT_Mem: {


      /* The LIMIT clause will terminate the loop for us */
      break;
    }
#endif
    default: {
      assert( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ); 
      testcase( eDest==SRT_Output );
................................................................................
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Yield, pDest->iSDParm);
      }
      break;
    }
  }
  if( regRowid ){
    if( eDest==SRT_Set ){
      sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regRow, nColumn);
    }else{
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRow);
    }
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRowid);
  }
  /* The bottom of the loop
  */
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrContinue);
  if( pSort->sortFlags & SORTFLAG_UseSorter ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterNext, iTab, addr); VdbeCoverage(v);
................................................................................

/*
** Get a VDBE for the given parser context.  Create a new one if necessary.
** If an error occurs, return NULL and leave a message in pParse.
*/
static SQLITE_NOINLINE Vdbe *allocVdbe(Parse *pParse){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe = sqlite3VdbeCreate(pParse);
  if( v ) sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Init, 0, 1);
  if( pParse->pToplevel==0
   && OptimizationEnabled(pParse->db,SQLITE_FactorOutConst)
  ){
    pParse->okConstFactor = 1;
  }
  return v;
}
................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_APPEND);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
      break;
    }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    /* If we are creating a set for an "expr IN (SELECT ...)".


    */
    case SRT_Set: {
      int r1;
      testcase( pIn->nSdst>1 );


      r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, pIn->iSdst, pIn->nSdst, 
          r1, pDest->zAffSdst, pIn->nSdst);
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, pIn->iSdst, pIn->nSdst);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, pDest->iSDParm, r1);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
      break;
    }

    /* If this is a scalar select that is part of an expression, then
    ** store the results in the appropriate memory cell and break out
................................................................................
  assert( p->pEList!=0 );
  isAgg = (p->selFlags & SF_Aggregate)!=0;
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  if( sqlite3SelectTrace & 0x100 ){
    SELECTTRACE(0x100,pParse,p, ("after name resolution:\n"));
    sqlite3TreeViewSelect(0, p, 0);
  }










#endif

  /* Try to flatten subqueries in the FROM clause up into the main query
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW)
  for(i=0; !p->pPrior && i<pTabList->nSrc; i++){
    struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pTabList->a[i];

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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4264
** changing the affinity.
**
** The SQLITE_NOTNULL flag is a combination of NULLEQ and JUMPIFNULL.
** It causes an assert() to fire if either operand to a comparison
** operator is NULL.  It is added to certain comparison operators to
** prove that the operands are always NOT NULL.
*/

#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL   0x10  /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
#define SQLITE_STOREP2      0x20  /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */
#define SQLITE_NULLEQ       0x80  /* NULL=NULL */
#define SQLITE_NOTNULL      0x90  /* Assert that operands are never NULL */

/*
** An object of this type is created for each virtual table present in
................................................................................

#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
  int nHeight;           /* Height of the tree headed by this node */
#endif
  int iTable;            /* TK_COLUMN: cursor number of table holding column
                         ** TK_REGISTER: register number
                         ** TK_TRIGGER: 1 -> new, 0 -> old
                         ** EP_Unlikely:  134217728 times likelihood */

  ynVar iColumn;         /* TK_COLUMN: column index.  -1 for rowid.
                         ** TK_VARIABLE: variable number (always >= 1). */

  i16 iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  i16 iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  u8 op2;                /* TK_REGISTER: original value of Expr.op
                         ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
                         ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
  Table *pTab;           /* Table for TK_COLUMN expressions. */
................................................................................

/*
** An instance of this object describes where to put of the results of
** a SELECT statement.
*/
struct SelectDest {
  u8 eDest;            /* How to dispose of the results.  On of SRT_* above. */
  char affSdst;        /* Affinity used when eDest==SRT_Set */
  int iSDParm;         /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
  int iSdst;           /* Base register where results are written */
  int nSdst;           /* Number of registers allocated */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;  /* Key columns for SRT_Queue and SRT_DistQueue */
};

/*
................................................................................
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
  void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);
#endif

#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
  void sqlite3TreeViewExpr(TreeView*, const Expr*, u8);

  void sqlite3TreeViewExprList(TreeView*, const ExprList*, u8, const char*);
  void sqlite3TreeViewSelect(TreeView*, const Select*, u8);
  void sqlite3TreeViewWith(TreeView*, const With*, u8);
#endif


void sqlite3SetString(char **, sqlite3*, const char*);
................................................................................
Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
void sqlite3PExprAddSelect(Parse*, Expr*, Select*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);

void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
................................................................................
#define putVarint    sqlite3PutVarint


const char *sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(sqlite3*, Index*);
void sqlite3TableAffinity(Vdbe*, Table*, int);
char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2);
int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity);

char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr);
int sqlite3Atoi64(const char*, i64*, int, u8);
int sqlite3DecOrHexToI64(const char*, i64*);
void sqlite3ErrorWithMsg(sqlite3*, int, const char*,...);
void sqlite3Error(sqlite3*,int);
void sqlite3SystemError(sqlite3*,int);
void *sqlite3HexToBlob(sqlite3*, const char *z, int n);
................................................................................
void sqlite3RootPageMoved(sqlite3*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *, Expr *, int, int);
void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3SelectWrongNumTermsError(Parse *pParse, Select *p);
int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);
................................................................................
char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);
Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *, SrcList *, int, int);

void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);







#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void);

int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(Parse*,Index*,UnpackedRecord**,Expr*,u8,int,int*);
int sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(Parse*, Expr*, u8, sqlite3_value**);
void sqlite3Stat4ProbeFree(UnpackedRecord*);
int sqlite3Stat4Column(sqlite3*, const void*, int, int, sqlite3_value**);

#endif

/*
** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
*/
void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(u64));
void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
................................................................................
#define IN_INDEX_NOOP         5   /* No table available. Use comparisons */
/*
** Allowed flags for the 3rd parameter to sqlite3FindInIndex().
*/
#define IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK     0x0001  /* OK to return IN_INDEX_NOOP */
#define IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP  0x0002  /* IN operator used for membership test */
#define IN_INDEX_LOOP        0x0004  /* IN operator used as a loop */
int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *, Expr *, u32, int*);

int sqlite3JournalOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file *, int, int);
int sqlite3JournalSize(sqlite3_vfs *);
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_ATOMIC_WRITE
  int sqlite3JournalCreate(sqlite3_file *);
#endif

................................................................................
int sqlite3ThreadJoin(SQLiteThread*, void**);
#endif

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBSTAT_VTAB) || defined(SQLITE_TEST)
int sqlite3DbstatRegister(sqlite3*);
#endif






#endif /* SQLITEINT_H */







>







 







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1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
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1742
1743
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2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
....
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
....
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
....
3543
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3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
....
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
....
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
....
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
....
4166
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4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
....
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
** changing the affinity.
**
** The SQLITE_NOTNULL flag is a combination of NULLEQ and JUMPIFNULL.
** It causes an assert() to fire if either operand to a comparison
** operator is NULL.  It is added to certain comparison operators to
** prove that the operands are always NOT NULL.
*/
#define SQLITE_KEEPNULL     0x08  /* Used by vector == or <> */
#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL   0x10  /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
#define SQLITE_STOREP2      0x20  /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */
#define SQLITE_NULLEQ       0x80  /* NULL=NULL */
#define SQLITE_NOTNULL      0x90  /* Assert that operands are never NULL */

/*
** An object of this type is created for each virtual table present in
................................................................................

#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
  int nHeight;           /* Height of the tree headed by this node */
#endif
  int iTable;            /* TK_COLUMN: cursor number of table holding column
                         ** TK_REGISTER: register number
                         ** TK_TRIGGER: 1 -> new, 0 -> old
                         ** EP_Unlikely:  134217728 times likelihood
                         ** TK_SELECT: 1st register of result vector */
  ynVar iColumn;         /* TK_COLUMN: column index.  -1 for rowid.
                         ** TK_VARIABLE: variable number (always >= 1).
                         ** TK_SELECT_COLUMN: column of the result vector */
  i16 iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  i16 iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  u8 op2;                /* TK_REGISTER: original value of Expr.op
                         ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
                         ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
  Table *pTab;           /* Table for TK_COLUMN expressions. */
................................................................................

/*
** An instance of this object describes where to put of the results of
** a SELECT statement.
*/
struct SelectDest {
  u8 eDest;            /* How to dispose of the results.  On of SRT_* above. */
  char *zAffSdst;      /* Affinity used when eDest==SRT_Set */
  int iSDParm;         /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
  int iSdst;           /* Base register where results are written */
  int nSdst;           /* Number of registers allocated */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;  /* Key columns for SRT_Queue and SRT_DistQueue */
};

/*
................................................................................
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
  void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);
#endif

#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
  void sqlite3TreeViewExpr(TreeView*, const Expr*, u8);
  void sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(TreeView*, const ExprList*, const char*);
  void sqlite3TreeViewExprList(TreeView*, const ExprList*, u8, const char*);
  void sqlite3TreeViewSelect(TreeView*, const Select*, u8);
  void sqlite3TreeViewWith(TreeView*, const With*, u8);
#endif


void sqlite3SetString(char **, sqlite3*, const char*);
................................................................................
Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
void sqlite3PExprAddSelect(Parse*, Expr*, Select*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(Parse*,ExprList*,IdList*,Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
................................................................................
#define putVarint    sqlite3PutVarint


const char *sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(sqlite3*, Index*);
void sqlite3TableAffinity(Vdbe*, Table*, int);
char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2);
int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity);
char sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(Table*,int);
char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr);
int sqlite3Atoi64(const char*, i64*, int, u8);
int sqlite3DecOrHexToI64(const char*, i64*);
void sqlite3ErrorWithMsg(sqlite3*, int, const char*,...);
void sqlite3Error(sqlite3*,int);
void sqlite3SystemError(sqlite3*,int);
void *sqlite3HexToBlob(sqlite3*, const char *z, int n);
................................................................................
void sqlite3RootPageMoved(sqlite3*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse*, Expr *, int, int);
void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3SelectWrongNumTermsError(Parse *pParse, Select *p);
int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);
................................................................................
char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);
Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *, SrcList *, int, int);

void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3ExprCheckIN(Parse*, Expr*);
#else
# define sqlite3ExprCheckIN(x,y) SQLITE_OK
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void);
int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(
    Parse*,Index*,UnpackedRecord**,Expr*,int,int,int*);
int sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(Parse*, Expr*, u8, sqlite3_value**);
void sqlite3Stat4ProbeFree(UnpackedRecord*);
int sqlite3Stat4Column(sqlite3*, const void*, int, int, sqlite3_value**);
char sqlite3IndexColumnAffinity(sqlite3*, Index*, int);
#endif

/*
** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
*/
void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(u64));
void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
................................................................................
#define IN_INDEX_NOOP         5   /* No table available. Use comparisons */
/*
** Allowed flags for the 3rd parameter to sqlite3FindInIndex().
*/
#define IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK     0x0001  /* OK to return IN_INDEX_NOOP */
#define IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP  0x0002  /* IN operator used for membership test */
#define IN_INDEX_LOOP        0x0004  /* IN operator used as a loop */
int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *, Expr *, u32, int*, int*);

int sqlite3JournalOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file *, int, int);
int sqlite3JournalSize(sqlite3_vfs *);
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_ATOMIC_WRITE
  int sqlite3JournalCreate(sqlite3_file *);
#endif

................................................................................
int sqlite3ThreadJoin(SQLiteThread*, void**);
#endif

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBSTAT_VTAB) || defined(SQLITE_TEST)
int sqlite3DbstatRegister(sqlite3*);
#endif

int sqlite3ExprVectorSize(Expr *pExpr);
int sqlite3ExprIsVector(Expr *pExpr);
Expr *sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(Expr*, int);
Expr *sqlite3ExprForVectorField(Parse*,Expr*,int);

#endif /* SQLITEINT_H */

Changes to src/treeview.c.

446
447
448
449
450
451
452









453
454
455
456
457
458
459
...
462
463
464
465
466
467
468

469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484

485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495









496
497
498
499
    }
#endif
    case TK_MATCH: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "MATCH {%d:%d}%s",
                          pExpr->iTable, pExpr->iColumn, zFlgs);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pRight, 0);
      break;









    }
    default: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "op=%d", pExpr->op);
      break;
    }
  }
  if( zBinOp ){
................................................................................
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pRight, 0);
  }else if( zUniOp ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s%s", zUniOp, zFlgs);
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
  }
  sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
}


/*
** Generate a human-readable explanation of an expression list.
*/
void sqlite3TreeViewExprList(
  TreeView *pView,
  const ExprList *pList,
  u8 moreToFollow,
  const char *zLabel
){
  int i;
  pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, moreToFollow);
  if( zLabel==0 || zLabel[0]==0 ) zLabel = "LIST";
  if( pList==0 ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s (empty)", zLabel);
  }else{

    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s", zLabel);
    for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
      int j = pList->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol;
      if( j ){
        sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, 0);
        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "iOrderByCol=%d", j);
      }
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pList->a[i].pExpr, i<pList->nExpr-1);
      if( j ) sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
  }









  sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
}

#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */







>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







 







>




|


<


<
<




>











>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>




446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
...
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485

486
487


488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
    }
#endif
    case TK_MATCH: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "MATCH {%d:%d}%s",
                          pExpr->iTable, pExpr->iColumn, zFlgs);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pRight, 0);
      break;
    }
    case TK_VECTOR: {
      sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, "VECTOR");
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "SELECT-COLUMN %d", pExpr->iColumn);
      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pExpr->pLeft->x.pSelect, 0);
      break;
    }
    default: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "op=%d", pExpr->op);
      break;
    }
  }
  if( zBinOp ){
................................................................................
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pRight, 0);
  }else if( zUniOp ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s%s", zUniOp, zFlgs);
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
  }
  sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
}


/*
** Generate a human-readable explanation of an expression list.
*/
void sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(
  TreeView *pView,
  const ExprList *pList,

  const char *zLabel
){


  if( zLabel==0 || zLabel[0]==0 ) zLabel = "LIST";
  if( pList==0 ){
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s (empty)", zLabel);
  }else{
    int i;
    sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "%s", zLabel);
    for(i=0; i<pList->nExpr; i++){
      int j = pList->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol;
      if( j ){
        sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, 0);
        sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "iOrderByCol=%d", j);
      }
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pList->a[i].pExpr, i<pList->nExpr-1);
      if( j ) sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
  }
}
void sqlite3TreeViewExprList(
  TreeView *pView,
  const ExprList *pList,
  u8 moreToFollow,
  const char *zLabel
){
  pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, moreToFollow);
  sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pList, zLabel);
  sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
}

#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */

Changes to src/vdbe.c.

569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
...
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
....
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
....
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
....
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
....
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
....
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
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1453
1454
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1456
1457
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1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
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1466
1467
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1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
....
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
....
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
....
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882














































1883
1884
1885
1886
1887

1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
....
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
....
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
....
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
....
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073


















2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085


















2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
....
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
....
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
....
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
....
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
....
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
....
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072
....
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
....
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
....
6764
6765
6766
6767
6768
6769
6770
6771
6772
6773
6774
6775
6776
6777
6778
....
6824
6825
6826
6827
6828
6829
6830
6831
6832
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#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  int nExtraDelete = 0;      /* Verifies FORDELETE and AUXDELETE flags */
#endif
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;        /* Value to return */
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;       /* The database */
  u8 resetSchemaOnFault = 0; /* Reset schema after an error if positive */
  u8 encoding = ENC(db);     /* The database encoding */
  int iCompare = 0;          /* Result of last OP_Compare operation */
  unsigned nVmStep = 0;      /* Number of virtual machine steps */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  unsigned nProgressLimit = 0;/* Invoke xProgress() when nVmStep reaches this */
#endif
  Mem *aMem = p->aMem;       /* Copy of p->aMem */
  Mem *pIn1 = 0;             /* 1st input operand */
  Mem *pIn2 = 0;             /* 2nd input operand */
................................................................................
  pIn1->u.i = (int)(pOp - aOp);
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
  pOp = &aOp[pcDest];
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  HaltIfNull  P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis:  if r[P3]=null halt
**
** Check the value in register P3.  If it is NULL then Halt using
** parameter P1, P2, and P4 as if this were a Halt instruction.  If the
** value in register P3 is not NULL, then this routine is a no-op.
** The P5 parameter should be 1.
*/
case OP_HaltIfNull: {      /* in3 */
................................................................................
    if( pIn3->u.i==pOp->p5 ) pOut->flags = MEM_Blob|MEM_Static|MEM_Term;
  }
#endif
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Null P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P2..P3]=NULL
**
** Write a NULL into registers P2.  If P3 greater than P2, then also write
** NULL into register P3 and every register in between P2 and P3.  If P3
** is less than P2 (typically P3 is zero) then only register P2 is
** set to NULL.
**
** If the P1 value is non-zero, then also set the MEM_Cleared flag so that
................................................................................
    pOut->flags = nullFlag;
    cnt--;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SoftNull P1 * * * *
** Synopsis:  r[P1]=NULL
**
** Set register P1 to have the value NULL as seen by the OP_MakeRecord
** instruction, but do not free any string or blob memory associated with
** the register, so that if the value was a string or blob that was
** previously copied using OP_SCopy, the copies will continue to be valid.
*/
case OP_SoftNull: {
................................................................................
  pOut = out2Prerelease(p, pOp);
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pVar, MEM_Static);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Move P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P2@P3]=r[P1@P3]
**
** Move the P3 values in register P1..P1+P3-1 over into
** registers P2..P2+P3-1.  Registers P1..P1+P3-1 are
** left holding a NULL.  It is an error for register ranges
** P1..P1+P3-1 and P2..P2+P3-1 to overlap.  It is an error
** for P3 to be less than 1.
*/
................................................................................
  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 );
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pOut, pIn1->u.i);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ResultRow P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis:  output=r[P1@P2]
**
** The registers P1 through P1+P2-1 contain a single row of
** results. This opcode causes the sqlite3_step() call to terminate
** with an SQLITE_ROW return code and it sets up the sqlite3_stmt
** structure to provide access to the r(P1)..r(P1+P2-1) values as
** the result row.
*/
................................................................................
  pOut->n = (int)nByte;
  pOut->enc = encoding;
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Add P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2]
**
** Add the value in register P1 to the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Multiply P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2]
**
**
** Multiply the value in register P1 by the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Subtract P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1]
**
** Subtract the value in register P1 from the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Divide P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1]
**
** Divide the value in register P1 by the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3 (P3=P2/P1). If the value in 
** register P1 is zero, then the result is NULL. If either input is 
** NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Remainder P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1]
**
** Compute the remainder after integer register P2 is divided by 
** register P1 and store the result in register P3. 
** If the value in register P1 is zero the result is NULL.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
case OP_Add:                   /* same as TK_PLUS, in1, in2, out3 */
................................................................................

  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p3, pCtx->pOut);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pCtx->pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: BitAnd P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2]
**
** Take the bit-wise AND of the values in register P1 and P2 and
** store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: BitOr P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2]
**
** Take the bit-wise OR of the values in register P1 and P2 and
** store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: ShiftLeft P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1]
**
** Shift the integer value in register P2 to the left by the
** number of bits specified by the integer in register P1.
** Store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: ShiftRight P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1]
**
** Shift the integer value in register P2 to the right by the
** number of bits specified by the integer in register P1.
** Store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
case OP_BitAnd:                 /* same as TK_BITAND, in1, in2, out3 */
................................................................................
  }
  pOut->u.i = iA;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: AddImm  P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis:  r[P1]=r[P1]+P2
** 
** Add the constant P2 to the value in register P1.
** The result is always an integer.
**
** To force any register to be an integer, just add 0.
*/
case OP_AddImm: {            /* in1 */
................................................................................
  sqlite3VdbeMemCast(pIn1, pOp->p2, encoding);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pIn1);
  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */















































/* Opcode: Lt P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]<r[P1]
**
** Compare the values in register P1 and P3.  If reg(P3)<reg(P1) then
** jump to address P2.  

**
** If the SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL bit of P5 is set and either reg(P1) or
** reg(P3) is NULL then take the jump.  If the SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL 
** bit is clear then fall through if either operand is NULL.
**
** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK portion of P5 must be an affinity character -
** SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER, and so forth. An attempt is made 
** to coerce both inputs according to this affinity before the
** comparison is made. If the SQLITE_AFF_MASK is 0x00, then numeric
** affinity is used. Note that the affinity conversions are stored
................................................................................
** used to determine the results of the comparison.  If both values
** are text, then the appropriate collating function specified in
** P4 is  used to do the comparison.  If P4 is not specified then
** memcmp() is used to compare text string.  If both values are
** numeric, then a numeric comparison is used. If the two values
** are of different types, then numbers are considered less than
** strings and strings are considered less than blobs.
**
** If the SQLITE_STOREP2 bit of P5 is set, then do not jump.  Instead,
** store a boolean result (either 0, or 1, or NULL) in register P2.
**
** If the SQLITE_NULLEQ bit is set in P5, then NULL values are considered
** equal to one another, provided that they do not have their MEM_Cleared
** bit set.
*/
/* Opcode: Ne P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]!=r[P1]
**
** This works just like the Lt opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the operands in registers P1 and P3 are not equal.  See the Lt opcode for
** additional information.
**
** If SQLITE_NULLEQ is set in P5 then the result of comparison is always either
** true or false and is never NULL.  If both operands are NULL then the result
** of comparison is false.  If either operand is NULL then the result is true.
** If neither operand is NULL the result is the same as it would be if
** the SQLITE_NULLEQ flag were omitted from P5.
*/
/* Opcode: Eq P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]==r[P1]
**
** This works just like the Lt opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the operands in registers P1 and P3 are equal.
** See the Lt opcode for additional information.
**
** If SQLITE_NULLEQ is set in P5 then the result of comparison is always either
** true or false and is never NULL.  If both operands are NULL then the result
** of comparison is true.  If either operand is NULL then the result is false.
** If neither operand is NULL the result is the same as it would be if
** the SQLITE_NULLEQ flag were omitted from P5.
*/
/* Opcode: Le P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]<=r[P1]
**
** This works just like the Lt opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the content of register P3 is less than or equal to the content of
** register P1.  See the Lt opcode for additional information.
................................................................................
*/
case OP_Eq:               /* same as TK_EQ, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Ne:               /* same as TK_NE, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Lt:               /* same as TK_LT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Le:               /* same as TK_LE, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Gt:               /* same as TK_GT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
  int res;            /* Result of the comparison of pIn1 against pIn3 */
  char affinity;      /* Affinity to use for comparison */
  u16 flags1;         /* Copy of initial value of pIn1->flags */
  u16 flags3;         /* Copy of initial value of pIn3->flags */

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  flags1 = pIn1->flags;
................................................................................
      assert( pOp->opcode==OP_Eq || pOp->opcode==OP_Ne );
      assert( (flags1 & MEM_Cleared)==0 );
      assert( (pOp->p5 & SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL)==0 );
      if( (flags1&MEM_Null)!=0
       && (flags3&MEM_Null)!=0
       && (flags3&MEM_Cleared)==0
      ){
        res = 0;  /* Results are equal */
      }else{
        res = 1;  /* Results are not equal */
      }
    }else{
      /* SQLITE_NULLEQ is clear and at least one operand is NULL,
      ** then the result is always NULL.
      ** The jump is taken if the SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL bit is set.
      */
      if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 ){
        pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];

        memAboutToChange(p, pOut);
        MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Null);
        REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
      }else{
        VdbeBranchTaken(2,3);
        if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL ){
          goto jump_to_p2;
................................................................................
    if( flags3 & MEM_Zero ){
      sqlite3VdbeMemExpandBlob(pIn3);
      flags3 &= ~MEM_Zero;
    }
    res = sqlite3MemCompare(pIn3, pIn1, pOp->p4.pColl);
  }
  switch( pOp->opcode ){
    case OP_Eq:    res = res==0;     break;
    case OP_Ne:    res = res!=0;     break;
    case OP_Lt:    res = res<0;      break;
    case OP_Le:    res = res<=0;     break;
    case OP_Gt:    res = res>0;      break;
    default:       res = res>=0;     break;
  }

  /* Undo any changes made by applyAffinity() to the input registers. */
  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags1 & MEM_Dyn) );
  pIn1->flags = flags1;
  assert( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags3 & MEM_Dyn) );
  pIn3->flags = flags3;

  if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 ){
    pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];


















    memAboutToChange(p, pOut);
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
    pOut->u.i = res;
    REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
  }else{
    VdbeBranchTaken(res!=0, (pOp->p5 & SQLITE_NULLEQ)?2:3);
    if( res ){
      goto jump_to_p2;
    }
  }
  break;
}



















/* Opcode: Permutation * * * P4 *
**
** Set the permutation used by the OP_Compare operator to be the array
** of integers in P4.
**
** The permutation is only valid until the next OP_Compare that has
................................................................................
  if( c ){
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IsNull P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis:  if r[P1]==NULL goto P2
**
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is NULL.
*/
case OP_IsNull: {            /* same as TK_ISNULL, jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  VdbeBranchTaken( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0, 2);
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ){
................................................................................
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Column P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=PX
**
** Interpret the data that cursor P1 points to as a structure built using
** the MakeRecord instruction.  (See the MakeRecord opcode for additional
** information about the format of the data.)  Extract the P2-th column
** from this record.  If there are less that (P2+1) 
** values in the record, extract a NULL.
**
................................................................................
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }else if( eqOnly ){
    assert( pOp[1].opcode==OP_IdxLT || pOp[1].opcode==OP_IdxGT );
    pOp++; /* Skip the OP_IdxLt or OP_IdxGT that follows */
  }
  break;
}
  

/* Opcode: Found P1 P2 P3 P4 *
** Synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]
**
** If P4==0 then register P3 holds a blob constructed by MakeRecord.  If
** P4>0 then register P3 is the first of P4 registers that form an unpacked
** record.
................................................................................
** value of register P2 will then change.  Make sure this does not
** cause any problems.)
**
** This instruction only works on tables.  The equivalent instruction
** for indices is OP_IdxInsert.
*/
/* Opcode: InsertInt P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis:  intkey=P3 data=r[P2]
**
** This works exactly like OP_Insert except that the key is the
** integer value P3, not the value of the integer stored in register P3.
*/
case OP_Insert: 
case OP_InsertInt: {
  Mem *pData;       /* MEM cell holding data for the record to be inserted */
................................................................................
case OP_ResetCount: {
  sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, p->nChange);
  p->nChange = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SorterCompare P1 P2 P3 P4
** Synopsis:  if key(P1)!=trim(r[P3],P4) goto P2
**
** P1 is a sorter cursor. This instruction compares a prefix of the
** record blob in register P3 against a prefix of the entry that 
** the sorter cursor currently points to.  Only the first P4 fields
** of r[P3] and the sorter record are compared.
**
** If either P3 or the sorter contains a NULL in one of their significant
................................................................................
  }
  assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
  pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Seek P1 * P3 P4 *
** Synopsis:  Move P3 to P1.rowid
**
** P1 is an open index cursor and P3 is a cursor on the corresponding
** table.  This opcode does a deferred seek of the P3 table cursor
** to the row that corresponds to the current row of P1.
**
** This is a deferred seek.  Nothing actually happens until
** the cursor is used to read a record.  That way, if no reads
................................................................................
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pIn1);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pIn1, encoding);
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */

/* Opcode: RowSetAdd P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis:  rowset(P1)=r[P2]
**
** Insert the integer value held by register P2 into a boolean index
** held in register P1.
**
** An assertion fails if P2 is not an integer.
*/
case OP_RowSetAdd: {       /* in1, in2 */
................................................................................
    if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ) goto no_mem;
  }
  sqlite3RowSetInsert(pIn1->u.pRowSet, pIn2->u.i);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: RowSetRead P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis:  r[P3]=rowset(P1)
**
** Extract the smallest value from boolean index P1 and put that value into
** register P3.  Or, if boolean index P1 is initially empty, leave P3
** unchanged and jump to instruction P2.
*/
case OP_RowSetRead: {       /* jump, in1, out3 */
  i64 val;
................................................................................
  pOut->u.i = sqlite3BtreeMaxPageCount(pBt, newMax);
  break;
}
#endif


/* Opcode: Init * P2 * P4 *
** Synopsis:  Start at P2
**
** Programs contain a single instance of this opcode as the very first
** opcode.
**
** If tracing is enabled (by the sqlite3_trace()) interface, then
** the UTF-8 string contained in P4 is emitted on the trace callback.
** Or if P4 is blank, use the string returned by sqlite3_sql().
................................................................................
  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_SqlTrace)!=0
   && (zTrace = (pOp->p4.z ? pOp->p4.z : p->zSql))!=0
  ){
    sqlite3DebugPrintf("SQL-trace: %s\n", zTrace);
  }
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */
  if( pOp->p2 ) goto jump_to_p2;
  break;
}

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS
/* Opcode: CursorHint P1 * * P4 *
**
** Provide a hint to cursor P1 that it only needs to return rows that
** satisfy the Expr in P4.  TK_REGISTER terms in the P4 expression refer







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569
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577
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582
583
...
901
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913
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915
....
1114
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1128
....
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....
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....
1784
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....
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....
2380
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....
2408
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....
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3925
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....
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....
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....
5108
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....
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6814
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....
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#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  int nExtraDelete = 0;      /* Verifies FORDELETE and AUXDELETE flags */
#endif
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;        /* Value to return */
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;       /* The database */
  u8 resetSchemaOnFault = 0; /* Reset schema after an error if positive */
  u8 encoding = ENC(db);     /* The database encoding */
  int iCompare = 0;          /* Result of last comparison */
  unsigned nVmStep = 0;      /* Number of virtual machine steps */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  unsigned nProgressLimit = 0;/* Invoke xProgress() when nVmStep reaches this */
#endif
  Mem *aMem = p->aMem;       /* Copy of p->aMem */
  Mem *pIn1 = 0;             /* 1st input operand */
  Mem *pIn2 = 0;             /* 2nd input operand */
................................................................................
  pIn1->u.i = (int)(pOp - aOp);
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
  pOp = &aOp[pcDest];
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  HaltIfNull  P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: if r[P3]=null halt
**
** Check the value in register P3.  If it is NULL then Halt using
** parameter P1, P2, and P4 as if this were a Halt instruction.  If the
** value in register P3 is not NULL, then this routine is a no-op.
** The P5 parameter should be 1.
*/
case OP_HaltIfNull: {      /* in3 */
................................................................................
    if( pIn3->u.i==pOp->p5 ) pOut->flags = MEM_Blob|MEM_Static|MEM_Term;
  }
#endif
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Null P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P2..P3]=NULL
**
** Write a NULL into registers P2.  If P3 greater than P2, then also write
** NULL into register P3 and every register in between P2 and P3.  If P3
** is less than P2 (typically P3 is zero) then only register P2 is
** set to NULL.
**
** If the P1 value is non-zero, then also set the MEM_Cleared flag so that
................................................................................
    pOut->flags = nullFlag;
    cnt--;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SoftNull P1 * * * *
** Synopsis: r[P1]=NULL
**
** Set register P1 to have the value NULL as seen by the OP_MakeRecord
** instruction, but do not free any string or blob memory associated with
** the register, so that if the value was a string or blob that was
** previously copied using OP_SCopy, the copies will continue to be valid.
*/
case OP_SoftNull: {
................................................................................
  pOut = out2Prerelease(p, pOp);
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pVar, MEM_Static);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Move P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P2@P3]=r[P1@P3]
**
** Move the P3 values in register P1..P1+P3-1 over into
** registers P2..P2+P3-1.  Registers P1..P1+P3-1 are
** left holding a NULL.  It is an error for register ranges
** P1..P1+P3-1 and P2..P2+P3-1 to overlap.  It is an error
** for P3 to be less than 1.
*/
................................................................................
  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 );
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pOut, pIn1->u.i);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ResultRow P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis: output=r[P1@P2]
**
** The registers P1 through P1+P2-1 contain a single row of
** results. This opcode causes the sqlite3_step() call to terminate
** with an SQLITE_ROW return code and it sets up the sqlite3_stmt
** structure to provide access to the r(P1)..r(P1+P2-1) values as
** the result row.
*/
................................................................................
  pOut->n = (int)nByte;
  pOut->enc = encoding;
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Add P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2]
**
** Add the value in register P1 to the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Multiply P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2]
**
**
** Multiply the value in register P1 by the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Subtract P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1]
**
** Subtract the value in register P1 from the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Divide P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1]
**
** Divide the value in register P1 by the value in register P2
** and store the result in register P3 (P3=P2/P1). If the value in 
** register P1 is zero, then the result is NULL. If either input is 
** NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: Remainder P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1]
**
** Compute the remainder after integer register P2 is divided by 
** register P1 and store the result in register P3. 
** If the value in register P1 is zero the result is NULL.
** If either operand is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
case OP_Add:                   /* same as TK_PLUS, in1, in2, out3 */
................................................................................

  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p3, pCtx->pOut);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pCtx->pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: BitAnd P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2]
**
** Take the bit-wise AND of the values in register P1 and P2 and
** store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: BitOr P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2]
**
** Take the bit-wise OR of the values in register P1 and P2 and
** store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: ShiftLeft P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1]
**
** Shift the integer value in register P2 to the left by the
** number of bits specified by the integer in register P1.
** Store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
/* Opcode: ShiftRight P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1]
**
** Shift the integer value in register P2 to the right by the
** number of bits specified by the integer in register P1.
** Store the result in register P3.
** If either input is NULL, the result is NULL.
*/
case OP_BitAnd:                 /* same as TK_BITAND, in1, in2, out3 */
................................................................................
  }
  pOut->u.i = iA;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: AddImm  P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis: r[P1]=r[P1]+P2
** 
** Add the constant P2 to the value in register P1.
** The result is always an integer.
**
** To force any register to be an integer, just add 0.
*/
case OP_AddImm: {            /* in1 */
................................................................................
  sqlite3VdbeMemCast(pIn1, pOp->p2, encoding);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pIn1);
  if( rc ) goto abort_due_to_error;
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */

/* Opcode: Eq P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]==r[P1]
**
** Compare the values in register P1 and P3.  If reg(P3)==reg(P1) then
** jump to address P2.  Or if the SQLITE_STOREP2 flag is set in P5, then
** store the result of comparison in register P2.
**
** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK portion of P5 must be an affinity character -
** SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER, and so forth. An attempt is made 
** to coerce both inputs according to this affinity before the
** comparison is made. If the SQLITE_AFF_MASK is 0x00, then numeric
** affinity is used. Note that the affinity conversions are stored
** back into the input registers P1 and P3.  So this opcode can cause
** persistent changes to registers P1 and P3.
**
** Once any conversions have taken place, and neither value is NULL, 
** the values are compared. If both values are blobs then memcmp() is
** used to determine the results of the comparison.  If both values
** are text, then the appropriate collating function specified in
** P4 is used to do the comparison.  If P4 is not specified then
** memcmp() is used to compare text string.  If both values are
** numeric, then a numeric comparison is used. If the two values
** are of different types, then numbers are considered less than
** strings and strings are considered less than blobs.
**
** If SQLITE_NULLEQ is set in P5 then the result of comparison is always either
** true or false and is never NULL.  If both operands are NULL then the result
** of comparison is true.  If either operand is NULL then the result is false.
** If neither operand is NULL the result is the same as it would be if
** the SQLITE_NULLEQ flag were omitted from P5.
**
** If both SQLITE_STOREP2 and SQLITE_KEEPNULL flags are set then the
** content of r[P2] is only changed if the new value is NULL or 0 (false).
** In other words, a prior r[P2] value will not be overwritten by 1 (true).
*/
/* Opcode: Ne P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]!=r[P1]
**
** This works just like the Eq opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the operands in registers P1 and P3 are not equal.  See the Eq opcode for
** additional information.
**
** If both SQLITE_STOREP2 and SQLITE_KEEPNULL flags are set then the
** content of r[P2] is only changed if the new value is NULL or 1 (true).
** In other words, a prior r[P2] value will not be overwritten by 0 (false).
*/
/* Opcode: Lt P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]<r[P1]
**
** Compare the values in register P1 and P3.  If reg(P3)<reg(P1) then
** jump to address P2.  Or if the SQLITE_STOREP2 flag is set in P5 store
** the result of comparison (0 or 1 or NULL) into register P2.
**
** If the SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL bit of P5 is set and either reg(P1) or
** reg(P3) is NULL then the take the jump.  If the SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL 
** bit is clear then fall through if either operand is NULL.
**
** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK portion of P5 must be an affinity character -
** SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER, and so forth. An attempt is made 
** to coerce both inputs according to this affinity before the
** comparison is made. If the SQLITE_AFF_MASK is 0x00, then numeric
** affinity is used. Note that the affinity conversions are stored
................................................................................
** used to determine the results of the comparison.  If both values
** are text, then the appropriate collating function specified in
** P4 is  used to do the comparison.  If P4 is not specified then
** memcmp() is used to compare text string.  If both values are
** numeric, then a numeric comparison is used. If the two values
** are of different types, then numbers are considered less than
** strings and strings are considered less than blobs.

































*/
/* Opcode: Le P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: IF r[P3]<=r[P1]
**
** This works just like the Lt opcode except that the jump is taken if
** the content of register P3 is less than or equal to the content of
** register P1.  See the Lt opcode for additional information.
................................................................................
*/
case OP_Eq:               /* same as TK_EQ, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Ne:               /* same as TK_NE, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Lt:               /* same as TK_LT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Le:               /* same as TK_LE, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Gt:               /* same as TK_GT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
  int res, res2;      /* Result of the comparison of pIn1 against pIn3 */
  char affinity;      /* Affinity to use for comparison */
  u16 flags1;         /* Copy of initial value of pIn1->flags */
  u16 flags3;         /* Copy of initial value of pIn3->flags */

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  flags1 = pIn1->flags;
................................................................................
      assert( pOp->opcode==OP_Eq || pOp->opcode==OP_Ne );
      assert( (flags1 & MEM_Cleared)==0 );
      assert( (pOp->p5 & SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL)==0 );
      if( (flags1&MEM_Null)!=0
       && (flags3&MEM_Null)!=0
       && (flags3&MEM_Cleared)==0
      ){
        res = 0;  /* Operands are equal */
      }else{
        res = 1;  /* Operands are not equal */
      }
    }else{
      /* SQLITE_NULLEQ is clear and at least one operand is NULL,
      ** then the result is always NULL.
      ** The jump is taken if the SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL bit is set.
      */
      if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 ){
        pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
        iCompare = 1;    /* Operands are not equal */
        memAboutToChange(p, pOut);
        MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Null);
        REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
      }else{
        VdbeBranchTaken(2,3);
        if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL ){
          goto jump_to_p2;
................................................................................
    if( flags3 & MEM_Zero ){
      sqlite3VdbeMemExpandBlob(pIn3);
      flags3 &= ~MEM_Zero;
    }
    res = sqlite3MemCompare(pIn3, pIn1, pOp->p4.pColl);
  }
  switch( pOp->opcode ){
    case OP_Eq:    res2 = res==0;     break;
    case OP_Ne:    res2 = res;        break;
    case OP_Lt:    res2 = res<0;      break;
    case OP_Le:    res2 = res<=0;     break;
    case OP_Gt:    res2 = res>0;      break;
    default:       res2 = res>=0;     break;
  }

  /* Undo any changes made by applyAffinity() to the input registers. */
  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags1 & MEM_Dyn) );
  pIn1->flags = flags1;
  assert( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Dyn) == (flags3 & MEM_Dyn) );
  pIn3->flags = flags3;

  if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 ){
    pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
    iCompare = res;
    res2 = res2!=0;  /* For this path res2 must be exactly 0 or 1 */
    if( (pOp->p5 & SQLITE_KEEPNULL)!=0 ){
      /* The KEEPNULL flag prevents OP_Eq from overwriting a NULL with 1
      ** and prevents OP_Ne from overwriting NULL with 0.  This flag
      ** is only used in contexts where either:
      **   (1) op==OP_Eq && (r[P2]==NULL || r[P2]==0)
      **   (2) op==OP_Ne && (r[P2]==NULL || r[P2]==1)
      ** Therefore it is not necessary to check the content of r[P2] for
      ** NULL. */
      assert( pOp->opcode==OP_Ne || pOp->opcode==OP_Eq );
      assert( res2==0 || res2==1 );
      testcase( res2==0 && pOp->opcode==OP_Eq );
      testcase( res2==1 && pOp->opcode==OP_Eq );
      testcase( res2==0 && pOp->opcode==OP_Ne );
      testcase( res2==1 && pOp->opcode==OP_Ne );
      if( (pOp->opcode==OP_Eq)==res2 ) break;
    }
    memAboutToChange(p, pOut);
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
    pOut->u.i = res2;
    REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
  }else{
    VdbeBranchTaken(res!=0, (pOp->p5 & SQLITE_NULLEQ)?2:3);
    if( res2 ){
      goto jump_to_p2;
    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ElseNotEq * P2 * * *
**
** This opcode must immediately follow an Lt or Gt comparison operator.
** If the operands in that previous comparison had been used with an Eq
** operator and if the result of that Eq would be NULL or false (0), then
** then jump to P2.  If the result of comparing the two previous operands
** using Eq would have been true (1), then fall through.
*/
case OP_ElseNotEq: {       /* same as TK_ESCAPE, jump */
  assert( pOp>aOp );
  assert( pOp[-1].opcode==OP_Lt || pOp[-1].opcode==OP_Gt );
  assert( pOp[-1].p5 & SQLITE_STOREP2 );
  VdbeBranchTaken(iCompare!=0, 2);
  if( iCompare!=0 ) goto jump_to_p2;
  break;
}


/* Opcode: Permutation * * * P4 *
**
** Set the permutation used by the OP_Compare operator to be the array
** of integers in P4.
**
** The permutation is only valid until the next OP_Compare that has
................................................................................
  if( c ){
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IsNull P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis: if r[P1]==NULL goto P2
**
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is NULL.
*/
case OP_IsNull: {            /* same as TK_ISNULL, jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  VdbeBranchTaken( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0, 2);
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ){
................................................................................
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Column P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: r[P3]=PX
**
** Interpret the data that cursor P1 points to as a structure built using
** the MakeRecord instruction.  (See the MakeRecord opcode for additional
** information about the format of the data.)  Extract the P2-th column
** from this record.  If there are less that (P2+1) 
** values in the record, extract a NULL.
**
................................................................................
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }else if( eqOnly ){
    assert( pOp[1].opcode==OP_IdxLT || pOp[1].opcode==OP_IdxGT );
    pOp++; /* Skip the OP_IdxLt or OP_IdxGT that follows */
  }
  break;
}


/* Opcode: Found P1 P2 P3 P4 *
** Synopsis: key=r[P3@P4]
**
** If P4==0 then register P3 holds a blob constructed by MakeRecord.  If
** P4>0 then register P3 is the first of P4 registers that form an unpacked
** record.
................................................................................
** value of register P2 will then change.  Make sure this does not
** cause any problems.)
**
** This instruction only works on tables.  The equivalent instruction
** for indices is OP_IdxInsert.
*/
/* Opcode: InsertInt P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: intkey=P3 data=r[P2]
**
** This works exactly like OP_Insert except that the key is the
** integer value P3, not the value of the integer stored in register P3.
*/
case OP_Insert: 
case OP_InsertInt: {
  Mem *pData;       /* MEM cell holding data for the record to be inserted */
................................................................................
case OP_ResetCount: {
  sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, p->nChange);
  p->nChange = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SorterCompare P1 P2 P3 P4
** Synopsis: if key(P1)!=trim(r[P3],P4) goto P2
**
** P1 is a sorter cursor. This instruction compares a prefix of the
** record blob in register P3 against a prefix of the entry that 
** the sorter cursor currently points to.  Only the first P4 fields
** of r[P3] and the sorter record are compared.
**
** If either P3 or the sorter contains a NULL in one of their significant
................................................................................
  }
  assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
  pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Seek P1 * P3 P4 *
** Synopsis: Move P3 to P1.rowid
**
** P1 is an open index cursor and P3 is a cursor on the corresponding
** table.  This opcode does a deferred seek of the P3 table cursor
** to the row that corresponds to the current row of P1.
**
** This is a deferred seek.  Nothing actually happens until
** the cursor is used to read a record.  That way, if no reads
................................................................................
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pIn1);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(pIn1, encoding);
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */

/* Opcode: RowSetAdd P1 P2 * * *
** Synopsis: rowset(P1)=r[P2]
**
** Insert the integer value held by register P2 into a boolean index
** held in register P1.
**
** An assertion fails if P2 is not an integer.
*/
case OP_RowSetAdd: {       /* in1, in2 */
................................................................................
    if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ) goto no_mem;
  }
  sqlite3RowSetInsert(pIn1->u.pRowSet, pIn2->u.i);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: RowSetRead P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: r[P3]=rowset(P1)
**
** Extract the smallest value from boolean index P1 and put that value into
** register P3.  Or, if boolean index P1 is initially empty, leave P3
** unchanged and jump to instruction P2.
*/
case OP_RowSetRead: {       /* jump, in1, out3 */
  i64 val;
................................................................................
  pOut->u.i = sqlite3BtreeMaxPageCount(pBt, newMax);
  break;
}
#endif


/* Opcode: Init * P2 * P4 *
** Synopsis: Start at P2
**
** Programs contain a single instance of this opcode as the very first
** opcode.
**
** If tracing is enabled (by the sqlite3_trace()) interface, then
** the UTF-8 string contained in P4 is emitted on the trace callback.
** Or if P4 is blank, use the string returned by sqlite3_sql().
................................................................................
  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_SqlTrace)!=0
   && (zTrace = (pOp->p4.z ? pOp->p4.z : p->zSql))!=0
  ){
    sqlite3DebugPrintf("SQL-trace: %s\n", zTrace);
  }
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */
  assert( pOp->p2>0 );
  goto jump_to_p2;
}

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS
/* Opcode: CursorHint P1 * * P4 *
**
** Provide a hint to cursor P1 that it only needs to return rows that
** satisfy the Expr in P4.  TK_REGISTER terms in the P4 expression refer

Changes to src/vdbemem.c.

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1564



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1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
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1575
}

/*
** This function is used to allocate and populate UnpackedRecord 
** structures intended to be compared against sample index keys stored 
** in the sqlite_stat4 table.
**
** A single call to this function attempts to populates field iVal (leftmost 
** is 0 etc.) of the unpacked record with a value extracted from expression
** pExpr. Extraction of values is possible if:
**
**  * (pExpr==0). In this case the value is assumed to be an SQL NULL,
**
**  * The expression is a bound variable, and this is a reprepare, or
**
**  * The sqlite3ValueFromExpr() function is able to extract a value 
**    from the expression (i.e. the expression is a literal value).
**
** If a value can be extracted, the affinity passed as the 5th argument
** is applied to it before it is copied into the UnpackedRecord. Output
** parameter *pbOk is set to true if a value is extracted, or false 
** otherwise.




**
** When this function is called, *ppRec must either point to an object
** allocated by an earlier call to this function, or must be NULL. If it
** is NULL and a value can be successfully extracted, a new UnpackedRecord
** is allocated (and *ppRec set to point to it) before returning.
**
** Unless an error is encountered, SQLITE_OK is returned. It is not an
................................................................................
** occur, an SQLite error code is returned.
*/
int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(
  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
  Index *pIdx,                    /* Index being probed */
  UnpackedRecord **ppRec,         /* IN/OUT: Probe record */
  Expr *pExpr,                    /* The expression to extract a value from */
  u8 affinity,                    /* Affinity to use */
  int iVal,                       /* Array element to populate */
  int *pbOk                       /* OUT: True if value was extracted */
){
  int rc;
  sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;



  struct ValueNewStat4Ctx alloc;

  alloc.pParse = pParse;
  alloc.pIdx = pIdx;
  alloc.ppRec = ppRec;





  alloc.iVal = iVal;




  rc = stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pExpr, affinity, &alloc, &pVal);
  assert( pVal==0 || pVal->db==pParse->db );
  *pbOk = (pVal!=0);



  return rc;
}

/*
** Attempt to extract a value from expression pExpr using the methods
** as described for sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue() above. 
**







|
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}

/*
** This function is used to allocate and populate UnpackedRecord 
** structures intended to be compared against sample index keys stored 
** in the sqlite_stat4 table.
**
** A single call to this function populates zero or more fields of the
** record starting with field iVal (fields are numbered from left to
** right starting with 0). A single field is populated if:
**
**  * (pExpr==0). In this case the value is assumed to be an SQL NULL,
**
**  * The expression is a bound variable, and this is a reprepare, or
**
**  * The sqlite3ValueFromExpr() function is able to extract a value 
**    from the expression (i.e. the expression is a literal value).
**
** Or, if pExpr is a TK_VECTOR, one field is populated for each of the
** vector components that match either of the two latter criteria listed
** above.
**
** Before any value is appended to the record, the affinity of the 
** corresponding column within index pIdx is applied to it. Before
** this function returns, output parameter *pnExtract is set to the
** number of values appended to the record.
**
** When this function is called, *ppRec must either point to an object
** allocated by an earlier call to this function, or must be NULL. If it
** is NULL and a value can be successfully extracted, a new UnpackedRecord
** is allocated (and *ppRec set to point to it) before returning.
**
** Unless an error is encountered, SQLITE_OK is returned. It is not an
................................................................................
** occur, an SQLite error code is returned.
*/
int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(
  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
  Index *pIdx,                    /* Index being probed */
  UnpackedRecord **ppRec,         /* IN/OUT: Probe record */
  Expr *pExpr,                    /* The expression to extract a value from */
  int nElem,                      /* Maximum number of values to append */
  int iVal,                       /* Array element to populate */
  int *pnExtract                  /* OUT: Values appended to the record */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int nExtract = 0;

  if( pExpr==0 || pExpr->op!=TK_SELECT ){
    int i;
    struct ValueNewStat4Ctx alloc;

    alloc.pParse = pParse;
    alloc.pIdx = pIdx;
    alloc.ppRec = ppRec;

    for(i=0; i<nElem; i++){
      sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;
      Expr *pElem = (pExpr ? sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pExpr, i) : 0);
      u8 aff = sqlite3IndexColumnAffinity(pParse->db, pIdx, iVal+i);
      alloc.iVal = iVal+i;
      rc = stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pElem, aff, &alloc, &pVal);
      if( !pVal ) break;
      nExtract++;
    }



  }

  *pnExtract = nExtract;
  return rc;
}

/*
** Attempt to extract a value from expression pExpr using the methods
** as described for sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue() above. 
**

Changes to src/where.c.

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** by passing the pointer returned by this function to sqlite3_free().
*/
static sqlite3_index_info *allocateIndexInfo(
  Parse *pParse,
  WhereClause *pWC,
  Bitmask mUnusable,              /* Ignore terms with these prereqs */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc,
  ExprList *pOrderBy

){
  int i, j;
  int nTerm;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint *pIdxCons;
  struct sqlite3_index_orderby *pIdxOrderBy;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage *pUsage;
  WhereTerm *pTerm;
  int nOrderBy;
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo;


  /* Count the number of possible WHERE clause constraints referring
  ** to this virtual table */
  for(i=nTerm=0, pTerm=pWC->a; i<pWC->nTerm; i++, pTerm++){
    if( pTerm->leftCursor != pSrc->iCursor ) continue;
    if( pTerm->prereqRight & mUnusable ) continue;
    assert( IsPowerOfTwo(pTerm->eOperator & ~WO_EQUIV) );
................................................................................
    assert( WO_EQ==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_EQ );
    assert( WO_LT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LT );
    assert( WO_LE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LE );
    assert( WO_GT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GT );
    assert( WO_GE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GE );
    assert( WO_MATCH==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_MATCH );
    assert( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_IN|WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_MATCH) );









    j++;
  }
  for(i=0; i<nOrderBy; i++){
    Expr *pExpr = pOrderBy->a[i].pExpr;
    pIdxOrderBy[i].iColumn = pExpr->iColumn;
    pIdxOrderBy[i].desc = pOrderBy->a[i].sortOrder;
  }


  return pIdxInfo;
}

/*
** The table object reference passed as the second argument to this function
** must represent a virtual table. This function invokes the xBestIndex()
** method of the virtual table with the sqlite3_index_info object that
................................................................................
}


#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
/*
** Return the affinity for a single column of an index.
*/
static char sqlite3IndexColumnAffinity(sqlite3 *db, Index *pIdx, int iCol){
  assert( iCol>=0 && iCol<pIdx->nColumn );
  if( !pIdx->zColAff ){
    if( sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(db, pIdx)==0 ) return SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
  }
  return pIdx->zColAff[iCol];
}
#endif
................................................................................
  Index *p = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;

  if( p->nSample>0 && nEq<p->nSampleCol ){
    if( nEq==pBuilder->nRecValid ){
      UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;
      tRowcnt a[2];
      u8 aff;


      /* Variable iLower will be set to the estimate of the number of rows in 
      ** the index that are less than the lower bound of the range query. The
      ** lower bound being the concatenation of $P and $L, where $P is the
      ** key-prefix formed by the nEq values matched against the nEq left-most
      ** columns of the index, and $L is the value in pLower.
      **
................................................................................
      int iLwrIdx = -2;   /* aSample[] for the lower bound */
      int iUprIdx = -1;   /* aSample[] for the upper bound */

      if( pRec ){
        testcase( pRec->nField!=pBuilder->nRecValid );
        pRec->nField = pBuilder->nRecValid;
      }
      aff = sqlite3IndexColumnAffinity(pParse->db, p, nEq);
      assert( nEq!=p->nKeyCol || aff==SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER );
      /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
      if( nEq==0 ){
        iLower = 0;
        iUpper = p->nRowEst0;
      }else{
        /* Note: this call could be optimized away - since the same values must 
        ** have been requested when testing key $P in whereEqualScanEst().  */
................................................................................

      assert( pLower==0 || (pLower->eOperator & (WO_GT|WO_GE))!=0 );
      assert( pUpper==0 || (pUpper->eOperator & (WO_LT|WO_LE))!=0 );
      assert( p->aSortOrder!=0 );
      if( p->aSortOrder[nEq] ){
        /* The roles of pLower and pUpper are swapped for a DESC index */
        SWAP(WhereTerm*, pLower, pUpper);

      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iLower estimate using ($P:$L). */
      if( pLower ){
        int bOk;                    /* True if value is extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr = pLower->pExpr->pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq, &bOk);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && bOk ){
          tRowcnt iNew;


          iLwrIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pLower->eOperator & (WO_GT|WO_LE)) ? a[1] : 0);
          if( iNew>iLower ) iLower = iNew;
          nOut--;
          pLower = 0;
        }
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iUpper estimate using ($P:$U). */
      if( pUpper ){
        int bOk;                    /* True if value is extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr = pUpper->pExpr->pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq, &bOk);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && bOk ){
          tRowcnt iNew;


          iUprIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 1, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pUpper->eOperator & (WO_GT|WO_LE)) ? a[1] : 0);
          if( iNew<iUpper ) iUpper = iNew;
          nOut--;
          pUpper = 0;
        }
      }

      pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
................................................................................
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,
  Expr *pExpr,         /* Expression for VALUE in the x=VALUE constraint */
  tRowcnt *pnRow       /* Write the revised row estimate here */
){
  Index *p = pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.nEq;
  UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;
  u8 aff;                   /* Column affinity */
  int rc;                   /* Subfunction return code */
  tRowcnt a[2];             /* Statistics */
  int bOk;

  assert( nEq>=1 );
  assert( nEq<=p->nColumn );
  assert( p->aSample!=0 );
................................................................................
  /* This is an optimization only. The call to sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue()
  ** below would return the same value.  */
  if( nEq>=p->nColumn ){
    *pnRow = 1;
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }

  aff = sqlite3IndexColumnAffinity(pParse->db, p, nEq-1);
  rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq-1, &bOk);
  pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  if( bOk==0 ) return SQLITE_NOTFOUND;
  pBuilder->nRecValid = nEq;

  whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
  WHERETRACE(0x10,("equality scan regions %s(%d): %d\n",
................................................................................
    }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_OR)!=0 && pTerm->u.pOrInfo!=0 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zLeft),zLeft,"indexable=0x%lld", 
                       pTerm->u.pOrInfo->indexable);
    }else{
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zLeft),zLeft,"left=%d", pTerm->leftCursor);
    }
    sqlite3DebugPrintf(
       "TERM-%-3d %p %s %-12s prob=%-3d op=0x%03x wtFlags=0x%04x\n",
       iTerm, pTerm, zType, zLeft, pTerm->truthProb,
       pTerm->eOperator, pTerm->wtFlags);





    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(0, pTerm->pExpr, 0);
  }
}
#endif

#ifdef WHERETRACE_ENABLED
/*
................................................................................
          if( iReduce<k ) iReduce = k;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  if( pLoop->nOut > nRow-iReduce )  pLoop->nOut = nRow - iReduce;
}



































































/*
** Adjust the cost C by the costMult facter T.  This only occurs if
** compiled with -DSQLITE_ENABLE_COSTMULT
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COSTMULT
# define ApplyCostMultiplier(C,T)  C += T
................................................................................
  WhereLoop *pNew;                /* Template WhereLoop under construction */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;               /* A WhereTerm under consideration */
  int opMask;                     /* Valid operators for constraints */
  WhereScan scan;                 /* Iterator for WHERE terms */
  Bitmask saved_prereq;           /* Original value of pNew->prereq */
  u16 saved_nLTerm;               /* Original value of pNew->nLTerm */
  u16 saved_nEq;                  /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nEq */


  u16 saved_nSkip;                /* Original value of pNew->nSkip */
  u32 saved_wsFlags;              /* Original value of pNew->wsFlags */
  LogEst saved_nOut;              /* Original value of pNew->nOut */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  LogEst rSize;                   /* Number of rows in the table */
  LogEst rLogSize;                /* Logarithm of table size */
  WhereTerm *pTop = 0, *pBtm = 0; /* Top and bottom range constraints */
................................................................................
  if( db->mallocFailed ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;

  assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 );
  assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)==0 );
  if( pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    opMask = WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }else{

    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_ISNULL|WO_IS;
  }
  if( pProbe->bUnordered ) opMask &= ~(WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE);

  assert( pNew->u.btree.nEq<pProbe->nColumn );

  saved_nEq = pNew->u.btree.nEq;


  saved_nSkip = pNew->nSkip;
  saved_nLTerm = pNew->nLTerm;
  saved_wsFlags = pNew->wsFlags;
  saved_prereq = pNew->prereq;
  saved_nOut = pNew->nOut;
  pTerm = whereScanInit(&scan, pBuilder->pWC, pSrc->iCursor, saved_nEq,
                        opMask, pProbe);
................................................................................
      testcase( eOp & WO_IS );
      testcase( eOp & WO_ISNULL );
      continue;
    }

    pNew->wsFlags = saved_wsFlags;
    pNew->u.btree.nEq = saved_nEq;


    pNew->nLTerm = saved_nLTerm;
    if( whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1) ) break; /* OOM */
    pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = pTerm;
    pNew->prereq = (saved_prereq | pTerm->prereqRight) & ~pNew->maskSelf;

    assert( nInMul==0
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_NULL)!=0 
................................................................................
    );

    if( eOp & WO_IN ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_IN;
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        /* "x IN (SELECT ...)":  TUNING: the SELECT returns 25 rows */

        nIn = 46;  assert( 46==sqlite3LogEst(25) );









      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList && pExpr->x.pList->nExpr) ){
        /* "x IN (value, value, ...)" */
        nIn = sqlite3LogEst(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr);
      }
      assert( nIn>0 );  /* RHS always has 2 or more terms...  The parser
                        ** changes "x IN (?)" into "x=?". */

    }else if( eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_IS) ){
      int iCol = pProbe->aiColumn[saved_nEq];
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      assert( saved_nEq==pNew->u.btree.nEq );
      if( iCol==XN_ROWID 
       || (iCol>0 && nInMul==0 && saved_nEq==pProbe->nKeyCol-1)
      ){
................................................................................
      }
    }else if( eOp & WO_ISNULL ){
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_NULL;
    }else if( eOp & (WO_GT|WO_GE) ){
      testcase( eOp & WO_GT );
      testcase( eOp & WO_GE );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_BTM_LIMIT;



      pBtm = pTerm;
      pTop = 0;
      if( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT ){
        /* Range contraints that come from the LIKE optimization are
        ** always used in pairs. */
        pTop = &pTerm[1];
        assert( (pTop-(pTerm->pWC->a))<pTerm->pWC->nTerm );
        assert( pTop->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT );
        assert( pTop->eOperator==WO_LT );
        if( whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1) ) break; /* OOM */
        pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = pTop;
        pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_TOP_LIMIT;

      }
    }else{
      assert( eOp & (WO_LT|WO_LE) );
      testcase( eOp & WO_LT );
      testcase( eOp & WO_LE );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT;



      pTop = pTerm;
      pBtm = (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT)!=0 ?
                     pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm-2] : 0;
    }

    /* At this point pNew->nOut is set to the number of rows expected to
    ** be visited by the index scan before considering term pTerm, or the
................................................................................
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
    pBuilder->nRecValid = nRecValid;
#endif
  }
  pNew->prereq = saved_prereq;
  pNew->u.btree.nEq = saved_nEq;


  pNew->nSkip = saved_nSkip;
  pNew->wsFlags = saved_wsFlags;
  pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
  pNew->nLTerm = saved_nLTerm;

  /* Consider using a skip-scan if there are no WHERE clause constraints
  ** available for the left-most terms of the index, and if the average
................................................................................
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Add all WhereLoop objects for a single table of the join where the table
** is idenfied by pBuilder->pNew->iTab.  That table is guaranteed to be
** a b-tree table, not a virtual table.
**
** The costs (WhereLoop.rRun) of the b-tree loops added by this function
** are calculated as follows:
**
** For a full scan, assuming the table (or index) contains nRow rows:
**
................................................................................
    if( pProbe->pPartIdxWhere!=0
     && !whereUsablePartialIndex(pSrc->iCursor, pWC, pProbe->pPartIdxWhere) ){
      testcase( pNew->iTab!=pSrc->iCursor );  /* See ticket [98d973b8f5] */
      continue;  /* Partial index inappropriate for this query */
    }
    rSize = pProbe->aiRowLogEst[0];
    pNew->u.btree.nEq = 0;


    pNew->nSkip = 0;
    pNew->nLTerm = 0;
    pNew->iSortIdx = 0;
    pNew->rSetup = 0;
    pNew->prereq = mPrereq;
    pNew->nOut = rSize;
    pNew->u.btree.pIndex = pProbe;
................................................................................
*/
static int whereLoopAddVirtualOne(
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,
  Bitmask mPrereq,                /* Mask of tables that must be used. */
  Bitmask mUsable,                /* Mask of usable tables */
  u16 mExclude,                   /* Exclude terms using these operators */
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo,   /* Populated object for xBestIndex */

  int *pbIn                       /* OUT: True if plan uses an IN(...) op */
){
  WhereClause *pWC = pBuilder->pWC;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint *pIdxCons;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage *pUsage = pIdxInfo->aConstraintUsage;
  int i;
  int mxTerm;
................................................................................
        ** together.  */
        pIdxInfo->orderByConsumed = 0;
        pIdxInfo->idxFlags &= ~SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_UNIQUE;
        *pbIn = 1; assert( (mExclude & WO_IN)==0 );
      }
    }
  }


  pNew->nLTerm = mxTerm+1;
  assert( pNew->nLTerm<=pNew->nLSlot );
  pNew->u.vtab.idxNum = pIdxInfo->idxNum;
  pNew->u.vtab.needFree = pIdxInfo->needToFreeIdxStr;
  pIdxInfo->needToFreeIdxStr = 0;
  pNew->u.vtab.idxStr = pIdxInfo->idxStr;
................................................................................
  WhereClause *pWC;            /* The WHERE clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc;   /* The FROM clause term to search */
  sqlite3_index_info *p;       /* Object to pass to xBestIndex() */
  int nConstraint;             /* Number of constraints in p */
  int bIn;                     /* True if plan uses IN(...) operator */
  WhereLoop *pNew;
  Bitmask mBest;               /* Tables used by best possible plan */


  assert( (mPrereq & mUnusable)==0 );
  pWInfo = pBuilder->pWInfo;
  pParse = pWInfo->pParse;
  pWC = pBuilder->pWC;
  pNew = pBuilder->pNew;
  pSrc = &pWInfo->pTabList->a[pNew->iTab];
  assert( IsVirtual(pSrc->pTab) );
  p = allocateIndexInfo(pParse, pWC, mUnusable, pSrc, pBuilder->pOrderBy);

  if( p==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
  pNew->rSetup = 0;
  pNew->wsFlags = WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE;
  pNew->nLTerm = 0;
  pNew->u.vtab.needFree = 0;
  nConstraint = p->nConstraint;
  if( whereLoopResize(pParse->db, pNew, nConstraint) ){
    sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, p);
    return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
  }

  /* First call xBestIndex() with all constraints usable. */
  WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all usable\n"));
  rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(pBuilder, mPrereq, ALLBITS, 0, p, &bIn);

  /* If the call to xBestIndex() with all terms enabled produced a plan
  ** that does not require any source tables (IOW: a plan with mBest==0),
  ** then there is no point in making any further calls to xBestIndex() 
  ** since they will all return the same result (if the xBestIndex()
  ** implementation is sane). */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && (mBest = (pNew->prereq & ~mPrereq))!=0 ){
................................................................................
    Bitmask mPrev = 0;
    Bitmask mBestNoIn = 0;

    /* If the plan produced by the earlier call uses an IN(...) term, call
    ** xBestIndex again, this time with IN(...) terms disabled. */
    if( bIn ){
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all usable w/o IN\n"));

      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(pBuilder, mPrereq, ALLBITS, WO_IN, p, &bIn);
      assert( bIn==0 );
      mBestNoIn = pNew->prereq & ~mPrereq;
      if( mBestNoIn==0 ){
        seenZero = 1;
        seenZeroNoIN = 1;
      }
    }
................................................................................
        if( mThis>mPrev && mThis<mNext ) mNext = mThis;
      }
      mPrev = mNext;
      if( mNext==ALLBITS ) break;
      if( mNext==mBest || mNext==mBestNoIn ) continue;
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: mPrev=%04llx mNext=%04llx\n",
                       (sqlite3_uint64)mPrev, (sqlite3_uint64)mNext));

      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(pBuilder, mPrereq, mNext|mPrereq, 0, p, &bIn);
      if( pNew->prereq==mPrereq ){
        seenZero = 1;
        if( bIn==0 ) seenZeroNoIN = 1;
      }
    }

    /* If the calls to xBestIndex() in the above loop did not find a plan
    ** that requires no source tables at all (i.e. one guaranteed to be
    ** usable), make a call here with all source tables disabled */
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && seenZero==0 ){
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all disabled\n"));
      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(pBuilder, mPrereq, mPrereq, 0, p, &bIn);

      if( bIn==0 ) seenZeroNoIN = 1;
    }

    /* If the calls to xBestIndex() have so far failed to find a plan
    ** that requires no source tables at all and does not use an IN(...)
    ** operator, make a final call to obtain one here.  */
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && seenZeroNoIN==0 ){
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all disabled and w/o IN\n"));

      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(pBuilder, mPrereq, mPrereq, WO_IN, p, &bIn);
    }
  }

  if( p->needToFreeIdxStr ) sqlite3_free(p->idxStr);
  sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, p);
  return rc;
}
................................................................................

      /* Loop through all columns of the index and deal with the ones
      ** that are not constrained by == or IN.
      */
      rev = revSet = 0;
      distinctColumns = 0;
      for(j=0; j<nColumn; j++){
        u8 bOnce;   /* True to run the ORDER BY search loop */







        /* Skip over == and IS and ISNULL terms.
        ** (Also skip IN terms when doing WHERE_ORDERBY_LIMIT processing)
        */
        if( j<pLoop->u.btree.nEq
         && pLoop->nSkip==0
         && ((i = pLoop->aLTerm[j]->eOperator) & eqOpMask)!=0
        ){






          if( i & WO_ISNULL ){
            testcase( isOrderDistinct );
            isOrderDistinct = 0;
          }
          continue;  














        }

        /* Get the column number in the table (iColumn) and sort order
        ** (revIdx) for the j-th column of the index.
        */
        if( pIndex ){
          iColumn = pIndex->aiColumn[j];
................................................................................
        ){
          isOrderDistinct = 0;
        }

        /* Find the ORDER BY term that corresponds to the j-th column
        ** of the index and mark that ORDER BY term off 
        */
        bOnce = 1;
        isMatch = 0;
        for(i=0; bOnce && i<nOrderBy; i++){
          if( MASKBIT(i) & obSat ) continue;
          pOBExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pOrderBy->a[i].pExpr);
          testcase( wctrlFlags & WHERE_GROUPBY );
          testcase( wctrlFlags & WHERE_DISTINCTBY );
          if( (wctrlFlags & (WHERE_GROUPBY|WHERE_DISTINCTBY))==0 ) bOnce = 0;
................................................................................
    }
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IN_ABLE && pLevel->u.in.nIn>0 ){
      struct InLoop *pIn;
      int j;
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, pLevel->addrNxt);
      for(j=pLevel->u.in.nIn, pIn=&pLevel->u.in.aInLoop[j-1]; j>0; j--, pIn--){
        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, pIn->addrInTop+1);

        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, pIn->eEndLoopOp, pIn->iCur, pIn->addrInTop);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
        VdbeCoverageIf(v, pIn->eEndLoopOp==OP_PrevIfOpen);
        VdbeCoverageIf(v, pIn->eEndLoopOp==OP_NextIfOpen);

        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, pIn->addrInTop-1);
      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, pLevel->addrBrk);
    if( pLevel->addrSkip ){
      sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, pLevel->addrSkip);
      VdbeComment((v, "next skip-scan on %s", pLoop->u.btree.pIndex->zName));







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** by passing the pointer returned by this function to sqlite3_free().
*/
static sqlite3_index_info *allocateIndexInfo(
  Parse *pParse,
  WhereClause *pWC,
  Bitmask mUnusable,              /* Ignore terms with these prereqs */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc,
  ExprList *pOrderBy,
  u16 *pmNoOmit                   /* Mask of terms not to omit */
){
  int i, j;
  int nTerm;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint *pIdxCons;
  struct sqlite3_index_orderby *pIdxOrderBy;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage *pUsage;
  WhereTerm *pTerm;
  int nOrderBy;
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo;
  u16 mNoOmit = 0;

  /* Count the number of possible WHERE clause constraints referring
  ** to this virtual table */
  for(i=nTerm=0, pTerm=pWC->a; i<pWC->nTerm; i++, pTerm++){
    if( pTerm->leftCursor != pSrc->iCursor ) continue;
    if( pTerm->prereqRight & mUnusable ) continue;
    assert( IsPowerOfTwo(pTerm->eOperator & ~WO_EQUIV) );
................................................................................
    assert( WO_EQ==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_EQ );
    assert( WO_LT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LT );
    assert( WO_LE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_LE );
    assert( WO_GT==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GT );
    assert( WO_GE==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_GE );
    assert( WO_MATCH==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_MATCH );
    assert( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_IN|WO_EQ|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_MATCH) );

    if( op & (WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_GT|WO_GE)
     && sqlite3ExprIsVector(pTerm->pExpr->pRight) 
    ){
      if( i<16 ) mNoOmit |= (1 << i);
      if( op==WO_LT ) pIdxCons[j].op = WO_LE;
      if( op==WO_GT ) pIdxCons[j].op = WO_GE;
    }

    j++;
  }
  for(i=0; i<nOrderBy; i++){
    Expr *pExpr = pOrderBy->a[i].pExpr;
    pIdxOrderBy[i].iColumn = pExpr->iColumn;
    pIdxOrderBy[i].desc = pOrderBy->a[i].sortOrder;
  }

  *pmNoOmit = mNoOmit;
  return pIdxInfo;
}

/*
** The table object reference passed as the second argument to this function
** must represent a virtual table. This function invokes the xBestIndex()
** method of the virtual table with the sqlite3_index_info object that
................................................................................
}


#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
/*
** Return the affinity for a single column of an index.
*/
char sqlite3IndexColumnAffinity(sqlite3 *db, Index *pIdx, int iCol){
  assert( iCol>=0 && iCol<pIdx->nColumn );
  if( !pIdx->zColAff ){
    if( sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(db, pIdx)==0 ) return SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
  }
  return pIdx->zColAff[iCol];
}
#endif
................................................................................
  Index *p = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;

  if( p->nSample>0 && nEq<p->nSampleCol ){
    if( nEq==pBuilder->nRecValid ){
      UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;
      tRowcnt a[2];
      int nBtm = pLoop->u.btree.nBtm;
      int nTop = pLoop->u.btree.nTop;

      /* Variable iLower will be set to the estimate of the number of rows in 
      ** the index that are less than the lower bound of the range query. The
      ** lower bound being the concatenation of $P and $L, where $P is the
      ** key-prefix formed by the nEq values matched against the nEq left-most
      ** columns of the index, and $L is the value in pLower.
      **
................................................................................
      int iLwrIdx = -2;   /* aSample[] for the lower bound */
      int iUprIdx = -1;   /* aSample[] for the upper bound */

      if( pRec ){
        testcase( pRec->nField!=pBuilder->nRecValid );
        pRec->nField = pBuilder->nRecValid;
      }


      /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
      if( nEq==0 ){
        iLower = 0;
        iUpper = p->nRowEst0;
      }else{
        /* Note: this call could be optimized away - since the same values must 
        ** have been requested when testing key $P in whereEqualScanEst().  */
................................................................................

      assert( pLower==0 || (pLower->eOperator & (WO_GT|WO_GE))!=0 );
      assert( pUpper==0 || (pUpper->eOperator & (WO_LT|WO_LE))!=0 );
      assert( p->aSortOrder!=0 );
      if( p->aSortOrder[nEq] ){
        /* The roles of pLower and pUpper are swapped for a DESC index */
        SWAP(WhereTerm*, pLower, pUpper);
        SWAP(int, nBtm, nTop);
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iLower estimate using ($P:$L). */
      if( pLower ){
        int n;                    /* Values extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr = pLower->pExpr->pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, nBtm, nEq, &n);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && n ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          u16 mask = WO_GT|WO_LE;
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr)>n ) mask = (WO_LE|WO_LT);
          iLwrIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pLower->eOperator & mask) ? a[1] : 0);
          if( iNew>iLower ) iLower = iNew;
          nOut--;
          pLower = 0;
        }
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iUpper estimate using ($P:$U). */
      if( pUpper ){
        int n;                    /* Values extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr = pUpper->pExpr->pRight;
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, nTop, nEq, &n);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && n ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          u16 mask = WO_GT|WO_LE;
          if( sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr)>n ) mask = (WO_LE|WO_LT);
          iUprIdx = whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 1, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pUpper->eOperator & mask) ? a[1] : 0);
          if( iNew<iUpper ) iUpper = iNew;
          nOut--;
          pUpper = 0;
        }
      }

      pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
................................................................................
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,
  Expr *pExpr,         /* Expression for VALUE in the x=VALUE constraint */
  tRowcnt *pnRow       /* Write the revised row estimate here */
){
  Index *p = pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pBuilder->pNew->u.btree.nEq;
  UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;

  int rc;                   /* Subfunction return code */
  tRowcnt a[2];             /* Statistics */
  int bOk;

  assert( nEq>=1 );
  assert( nEq<=p->nColumn );
  assert( p->aSample!=0 );
................................................................................
  /* This is an optimization only. The call to sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue()
  ** below would return the same value.  */
  if( nEq>=p->nColumn ){
    *pnRow = 1;
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }


  rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, 1, nEq-1, &bOk);
  pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  if( bOk==0 ) return SQLITE_NOTFOUND;
  pBuilder->nRecValid = nEq;

  whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
  WHERETRACE(0x10,("equality scan regions %s(%d): %d\n",
................................................................................
    }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_OR)!=0 && pTerm->u.pOrInfo!=0 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zLeft),zLeft,"indexable=0x%lld", 
                       pTerm->u.pOrInfo->indexable);
    }else{
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zLeft),zLeft,"left=%d", pTerm->leftCursor);
    }
    sqlite3DebugPrintf(
       "TERM-%-3d %p %s %-12s prob=%-3d op=0x%03x wtFlags=0x%04x",
       iTerm, pTerm, zType, zLeft, pTerm->truthProb,
       pTerm->eOperator, pTerm->wtFlags);
    if( pTerm->iField ){
      sqlite3DebugPrintf(" iField=%d\n", pTerm->iField);
    }else{
      sqlite3DebugPrintf("\n");
    }
    sqlite3TreeViewExpr(0, pTerm->pExpr, 0);
  }
}
#endif

#ifdef WHERETRACE_ENABLED
/*
................................................................................
          if( iReduce<k ) iReduce = k;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  if( pLoop->nOut > nRow-iReduce )  pLoop->nOut = nRow - iReduce;
}

/* 
** Term pTerm is a vector range comparison operation. The first comparison
** in the vector can be optimized using column nEq of the index. This
** function returns the total number of vector elements that can be used
** as part of the range comparison.
**
** For example, if the query is:
**
**   WHERE a = ? AND (b, c, d) > (?, ?, ?)
**
** and the index:
**
**   CREATE INDEX ... ON (a, b, c, d, e)
**
** then this function would be invoked with nEq=1. The value returned in
** this case is 3.
*/
int whereRangeVectorLen(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
  int iCur,            /* Cursor open on pIdx */
  Index *pIdx,         /* The index to be used for a inequality constraint */
  int nEq,             /* Number of prior equality constraints on same index */
  WhereTerm *pTerm     /* The vector inequality constraint */
){
  int nCmp = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pTerm->pExpr->pLeft);
  int i;

  nCmp = MIN(nCmp, (pIdx->nColumn - nEq));
  for(i=1; i<nCmp; i++){
    /* Test if comparison i of pTerm is compatible with column (i+nEq) 
    ** of the index. If not, exit the loop.  */
    char aff;                     /* Comparison affinity */
    char idxaff = 0;              /* Indexed columns affinity */
    CollSeq *pColl;               /* Comparison collation sequence */
    Expr *pLhs = pTerm->pExpr->pLeft->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
    Expr *pRhs = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
    if( pRhs->flags & EP_xIsSelect ){
      pRhs = pRhs->x.pSelect->pEList->a[i].pExpr;
    }else{
      pRhs = pRhs->x.pList->a[i].pExpr;
    }

    /* Check that the LHS of the comparison is a column reference to
    ** the right column of the right source table. And that the sort
    ** order of the index column is the same as the sort order of the
    ** leftmost index column.  */
    if( pLhs->op!=TK_COLUMN 
     || pLhs->iTable!=iCur 
     || pLhs->iColumn!=pIdx->aiColumn[i+nEq] 
     || pIdx->aSortOrder[i+nEq]!=pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]
    ){
      break;
    }

    testcase( pLhs->iColumn==XN_ROWID );
    aff = sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRhs, sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLhs));
    idxaff = sqlite3TableColumnAffinity(pIdx->pTable, pLhs->iColumn);
    if( aff!=idxaff ) break;

    pColl = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pLhs, pRhs);
    if( pColl==0 ) break;
    if( sqlite3StrICmp(pColl->zName, pIdx->azColl[i+nEq]) ) break;
  }
  return i;
}

/*
** Adjust the cost C by the costMult facter T.  This only occurs if
** compiled with -DSQLITE_ENABLE_COSTMULT
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COSTMULT
# define ApplyCostMultiplier(C,T)  C += T
................................................................................
  WhereLoop *pNew;                /* Template WhereLoop under construction */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;               /* A WhereTerm under consideration */
  int opMask;                     /* Valid operators for constraints */
  WhereScan scan;                 /* Iterator for WHERE terms */
  Bitmask saved_prereq;           /* Original value of pNew->prereq */
  u16 saved_nLTerm;               /* Original value of pNew->nLTerm */
  u16 saved_nEq;                  /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nEq */
  u16 saved_nBtm;                 /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nBtm */
  u16 saved_nTop;                 /* Original value of pNew->u.btree.nTop */
  u16 saved_nSkip;                /* Original value of pNew->nSkip */
  u32 saved_wsFlags;              /* Original value of pNew->wsFlags */
  LogEst saved_nOut;              /* Original value of pNew->nOut */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  LogEst rSize;                   /* Number of rows in the table */
  LogEst rLogSize;                /* Logarithm of table size */
  WhereTerm *pTop = 0, *pBtm = 0; /* Top and bottom range constraints */
................................................................................
  if( db->mallocFailed ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;

  assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 );
  assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)==0 );
  if( pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    opMask = WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }else{
    assert( pNew->u.btree.nBtm==0 );
    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE|WO_ISNULL|WO_IS;
  }
  if( pProbe->bUnordered ) opMask &= ~(WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE);

  assert( pNew->u.btree.nEq<pProbe->nColumn );

  saved_nEq = pNew->u.btree.nEq;
  saved_nBtm = pNew->u.btree.nBtm;
  saved_nTop = pNew->u.btree.nTop;
  saved_nSkip = pNew->nSkip;
  saved_nLTerm = pNew->nLTerm;
  saved_wsFlags = pNew->wsFlags;
  saved_prereq = pNew->prereq;
  saved_nOut = pNew->nOut;
  pTerm = whereScanInit(&scan, pBuilder->pWC, pSrc->iCursor, saved_nEq,
                        opMask, pProbe);
................................................................................
      testcase( eOp & WO_IS );
      testcase( eOp & WO_ISNULL );
      continue;
    }

    pNew->wsFlags = saved_wsFlags;
    pNew->u.btree.nEq = saved_nEq;
    pNew->u.btree.nBtm = saved_nBtm;
    pNew->u.btree.nTop = saved_nTop;
    pNew->nLTerm = saved_nLTerm;
    if( whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1) ) break; /* OOM */
    pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = pTerm;
    pNew->prereq = (saved_prereq | pTerm->prereqRight) & ~pNew->maskSelf;

    assert( nInMul==0
        || (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_NULL)!=0 
................................................................................
    );

    if( eOp & WO_IN ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_IN;
      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        /* "x IN (SELECT ...)":  TUNING: the SELECT returns 25 rows */
        int i;
        nIn = 46;  assert( 46==sqlite3LogEst(25) );

        /* The expression may actually be of the form (x, y) IN (SELECT...).
        ** In this case there is a separate term for each of (x) and (y).
        ** However, the nIn multiplier should only be applied once, not once
        ** for each such term. The following loop checks that pTerm is the
        ** first such term in use, and sets nIn back to 0 if it is not. */
        for(i=0; i<pNew->nLTerm-1; i++){
          if( pNew->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pExpr ) nIn = 0;
        }
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList && pExpr->x.pList->nExpr) ){
        /* "x IN (value, value, ...)" */
        nIn = sqlite3LogEst(pExpr->x.pList->nExpr);

        assert( nIn>0 );  /* RHS always has 2 or more terms...  The parser
                          ** changes "x IN (?)" into "x=?". */
      }
    }else if( eOp & (WO_EQ|WO_IS) ){
      int iCol = pProbe->aiColumn[saved_nEq];
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      assert( saved_nEq==pNew->u.btree.nEq );
      if( iCol==XN_ROWID 
       || (iCol>0 && nInMul==0 && saved_nEq==pProbe->nKeyCol-1)
      ){
................................................................................
      }
    }else if( eOp & WO_ISNULL ){
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_NULL;
    }else if( eOp & (WO_GT|WO_GE) ){
      testcase( eOp & WO_GT );
      testcase( eOp & WO_GE );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_BTM_LIMIT;
      pNew->u.btree.nBtm = whereRangeVectorLen(
          pParse, pSrc->iCursor, pProbe, saved_nEq, pTerm
      );
      pBtm = pTerm;
      pTop = 0;
      if( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT ){
        /* Range contraints that come from the LIKE optimization are
        ** always used in pairs. */
        pTop = &pTerm[1];
        assert( (pTop-(pTerm->pWC->a))<pTerm->pWC->nTerm );
        assert( pTop->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT );
        assert( pTop->eOperator==WO_LT );
        if( whereLoopResize(db, pNew, pNew->nLTerm+1) ) break; /* OOM */
        pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm++] = pTop;
        pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_TOP_LIMIT;
        pNew->u.btree.nTop = 1;
      }
    }else{
      assert( eOp & (WO_LT|WO_LE) );
      testcase( eOp & WO_LT );
      testcase( eOp & WO_LE );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT;
      pNew->u.btree.nTop = whereRangeVectorLen(
          pParse, pSrc->iCursor, pProbe, saved_nEq, pTerm
      );
      pTop = pTerm;
      pBtm = (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT)!=0 ?
                     pNew->aLTerm[pNew->nLTerm-2] : 0;
    }

    /* At this point pNew->nOut is set to the number of rows expected to
    ** be visited by the index scan before considering term pTerm, or the
................................................................................
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
    pBuilder->nRecValid = nRecValid;
#endif
  }
  pNew->prereq = saved_prereq;
  pNew->u.btree.nEq = saved_nEq;
  pNew->u.btree.nBtm = saved_nBtm;
  pNew->u.btree.nTop = saved_nTop;
  pNew->nSkip = saved_nSkip;
  pNew->wsFlags = saved_wsFlags;
  pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
  pNew->nLTerm = saved_nLTerm;

  /* Consider using a skip-scan if there are no WHERE clause constraints
  ** available for the left-most terms of the index, and if the average
................................................................................
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Add all WhereLoop objects for a single table of the join where the table
** is identified by pBuilder->pNew->iTab.  That table is guaranteed to be
** a b-tree table, not a virtual table.
**
** The costs (WhereLoop.rRun) of the b-tree loops added by this function
** are calculated as follows:
**
** For a full scan, assuming the table (or index) contains nRow rows:
**
................................................................................
    if( pProbe->pPartIdxWhere!=0
     && !whereUsablePartialIndex(pSrc->iCursor, pWC, pProbe->pPartIdxWhere) ){
      testcase( pNew->iTab!=pSrc->iCursor );  /* See ticket [98d973b8f5] */
      continue;  /* Partial index inappropriate for this query */
    }
    rSize = pProbe->aiRowLogEst[0];
    pNew->u.btree.nEq = 0;
    pNew->u.btree.nBtm = 0;
    pNew->u.btree.nTop = 0;
    pNew->nSkip = 0;
    pNew->nLTerm = 0;
    pNew->iSortIdx = 0;
    pNew->rSetup = 0;
    pNew->prereq = mPrereq;
    pNew->nOut = rSize;
    pNew->u.btree.pIndex = pProbe;
................................................................................
*/
static int whereLoopAddVirtualOne(
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder,
  Bitmask mPrereq,                /* Mask of tables that must be used. */
  Bitmask mUsable,                /* Mask of usable tables */
  u16 mExclude,                   /* Exclude terms using these operators */
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo,   /* Populated object for xBestIndex */
  u16 mNoOmit,                    /* Do not omit these constraints */
  int *pbIn                       /* OUT: True if plan uses an IN(...) op */
){
  WhereClause *pWC = pBuilder->pWC;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint *pIdxCons;
  struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage *pUsage = pIdxInfo->aConstraintUsage;
  int i;
  int mxTerm;
................................................................................
        ** together.  */
        pIdxInfo->orderByConsumed = 0;
        pIdxInfo->idxFlags &= ~SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_UNIQUE;
        *pbIn = 1; assert( (mExclude & WO_IN)==0 );
      }
    }
  }
  pNew->u.vtab.omitMask &= ~mNoOmit;

  pNew->nLTerm = mxTerm+1;
  assert( pNew->nLTerm<=pNew->nLSlot );
  pNew->u.vtab.idxNum = pIdxInfo->idxNum;
  pNew->u.vtab.needFree = pIdxInfo->needToFreeIdxStr;
  pIdxInfo->needToFreeIdxStr = 0;
  pNew->u.vtab.idxStr = pIdxInfo->idxStr;
................................................................................
  WhereClause *pWC;            /* The WHERE clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc;   /* The FROM clause term to search */
  sqlite3_index_info *p;       /* Object to pass to xBestIndex() */
  int nConstraint;             /* Number of constraints in p */
  int bIn;                     /* True if plan uses IN(...) operator */
  WhereLoop *pNew;
  Bitmask mBest;               /* Tables used by best possible plan */
  u16 mNoOmit;

  assert( (mPrereq & mUnusable)==0 );
  pWInfo = pBuilder->pWInfo;
  pParse = pWInfo->pParse;
  pWC = pBuilder->pWC;
  pNew = pBuilder->pNew;
  pSrc = &pWInfo->pTabList->a[pNew->iTab];
  assert( IsVirtual(pSrc->pTab) );
  p = allocateIndexInfo(pParse, pWC, mUnusable, pSrc, pBuilder->pOrderBy, 
      &mNoOmit);
  if( p==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
  pNew->rSetup = 0;
  pNew->wsFlags = WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE;
  pNew->nLTerm = 0;
  pNew->u.vtab.needFree = 0;
  nConstraint = p->nConstraint;
  if( whereLoopResize(pParse->db, pNew, nConstraint) ){
    sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, p);
    return SQLITE_NOMEM_BKPT;
  }

  /* First call xBestIndex() with all constraints usable. */
  WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all usable\n"));
  rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(pBuilder, mPrereq, ALLBITS, 0, p, mNoOmit, &bIn);

  /* If the call to xBestIndex() with all terms enabled produced a plan
  ** that does not require any source tables (IOW: a plan with mBest==0),
  ** then there is no point in making any further calls to xBestIndex() 
  ** since they will all return the same result (if the xBestIndex()
  ** implementation is sane). */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && (mBest = (pNew->prereq & ~mPrereq))!=0 ){
................................................................................
    Bitmask mPrev = 0;
    Bitmask mBestNoIn = 0;

    /* If the plan produced by the earlier call uses an IN(...) term, call
    ** xBestIndex again, this time with IN(...) terms disabled. */
    if( bIn ){
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all usable w/o IN\n"));
      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(
          pBuilder, mPrereq, ALLBITS, WO_IN, p, mNoOmit, &bIn);
      assert( bIn==0 );
      mBestNoIn = pNew->prereq & ~mPrereq;
      if( mBestNoIn==0 ){
        seenZero = 1;
        seenZeroNoIN = 1;
      }
    }
................................................................................
        if( mThis>mPrev && mThis<mNext ) mNext = mThis;
      }
      mPrev = mNext;
      if( mNext==ALLBITS ) break;
      if( mNext==mBest || mNext==mBestNoIn ) continue;
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: mPrev=%04llx mNext=%04llx\n",
                       (sqlite3_uint64)mPrev, (sqlite3_uint64)mNext));
      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(
          pBuilder, mPrereq, mNext|mPrereq, 0, p, mNoOmit, &bIn);
      if( pNew->prereq==mPrereq ){
        seenZero = 1;
        if( bIn==0 ) seenZeroNoIN = 1;
      }
    }

    /* If the calls to xBestIndex() in the above loop did not find a plan
    ** that requires no source tables at all (i.e. one guaranteed to be
    ** usable), make a call here with all source tables disabled */
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && seenZero==0 ){
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all disabled\n"));
      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(
          pBuilder, mPrereq, mPrereq, 0, p, mNoOmit, &bIn);
      if( bIn==0 ) seenZeroNoIN = 1;
    }

    /* If the calls to xBestIndex() have so far failed to find a plan
    ** that requires no source tables at all and does not use an IN(...)
    ** operator, make a final call to obtain one here.  */
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && seenZeroNoIN==0 ){
      WHERETRACE(0x40, ("  VirtualOne: all disabled and w/o IN\n"));
      rc = whereLoopAddVirtualOne(
          pBuilder, mPrereq, mPrereq, WO_IN, p, mNoOmit, &bIn);
    }
  }

  if( p->needToFreeIdxStr ) sqlite3_free(p->idxStr);
  sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, p);
  return rc;
}
................................................................................

      /* Loop through all columns of the index and deal with the ones
      ** that are not constrained by == or IN.
      */
      rev = revSet = 0;
      distinctColumns = 0;
      for(j=0; j<nColumn; j++){
        u8 bOnce = 1; /* True to run the ORDER BY search loop */

        assert( j>=pLoop->u.btree.nEq 
            || (pLoop->aLTerm[j]==0)==(j<pLoop->nSkip)
        );
        if( j<pLoop->u.btree.nEq && j>=pLoop->nSkip ){
          u16 eOp = pLoop->aLTerm[j]->eOperator;

          /* Skip over == and IS and ISNULL terms.  (Also skip IN terms when
          ** doing WHERE_ORDERBY_LIMIT processing). 
          **




          ** If the current term is a column of an ((?,?) IN (SELECT...)) 
          ** expression for which the SELECT returns more than one column,
          ** check that it is the only column used by this loop. Otherwise,
          ** if it is one of two or more, none of the columns can be
          ** considered to match an ORDER BY term.  */
          if( (eOp & eqOpMask)!=0 ){
            if( eOp & WO_ISNULL ){
              testcase( isOrderDistinct );
              isOrderDistinct = 0;
            }
            continue;  
          }else if( ALWAYS(eOp & WO_IN) ){
            /* ALWAYS() justification: eOp is an equality operator due to the
            ** j<pLoop->u.btree.nEq constraint above.  Any equality other
            ** than WO_IN is captured by the previous "if".  So this one
            ** always has to be WO_IN. */
            Expr *pX = pLoop->aLTerm[j]->pExpr;
            for(i=j+1; i<pLoop->u.btree.nEq; i++){
              if( pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ){
                assert( (pLoop->aLTerm[i]->eOperator & WO_IN) );
                bOnce = 0;
                break;
              }
            }
          }
        }

        /* Get the column number in the table (iColumn) and sort order
        ** (revIdx) for the j-th column of the index.
        */
        if( pIndex ){
          iColumn = pIndex->aiColumn[j];
................................................................................
        ){
          isOrderDistinct = 0;
        }

        /* Find the ORDER BY term that corresponds to the j-th column
        ** of the index and mark that ORDER BY term off 
        */

        isMatch = 0;
        for(i=0; bOnce && i<nOrderBy; i++){
          if( MASKBIT(i) & obSat ) continue;
          pOBExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pOrderBy->a[i].pExpr);
          testcase( wctrlFlags & WHERE_GROUPBY );
          testcase( wctrlFlags & WHERE_DISTINCTBY );
          if( (wctrlFlags & (WHERE_GROUPBY|WHERE_DISTINCTBY))==0 ) bOnce = 0;
................................................................................
    }
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IN_ABLE && pLevel->u.in.nIn>0 ){
      struct InLoop *pIn;
      int j;
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, pLevel->addrNxt);
      for(j=pLevel->u.in.nIn, pIn=&pLevel->u.in.aInLoop[j-1]; j>0; j--, pIn--){
        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, pIn->addrInTop+1);
        if( pIn->eEndLoopOp!=OP_Noop ){
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, pIn->eEndLoopOp, pIn->iCur, pIn->addrInTop);
          VdbeCoverage(v);
          VdbeCoverageIf(v, pIn->eEndLoopOp==OP_PrevIfOpen);
          VdbeCoverageIf(v, pIn->eEndLoopOp==OP_NextIfOpen);
        }
        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, pIn->addrInTop-1);
      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, pLevel->addrBrk);
    if( pLevel->addrSkip ){
      sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, pLevel->addrSkip);
      VdbeComment((v, "next skip-scan on %s", pLoop->u.btree.pIndex->zName));

Changes to src/whereInt.h.

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  u8 iSortIdx;          /* Sorting index number.  0==None */
  LogEst rSetup;        /* One-time setup cost (ex: create transient index) */
  LogEst rRun;          /* Cost of running each loop */
  LogEst nOut;          /* Estimated number of output rows */
  union {
    struct {               /* Information for internal btree tables */
      u16 nEq;               /* Number of equality constraints */


      Index *pIndex;         /* Index used, or NULL */
    } btree;
    struct {               /* Information for virtual tables */
      int idxNum;            /* Index number */
      u8 needFree;           /* True if sqlite3_free(idxStr) is needed */
      i8 isOrdered;          /* True if satisfies ORDER BY */
      u16 omitMask;          /* Terms that may be omitted */
................................................................................
** in prereqRight and prereqAll.  The default is 64 bits, hence SQLite
** is only able to process joins with 64 or fewer tables.
*/
struct WhereTerm {
  Expr *pExpr;            /* Pointer to the subexpression that is this term */
  int iParent;            /* Disable pWC->a[iParent] when this term disabled */
  int leftCursor;         /* Cursor number of X in "X <op> <expr>" */

  union {
    int leftColumn;         /* Column number of X in "X <op> <expr>" */
    WhereOrInfo *pOrInfo;   /* Extra information if (eOperator & WO_OR)!=0 */
    WhereAndInfo *pAndInfo; /* Extra information if (eOperator& WO_AND)!=0 */
  } u;
  LogEst truthProb;       /* Probability of truth for this expression */
  u16 eOperator;          /* A WO_xx value describing <op> */







>
>







 







>







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  u8 iSortIdx;          /* Sorting index number.  0==None */
  LogEst rSetup;        /* One-time setup cost (ex: create transient index) */
  LogEst rRun;          /* Cost of running each loop */
  LogEst nOut;          /* Estimated number of output rows */
  union {
    struct {               /* Information for internal btree tables */
      u16 nEq;               /* Number of equality constraints */
      u16 nBtm;              /* Size of BTM vector */
      u16 nTop;              /* Size of TOP vector */
      Index *pIndex;         /* Index used, or NULL */
    } btree;
    struct {               /* Information for virtual tables */
      int idxNum;            /* Index number */
      u8 needFree;           /* True if sqlite3_free(idxStr) is needed */
      i8 isOrdered;          /* True if satisfies ORDER BY */
      u16 omitMask;          /* Terms that may be omitted */
................................................................................
** in prereqRight and prereqAll.  The default is 64 bits, hence SQLite
** is only able to process joins with 64 or fewer tables.
*/
struct WhereTerm {
  Expr *pExpr;            /* Pointer to the subexpression that is this term */
  int iParent;            /* Disable pWC->a[iParent] when this term disabled */
  int leftCursor;         /* Cursor number of X in "X <op> <expr>" */
  int iField;             /* Field in (?,?,?) IN (SELECT...) vector */
  union {
    int leftColumn;         /* Column number of X in "X <op> <expr>" */
    WhereOrInfo *pOrInfo;   /* Extra information if (eOperator & WO_OR)!=0 */
    WhereAndInfo *pAndInfo; /* Extra information if (eOperator& WO_AND)!=0 */
  } u;
  LogEst truthProb;       /* Probability of truth for this expression */
  u16 eOperator;          /* A WO_xx value describing <op> */

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** that actually generate the bulk of the WHERE loop code.  The original where.c
** file retains the code that does query planning and analysis.
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "whereInt.h"

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN











/*
** This routine is a helper for explainIndexRange() below
**
** pStr holds the text of an expression that we are building up one term
** at a time.  This routine adds a new term to the end of the expression.
** Terms are separated by AND so add the "AND" text for second and subsequent
** terms only.
*/
static void explainAppendTerm(
  StrAccum *pStr,             /* The text expression being built */
  int iTerm,                  /* Index of this term.  First is zero */
  const char *zColumn,        /* Name of the column */
  const char *zOp             /* Name of the operator */
){
  if( iTerm ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);
  sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pStr, zColumn);
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, zOp, 1);
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "?", 1);
}

/*
** Return the name of the i-th column of the pIdx index.
*/
static const char *explainIndexColumnName(Index *pIdx, int i){
  i = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
  if( i==XN_EXPR ) return "<expr>";
  if( i==XN_ROWID ) return "rowid";
  return pIdx->pTable->aCol[i].zName;








}

/*
** Argument pLevel describes a strategy for scanning table pTab. This 
** function appends text to pStr that describes the subset of table
** rows scanned by the strategy in the form of an SQL expression.
**
................................................................................
    const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, i);
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);
    sqlite3XPrintf(pStr, i>=nSkip ? "%s=?" : "ANY(%s)", z);
  }

  j = i;
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, i);
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, i++, z, ">");

  }
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
    const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, j);
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, i, z, "<");
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** This function is a no-op unless currently processing an EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
** command, or if either SQLITE_DEBUG or SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS was
................................................................................
** term was originally TERM_LIKE, then the parent gets TERM_LIKECOND instead.
** The TERM_LIKECOND marking indicates that the term should be coded inside
** a conditional such that is only evaluated on the second pass of a
** LIKE-optimization loop, when scanning BLOBs instead of strings.
*/
static void disableTerm(WhereLevel *pLevel, WhereTerm *pTerm){
  int nLoop = 0;
  while( pTerm
      && (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_CODED)==0
      && (pLevel->iLeftJoin==0 || ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_FromJoin))
      && (pLevel->notReady & pTerm->prereqAll)==0
  ){
    if( nLoop && (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_LIKE)!=0 ){
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_LIKECOND;
    }else{
................................................................................
  /* Code the OP_Affinity opcode if there is anything left to do. */
  if( n>0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Affinity, base, n, 0, zAff, n);
    sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, base, n);
  }
}




























/*
** Generate code for a single equality term of the WHERE clause.  An equality
** term can be either X=expr or X IN (...).   pTerm is the term to be 
** coded.
**
** The current value for the constraint is left in register iReg.




**
** For a constraint of the form X=expr, the expression is evaluated and its
** result is left on the stack.  For constraints of the form X IN (...)
** this routine sets up a loop that will iterate over all values of X.
*/
static int codeEqualityTerm(
  Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context */
  WhereTerm *pTerm,   /* The term of the WHERE clause to be coded */
  WhereLevel *pLevel, /* The level of the FROM clause we are working on */
  int iEq,            /* Index of the equality term within this level */
................................................................................
  int bRev,           /* True for reverse-order IN operations */
  int iTarget         /* Attempt to leave results in this register */
){
  Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int iReg;                  /* Register holding results */


  assert( iTarget>0 );
  if( pX->op==TK_EQ || pX->op==TK_IS ){
    iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pX->pRight, iTarget);
  }else if( pX->op==TK_ISNULL ){
    iReg = iTarget;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, iReg);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  }else{
    int eType;
    int iTab;
    struct InLoop *pIn;
    WhereLoop *pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;




    if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0
      && pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0
      && pLoop->u.btree.pIndex->aSortOrder[iEq]
    ){
      testcase( iEq==0 );
      testcase( bRev );
      bRev = !bRev;
    }
    assert( pX->op==TK_IN );
    iReg = iTarget;












    eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pX, IN_INDEX_LOOP, 0);
























































    if( eType==IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC ){
      testcase( bRev );
      bRev = !bRev;
    }
    iTab = pX->iTable;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, bRev ? OP_Last : OP_Rewind, iTab, 0);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, !bRev);
    assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_MULTI_OR)==0 );

    pLoop->wsFlags |= WHERE_IN_ABLE;
    if( pLevel->u.in.nIn==0 ){
      pLevel->addrNxt = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
    }

    pLevel->u.in.nIn++;

    pLevel->u.in.aInLoop =
       sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(pParse->db, pLevel->u.in.aInLoop,
                              sizeof(pLevel->u.in.aInLoop[0])*pLevel->u.in.nIn);
    pIn = pLevel->u.in.aInLoop;
    if( pIn ){

      pIn += pLevel->u.in.nIn - 1;
      pIn->iCur = iTab;



      if( eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID ){

        pIn->addrInTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iTab, iReg);
      }else{


        pIn->addrInTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iTab, 0, iReg);
      }



      pIn->eEndLoopOp = bRev ? OP_PrevIfOpen : OP_NextIfOpen;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IsNull, iReg); VdbeCoverage(v);






    }else{
      pLevel->u.in.nIn = 0;
    }

#endif
  }
  disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
  return iReg;
}

/*
................................................................................
      if( nReg==1 ){
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regBase);
        regBase = r1;
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, r1, regBase+j);
      }
    }
    testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_ISNULL );
    testcase( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN );






    if( (pTerm->eOperator & (WO_ISNULL|WO_IN))==0 ){
      Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
      if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_IS)==0 && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+j, pLevel->addrBrk);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zAff ){
        if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRight, zAff[j])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
................................................................................
        assert( pIdx->aiColumn[i]<pTab->nCol );
        if( pIdx->aiColumn[i]>=0 ) ai[pIdx->aiColumn[i]+1] = i+1;
      }
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, -1, (char*)ai, P4_INTARRAY);
    }
  }
}


































/*
** Generate code for the start of the iLevel-th loop in the WHERE clause
** implementation described by pWInfo.
*/
Bitmask sqlite3WhereCodeOneLoopStart(
  WhereInfo *pWInfo,   /* Complete information about the WHERE clause */
................................................................................
      int iTarget = iReg+j+2;
      pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( NEVER(pTerm==0) ) continue;
      if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
        codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, pLevel, j, bRev, iTarget);
        addrNotFound = pLevel->addrNxt;
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pTerm->pExpr->pRight, iTarget);

      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, iReg);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, nConstraint, iReg+1);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VFilter, iCur, addrNotFound, iReg,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.needFree ? P4_MPRINTF : P4_STATIC);
................................................................................
      pStart = pEnd;
      pEnd = pTerm;
    }
    codeCursorHint(pTabItem, pWInfo, pLevel, pEnd);
    if( pStart ){
      Expr *pX;             /* The expression that defines the start bound */
      int r1, rTemp;        /* Registers for holding the start boundary */


      /* The following constant maps TK_xx codes into corresponding 
      ** seek opcodes.  It depends on a particular ordering of TK_xx
      */
      const u8 aMoveOp[] = {
           /* TK_GT */  OP_SeekGT,
           /* TK_LE */  OP_SeekLE,
................................................................................
      assert( TK_GE==TK_GT+3 );      /*  ... is correcct. */

      assert( (pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      pX = pStart->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      testcase( pStart->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* transitive constraints */





      r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pX->pRight, &rTemp);



      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, aMoveOp[pX->op-TK_GT], iCur, addrBrk, r1);
      VdbeComment((v, "pk"));
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LE);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GE);
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, r1, 1);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, rTemp);
      disableTerm(pLevel, pStart);
    }else{
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, bRev ? OP_Last : OP_Rewind, iCur, addrBrk);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
    }
    if( pEnd ){
      Expr *pX;
      pX = pEnd->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      assert( (pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pEnd->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* Transitive constraints */
      testcase( pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      memEndValue = ++pParse->nMem;
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pX->pRight, memEndValue);

      if( pX->op==TK_LT || pX->op==TK_GT ){

        testOp = bRev ? OP_Le : OP_Ge;
      }else{
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Lt : OP_Gt;
      }

      disableTerm(pLevel, pEnd);

    }
    start = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    pLevel->op = bRev ? OP_Prev : OP_Next;
    pLevel->p1 = iCur;
    pLevel->p2 = start;
    assert( pLevel->p5==0 );
    if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
................................................................................
    static const u8 aEndOp[] = {
      OP_IdxGE,            /* 0: (end_constraints && !bRev && !endEq) */
      OP_IdxGT,            /* 1: (end_constraints && !bRev &&  endEq) */
      OP_IdxLE,            /* 2: (end_constraints &&  bRev && !endEq) */
      OP_IdxLT,            /* 3: (end_constraints &&  bRev &&  endEq) */
    };
    u16 nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;     /* Number of == or IN terms */


    int regBase;                 /* Base register holding constraint values */
    WhereTerm *pRangeStart = 0;  /* Inequality constraint at range start */
    WhereTerm *pRangeEnd = 0;    /* Inequality constraint at range end */
    int startEq;                 /* True if range start uses ==, >= or <= */
    int endEq;                   /* True if range end uses ==, >= or <= */
    int start_constraints;       /* Start of range is constrained */
    int nConstraint;             /* Number of constraint terms */
    Index *pIdx;                 /* The index we will be using */
    int iIdxCur;                 /* The VDBE cursor for the index */
    int nExtraReg = 0;           /* Number of extra registers needed */
    int op;                      /* Instruction opcode */
    char *zStartAff;             /* Affinity for start of range constraint */
    char cEndAff = 0;            /* Affinity for end of range constraint */
    u8 bSeekPastNull = 0;        /* True to seek past initial nulls */
    u8 bStopAtNull = 0;          /* Add condition to terminate at NULLs */

    pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
    iIdxCur = pLevel->iIdxCur;
    assert( nEq>=pLoop->nSkip );

................................................................................

    /* Find any inequality constraint terms for the start and end 
    ** of the range. 
    */
    j = nEq;
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
      pRangeStart = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
      nExtraReg = 1;
      /* Like optimization range constraints always occur in pairs */
      assert( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT)==0 || 
              (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)!=0 );
    }
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
      pRangeEnd = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
      nExtraReg = 1;
#ifndef SQLITE_LIKE_DOESNT_MATCH_BLOBS
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT)!=0 ){
        assert( pRangeStart!=0 );                     /* LIKE opt constraints */
        assert( pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT );   /* occur in pairs */
        pLevel->iLikeRepCntr = (u32)++pParse->nMem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, (int)pLevel->iLikeRepCntr);
        VdbeComment((v, "LIKE loop counter"));
................................................................................
    ** start and end terms (pRangeStart and pRangeEnd).
    */
    if( (nEq<pIdx->nKeyCol && bRev==(pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_ASC))
     || (bRev && pIdx->nKeyCol==nEq)
    ){
      SWAP(WhereTerm *, pRangeEnd, pRangeStart);
      SWAP(u8, bSeekPastNull, bStopAtNull);

    }

    /* Generate code to evaluate all constraint terms using == or IN
    ** and store the values of those terms in an array of registers
    ** starting at regBase.
    */
    codeCursorHint(pTabItem, pWInfo, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
    regBase = codeAllEqualityTerms(pParse,pLevel,bRev,nExtraReg,&zStartAff);
    assert( zStartAff==0 || sqlite3Strlen30(zStartAff)>=nEq );
    if( zStartAff ) cEndAff = zStartAff[nEq];


    addrNxt = pLevel->addrNxt;

    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    startEq = !pRangeStart || pRangeStart->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
................................................................................
    endEq =   !pRangeEnd || pRangeEnd->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    start_constraints = pRangeStart || nEq>0;

    /* Seek the index cursor to the start of the range. */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeStart ){
      Expr *pRight = pRangeStart->pExpr->pRight;
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeStart);
      if( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zStartAff ){
        if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRight, zStartAff[nEq])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB){
          /* Since the comparison is to be performed with no conversions
          ** applied to the operands, set the affinity to apply to pRight to 
          ** SQLITE_AFF_BLOB.  */
          zStartAff[nEq] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
        }
        if( sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(pRight, zStartAff[nEq]) ){
          zStartAff[nEq] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
        }
      }  
      nConstraint++;
      testcase( pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );





      bSeekPastNull = 0;
    }else if( bSeekPastNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regBase+nEq);
      nConstraint++;
      startEq = 0;
      start_constraints = 1;
    }
................................................................................
    /* Load the value for the inequality constraint at the end of the
    ** range (if any).
    */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeEnd ){
      Expr *pRight = pRangeEnd->pExpr->pRight;
      sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(pParse, regBase+nEq, 1);
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRight, cEndAff)!=SQLITE_AFF_BLOB
       && !sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(pRight, cEndAff)
      ){
        codeApplyAffinity(pParse, regBase+nEq, 1, &cEndAff);


      }
      nConstraint++;
      testcase( pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );






    }else if( bStopAtNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regBase+nEq);
      endEq = 0;
      nConstraint++;
    }
    sqlite3DbFree(db, zStartAff);


    /* Top of the loop body */
    pLevel->p2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);

    /* Check if the index cursor is past the end of the range. */
    if( nConstraint ){
      op = aEndOp[bRev*2 + endEq];
................................................................................
      testcase( op==OP_IdxGT );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxGT );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxGE );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxGE );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxLT );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxLT );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxLE );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxLE );
    }

    /* Seek the table cursor, if required */
    disableTerm(pLevel, pRangeStart);
    disableTerm(pLevel, pRangeEnd);
    if( omitTable ){
      /* pIdx is a covering index.  No need to access the main table. */
    }else if( HasRowid(pIdx->pTable) ){
      if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_SEEK_TABLE)!=0 ){
        iRowidReg = ++pParse->nMem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxRowid, iIdxCur, iRowidReg);
        sqlite3ExprCacheStore(pParse, iCur, -1, iRowidReg);
................................................................................
        k = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(pIdx, pPk->aiColumn[j]);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iIdxCur, k, iRowidReg+j);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iCur, addrCont,
                           iRowidReg, pPk->nKeyCol); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }

    /* Record the instruction used to terminate the loop. Disable 
    ** WHERE clause terms made redundant by the index range scan.
    */
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_ONEROW ){
      pLevel->op = OP_Noop;
    }else if( bRev ){
      pLevel->op = OP_Prev;
    }else{
      pLevel->op = OP_Next;
    }
................................................................................
    int iLoopBody = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);  /* Start of loop body */
    int iRetInit;                             /* Address of regReturn init */
    int untestedTerms = 0;             /* Some terms not completely tested */
    int ii;                            /* Loop counter */
    u16 wctrlFlags;                    /* Flags for sub-WHERE clause */
    Expr *pAndExpr = 0;                /* An ".. AND (...)" expression */
    Table *pTab = pTabItem->pTab;
   
    pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[0];
    assert( pTerm!=0 );
    assert( pTerm->eOperator & WO_OR );
    assert( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_ORINFO)!=0 );
    pOrWc = &pTerm->u.pOrInfo->wc;
    pLevel->op = OP_Return;
    pLevel->p1 = regReturn;







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** that actually generate the bulk of the WHERE loop code.  The original where.c
** file retains the code that does query planning and analysis.
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "whereInt.h"

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN

/*
** Return the name of the i-th column of the pIdx index.
*/
static const char *explainIndexColumnName(Index *pIdx, int i){
  i = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
  if( i==XN_EXPR ) return "<expr>";
  if( i==XN_ROWID ) return "rowid";
  return pIdx->pTable->aCol[i].zName;
}

/*
** This routine is a helper for explainIndexRange() below
**
** pStr holds the text of an expression that we are building up one term
** at a time.  This routine adds a new term to the end of the expression.
** Terms are separated by AND so add the "AND" text for second and subsequent
** terms only.
*/
static void explainAppendTerm(
  StrAccum *pStr,             /* The text expression being built */
  Index *pIdx,                /* Index to read column names from */
  int nTerm,                  /* Number of terms */
  int iTerm,                  /* Zero-based index of first term. */
  int bAnd,                   /* Non-zero to append " AND " */
  const char *zOp             /* Name of the operator */
){
  int i;

  assert( nTerm>=1 );
  if( bAnd ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pStr, explainIndexColumnName(pIdx, iTerm+i));
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);

  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, zOp, 1);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "?", 1);
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** Argument pLevel describes a strategy for scanning table pTab. This 
** function appends text to pStr that describes the subset of table
** rows scanned by the strategy in the form of an SQL expression.
**
................................................................................
    const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, i);
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);
    sqlite3XPrintf(pStr, i>=nSkip ? "%s=?" : "ANY(%s)", z);
  }

  j = i;
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){

    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nBtm, j, i, ">");
    i = 1;
  }
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){

    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nTop, j, i, "<");
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** This function is a no-op unless currently processing an EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
** command, or if either SQLITE_DEBUG or SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS was
................................................................................
** term was originally TERM_LIKE, then the parent gets TERM_LIKECOND instead.
** The TERM_LIKECOND marking indicates that the term should be coded inside
** a conditional such that is only evaluated on the second pass of a
** LIKE-optimization loop, when scanning BLOBs instead of strings.
*/
static void disableTerm(WhereLevel *pLevel, WhereTerm *pTerm){
  int nLoop = 0;
  while( ALWAYS(pTerm!=0)
      && (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_CODED)==0
      && (pLevel->iLeftJoin==0 || ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_FromJoin))
      && (pLevel->notReady & pTerm->prereqAll)==0
  ){
    if( nLoop && (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_LIKE)!=0 ){
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_LIKECOND;
    }else{
................................................................................
  /* Code the OP_Affinity opcode if there is anything left to do. */
  if( n>0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Affinity, base, n, 0, zAff, n);
    sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, base, n);
  }
}

/*
** Expression pRight, which is the RHS of a comparison operation, is 
** either a vector of n elements or, if n==1, a scalar expression.
** Before the comparison operation, affinity zAff is to be applied
** to the pRight values. This function modifies characters within the
** affinity string to SQLITE_AFF_BLOB if either:
**
**   * the comparison will be performed with no affinity, or
**   * the affinity change in zAff is guaranteed not to change the value.
*/
static void updateRangeAffinityStr(
  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
  Expr *pRight,                   /* RHS of comparison */
  int n,                          /* Number of vector elements in comparison */
  char *zAff                      /* Affinity string to modify */
){
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<n; i++){
    Expr *p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pRight, i);
    if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(p, zAff[i])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB
     || sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(p, zAff[i])
    ){
      zAff[i] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Generate code for a single equality term of the WHERE clause.  An equality
** term can be either X=expr or X IN (...).   pTerm is the term to be 
** coded.
**
** The current value for the constraint is left in a register, the index
** of which is returned.  An attempt is made store the result in iTarget but
** this is only guaranteed for TK_ISNULL and TK_IN constraints.  If the
** constraint is a TK_EQ or TK_IS, then the current value might be left in
** some other register and it is the caller's responsibility to compensate.
**
** For a constraint of the form X=expr, the expression is evaluated in
** straight-line code.  For constraints of the form X IN (...)
** this routine sets up a loop that will iterate over all values of X.
*/
static int codeEqualityTerm(
  Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context */
  WhereTerm *pTerm,   /* The term of the WHERE clause to be coded */
  WhereLevel *pLevel, /* The level of the FROM clause we are working on */
  int iEq,            /* Index of the equality term within this level */
................................................................................
  int bRev,           /* True for reverse-order IN operations */
  int iTarget         /* Attempt to leave results in this register */
){
  Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int iReg;                  /* Register holding results */

  assert( pLevel->pWLoop->aLTerm[iEq]==pTerm );
  assert( iTarget>0 );
  if( pX->op==TK_EQ || pX->op==TK_IS ){
    iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pX->pRight, iTarget);
  }else if( pX->op==TK_ISNULL ){
    iReg = iTarget;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, iReg);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  }else{
    int eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
    int iTab;
    struct InLoop *pIn;
    WhereLoop *pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
    int i;
    int nEq = 0;
    int *aiMap = 0;

    if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0
      && pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0
      && pLoop->u.btree.pIndex->aSortOrder[iEq]
    ){
      testcase( iEq==0 );
      testcase( bRev );
      bRev = !bRev;
    }
    assert( pX->op==TK_IN );
    iReg = iTarget;

    for(i=0; i<iEq; i++){
      if( pLoop->aLTerm[i] && pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
        return iTarget;
      }
    }
    for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
      if( ALWAYS(pLoop->aLTerm[i]) && pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ) nEq++;
    }

    if( (pX->flags & EP_xIsSelect)==0 || pX->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr==1 ){
      eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pX, IN_INDEX_LOOP, 0, 0);
    }else{
      Select *pSelect = pX->x.pSelect;
      sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
      ExprList *pOrigRhs = pSelect->pEList;
      ExprList *pOrigLhs = pX->pLeft->x.pList;
      ExprList *pRhs = 0;         /* New Select.pEList for RHS */
      ExprList *pLhs = 0;         /* New pX->pLeft vector */

      for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
        if( pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ){
          int iField = pLoop->aLTerm[i]->iField - 1;
          Expr *pNewRhs = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrigRhs->a[iField].pExpr, 0);
          Expr *pNewLhs = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr, 0);

          pRhs = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pRhs, pNewRhs);
          pLhs = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pLhs, pNewLhs);
        }
      }
      if( !db->mallocFailed ){
        Expr *pLeft = pX->pLeft;

        if( pSelect->pOrderBy ){
          /* If the SELECT statement has an ORDER BY clause, zero the 
          ** iOrderByCol variables. These are set to non-zero when an 
          ** ORDER BY term exactly matches one of the terms of the 
          ** result-set. Since the result-set of the SELECT statement may
          ** have been modified or reordered, these variables are no longer 
          ** set correctly.  Since setting them is just an optimization, 
          ** it's easiest just to zero them here.  */
          ExprList *pOrderBy = pSelect->pOrderBy;
          for(i=0; i<pOrderBy->nExpr; i++){
            pOrderBy->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol = 0;
          }
        }

        /* Take care here not to generate a TK_VECTOR containing only a
        ** single value. Since the parser never creates such a vector, some
        ** of the subroutines do not handle this case.  */
        if( pLhs->nExpr==1 ){
          pX->pLeft = pLhs->a[0].pExpr;
        }else{
          pLeft->x.pList = pLhs;
          aiMap = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, sizeof(int) * nEq);
          testcase( aiMap==0 );
        }
        pSelect->pEList = pRhs;
        eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pX, IN_INDEX_LOOP, 0, aiMap);
        testcase( aiMap!=0 && aiMap[0]!=0 );
        pSelect->pEList = pOrigRhs;
        pLeft->x.pList = pOrigLhs;
        pX->pLeft = pLeft;
      }
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pLhs);
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pRhs);
    }

    if( eType==IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC ){
      testcase( bRev );
      bRev = !bRev;
    }
    iTab = pX->iTable;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, bRev ? OP_Last : OP_Rewind, iTab, 0);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, !bRev);
    assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_MULTI_OR)==0 );

    pLoop->wsFlags |= WHERE_IN_ABLE;
    if( pLevel->u.in.nIn==0 ){
      pLevel->addrNxt = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
    }

    i = pLevel->u.in.nIn;
    pLevel->u.in.nIn += nEq;
    pLevel->u.in.aInLoop =
       sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(pParse->db, pLevel->u.in.aInLoop,
                              sizeof(pLevel->u.in.aInLoop[0])*pLevel->u.in.nIn);
    pIn = pLevel->u.in.aInLoop;
    if( pIn ){
      int iMap = 0;               /* Index in aiMap[] */
      pIn += i;

      for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
        int iOut = iReg;
        if( pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ){
          if( eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID ){
            assert( nEq==1 && i==iEq );
            pIn->addrInTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iTab, iReg);
          }else{
            int iCol = aiMap ? aiMap[iMap++] : 0;
            iOut = iReg + i - iEq;
            pIn->addrInTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v,OP_Column,iTab, iCol, iOut);
          }
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IsNull, iOut); VdbeCoverage(v);
          if( i==iEq ){
            pIn->iCur = iTab;
            pIn->eEndLoopOp = bRev ? OP_PrevIfOpen : OP_NextIfOpen;

          }else{
            pIn->eEndLoopOp = OP_Noop;
          }
          pIn++;
        }
      }
    }else{
      pLevel->u.in.nIn = 0;
    }
    sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, aiMap);
#endif
  }
  disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
  return iReg;
}

/*
................................................................................
      if( nReg==1 ){
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regBase);
        regBase = r1;
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, r1, regBase+j);
      }
    }
    if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
      if( pTerm->pExpr->flags & EP_xIsSelect ){
        /* No affinity ever needs to be (or should be) applied to a value
        ** from the RHS of an "? IN (SELECT ...)" expression. The 
        ** sqlite3FindInIndex() routine has already ensured that the 
        ** affinity of the comparison has been applied to the value.  */
        if( zAff ) zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
      }
    }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_ISNULL)==0 ){
      Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
      if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_IS)==0 && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+j, pLevel->addrBrk);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zAff ){
        if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRight, zAff[j])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
................................................................................
        assert( pIdx->aiColumn[i]<pTab->nCol );
        if( pIdx->aiColumn[i]>=0 ) ai[pIdx->aiColumn[i]+1] = i+1;
      }
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, -1, (char*)ai, P4_INTARRAY);
    }
  }
}

/*
** If the expression passed as the second argument is a vector, generate
** code to write the first nReg elements of the vector into an array
** of registers starting with iReg.
**
** If the expression is not a vector, then nReg must be passed 1. In
** this case, generate code to evaluate the expression and leave the
** result in register iReg.
*/
static void codeExprOrVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int iReg, int nReg){
  assert( nReg>0 );
  if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(p) ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    if( (p->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
      Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
      int iSelect = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p, 0, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Copy, iSelect, iReg, nReg-1);
    }else
#endif
    {
      int i;
      ExprList *pList = p->x.pList;
      assert( nReg<=pList->nExpr );
      for(i=0; i<nReg; i++){
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pList->a[i].pExpr, iReg+i);
      }
    }
  }else{
    assert( nReg==1 );
    sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, p, iReg);
  }
}

/*
** Generate code for the start of the iLevel-th loop in the WHERE clause
** implementation described by pWInfo.
*/
Bitmask sqlite3WhereCodeOneLoopStart(
  WhereInfo *pWInfo,   /* Complete information about the WHERE clause */
................................................................................
      int iTarget = iReg+j+2;
      pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( NEVER(pTerm==0) ) continue;
      if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
        codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, pLevel, j, bRev, iTarget);
        addrNotFound = pLevel->addrNxt;
      }else{
        Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, iTarget, 1);
      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, iReg);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, nConstraint, iReg+1);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VFilter, iCur, addrNotFound, iReg,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.needFree ? P4_MPRINTF : P4_STATIC);
................................................................................
      pStart = pEnd;
      pEnd = pTerm;
    }
    codeCursorHint(pTabItem, pWInfo, pLevel, pEnd);
    if( pStart ){
      Expr *pX;             /* The expression that defines the start bound */
      int r1, rTemp;        /* Registers for holding the start boundary */
      int op;               /* Cursor seek operation */

      /* The following constant maps TK_xx codes into corresponding 
      ** seek opcodes.  It depends on a particular ordering of TK_xx
      */
      const u8 aMoveOp[] = {
           /* TK_GT */  OP_SeekGT,
           /* TK_LE */  OP_SeekLE,
................................................................................
      assert( TK_GE==TK_GT+3 );      /*  ... is correcct. */

      assert( (pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      pX = pStart->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      testcase( pStart->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* transitive constraints */
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) ){
        r1 = rTemp = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->pRight, r1, 1);
        op = aMoveOp[(pX->op - TK_GT) | 0x0001];
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pX->pRight, &rTemp);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pStart);
        op = aMoveOp[(pX->op - TK_GT)];
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, op, iCur, addrBrk, r1);
      VdbeComment((v, "pk"));
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LE);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GE);
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, r1, 1);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, rTemp);

    }else{
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, bRev ? OP_Last : OP_Rewind, iCur, addrBrk);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
    }
    if( pEnd ){
      Expr *pX;
      pX = pEnd->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      assert( (pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pEnd->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* Transitive constraints */
      testcase( pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      memEndValue = ++pParse->nMem;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->pRight, memEndValue, 1);
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) 
       && (pX->op==TK_LT || pX->op==TK_GT) 
      ){
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Le : OP_Ge;
      }else{
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Lt : OP_Gt;
      }
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pEnd);
      }
    }
    start = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    pLevel->op = bRev ? OP_Prev : OP_Next;
    pLevel->p1 = iCur;
    pLevel->p2 = start;
    assert( pLevel->p5==0 );
    if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
................................................................................
    static const u8 aEndOp[] = {
      OP_IdxGE,            /* 0: (end_constraints && !bRev && !endEq) */
      OP_IdxGT,            /* 1: (end_constraints && !bRev &&  endEq) */
      OP_IdxLE,            /* 2: (end_constraints &&  bRev && !endEq) */
      OP_IdxLT,            /* 3: (end_constraints &&  bRev &&  endEq) */
    };
    u16 nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;     /* Number of == or IN terms */
    u16 nBtm = pLoop->u.btree.nBtm;   /* Length of BTM vector */
    u16 nTop = pLoop->u.btree.nTop;   /* Length of TOP vector */
    int regBase;                 /* Base register holding constraint values */
    WhereTerm *pRangeStart = 0;  /* Inequality constraint at range start */
    WhereTerm *pRangeEnd = 0;    /* Inequality constraint at range end */
    int startEq;                 /* True if range start uses ==, >= or <= */
    int endEq;                   /* True if range end uses ==, >= or <= */
    int start_constraints;       /* Start of range is constrained */
    int nConstraint;             /* Number of constraint terms */
    Index *pIdx;                 /* The index we will be using */
    int iIdxCur;                 /* The VDBE cursor for the index */
    int nExtraReg = 0;           /* Number of extra registers needed */
    int op;                      /* Instruction opcode */
    char *zStartAff;             /* Affinity for start of range constraint */
    char *zEndAff = 0;           /* Affinity for end of range constraint */
    u8 bSeekPastNull = 0;        /* True to seek past initial nulls */
    u8 bStopAtNull = 0;          /* Add condition to terminate at NULLs */

    pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
    iIdxCur = pLevel->iIdxCur;
    assert( nEq>=pLoop->nSkip );

................................................................................

    /* Find any inequality constraint terms for the start and end 
    ** of the range. 
    */
    j = nEq;
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
      pRangeStart = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
      nExtraReg = MAX(nExtraReg, pLoop->u.btree.nBtm);
      /* Like optimization range constraints always occur in pairs */
      assert( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT)==0 || 
              (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)!=0 );
    }
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
      pRangeEnd = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
      nExtraReg = MAX(nExtraReg, pLoop->u.btree.nTop);
#ifndef SQLITE_LIKE_DOESNT_MATCH_BLOBS
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT)!=0 ){
        assert( pRangeStart!=0 );                     /* LIKE opt constraints */
        assert( pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT );   /* occur in pairs */
        pLevel->iLikeRepCntr = (u32)++pParse->nMem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, (int)pLevel->iLikeRepCntr);
        VdbeComment((v, "LIKE loop counter"));
................................................................................
    ** start and end terms (pRangeStart and pRangeEnd).
    */
    if( (nEq<pIdx->nKeyCol && bRev==(pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_ASC))
     || (bRev && pIdx->nKeyCol==nEq)
    ){
      SWAP(WhereTerm *, pRangeEnd, pRangeStart);
      SWAP(u8, bSeekPastNull, bStopAtNull);
      SWAP(u8, nBtm, nTop);
    }

    /* Generate code to evaluate all constraint terms using == or IN
    ** and store the values of those terms in an array of registers
    ** starting at regBase.
    */
    codeCursorHint(pTabItem, pWInfo, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
    regBase = codeAllEqualityTerms(pParse,pLevel,bRev,nExtraReg,&zStartAff);
    assert( zStartAff==0 || sqlite3Strlen30(zStartAff)>=nEq );
    if( zStartAff && nTop ){
      zEndAff = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, &zStartAff[nEq]);
    }
    addrNxt = pLevel->addrNxt;

    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    startEq = !pRangeStart || pRangeStart->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
................................................................................
    endEq =   !pRangeEnd || pRangeEnd->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    start_constraints = pRangeStart || nEq>0;

    /* Seek the index cursor to the start of the range. */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeStart ){
      Expr *pRight = pRangeStart->pExpr->pRight;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nBtm);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeStart);
      if( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zStartAff ){
        updateRangeAffinityStr(pParse, pRight, nBtm, &zStartAff[nEq]);




      }  




      nConstraint += nBtm;
      testcase( pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pRight)==0 ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pRangeStart);
      }else{
        startEq = 1;
      }
      bSeekPastNull = 0;
    }else if( bSeekPastNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regBase+nEq);
      nConstraint++;
      startEq = 0;
      start_constraints = 1;
    }
................................................................................
    /* Load the value for the inequality constraint at the end of the
    ** range (if any).
    */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeEnd ){
      Expr *pRight = pRangeEnd->pExpr->pRight;
      sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(pParse, regBase+nEq, 1);
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nTop);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zEndAff ){
        updateRangeAffinityStr(pParse, pRight, nTop, zEndAff);

        codeApplyAffinity(pParse, regBase+nEq, nTop, zEndAff);
      }else{
        assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
      }
      nConstraint += nTop;
      testcase( pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );

      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pRight)==0 ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pRangeEnd);
      }else{
        endEq = 1;
      }
    }else if( bStopAtNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regBase+nEq);
      endEq = 0;
      nConstraint++;
    }
    sqlite3DbFree(db, zStartAff);
    sqlite3DbFree(db, zEndAff);

    /* Top of the loop body */
    pLevel->p2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);

    /* Check if the index cursor is past the end of the range. */
    if( nConstraint ){
      op = aEndOp[bRev*2 + endEq];
................................................................................
      testcase( op==OP_IdxGT );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxGT );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxGE );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxGE );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxLT );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxLT );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxLE );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxLE );
    }

    /* Seek the table cursor, if required */


    if( omitTable ){
      /* pIdx is a covering index.  No need to access the main table. */
    }else if( HasRowid(pIdx->pTable) ){
      if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_SEEK_TABLE)!=0 ){
        iRowidReg = ++pParse->nMem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxRowid, iIdxCur, iRowidReg);
        sqlite3ExprCacheStore(pParse, iCur, -1, iRowidReg);
................................................................................
        k = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(pIdx, pPk->aiColumn[j]);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iIdxCur, k, iRowidReg+j);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iCur, addrCont,
                           iRowidReg, pPk->nKeyCol); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }

    /* Record the instruction used to terminate the loop. */


    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_ONEROW ){
      pLevel->op = OP_Noop;
    }else if( bRev ){
      pLevel->op = OP_Prev;
    }else{
      pLevel->op = OP_Next;
    }
................................................................................
    int iLoopBody = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);  /* Start of loop body */
    int iRetInit;                             /* Address of regReturn init */
    int untestedTerms = 0;             /* Some terms not completely tested */
    int ii;                            /* Loop counter */
    u16 wctrlFlags;                    /* Flags for sub-WHERE clause */
    Expr *pAndExpr = 0;                /* An ".. AND (...)" expression */
    Table *pTab = pTabItem->pTab;

    pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[0];
    assert( pTerm!=0 );
    assert( pTerm->eOperator & WO_OR );
    assert( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_ORINFO)!=0 );
    pOrWc = &pTerm->u.pOrInfo->wc;
    pLevel->op = OP_Return;
    pLevel->p1 = regReturn;

Changes to src/whereexpr.c.

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  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  return idx;
}

/*
** Return TRUE if the given operator is one of the operators that is
** allowed for an indexable WHERE clause term.  The allowed operators are
** "=", "<", ">", "<=", ">=", "IN", and "IS NULL"
*/
static int allowedOp(int op){
  assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ && TK_GT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LT>TK_EQ && TK_LT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LE>TK_EQ && TK_LE<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_GE==TK_EQ+4 );
  return op==TK_IN || (op>=TK_EQ && op<=TK_GE) || op==TK_ISNULL || op==TK_IS;
................................................................................

/*
** Expression pExpr is one operand of a comparison operator that might
** be useful for indexing.  This routine checks to see if pExpr appears
** in any index.  Return TRUE (1) if pExpr is an indexed term and return
** FALSE (0) if not.  If TRUE is returned, also set *piCur to the cursor
** number of the table that is indexed and *piColumn to the column number
** of the column that is indexed, or -2 if an expression is being indexed.

**
** If pExpr is a TK_COLUMN column reference, then this routine always returns
** true even if that particular column is not indexed, because the column
** might be added to an automatic index later.
*/
static int exprMightBeIndexed(
  SrcList *pFrom,        /* The FROM clause */

  Bitmask mPrereq,       /* Bitmask of FROM clause terms referenced by pExpr */
  Expr *pExpr,           /* An operand of a comparison operator */
  int *piCur,            /* Write the referenced table cursor number here */
  int *piColumn          /* Write the referenced table column number here */
){
  Index *pIdx;
  int i;
  int iCur;











  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN ){
    *piCur = pExpr->iTable;
    *piColumn = pExpr->iColumn;
    return 1;
  }
  if( mPrereq==0 ) return 0;                 /* No table references */
  if( (mPrereq&(mPrereq-1))!=0 ) return 0;   /* Refs more than one table */
  for(i=0; mPrereq>1; i++, mPrereq>>=1){}
  iCur = pFrom->a[i].iCursor;
  for(pIdx=pFrom->a[i].pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( pIdx->aColExpr==0 ) continue;
    for(i=0; i<pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){
      if( pIdx->aiColumn[i]!=(-2) ) continue;
      if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pExpr, pIdx->aColExpr->a[i].pExpr, iCur)==0 ){
        *piCur = iCur;
        *piColumn = -2;
        return 1;
      }
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

................................................................................
  pMaskSet = &pWInfo->sMaskSet;
  pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_AS && pExpr->op!=TK_COLLATE );
  prereqLeft = sqlite3WhereExprUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );

    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
      pTerm->prereqRight = exprSelectUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pSelect);
    }else{
      pTerm->prereqRight = sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pList);
    }
  }else if( op==TK_ISNULL ){
    pTerm->prereqRight = 0;
................................................................................
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(op) ){
    int iCur, iColumn;
    Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pLeft);
    Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pRight);
    u16 opMask = (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ? WO_ALL : WO_EQUIV;







    if( exprMightBeIndexed(pSrc, prereqLeft, pLeft, &iCur, &iColumn) ){
      pTerm->leftCursor = iCur;
      pTerm->u.leftColumn = iColumn;
      pTerm->eOperator = operatorMask(op) & opMask;
    }
    if( op==TK_IS ) pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_IS;
    if( pRight 
     && exprMightBeIndexed(pSrc, pTerm->prereqRight, pRight, &iCur, &iColumn)
    ){
      WhereTerm *pNew;
      Expr *pDup;
      u16 eExtraOp = 0;        /* Extra bits for pNew->eOperator */

      if( pTerm->leftCursor>=0 ){
        int idxNew;
        pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pExpr, 0);
        if( db->mallocFailed ){
          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDup);
          return;
        }
................................................................................
      markTermAsChild(pWC, idxNew, idxTerm);
      pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_COPIED;
      pNewTerm->prereqAll = pTerm->prereqAll;
    }
  }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */






















































#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  /* When sqlite_stat3 histogram data is available an operator of the
  ** form "x IS NOT NULL" can sometimes be evaluated more efficiently
  ** as "x>NULL" if x is not an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY.  So construct a
  ** virtual term of that form.
  **







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  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  return idx;
}

/*
** Return TRUE if the given operator is one of the operators that is
** allowed for an indexable WHERE clause term.  The allowed operators are
** "=", "<", ">", "<=", ">=", "IN", "IS", and "IS NULL"
*/
static int allowedOp(int op){
  assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ && TK_GT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LT>TK_EQ && TK_LT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LE>TK_EQ && TK_LE<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_GE==TK_EQ+4 );
  return op==TK_IN || (op>=TK_EQ && op<=TK_GE) || op==TK_ISNULL || op==TK_IS;
................................................................................

/*
** Expression pExpr is one operand of a comparison operator that might
** be useful for indexing.  This routine checks to see if pExpr appears
** in any index.  Return TRUE (1) if pExpr is an indexed term and return
** FALSE (0) if not.  If TRUE is returned, also set *piCur to the cursor
** number of the table that is indexed and *piColumn to the column number
** of the column that is indexed, or XN_EXPR (-2) if an expression is being
** indexed.
**
** If pExpr is a TK_COLUMN column reference, then this routine always returns
** true even if that particular column is not indexed, because the column
** might be added to an automatic index later.
*/
static int exprMightBeIndexed(
  SrcList *pFrom,        /* The FROM clause */
  int op,                /* The specific comparison operator */
  Bitmask mPrereq,       /* Bitmask of FROM clause terms referenced by pExpr */
  Expr *pExpr,           /* An operand of a comparison operator */
  int *piCur,            /* Write the referenced table cursor number here */
  int *piColumn          /* Write the referenced table column number here */
){
  Index *pIdx;
  int i;
  int iCur;

  /* If this expression is a vector to the left or right of a 
  ** inequality constraint (>, <, >= or <=), perform the processing 
  ** on the first element of the vector.  */
  assert( TK_GT+1==TK_LE && TK_GT+2==TK_LT && TK_GT+3==TK_GE );
  assert( TK_IS<TK_GE && TK_ISNULL<TK_GE && TK_IN<TK_GE );
  assert( op<=TK_GE );
  if( pExpr->op==TK_VECTOR && (op>=TK_GT && ALWAYS(op<=TK_GE)) ){
    pExpr = pExpr->x.pList->a[0].pExpr;
  }

  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN ){
    *piCur = pExpr->iTable;
    *piColumn = pExpr->iColumn;
    return 1;
  }
  if( mPrereq==0 ) return 0;                 /* No table references */
  if( (mPrereq&(mPrereq-1))!=0 ) return 0;   /* Refs more than one table */
  for(i=0; mPrereq>1; i++, mPrereq>>=1){}
  iCur = pFrom->a[i].iCursor;
  for(pIdx=pFrom->a[i].pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( pIdx->aColExpr==0 ) continue;
    for(i=0; i<pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){
      if( pIdx->aiColumn[i]!=XN_EXPR ) continue;
      if( sqlite3ExprCompare(pExpr, pIdx->aColExpr->a[i].pExpr, iCur)==0 ){
        *piCur = iCur;
        *piColumn = XN_EXPR;
        return 1;
      }
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

................................................................................
  pMaskSet = &pWInfo->sMaskSet;
  pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
  assert( pExpr->op!=TK_AS && pExpr->op!=TK_COLLATE );
  prereqLeft = sqlite3WhereExprUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );
    if( sqlite3ExprCheckIN(pParse, pExpr) ) return;
    if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
      pTerm->prereqRight = exprSelectUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pSelect);
    }else{
      pTerm->prereqRight = sqlite3WhereExprListUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->x.pList);
    }
  }else if( op==TK_ISNULL ){
    pTerm->prereqRight = 0;
................................................................................
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(op) ){
    int iCur, iColumn;
    Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pLeft);
    Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr->pRight);
    u16 opMask = (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ? WO_ALL : WO_EQUIV;

    if( pTerm->iField>0 ){
      assert( op==TK_IN );
      assert( pLeft->op==TK_VECTOR );
      pLeft = pLeft->x.pList->a[pTerm->iField-1].pExpr;
    }

    if( exprMightBeIndexed(pSrc, op, prereqLeft, pLeft, &iCur, &iColumn) ){
      pTerm->leftCursor = iCur;
      pTerm->u.leftColumn = iColumn;
      pTerm->eOperator = operatorMask(op) & opMask;
    }
    if( op==TK_IS ) pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_IS;
    if( pRight 
     && exprMightBeIndexed(pSrc, op, pTerm->prereqRight, pRight, &iCur,&iColumn)
    ){
      WhereTerm *pNew;
      Expr *pDup;
      u16 eExtraOp = 0;        /* Extra bits for pNew->eOperator */
      assert( pTerm->iField==0 );
      if( pTerm->leftCursor>=0 ){
        int idxNew;
        pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pExpr, 0);
        if( db->mallocFailed ){
          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pDup);
          return;
        }
................................................................................
      markTermAsChild(pWC, idxNew, idxTerm);
      pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_COPIED;
      pNewTerm->prereqAll = pTerm->prereqAll;
    }
  }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */

  /* If there is a vector == or IS term - e.g. "(a, b) == (?, ?)" - create
  ** new terms for each component comparison - "a = ?" and "b = ?".  The
  ** new terms completely replace the original vector comparison, which is
  ** no longer used.
  **
  ** This is only required if at least one side of the comparison operation
  ** is not a sub-select.  */
  if( pWC->op==TK_AND 
  && (pExpr->op==TK_EQ || pExpr->op==TK_IS)
  && sqlite3ExprIsVector(pExpr->pLeft)
  && ( (pExpr->pLeft->flags & EP_xIsSelect)==0 
    || (pExpr->pRight->flags & EP_xIsSelect)==0
  )){
    int nLeft = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft);
    int i;
    assert( nLeft==sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pRight) );
    for(i=0; i<nLeft; i++){
      int idxNew;
      Expr *pNew;
      Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, i);
      Expr *pRight = sqlite3ExprForVectorField(pParse, pExpr->pRight, i);

      pNew = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, pExpr->op, pLeft, pRight, 0);
      idxNew = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pNew, TERM_DYNAMIC);
      exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew);
    }
    pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
    pTerm->wtFlags = TERM_CODED|TERM_VIRTUAL;  /* Disable the original */
    pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  }

  /* If there is a vector IN term - e.g. "(a, b) IN (SELECT ...)" - create
  ** a virtual term for each vector component. The expression object
  ** used by each such virtual term is pExpr (the full vector IN(...) 
  ** expression). The WhereTerm.iField variable identifies the index within
  ** the vector on the LHS that the virtual term represents.
  **
  ** This only works if the RHS is a simple SELECT, not a compound
  */
  if( pWC->op==TK_AND && pExpr->op==TK_IN && pTerm->iField==0
   && pExpr->pLeft->op==TK_VECTOR
   && pExpr->x.pSelect->pPrior==0
  ){
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft); i++){
      int idxNew;
      idxNew = whereClauseInsert(pWC, pExpr, TERM_VIRTUAL);
      pWC->a[idxNew].iField = i+1;
      exprAnalyze(pSrc, pWC, idxNew);
      markTermAsChild(pWC, idxNew, idxTerm);
    }
  }

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  /* When sqlite_stat3 histogram data is available an operator of the
  ** form "x IS NOT NULL" can sometimes be evaluated more efficiently
  ** as "x>NULL" if x is not an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY.  So construct a
  ** virtual term of that form.
  **

Changes to test/e_expr.test.

843
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proc x {} { incr ::xcount ; return [expr $::x] }
foreach {tn x expr res nEval} {
  1  10  "x() >= 5 AND x() <= 15"  1  2
  2  10  "x() BETWEEN 5 AND 15"    1  1

  3   5  "x() >= 5 AND x() <= 5"   1  2
  4   5  "x() BETWEEN 5 AND 5"     1  1



} {
  do_test e_expr-13.1.$tn {
    set ::xcount 0
    set a [execsql "SELECT $expr"]
    list $::xcount $a
  } [list $nEval $res]
}
................................................................................

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-46899-53765 A SELECT used as a scalar quantity must
# return a result set with a single column.
#
# The following block tests that errors are returned in a bunch of cases
# where a subquery returns more than one column.
#
set M {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}
foreach {tn sql} {
  1     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM t2 UNION SELECT a+1, b+1 FROM t2) }
  2     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM t2 UNION SELECT a+1, b+1 FROM t2 ORDER BY 1) }
  3     { SELECT (SELECT 1, 2) }
  4     { SELECT (SELECT NULL, NULL, NULL) }
  5     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM t2) }
  6     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM (SELECT 1, 2, 3)) }
} {
  do_catchsql_test e_expr-35.2.$tn $sql [list 1 $M]
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-35764-28041 The result of the expression is the value
# of the only column in the first row returned by the SELECT statement.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-41898-06686 If the SELECT yields more than one result
# row, all rows after the first are ignored.







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843
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proc x {} { incr ::xcount ; return [expr $::x] }
foreach {tn x expr res nEval} {
  1  10  "x() >= 5 AND x() <= 15"  1  2
  2  10  "x() BETWEEN 5 AND 15"    1  1

  3   5  "x() >= 5 AND x() <= 5"   1  2
  4   5  "x() BETWEEN 5 AND 5"     1  1

  5   9  "(x(),8) >= (9,7) AND (x(),8)<=(9,10)"  1 2
  6   9  "(x(),8) BETWEEN (9,7) AND (9,10)"      1 1
} {
  do_test e_expr-13.1.$tn {
    set ::xcount 0
    set a [execsql "SELECT $expr"]
    list $::xcount $a
  } [list $nEval $res]
}
................................................................................

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-46899-53765 A SELECT used as a scalar quantity must
# return a result set with a single column.
#
# The following block tests that errors are returned in a bunch of cases
# where a subquery returns more than one column.
#
set M {/1 {sub-select returns [23] columns - expected 1}/}
foreach {tn sql} {
  1     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM t2 UNION SELECT a+1, b+1 FROM t2) }
  2     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM t2 UNION SELECT a+1, b+1 FROM t2 ORDER BY 1) }
  3     { SELECT (SELECT 1, 2) }
  4     { SELECT (SELECT NULL, NULL, NULL) }
  5     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM t2) }
  6     { SELECT (SELECT * FROM (SELECT 1, 2, 3)) }
} {
  do_catchsql_test e_expr-35.2.$tn $sql $M
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-35764-28041 The result of the expression is the value
# of the only column in the first row returned by the SELECT statement.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-41898-06686 If the SELECT yields more than one result
# row, all rows after the first are ignored.

Changes to test/in.test.

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    SELECT b FROM t1 WHERE a NOT IN t4;
  }
} {64 256 world}
do_test in-9.4 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT b FROM t1 WHERE a NOT IN tb;
  }
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}

# IN clauses in CHECK constraints.  Ticket #1645
#
do_test in-10.1 {
  execsql {
    CREATE TABLE t5(
      a INTEGER,
................................................................................
} {}
do_test in-12.2 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}
do_test in-12.3 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}
do_test in-12.4 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 EXCEPT SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}
do_test in-12.5 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 INTERSECT SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}
do_test in-12.6 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of UNION ALL do not have the same number of result columns}}
................................................................................
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of INTERSECT do not have the same number of result columns}}
do_test in-12.14 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}
do_test in-12.15 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of UNION ALL do not have the same number of result columns}}
................................................................................
do_test in-13.14 {
  execsql {
    CREATE INDEX i5 ON b(id);
    SELECT * FROM a WHERE id NOT IN (SELECT id FROM b);
  }
} {}


do_test in-13.15 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT 0 WHERE (SELECT 0,0) OR (0 IN (1,2));
  }
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}


do_test in-13.X {
  db nullvalue ""
} {}

# At one point the following was causing valgrind to report a "jump







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    SELECT b FROM t1 WHERE a NOT IN t4;
  }
} {64 256 world}
do_test in-9.4 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT b FROM t1 WHERE a NOT IN tb;
  }
} {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}

# IN clauses in CHECK constraints.  Ticket #1645
#
do_test in-10.1 {
  execsql {
    CREATE TABLE t5(
      a INTEGER,
................................................................................
} {}
do_test in-12.2 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}
do_test in-12.3 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}
do_test in-12.4 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 EXCEPT SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}
do_test in-12.5 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 INTERSECT SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}
do_test in-12.6 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of UNION ALL do not have the same number of result columns}}
................................................................................
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of INTERSECT do not have the same number of result columns}}
do_test in-12.14 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a, b FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}
do_test in-12.15 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE a IN (
      SELECT a, b FROM t3 UNION ALL SELECT a FROM t2
    );
  }
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of UNION ALL do not have the same number of result columns}}
................................................................................
do_test in-13.14 {
  execsql {
    CREATE INDEX i5 ON b(id);
    SELECT * FROM a WHERE id NOT IN (SELECT id FROM b);
  }
} {}

breakpoint
do_test in-13.15 {
  catchsql {
    SELECT 0 WHERE (SELECT 0,0) OR (0 IN (1,2));
  }
} {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}


do_test in-13.X {
  db nullvalue ""
} {}

# At one point the following was causing valgrind to report a "jump

Added test/rowvalue.test.







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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# 2016 June 17
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  The
# focus of this file is testing the SELECT statement.
#


set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue

do_execsql_test 0.0 {
  CREATE TABLE one(o);
  INSERT INTO one VALUES(1);
}

foreach {tn v1 v2 eq ne is isnot} {
  1 "1, 2, 3"    "1, 2, 3"                   1  0     1 0
  2 "1, 0, 3"    "1, 2, 3"                   0  1     0 1
  3 "1, 2, NULL" "1, 2, 3"                   {} {}    0 1
  4 "1, 2, NULL" "1, 2, NULL"                {} {}    1 0
  5 "NULL, NULL, NULL" "NULL, NULL, NULL"    {} {}    1 0

  6 "1, NULL, 1" "1, 1, 1"                   {} {}    0 1
  7 "1, NULL, 1" "1, 1, 2"                   0  1     0 1
} {
  do_execsql_test 1.$tn.eq "SELECT ($v1) == ($v2)" [list $eq]
  do_execsql_test 1.$tn.ne "SELECT ($v1) != ($v2)" [list $ne]

  do_execsql_test 1.$tn.is    "SELECT ($v1) IS ($v2)"     [list $is]
  do_execsql_test 1.$tn.isnot "SELECT ($v1) IS NOT ($v2)" [list $isnot]

  do_execsql_test 1.$tn.2.eq "SELECT (SELECT $v1) == (SELECT $v2)" [list $eq]
  do_execsql_test 1.$tn.2.ne "SELECT (SELECT $v1) != (SELECT $v2)" [list $ne]
}

foreach {tn v1 v2 lt gt le ge} {
  1 "(1, 1, 3)"    "(1, 2, 3)"                   1 0      1 0
  2 "(1, 2, 3)"    "(1, 2, 3)"                   0 0      1 1
  3 "(1, 3, 3)"    "(1, 2, 3)"                   0 1      0 1

  4 "(1, NULL, 3)"    "(1, 2, 3)"                {} {}      {} {}
  5 "(1, 3, 3)"    "(1, NULL, 3)"                {} {}      {} {}
  6 "(1, NULL, 3)"    "(1, NULL, 3)"             {} {}      {} {}
} {
  foreach {tn2 expr res} [list \
    2.$tn.lt "$v1 < $v2" $lt   \
    2.$tn.gt "$v1 > $v2" $gt   \
    2.$tn.le "$v1 <= $v2" $le   \
    2.$tn.ge "$v1 >= $v2" $ge   \
  ] {
    do_execsql_test $tn2 "SELECT $expr" [list $res]

    set map(0) [list]
    set map() [list]
    set map(1) [list 1]
    do_execsql_test $tn2.where1 "SELECT * FROM one WHERE $expr" $map($res)

    set map(0) [list 1]
    set map() [list]
    set map(1) [list]
    do_execsql_test $tn2.where2 "SELECT * FROM one WHERE NOT $expr" $map($res)
  }
}

do_execsql_test 3.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(x, y);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1, 1);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1, 2);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2, 3);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2, 4);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(3, 5);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(3, 6);
}

foreach {tn r order} {
  1 "(1, 1)"           "ORDER BY y"
  2 "(1, 1)"           "ORDER BY x, y"
  3 "(1, 2)"           "ORDER BY x, y DESC"
  4 "(3, 6)"           "ORDER BY x DESC, y DESC"
  5 "((3, 5))"         "ORDER BY x DESC, y"
  6 "(SELECT 3, 5)"    "ORDER BY x DESC, y"
} {
  do_execsql_test 3.$tn.1 "SELECT $r == (SELECT x,y FROM t1 $order)" 1
  do_execsql_test 3.$tn.2 "SELECT $r == (SELECT * FROM t1 $order)" 1

  do_execsql_test 3.$tn.3 "
    SELECT (SELECT * FROM t1 $order) == (SELECT * FROM t1 $order)
  " 1
  do_execsql_test 3.$tn.4 "
    SELECT (SELECT 0, 0) == (SELECT * FROM t1 $order)
  " 0
}

foreach {tn expr res} {
  1 {(2, 2) BETWEEN (2, 2) AND (3, 3)} 1
  2 {(2, 2) BETWEEN (2, NULL) AND (3, 3)} {}
  3 {(2, 2) BETWEEN (3, NULL) AND (3, 3)} 0
} {
  do_execsql_test 4.$tn "SELECT $expr" [list $res]
}

foreach {tn expr res} {
  1 {(2, 4) IN (SELECT * FROM t1)} 1
  2 {(3, 4) IN (SELECT * FROM t1)} 0

  3 {(NULL, 4) IN (SELECT * FROM t1)} {}
  4 {(NULL, 0) IN (SELECT * FROM t1)} 0

  5 {(NULL, 4) NOT IN (SELECT * FROM t1)} {}
  6 {(NULL, 0) NOT IN (SELECT * FROM t1)} 1
} {
  do_execsql_test 5.$tn "SELECT $expr" [list $res]
}

do_execsql_test 6.0 {
  CREATE TABLE hh(a, b, c);
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('abc', 1, 'i');
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('ABC', 1, 'ii');
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('def', 2, 'iii');
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('DEF', 2, 'iv');
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('GHI', 3, 'v');
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('ghi', 3, 'vi');

  CREATE INDEX hh_ab ON hh(a, b); 
}

do_execsql_test 6.1 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (a, b) = (SELECT 'abc', 1);
} {i}
do_execsql_test 6.2 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (a, b) = (SELECT 'abc' COLLATE nocase, 1);
} {i}
do_execsql_test 6.3 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE a = (SELECT 'abc' COLLATE nocase) AND b = (SELECT 1);
} {i}
do_execsql_test 6.4 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE +a = (SELECT 'abc' COLLATE nocase) AND b = (SELECT 1);
} {i}
do_execsql_test 6.5 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE a = (SELECT 'abc') COLLATE nocase AND b = (SELECT 1);
} {i ii}
do_catchsql_test 6.6 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (a, b) = (SELECT 'abc', 1) COLLATE nocase;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 6.7 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (a, b) = 1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_execsql_test 6.8 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (a COLLATE nocase, b) = (SELECT 'def', 2);
} {iii iv}
do_execsql_test 6.9 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (a COLLATE nocase, b) IS NOT (SELECT 'def', 2);
} {i ii v vi}
do_execsql_test 6.10 {
  SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (b, a) = (SELECT 2, 'def');
} {iii}

do_execsql_test 7.0 {
  CREATE TABLE xy(i INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, j, k);
  INSERT INTO xy VALUES(1, 1, 1);
  INSERT INTO xy VALUES(2, 2, 2);
  INSERT INTO xy VALUES(3, 3, 3);
  INSERT INTO xy VALUES(4, 4, 4);
}


foreach {tn sql res eqp} {
  1 "SELECT * FROM xy WHERE (i, j) IS (2, 2)" {2 2 2} 
    "0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE xy USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)}"

  2 "SELECT * FROM xy WHERE (k, j) < (2, 3)" {1 1 1 2 2 2}
    "0 0 0 {SCAN TABLE xy}"

  3 "SELECT * FROM xy WHERE (i, j) < (2, 3)" {1 1 1 2 2 2}
    "0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE xy USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid<?)}"

  4 "SELECT * FROM xy WHERE (i, j) > (2, 1)" {2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4}
    "0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE xy USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid>?)}"

  5 "SELECT * FROM xy WHERE (i, j) > ('2', 1)" {2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4}
    "0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE xy USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid>?)}"

} {
  do_eqp_test 7.$tn.1 $sql $eqp
  do_execsql_test 7.$tn.2 $sql $res
}

do_execsql_test 8.0 {
  CREATE TABLE j1(a);
}
do_execsql_test 8.1 {
  SELECT * FROM j1 WHERE (select min(a) FROM j1) IN (?, ?, ?)
}

do_execsql_test 9.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t2(a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, b, c);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 1, 1);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 2, 2);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 3, 3);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(4, 4, 4);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(5, 5, 5);
}

foreach {tn q res} {
  1 "(a, b) > (2, 1)" {2 3 4 5}
  2 "(a, b) > (2, 2)" {3 4 5}
  3 "(a, b) < (4, 5)" {1 2 3 4}
  4 "(a, b) < (4, 3)" {1 2 3}
} {
  do_execsql_test 9.$tn "SELECT c FROM t2 WHERE $q" $res
} 

do_execsql_test 10.0 {
  CREATE TABLE dual(dummy); INSERT INTO dual(dummy) VALUES('X');
  CREATE TABLE t3(a TEXT,b TEXT,c TEXT,d TEXT,e TEXT,f TEXT);
  CREATE INDEX t3x ON t3(b,c,d,e,f);

  SELECT a FROM t3
    WHERE (c,d) IN (SELECT 'c','d' FROM dual)
    AND (a,b,e) IN (SELECT 'a','b','d' FROM dual);
}

do_catchsql_test 11.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t11(a);
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a)<=1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 11.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a)<1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 11.3 {
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a)>=1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 11.4 {
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a)>1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 11.5 {
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a)==1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 11.6 {
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a)<>1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 11.7 {
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a) IS 1;
} {1 {row value misused}}
do_catchsql_test 11.8 {
  SELECT * FROM t11 WHERE (a,a) IS NOT 1;
} {1 {row value misused}}


finish_test

Added test/rowvalue2.test.















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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# 2016 June 17
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  The
# focus of this file is testing the SELECT statement.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue2

do_execsql_test 1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(0, 0, 0);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(0, 1, 1);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1, 0, 2);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1, 1, 3);

  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a, b);
}

do_execsql_test 1.1.1 { SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE (a, b) >= (1, 0) } {2 3} 
do_execsql_test 1.1.2 { SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE (a, b) > (1, 0)  } {3}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------

do_execsql_test 2.0.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t2(a INTEGER, b INTEGER, c INTEGER, d INTEGER);
  CREATE INDEX i2 ON t2(a, b, c);
}
do_test 2.0.2 {
  foreach a {0 1 2 3} {
  foreach b {0 1 2 3} {
  foreach c {0 1 2 3} {
    execsql { INSERT INTO t2 VALUES($a, $b, $c, $c + $b*4 + $a*16); }
  }}}
} {}

do_execsql_test 2.1 {
  SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE (a, b) > (2, 2);
} [db eval { SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE a>2 OR (a=2 AND b>2) }]

do_execsql_test 2.2 {
  SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE (a, b) >= (2, 2);
} [db eval { SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE a>2 OR (a=2 AND b>=2) }]

do_execsql_test 2.3 {
  SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE a=1 AND (b, c) >= (1, 2);
} [db eval { SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE +a=1 AND (b>1 OR (b==1 AND c>=2)) }]

do_execsql_test 2.4 {
  SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE a=1 AND (b, c) > (1, 2);
} [db eval { SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE +a=1 AND (b>1 OR (b==1 AND c>2)) }]

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------

set words {
airfare airfield airfields airflow airfoil
airfoils airframe airframes airily airing
airings airless airlift airlifts airline
airliner airlines airlock airlocks airmail
airmails airman airmen airplane airplanes

arraignment arraignments arraigns arrange arranged
arrangement arrangements arranger arrangers arranges
arranging arrant array arrayed arrays
arrears arrest arrested arrester arresters
arresting arrestingly arrestor arrestors arrests

edifices edit edited editing edition
editions editor editorial editorially editorials
editors edits educable educate educated
educates educating education educational educationally
educations educator educators eel eelgrass
}

do_test 3.0 {
  execsql { CREATE TABLE t3(a, b, c, w); }
  foreach w $words {
    set a [string range $w 0 2]
    set b [string range $w 3 5]
    set c [string range $w 6 end]
    execsql { INSERT INTO t3 VALUES($a, $b, $c, $w) }
  }
} {}


foreach {tn idx} {
  IDX1 {}
  IDX2 { CREATE INDEX i3 ON t3(a, b, c); }
  IDX3 { CREATE INDEX i3 ON t3(a, b); }
  IDX4 { CREATE INDEX i3 ON t3(a); }
} {
  execsql { DROP INDEX IF EXISTS i3 }
  execsql $idx

  foreach w $words {
    set a [string range $w 0 2]
    set b [string range $w 3 5]
    set c [string range $w 6 end]

    foreach op [list > >= < <= == IS] {
      do_execsql_test 3.1.$tn.$w.$op [subst -novar {
        SELECT rowid FROM t3 WHERE (a, b, c) [set op] ($a, $b, $c) 
        ORDER BY +rowid
      }] [db eval [subst -novar {
        SELECT rowid FROM t3 WHERE w [set op] $w ORDER BY +rowid
      }]]

      do_execsql_test 3.1.$tn.$w.$op.subselect [subst -novar {
        SELECT rowid FROM t3 WHERE (a, b, c) [set op] (
          SELECT a, b, c FROM t3 WHERE w = $w
        )
        ORDER BY +rowid
      }] [db eval [subst -novar {
        SELECT rowid FROM t3 WHERE w [set op] $w ORDER BY +rowid
      }]]
    }

  }
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#

do_execsql_test 4.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t4(a, b, c);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL, NULL, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL, NULL, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL, NULL, 1);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL,    0, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL,    0, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL,    0, 1);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL,    1, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL,    1, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(NULL,    1, 1);

  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0, NULL, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0, NULL, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0, NULL, 1);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0,    0, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0,    0, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0,    0, 1);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0,    1, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0,    1, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   0,    1, 1);

  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1, NULL, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1, NULL, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1, NULL, 1);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1,    0, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1,    0, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1,    0, 1);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1,    1, NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1,    1, 0);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES(   1,    1, 1);
}

proc make_expr1 {cList vList op} {
  return "([join $cList ,]) $op ([join $vList ,])"
}

proc make_expr3 {cList vList op} {
  set n [llength $cList]

  set aList [list]
  foreach c [lrange $cList 0 end-1] v [lrange $vList 0 end-1] {
    lappend aList "$c == $v"
  }
  lappend aList "[lindex $cList end] $op [lindex $vList end]"

  return "([join $aList { AND }])"
}

proc make_expr2 {cList vList op} {
  set ret ""

  switch -- $op {
    == - IS {
      set aList [list]
      foreach c $cList v $vList { lappend aList "($c $op $v)" }
      set ret [join $aList " AND "]
    }

    < - > {
      set oList [list]
      for {set i 0} {$i < [llength $cList]} {incr i} {
        lappend oList [make_expr3 [lrange $cList 0 $i] [lrange $vList 0 $i] $op]
      }
      set ret [join $oList " OR "]
    }

    <= - >= {
      set o2 [string range $op 0 0]
      set oList [list]
      for {set i 0} {$i < [llength $cList]-1} {incr i} {
        lappend oList [make_expr3 [lrange $cList 0 $i] [lrange $vList 0 $i] $o2]
      }
      lappend oList [make_expr3 $cList $vList $op]
      set ret [join $oList " OR "]
    }


    default {
      error "Unknown op: $op"
    }
  }

  set ret
}

foreach {tn idx} {
  IDX1 {}
  IDX2 { CREATE INDEX i4 ON t4(a, b, c); }
  IDX3 { CREATE INDEX i4 ON t4(a, b); }
  IDX4 { CREATE INDEX i4 ON t4(a); }
} {
  execsql { DROP INDEX IF EXISTS i4 }
  execsql $idx

  foreach {tn2 vector} {
    1 {0 0 0}
    2 {1 1 1}
    3 {0 0 NULL}
    4 {0 NULL 0}
    5 {NULL 0 0}
    6 {1 1 NULL}
    7 {1 NULL 1}
    8 {NULL 1 1}
  } {
    foreach op { IS == < <= > >= } {
      set e1 [make_expr1 {a b c} $vector $op]
      set e2 [make_expr2 {a b c} $vector $op]

      do_execsql_test 4.$tn.$tn2.$op \
          "SELECT rowid FROM t4 WHERE $e2 ORDER BY +rowid" [
          db eval "SELECT rowid FROM t4 WHERE $e1 ORDER BY +rowid"
      ]
    }
  }
}

do_execsql_test 5.0 {
  CREATE TABLE r1(a TEXT, iB TEXT);
  CREATE TABLE r2(x TEXT, zY INTEGER);
  CREATE INDEX r1ab ON r1(a, iB);

  INSERT INTO r1 VALUES(35, 35);
  INSERT INTO r2 VALUES(35, 36);
  INSERT INTO r2 VALUES(35, 4);
  INSERT INTO r2 VALUES(35, 35);
} {}

foreach {tn lhs rhs} {
  1 {x +zY} {a iB}
  2 {x  zY} {a iB}
  3 {x  zY} {a +iB}
  4 {+x  zY} {a iB}
  5 {x  zY} {+a iB}
} {
  foreach op { IS == < <= > >= } {
    set e1 [make_expr1 $lhs $rhs $op]
    set e2 [make_expr2 $lhs $rhs $op]
    do_execsql_test 5.$tn.$op \
      "SELECT * FROM r1, r2 WHERE $e2 ORDER BY iB" [db eval \
      "SELECT * FROM r1, r2 WHERE $e1 ORDER BY iB"
    ]
  }
}


finish_test

Added test/rowvalue3.test.





























































































































































































































































































































































































































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# 2016 June 17
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  The
# focus of this file is testing "(...) IN (SELECT ...)" expressions
# where the SELECT statement returns more than one column.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue3

do_execsql_test 1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a, b);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1, 2, 3);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(4, 5, 6);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(7, 8, 9);
}

foreach {tn sql res} {
  1  "SELECT 1 WHERE (4, 5) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t1)"  1
  2  "SELECT 1 WHERE (5, 5) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t1)"  {}
  3  "SELECT 1 WHERE (5, 4) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t1)"  {}
  4  "SELECT 1 WHERE (5, 4) IN (SELECT b, a FROM t1)"  1
  5  "SELECT 1 WHERE (SELECT a, b FROM t1 WHERE c=6) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t1)" 1
  6  "SELECT (5, 4) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t1)" 0
  7  "SELECT 1 WHERE (5, 4) IN (SELECT +b, +a FROM t1)"  1
  8  "SELECT (5, 4) IN (SELECT +b, +a FROM t1)"  1
  9  "SELECT (1, 2) IN (SELECT rowid, b FROM t1)"  1
  10 "SELECT 1 WHERE (1, 2) IN (SELECT rowid, b FROM t1)"  1
  11 "SELECT 1 WHERE (1, NULL) IN (SELECT rowid, b FROM t1)"  {}
  12 "SELECT 1 FROM t1 WHERE (a, b) = (SELECT +a, +b FROM t1)" {1}
} {
  do_execsql_test 1.$tn $sql $res
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------

do_execsql_test 2.0 {
  CREATE TABLE z1(x, y, z);
  CREATE TABLE kk(a, b);

  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES('a', 'b', 'c');
  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES('d', 'e', 'f');
  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES('g', 'h', 'i');

  -- INSERT INTO kk VALUES('y', 'y');
  INSERT INTO kk VALUES('d', 'e');
  -- INSERT INTO kk VALUES('x', 'x');

}

foreach {tn idx} {
  1 { }
  2 { CREATE INDEX z1idx ON z1(x, y) }
  3 { CREATE UNIQUE INDEX z1idx ON z1(x, y) }
  4 { CREATE INDEX z1idx ON kk(a, b) }
} {
  execsql "DROP INDEX IF EXISTS z1idx"
  execsql $idx

  do_execsql_test 2.$tn.1 {
    SELECT * FROM z1 WHERE x IN (SELECT a FROM kk)
  } {d e f}

  do_execsql_test 2.$tn.2 {
    SELECT * FROM z1 WHERE (x,y) IN (SELECT a, b FROM kk)
  } {d e f}

  do_execsql_test 2.$tn.3 {
    SELECT * FROM z1 WHERE (x, +y) IN (SELECT a, b FROM kk)
  } {d e f}
  
  do_execsql_test 2.$tn.4 {
    SELECT * FROM z1 WHERE (x, +y) IN (SELECT a, b||'x' FROM kk)
  } {}

  do_execsql_test 2.$tn.5 {
    SELECT * FROM z1 WHERE (+x, y) IN (SELECT a, b FROM kk)
  } {d e f}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#

do_execsql_test 3.0 {
  CREATE TABLE c1(a, b, c, d);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b) VALUES(1,   NULL, 1);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b) VALUES(2,   2, NULL);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b) VALUES(3,   2, 2);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b) VALUES(4,   3, 3);

  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(101, 'a', 'b', 1, 1);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(102, 'a', 'b', 1, 2);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(103, 'a', 'b', 1, 3);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(104, 'a', 'b', 2, 1);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(105, 'a', 'b', 2, 2);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(106, 'a', 'b', 2, 3);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(107, 'a', 'b', 3, 1);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(108, 'a', 'b', 3, 2);
  INSERT INTO c1(rowid, a, b, c, d) VALUES(109, 'a', 'b', 3, 3);
}


foreach {tn idx} {
  1 { }
  2 { CREATE INDEX c1ab ON c1(a, b); }
  3 { CREATE INDEX c1ba ON c1(b, a); }

  4 { CREATE INDEX c1cd ON c1(c, d); }
  5 { CREATE INDEX c1dc ON c1(d, c); }
} {
  drop_all_indexes

  foreach {tn2 sql res} {
    1 "SELECT (1, 2) IN (SELECT a, b FROM c1)" {0}
    2 "SELECT (1, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM c1)" {{}}
    3 "SELECT (2, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM c1)" {{}}
    4 "SELECT (2, 2) IN (SELECT a, b FROM c1)" {1}
    5 "SELECT c, d FROM c1 WHERE (c, d) IN (SELECT d, c FROM c1)"
      { 1 1 1 2 1 3   2 1 2 2 2 3   3 1 3 2 3 3 }

    6 "SELECT c, d FROM c1 WHERE (c,d) IN (SELECT d, c FROM c1) ORDER BY c DESC"
      { 3 1 3 2 3 3   2 1 2 2 2 3   1 1 1 2 1 3 }

    7 {
        SELECT c, d FROM c1 WHERE (c,d) IN (SELECT d, c FROM c1) 
        ORDER BY c DESC, d ASC
      } { 3 1 3 2 3 3   2 1 2 2 2 3   1 1 1 2 1 3 }

    8 {
        SELECT c, d FROM c1 WHERE (c,d) IN (SELECT d, c FROM c1) 
        ORDER BY c ASC, d DESC
      } { 1 3 1 2 1 1   2 3 2 2 2 1   3 3 3 2 3 1 }

    9 {
        SELECT c, d FROM c1 WHERE (c,d) IN (SELECT d, c FROM c1) 
        ORDER BY c ASC, d ASC
      } { 1 1 1 2 1 3   2 1 2 2 2 3   3 1 3 2 3 3 }
    10 {
        SELECT c, d FROM c1 WHERE (c,d) IN (SELECT d, c FROM c1) 
        ORDER BY c DESC, d DESC
      } { 3 3 3 2 3 1   2 3 2 2 2 1   1 3 1 2 1 1 }

  } {
    do_execsql_test 3.$tn.$tn2 $sql $res
  }
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------

do_execsql_test 4.0 {
  CREATE TABLE hh(a, b, c);

  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('a', 'a', 1);
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('a', 'b', 2);
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('b', 'a', 3);
  INSERT INTO hh VALUES('b', 'b', 4);

  CREATE TABLE k1(x, y);
  INSERT INTO k1 VALUES('a', 'a');
  INSERT INTO k1 VALUES('b', 'b');
  INSERT INTO k1 VALUES('a', 'b');
  INSERT INTO k1 VALUES('b', 'a');
}

foreach {tn idx} {
  1 { }
  2 { CREATE INDEX h1 ON hh(a, b); }
  3 { CREATE UNIQUE INDEX k1idx ON k1(x, y) }
  4 { CREATE UNIQUE INDEX k1idx ON k1(x, y DESC) }
  5 { 
    CREATE INDEX h1 ON hh(a, b);
    CREATE UNIQUE INDEX k1idx ON k1(x, y); 
  }
  6 { 
    CREATE INDEX h1 ON hh(a, b);
    CREATE UNIQUE INDEX k1idx ON k1(x, y DESC); 
  }
} {
  drop_all_indexes
  execsql $idx
  foreach {tn2 orderby res} {
    1 "a ASC, b ASC"  {1 2 3 4}
    2 "a ASC, b DESC" {2 1 4 3}
    3 "a DESC, b ASC" {3 4 1 2}
    4 "a DESC, b DESC" {4 3 2 1}
  } {
    do_execsql_test 4.$tn.$tn2 "
      SELECT c FROM hh WHERE (a, b) in (SELECT x, y FROM k1) ORDER BY $orderby
    " $res
  }
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------


finish_test

Added test/rowvalue4.test.



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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# 2016 July 29
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  The
# focus of this file is syntax errors involving row-value constructors
# and sub-selects that return multiple arguments.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue4

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test some error conditions:
# 
#   * row values used where they are not supported,
#   * row values or sub-selects that contain/return the wrong number
#     of elements.
#
do_execsql_test 1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX t1bac ON t1(b, a, c);
}

foreach {tn e} {
  1 "(1, 2, 3)"
  2 "1 + (1, 2)"
  3 "(1,2,3) == (1, 2)"
} {
  do_catchsql_test 1.$tn "SELECT $e" {1 {row value misused}}
}

foreach {tn s error} {
  1 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a = (1, 2)"       {row value misused}
  2 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE b = (1, 2)"       {row value misused}
  3 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE NOT (b = (1, 2))" {row value misused}
  4 "SELECT * FROM t1 LIMIT (1, 2)"           {row value misused}
  5 "SELECT (a, b) IN (SELECT * FROM t1) FROM t1" 
                             {sub-select returns 3 columns - expected 2}

  6 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE (a, b) IN (SELECT * FROM t1)" 
                             {sub-select returns 3 columns - expected 2}
  7 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE (c, c) <= 1" {row value misused}
  8 "SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE (b, b) <= 1" {row value misused}
} {
  do_catchsql_test 2.$tn "$s" [list 1 $error]
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
do_execsql_test 2.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t2(a, b, c, d);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 1, 1,   1);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 1, 2,   2);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 1, 3,   3);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 2, 1,   4);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 2, 2,   5);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 2, 3,   6);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 3, 1,   7);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 3, 2,   8);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1, 3, 3,   9);

  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 1, 1,   10);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 1, 2,   11);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 1, 3,   12);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 2, 1,   13);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 2, 2,   14);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 2, 3,   15);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 3, 1,   16);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 3, 2,   17);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2, 3, 3,   18);

  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 1, 1,   19);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 1, 2,   20);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 1, 3,   21);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 2, 1,   22);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 2, 2,   23);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 2, 3,   24);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 3, 1,   25);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 3, 2,   26);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(3, 3, 3,   27);
}

foreach {nm idx} {
  idx1 {}
  idx2 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(a, b, c); }
  idx3 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(a, b DESC, c); }
  idx4 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(a DESC, b DESC, c DESC); }
  idx5 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(a ASC, b ASC, c ASC); }
  idx6 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(a DESC, b, c); }
  idx7 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(a DESC, b DESC) }
  idx8 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(c, b, a); }
  idx9 { CREATE INDEX t2d ON t2(d); }
  idx10 { CREATE INDEX t2abc ON t2(a DESC, b, c DESC); }
} {
  drop_all_indexes
  execsql $idx

  foreach {tn where res} {
    1 "(a, b, c) < (2, 2, 2)"  {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13}
    2 "(a, b, c) <= (2, 2, 2)" {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14}
    3 "(a, b, c) > (2, 2, 2)"  {15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27}
    4 "(a, b, c) >= (2, 2, 2)" {14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27}
    5 "(a, b, c) >= (2, 2, NULL)" {16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27}
    6 "(a, b, c) <= (2, 2, NULL)" {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12}
    7 "(a, b, c) >= (2, NULL, NULL)" {19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27}
    8 "(a, b, c) <= (2, NULL, NULL)" {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9}

    9 "(a, b, c) < (SELECT a, b, c FROM t2 WHERE d=14)"  
      {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13}

    10 "(a, b, c) = (SELECT a, b, c FROM t2 WHERE d=14)" 14

    11 "a = 2 AND (b, c) > (2, 2)" {15 16 17 18}
    12 "a = 2 AND (b, c) < (3, 3) AND (b, c) > (1, 1)" {11 12 13 14 15 16 17}
  } {
    set result [db eval "SELECT d FROM t2 WHERE $where"]
    do_test 2.1.$nm.$tn { lsort -integer $result } $res
  }

  foreach {tn e res} {
    1 "(2, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t2)" 1
    2 "(2, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d)" 1
    3 "(2, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d LIMIT 9)" 0
    4 "(2, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d LIMIT 10)" 1

    5 "(3, 3) = (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d DESC LIMIT 1)" 1
    6 "(3, 3) = (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d ASC LIMIT 1)" 0
    7 "(1, NULL) = (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d ASC LIMIT 1)" {{}}

    8 "(3, 1) = (SELECT b, c FROM t2 ORDER BY d DESC LIMIT 1 OFFSET 2)" 1
    9 "(3, 1) = (SELECT b, c FROM t2 ORDER BY d ASC LIMIT 1 OFFSET 2)" 0
    10 "(1, NULL) = (SELECT b, c FROM t2 ORDER BY d ASC LIMIT 1 OFFSET 2)" {{}}

    11 "(3, 3) = (SELECT max(a), max(b) FROM t2)" 1
    12 "(3, 1) = (SELECT max(a), min(b) FROM t2)" 1
    13 "(NULL, NULL) = (SELECT max(a), min(b) FROM t2)" {{}}

    14 "(2, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d LIMIT 5 OFFSET 11)" 1
    15 "(2, 1) IN (SELECT a, b FROM t2 ORDER BY d LIMIT 5 OFFSET 12)" 0
  } {
    do_execsql_test 2.2.$nm.$tn "SELECT $e" $res
  }
}

ifcapable stat4 {
  do_execsql_test 3.0 {
    CREATE TABLE c1(a, b, c, d);
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'a');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'b');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'c');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'd');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'e');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'f');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'g');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'h');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'i');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'j');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'k');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'l');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'm');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'n');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'o');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(1, 'p');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'a');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'b');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'c');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'd');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'e');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'f');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'g');
    INSERT INTO c1(a, b) VALUES(2, 'h');

    INSERT INTO c1(c, d) SELECT a, b FROM c1;

    CREATE INDEX c1ab ON c1(a, b);
    CREATE INDEX c1cd ON c1(c, d);
    ANALYZE;
  }

  do_eqp_test 3.1.1 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND c=2 } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1cd (c=?)}
  }
  do_eqp_test 3.1.2 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND b>'d' AND c=2 } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1cd (c=?)}
  }
  do_eqp_test 3.1.3 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND b>'l' AND c=2 } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1ab (a=? AND b>?)}
  }

  do_eqp_test 3.2.1 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND c>1 } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1cd (c>?)}
  }
  do_eqp_test 3.2.2 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND c>0 } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1ab (a=?)}
  }
  do_eqp_test 3.2.3 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND c>=1 } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1ab (a=?)}
  }
  do_eqp_test 3.2.4 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND (c, d)>(1, 'c') } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1ab (a=?)}
  }
  do_eqp_test 3.2.5 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND (c, d)>(1, 'o') } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1cd ((c,d)>(?,?))}
  }
  do_eqp_test 3.2.6 { SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE a=1 AND (c, +b)>(1, 'c') } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE c1 USING INDEX c1ab (a=?)}
  }
}

#------------------------------------------------------------------------

do_execsql_test 5.0 {
  CREATE TABLE d1(x, y);
  CREATE TABLE d2(a, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX d2ab ON d2(a, b);
  CREATE INDEX d2c ON d2(c);

  WITH i(i) AS (
    VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT i+1 FROM i WHERE i<1000
  )
  INSERT INTO d2 SELECT i/3, i%3, i/3 FROM i;
  ANALYZE;
}

do_eqp_test 5.1 {
  SELECT * FROM d2 WHERE 
    (a, b) IN (SELECT x, y FROM d1) AND
    (c) IN (SELECT y FROM d1)
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE d2 USING INDEX d2ab (a=? AND b=?)}
  0 0 0 {EXECUTE LIST SUBQUERY 1} 
  1 0 0 {SCAN TABLE d1}
  0 0 0 {EXECUTE LIST SUBQUERY 2} 
  2 0 0 {SCAN TABLE d1}
}

do_execsql_test 6.0 {
  CREATE TABLE e1(a, b, c, d, e);
  CREATE INDEX e1ab ON e1(a, b);
  CREATE INDEX e1cde ON e1(c, d, e);
}

do_eqp_test 6.1 {
  SELECT * FROM e1 WHERE (a, b) > (?, ?)
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE e1 USING INDEX e1ab ((a,b)>(?,?))}
}
do_eqp_test 6.2 {
  SELECT * FROM e1 WHERE (a, b) < (?, ?)
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE e1 USING INDEX e1ab ((a,b)<(?,?))}
}
do_eqp_test 6.3 {
  SELECT * FROM e1 WHERE c = ? AND (d, e) > (?, ?)
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE e1 USING INDEX e1cde (c=? AND (d,e)>(?,?))}
}
do_eqp_test 6.4 {
  SELECT * FROM e1 WHERE c = ? AND (d, e) < (?, ?)
} {
  0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE e1 USING INDEX e1cde (c=? AND (d,e)<(?,?))}
}

do_eqp_test 6.5 {
  SELECT * FROM e1 WHERE (d, e) BETWEEN (?, ?) AND (?, ?) AND c = ?
} {
  0 0 0 
  {SEARCH TABLE e1 USING INDEX e1cde (c=? AND (d,e)>(?,?) AND (d,e)<(?,?))}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------

do_execsql_test 7.1 {
  CREATE TABLE f1(a, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX f1ab ON f1(a, b);
}

do_catchsql_test 7.2 {
  SELECT (a COLLATE nocase, b) IN (SELECT a, b FROM f1) FROM f1;
} {0 {}}

do_catchsql_test 7.3 {
  SELECT (a COLLATE nose, b) IN (SELECT a, b FROM f1) FROM f1;
} {1 {no such collation sequence: nose}}

do_catchsql_test 7.4 {
  SELECT * FROM f1 WHERE (?, ? COLLATE nose) > (a, b);
} {1 {no such collation sequence: nose}}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test 8.1 {
  CREATE TABLE c1(x, y);
  CREATE TABLE c2(a, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX c2ab ON c2(a, b);
  CREATE INDEX c2c ON c2(c);

  CREATE TABLE c3(d);
}
do_catchsql_test 8.2 {
  SELECT * FROM c2 CROSS JOIN c3 WHERE 
    ( (a, b) == (SELECT x, y FROM c1) AND c3.d = c ) OR
    ( c == (SELECT x, y FROM c1) AND c3.d = c )
} {1 {row value misused}}

finish_test

Added test/rowvalue5.test.





























































































































































































































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# 2016 July 29
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  The
# focus of this file is syntax errors involving row-values and
# virtual tables.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue5

proc vtab_command {method args} {
  switch -- $method {
    xConnect {
      return "CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c, d, expr)"
    }

    xBestIndex {
      set COL(0) a
      set COL(1) b
      set COL(2) c
      set COL(3) d
      set COL(4) expr

      set OP(eq) =
      set OP(ne) !=
      set OP(gt) >
      set OP(le) <=
      set OP(lt) <
      set OP(ge) >=
      set OP(match) MATCH
      set OP(like) LIKE
      set OP(glob) GLOB
      set OP(regexp) REGEXP

      set clist [lindex $args 0]
      set ret [list]
      set elist [list]
      set i 0
      foreach c $clist {
        array set C $c
        if {$C(usable)} {
          lappend ret omit $i
          lappend elist "$COL($C(column)) $OP($C(op)) %$i%"
        }
        incr i
      }

      lappend ret idxstr [join $elist " AND "]
      #puts "xBestIndex: $ret"
      return $ret
    }

    xFilter {
      foreach {idxnum idxstr arglist} $args {}
      set i 0
      set ee $idxstr
      foreach a $arglist {
        if {[string is double $a]==0} {
          set a "'[string map {' ''} $a]'"
        }
        set ee [string map [list "%$i%" $a] $ee]
        incr i
      }
      set ee [string map [list "'" "''"] $ee]

      set ret [list sql "SELECT 1, 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', '$ee'"]
      #puts "xFilter: $ret"
      return $ret
    }
  }

  return {}
}

register_tcl_module db
do_execsql_test 1.0 {
  CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE x1 USING tcl(vtab_command);
} {}


foreach {tn where res} {
  1 "1"                              {{}}
  2 "a=1"                            {{a = 1}}
  3 "a=1 AND 4 = b"                  {{a = 1 AND b = 4}}
  4 "c>'hello'"                      {{c > 'hello'}}
  5 "c<='hel''lo'"                   {{c <= 'hel''lo'}}
  6 "(a, b) = (SELECT 9, 10)"        {{a = 9 AND b = 10}}
  7 "(+a, b) = (SELECT 'a', 'b')"    {{b = 'b'}}
  8 "(a, +b) = (SELECT 'a', 'b')"    {{a = 'a'}}
  11 "(+a, b) IN (SELECT 'a', 'b')"  {{b = 'b'}}
  12 "(a, +b) IN (SELECT 'a', 'b')"  {{a = 'a'}}

  13 "(a, b) < ('d', 'e')"           {{a <= 'd'}}
  14 "(a, b) < ('a', 'c')"           {{a <= 'a'}}
  15 "(a, b) <= ('a', 'b')"          {{a <= 'a'}}
  16 "(a, b) < ('a', 'b')"           {}
} {
  do_execsql_test 1.$tn "SELECT expr FROM x1 WHERE $where" $res
}

finish_test

Added test/rowvalue6.test.









































































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# 2016-08-18
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# The focus of this file is handling of NULL values in row-value IN
# expressions.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue6

do_execsql_test 1.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a,b,c);
  CREATE INDEX t1x1 ON t1(a,b);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1,NULL,200);

  CREATE TABLE t2(x,y,z);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(1,NULL,55);

  SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE (a,b) IN (SELECT x,y FROM t2 WHERE z==55);
} {}
do_execsql_test 1.2 {
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2,3,400);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(2,3,55);  

  SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE (a,b) IN (SELECT x,y FROM t2 WHERE z==55);
} {400}

finish_test

Added test/rowvalue7.test.





















































































































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# 2016-08-18
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# The focus of this file is vector assignments in the SET clause of
# an UPDATE statement.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue7

do_execsql_test 1.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a,b,c,d);
  CREATE INDEX t1x ON t1(a,b);
  INSERT INTO t1(a,b,c,d) VALUES(1,2,0,0),(3,4,0,0),(5,6,0,0);
  CREATE TABLE t2(w,x,y,z);
  CREATE INDEX t2x ON t2(w,x);
  INSERT INTO t2(w,x,y,z) VALUES(1,2,11,22),(8,9,88,99),(3,5,33,55),(5,6,55,66);

  SELECT *,'|' FROM t1 ORDER BY a;
} {1 2 0 0 | 3 4 0 0 | 5 6 0 0 |}

do_execsql_test 1.2 {
  UPDATE t1 SET (c,d) = (SELECT y,z FROM t2 WHERE (w,x)=(a,b));
  SELECT *,'|' FROM t1 ORDER BY a;
} {1 2 11 22 | 3 4 {} {} | 5 6 55 66 |}

do_execsql_test 1.3 {
  UPDATE t1 SET (c,d) = (SELECT y,z FROM t2 WHERE w=a);
  SELECT *,'|' FROM t1 ORDER BY a;
} {1 2 11 22 | 3 4 33 55 | 5 6 55 66 |}

do_execsql_test 1.4 {
  UPDATE t1 SET (c) = 99 WHERE a=3;
  SELECT *,'|' FROM t1 ORDER BY a;
} {1 2 11 22 | 3 4 99 55 | 5 6 55 66 |}

do_execsql_test 1.5 {
  UPDATE t1 SET b = 8, (c,d) = (SELECT 123,456) WHERE a=3;
  SELECT *,'|' FROM t1 ORDER BY a;
} {1 2 11 22 | 3 8 123 456 | 5 6 55 66 |}

do_catchsql_test 2.1 {
  UPDATE t1 SET (c,d) = (SELECT x,y,z FROM t2 WHERE w=a);
} {1 {2 columns assigned 3 values}}

do_catchsql_test 2.2 {
  UPDATE t1 SET (b,c,d) = (SELECT x,y FROM t2 WHERE w=a);
} {1 {3 columns assigned 2 values}}

finish_test

Added test/rowvalue8.test.























































































































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# 2016-08-22
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# Use of row values in CASE statements.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue8

do_execsql_test 1.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,b,c,d);
  INSERT INTO t1(a,b,c,d) VALUES
     (1,1,2,3),
     (2,2,3,4),
     (3,1,2,4),
     (4,2,3,5),
     (5,3,4,6),
     (6,4,5,9);
  SELECT a, CASE (b,c) WHEN (1,2) THEN 'aleph'
                       WHEN (2,3) THEN 'bet'
                       WHEN (3,4) THEN 'gimel'
                       ELSE '-' END,
         '|'
    FROM t1
   ORDER BY a;
} {1 aleph | 2 bet | 3 aleph | 4 bet | 5 gimel | 6 - |}
do_execsql_test 1.2 {
  SELECT a, CASE (b,c,d) WHEN (1,2,3) THEN 'aleph'
                         WHEN (2,3,4) THEN 'bet'
                         WHEN (3,4,6) THEN 'gimel'
                         ELSE '-' END,
         '|'
    FROM t1
   ORDER BY a;
} {1 aleph | 2 bet | 3 - | 4 - | 5 gimel | 6 - |}

do_execsql_test 2.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t2(x INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, y);
  INSERT INTO t2(x,y) VALUES(1,6),(2,5),(3,4),(4,3),(5,2),(6,1);
  SELECT x, CASE (SELECT b,c FROM t1 WHERE a=y)
            WHEN (1,2) THEN 'aleph'
            WHEN (2,3) THEN 'bet'
            WHEN (3,4) THEN 'gimel'
            ELSE '-' END,
         '|'
    FROM t2
   ORDER BY +x;
} {1 - | 2 gimel | 3 bet | 4 aleph | 5 bet | 6 aleph |}


finish_test

Added test/rowvalue9.test.





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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# 2016 September 3
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  The
# focus of this file is testing SQL statements that use row value
# constructors.
#


set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvalue9

# Tests:
#
#  1.*: Test that affinities are handled correctly by various row-value
#       operations without indexes.
#
#  2.*: Test an affinity bug that came up during testing.
#
#  3.*: Test a row-value version of the bug tested by 2.*.
#
#  4.*: Test that affinities are handled correctly by various row-value
#       operations with assorted indexes.
#

do_execsql_test 1.0.1 {
  CREATE TABLE a1(c, b INTEGER, a TEXT, PRIMARY KEY(a, b));
 
  INSERT INTO a1 (rowid, c, b, a) VALUES(3,  '0x03', 1, 1);
  INSERT INTO a1 (rowid, c, b, a) VALUES(14, '0x0E', 2, 2);
  INSERT INTO a1 (rowid, c, b, a) VALUES(15, '0x0F', 3, 3);
  INSERT INTO a1 (rowid, c, b, a) VALUES(92, '0x5C', 4, 4);

  CREATE TABLE a2(x BLOB, y BLOB);
  INSERT INTO a2(x, y) VALUES(1, 1);
  INSERT INTO a2(x, y) VALUES(2, '2');
  INSERT INTO a2(x, y) VALUES('3', 3);
  INSERT INTO a2(x, y) VALUES('4', '4');
}

do_execsql_test 1.0.2 { 
  SELECT x, typeof(x), y, typeof(y) FROM a2 ORDER BY rowid
} {
  1 integer 1 integer 
  2 integer 2 text 
  3 text    3 integer 
  4 text    4 text
}

do_execsql_test 1.1.1 {
  SELECT (SELECT rowid FROM a1 WHERE a=x AND b=y) FROM a2
} {{} {} 15 92}
do_execsql_test 1.1.2 {
  SELECT (SELECT rowid FROM a1 WHERE (a, b) = (x, y)) FROM a2
} {{} {} 15 92}

do_execsql_test 1.2.3 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1, a2 WHERE a=x AND b=y;
} {15 92}
do_execsql_test 1.2.4 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1, a2 WHERE (a, b) = (x, y)
} {15 92}


do_execsql_test 1.3.1 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1, a2 WHERE coalesce(NULL,x)=a AND coalesce(NULL,y)=b
} {3 14 15 92}
do_execsql_test 1.3.2 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1, a2 
  WHERE (coalesce(NULL,x), coalesce(NULL,y)) = (a, b)
} {3 14 15 92}

do_execsql_test 1.4.1 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1, a2 WHERE +x=a AND +y=b
} {3 14 15 92}
do_execsql_test 1.4.2 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1, a2 WHERE (+x, +y) = (a, b)
} {3 14 15 92}

do_execsql_test 1.5.1 {
  SELECT (SELECT rowid FROM a1 WHERE a=+x AND b=+y) FROM a2
} {3 14 15 92}
do_execsql_test 1.5.2 {
  SELECT (SELECT rowid FROM a1 WHERE (a, b) = (+x, +y)) FROM a2
} {3 14 15 92}
do_execsql_test 1.5.3 {
  SELECT (SELECT rowid FROM a1 WHERE (+x, +y) = (a, b)) FROM a2
} {3 14 15 92}

do_execsql_test 1.6.1 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1 WHERE (a, b) IN (SELECT x, y FROM a2)
} {15 92}
do_execsql_test 1.6.2 {
  SELECT a1.rowid FROM a1, a2 WHERE EXISTS (
    SELECT 1 FROM a1 WHERE a=x AND b=y
  )
} {3 14 15 92 3 14 15 92}

# Test that [199df416] is fixed.
#
do_execsql_test 2.1 {
  CREATE TABLE b1(a TEXT);
  CREATE TABLE b2(x BLOB);
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(1);
  INSERT INTO b2 VALUES(1);
}
do_execsql_test 2.2 { SELECT * FROM b1, b2 WHERE a=x; } {}
do_execsql_test 2.3 { SELECT * FROM b1 WHERE a IN (SELECT x FROM b2) } {}
do_execsql_test 2.4 { CREATE UNIQUE INDEX b1a ON b1(a); }
do_execsql_test 2.5 { SELECT * FROM b1 WHERE a IN (SELECT x FROM b2) } {}

# Test that a multi-column version of the query that revealed problem 
# [199df416] also works.
#
do_execsql_test 3.1 {
  CREATE TABLE c1(a INTEGER, b TEXT);
  INSERT INTO c1 VALUES(1, 1);
  CREATE TABLE c2(x BLOB, y BLOB);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(1, 1);
}
do_execsql_test 3.2 {
  SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE (a, b) IN (SELECT x, y FROM c2)
} {}
do_execsql_test 3.3 {
  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX c1ab ON c1(a, b);
  SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE (a, b) IN (SELECT x, y FROM c2)
} {}
do_execsql_test 3.4 {
  SELECT * FROM c1 WHERE (a, +b) IN (SELECT x, y FROM c2)
} {}

do_execsql_test 3.5 {
  SELECT c1.rowid FROM c1 WHERE b = (SELECT y FROM c2);
} {}
do_execsql_test 3.6 {
  SELECT c1.rowid FROM c1 WHERE (a, b) = (SELECT x, y FROM c2);
} {}


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
do_execsql_test 4.0 {
  CREATE TABLE d1(a TEXT, b INTEGER, c NUMERIC);
  CREATE TABLE d2(x BLOB, y BLOB);

  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(1, 1, 1);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(2, 2, 2);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(3, 3, 3);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(4, 4, 4);

  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES (1, 1);
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES (2, '2');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES ('3', 3);
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES ('4', '4');
}

foreach {tn idx} {
  1 {}
  2 { CREATE INDEX idx ON d1(a) }
  3 { CREATE INDEX idx ON d1(a, c) }
  4 { CREATE INDEX idx ON d1(c) }
  5 { CREATE INDEX idx ON d1(c, a) }

  6 { 
    CREATE INDEX idx ON d1(c, a) ;
    CREATE INDEX idx1 ON d2(x, y);
  }

  7 { 
    CREATE INDEX idx ON d1(c, a) ;
    CREATE UNIQUE INDEX idx2 ON d2(x, y) ;
  }

  8 { 
    CREATE INDEX idx ON d1(c) ;
    CREATE UNIQUE INDEX idx2 ON d2(x);
  }

} {
  execsql { DROP INDEX IF EXISTS idx } 
  execsql { DROP INDEX IF EXISTS idx2 } 
  execsql { DROP INDEX IF EXISTS idx3 } 
  execsql $idx

  do_execsql_test 4.$tn.1 {
    SELECT rowid FROM d1 WHERE (a, c) IN (SELECT x, y FROM d2);
  } {3 4}

  do_execsql_test 4.$tn.2 {
    SELECT rowid FROM d1 WHERE (c, a) IN (SELECT x, y FROM d2);
  } {2 4}

  do_execsql_test 4.$tn.3 {
    SELECT rowid FROM d1 WHERE (+c, a) IN (SELECT x, y FROM d2);
  } {2}

  do_execsql_test 4.$tn.4 {
    SELECT rowid FROM d1 WHERE (c, a) = (
      SELECT x, y FROM d2 WHERE d2.rowid=d1.rowid
    );
  } {2 4}

  do_execsql_test 4.$tn.5 {
    SELECT d1.rowid FROM d1, d2 WHERE a = y;
  } {2 4}

  do_execsql_test 4.$tn.6 {
    SELECT d1.rowid FROM d1 WHERE a = (
      SELECT y FROM d2 where d2.rowid=d1.rowid
    );
  } {2 4}
}

do_execsql_test 5.0 {
  CREATE TABLE e1(a TEXT, c NUMERIC);
  CREATE TABLE e2(x BLOB, y BLOB);

  INSERT INTO e1 VALUES(2, 2);

  INSERT INTO e2 VALUES ('2', 2);
  INSERT INTO e2 VALUES ('2', '2');
  INSERT INTO e2 VALUES ('2', '2.0');

  CREATE INDEX e1c ON e1(c);
}

do_execsql_test 5.1 {
  SELECT rowid FROM e1 WHERE (a, c) IN (SELECT x, y FROM e2);
} {1}
do_execsql_test 5.2 {
  SELECT rowid FROM e2 WHERE rowid IN (SELECT +c FROM e1);
} {2}
do_execsql_test 5.3 {
  SELECT rowid FROM e2 WHERE rowid IN (SELECT 0+c FROM e1);
} {2}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
do_execsql_test 6.0 {
  CREATE TABLE f1(a, b);
  CREATE TABLE f2(c, d);
  CREATE TABLE f3(e, f);
}

do_execsql_test 6.1 {
  SELECT * FROM f3 WHERE (e, f) IN (
    SELECT a, b FROM f1 UNION ALL SELECT c, d FROM f2
  );
}
do_execsql_test 6.2 {
  CREATE INDEX f3e ON f3(e);
  SELECT * FROM f3 WHERE (e, f) IN (
    SELECT a, b FROM f1 UNION ALL SELECT c, d FROM f2
  );
}


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
do_execsql_test 7.0 {
  CREATE TABLE g1(a, b); 
  INSERT INTO g1 VALUES
      (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 'i'), (1, 'j'),
      (1, 6), (1, 7), (1, 8), (1, 9), (1, 10),
      (1, 4), (1, 5);

  CREATE TABLE g2(x, y);
  CREATE INDEX g2x ON g2(x);

  INSERT INTO g2 VALUES(1, 4);
  INSERT INTO g2 VALUES(1, 5);
}

do_execsql_test 7.1 {
  SELECT * FROM g2 WHERE (x, y) IN (
    SELECT a, b FROM g1 ORDER BY +a, +b LIMIT 10
  );
} { 1 4 1 5 }

do_execsql_test 7.2 {
  SELECT * FROM g2 WHERE (x, y) IN (
    SELECT a, b FROM g1 ORDER BY a, b LIMIT 10
  );
} { 1 4 1 5 }

do_execsql_test 7.3 {
  SELECT * FROM g2 WHERE (x, y) IN (
    SELECT a, b FROM g1 ORDER BY 1, 2 LIMIT 10
  );
} { 1 4 1 5 }


finish_test

Added test/rowvaluefault.test.

















































































































































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# 2016 June 17
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  
#


set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
source $testdir/malloc_common.tcl
set ::testprefix rowvaluefault

do_execsql_test 1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE xyz(one, two, thr, fou);
  INSERT INTO xyz VALUES('A', 'A', 'A',  1);
  INSERT INTO xyz VALUES('B', 'B', 'B',  2);
  INSERT INTO xyz VALUES('C', 'C', 'C',  3);
  INSERT INTO xyz VALUES('D', 'D', 'D',  4);

  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX xyz_one_two ON xyz(one, two);
}

do_faultsim_test 1 -faults oom* -body {
  execsql { SELECT fou FROM xyz WHERE (one, two, thr) = ('B', 'B', 'B') }
} -test {
  faultsim_test_result {0 2} 
}

do_faultsim_test 2 -faults oom* -body {
  execsql { SELECT fou FROM xyz WHERE (two, thr) IS ('C', 'C') }
} -test {
  faultsim_test_result {0 3} 
}

do_faultsim_test 3 -faults oom* -body {
  execsql { SELECT fou FROM xyz WHERE (one, two, thr) > ('B', 'B', 'B') }
} -test {
  faultsim_test_result {0 {3 4}} 
}

do_faultsim_test 4 -faults oom* -body {
  execsql { SELECT fou FROM xyz WHERE (one, two) IN (SELECT one, two FROM xyz) }
} -test {
  faultsim_test_result {0 {1 2 3 4}} 
}

do_faultsim_test 5 -faults oom* -body {
  execsql { 
    SELECT fou FROM xyz 
    WHERE (one, two, thr) IN (SELECT one, two, thr FROM xyz) 
  }
} -test {
  faultsim_test_result {0 {1 2 3 4}} 
}

do_faultsim_test 6 -faults oom* -body {
  execsql { 
    SELECT fou FROM xyz 
    WHERE (one, two, thr) BETWEEN ('B', 'B', 'B') AND ('C', 'C', 'C') }
} -test {
  faultsim_test_result {0 {2 3}} 
}

finish_test

Changes to test/select7.test.

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#
ifcapable {subquery && compound} {
  do_test select7-5.1 {
    catchsql {
      CREATE TABLE t2(a,b);
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT a,b FROM t2);
    }
  } [list 1 \
     {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}]
  do_test select7-5.2 {
    catchsql {
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT * FROM t2);
    }
  } [list 1 \
     {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}]
  do_test select7-5.3 {
    catchsql {
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT a,b FROM t2 UNION SELECT b,a FROM t2);
    }
  } [list 1 \
     {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}]
  do_test select7-5.4 {
    catchsql {
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT * FROM t2 UNION SELECT * FROM t2);
    }
  } [list 1 \
     {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}]
}

# Verify that an error occurs if you have too many terms on a
# compound select statement.
#
if {[clang_sanitize_address]==0} {
  ifcapable compound {







|
<




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#
ifcapable {subquery && compound} {
  do_test select7-5.1 {
    catchsql {
      CREATE TABLE t2(a,b);
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT a,b FROM t2);
    }
  } {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}

  do_test select7-5.2 {
    catchsql {
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT * FROM t2);
    }
  } {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}

  do_test select7-5.3 {
    catchsql {
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT a,b FROM t2 UNION SELECT b,a FROM t2);
    }
  } {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}

  do_test select7-5.4 {
    catchsql {
      SELECT 5 IN (SELECT * FROM t2 UNION SELECT * FROM t2);
    }
  } {1 {sub-select returns 2 columns - expected 1}}

}

# Verify that an error occurs if you have too many terms on a
# compound select statement.
#
if {[clang_sanitize_address]==0} {
  ifcapable compound {

Changes to test/subselect.test.

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} {3 4}

# Try a select with more than one result column.
#
do_test subselect-1.2 {
  set v [catch {execsql {SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a = (SELECT * FROM t1)}} msg]
  lappend v $msg
} {1 {only a single result allowed for a SELECT that is part of an expression}}

# A subselect without an aggregate.
#
do_test subselect-1.3a {
  execsql {SELECT b from t1 where a = (SELECT a FROM t1 WHERE b=2)}
} {2}
do_test subselect-1.3b {







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} {3 4}

# Try a select with more than one result column.
#
do_test subselect-1.2 {
  set v [catch {execsql {SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a = (SELECT * FROM t1)}} msg]
  lappend v $msg
} {1 {row value misused}}

# A subselect without an aggregate.
#
do_test subselect-1.3a {
  execsql {SELECT b from t1 where a = (SELECT a FROM t1 WHERE b=2)}
} {2}
do_test subselect-1.3b {

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#
#      is_relative_file
#      test_pwd
#      get_pwd
#      copy_file              FROM TO
#      delete_file            FILENAME
#      drop_all_tables        ?DB?

#      forcecopy              FROM TO
#      forcedelete            FILENAME
#
# Test the capability of the SQLite version built into the interpreter to
# determine if a specific test can be run:
#
#      capable                EXPR
................................................................................
  } else {
    set R ""
    set G ""
    set B ""
    set D ""
  }
  foreach opcode {
      Seek SeekGe SeekGt SeekLe SeekLt NotFound Last Rewind
      NoConflict Next Prev VNext VPrev VFilter
      SorterSort SorterNext
  } {
    set color($opcode) $B
  }
  foreach opcode {ResultRow} {
    set color($opcode) $G
  }
  foreach opcode {IdxInsert Insert Delete IdxDelete} {
................................................................................
    set x($addr) 0
    set op($addr) $opcode

    if {$opcode == "Goto" && ($bSeenGoto==0 || ($p2 > $addr+10))} {
      set linebreak($p2) 1
      set bSeenGoto 1
    }







    if {$opcode=="Next"  || $opcode=="Prev" 
     || $opcode=="VNext" || $opcode=="VPrev"
     || $opcode=="SorterNext"
    } {
      for {set i $p2} {$i<$addr} {incr i} {
        incr x($i) 2
      }
    }

    if {$opcode == "Goto" && $p2<$addr && $op($p2)=="Yield"} {
................................................................................
  }

  $db eval "explain $sql" {} {
    if {[info exists linebreak($addr)]} {
      output2 ""
    }
    set I [string repeat " " $x($addr)]







    set col ""
    catch { set col $color($opcode) }

    output2 [format {%-4d  %s%s%-12.12s%s  %-6d  %-6d  %-6d  % -17s %s  %s} \
      $addr $I $col $opcode $D $p1 $p2 $p3 $p4 $p5 $comment
    ]
................................................................................
      $db eval "DROP $type \"$t\""
    }
  }
  ifcapable trigger&&foreignkey {
    $db eval "PRAGMA foreign_keys = $pk"
  }
}











#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# If a test script is executed with global variable $::G(perm:name) set to
# "wal", then the tests are run in WAL mode. Otherwise, they should be run
# in rollback mode. The following Tcl procs are used to make this less
# intrusive:
#







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#
#      is_relative_file
#      test_pwd
#      get_pwd
#      copy_file              FROM TO
#      delete_file            FILENAME
#      drop_all_tables        ?DB?
#      drop_all_indexes       ?DB?
#      forcecopy              FROM TO
#      forcedelete            FILENAME
#
# Test the capability of the SQLite version built into the interpreter to
# determine if a specific test can be run:
#
#      capable                EXPR
................................................................................
  } else {
    set R ""
    set G ""
    set B ""
    set D ""
  }
  foreach opcode {
      Seek SeekGE SeekGT SeekLE SeekLT NotFound Last Rewind
      NoConflict Next Prev VNext VPrev VFilter
      SorterSort SorterNext NextIfOpen
  } {
    set color($opcode) $B
  }
  foreach opcode {ResultRow} {
    set color($opcode) $G
  }
  foreach opcode {IdxInsert Insert Delete IdxDelete} {
................................................................................
    set x($addr) 0
    set op($addr) $opcode

    if {$opcode == "Goto" && ($bSeenGoto==0 || ($p2 > $addr+10))} {
      set linebreak($p2) 1
      set bSeenGoto 1
    }

    if {$opcode=="Once"} {
      for {set i $addr} {$i<$p2} {incr i} {
        set star($i) $addr
      }
    }

    if {$opcode=="Next"  || $opcode=="Prev" 
     || $opcode=="VNext" || $opcode=="VPrev"
     || $opcode=="SorterNext" || $opcode=="NextIfOpen"
    } {
      for {set i $p2} {$i<$addr} {incr i} {
        incr x($i) 2
      }
    }

    if {$opcode == "Goto" && $p2<$addr && $op($p2)=="Yield"} {
................................................................................
  }

  $db eval "explain $sql" {} {
    if {[info exists linebreak($addr)]} {
      output2 ""
    }
    set I [string repeat " " $x($addr)]

    if {[info exists star($addr)]} {
      set ii [expr $x($star($addr))]
      append I "  "
      set I [string replace $I $ii $ii *]
    }

    set col ""
    catch { set col $color($opcode) }

    output2 [format {%-4d  %s%s%-12.12s%s  %-6d  %-6d  %-6d  % -17s %s  %s} \
      $addr $I $col $opcode $D $p1 $p2 $p3 $p4 $p5 $comment
    ]
................................................................................
      $db eval "DROP $type \"$t\""
    }
  }
  ifcapable trigger&&foreignkey {
    $db eval "PRAGMA foreign_keys = $pk"
  }
}

# Drop all auxiliary indexes from the main database opened by handle [db].
#
proc drop_all_indexes {{db db}} {
  set L [$db eval {
    SELECT name FROM sqlite_master WHERE type='index' AND sql LIKE 'create%'
  }]
  foreach idx $L { $db eval "DROP INDEX $idx" }
}


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# If a test script is executed with global variable $::G(perm:name) set to
# "wal", then the tests are run in WAL mode. Otherwise, they should be run
# in rollback mode. The following Tcl procs are used to make this less
# intrusive:
#

Changes to test/types2.test.

329
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331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
  test_boolset types2-8.4 {o IN (SELECT i FROM t4)} {1 2 3 4}
  test_boolset types2-8.5 {i IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {5 6 7 8}
  test_boolset types2-8.6 {n IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {5 6 7 8}
  test_boolset types2-8.7 {t IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {5 7}
  test_boolset types2-8.8 {o IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {7}
  test_boolset types2-8.9 {i IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {9 10 11 12}
  test_boolset types2-8.6 {n IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {9 10 11 12}
  test_boolset types2-8.7 {t IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {9 11}
  test_boolset types2-8.8 {o IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {9 10}
}

finish_test







|




329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
  test_boolset types2-8.4 {o IN (SELECT i FROM t4)} {1 2 3 4}
  test_boolset types2-8.5 {i IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {5 6 7 8}
  test_boolset types2-8.6 {n IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {5 6 7 8}
  test_boolset types2-8.7 {t IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {5 7}
  test_boolset types2-8.8 {o IN (SELECT t FROM t4)} {7}
  test_boolset types2-8.9 {i IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {9 10 11 12}
  test_boolset types2-8.6 {n IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {9 10 11 12}
  test_boolset types2-8.7 {t IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {}
  test_boolset types2-8.8 {o IN (SELECT o FROM t4)} {9 10}
}

finish_test

Changes to tool/addopcodes.tcl.

33
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37
38
39


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41
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  FUNCTION
  COLUMN
  AGG_FUNCTION
  AGG_COLUMN
  UMINUS
  UPLUS
  REGISTER


  ASTERISK
  SPAN
  SPACE
  ILLEGAL
}
if {[lrange $extras end-1 end]!="SPACE ILLEGAL"} {
  error "SPACE and ILLEGAL must be the last two token codes and they\







>
>







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41
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43
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48
  FUNCTION
  COLUMN
  AGG_FUNCTION
  AGG_COLUMN
  UMINUS
  UPLUS
  REGISTER
  VECTOR
  SELECT_COLUMN
  ASTERISK
  SPAN
  SPACE
  ILLEGAL
}
if {[lrange $extras end-1 end]!="SPACE ILLEGAL"} {
  error "SPACE and ILLEGAL must be the last two token codes and they\