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Overview
Comment:Attempt to use STAT4 information to estimate the selectivity of WHERE clause terms when using the skip-scan optimization.
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SHA1: d09ca6d5efad3e4cfa93a4dc711e6ba6079d4b4b
User & Date: drh 2014-06-30 19:07:58
References
2014-07-24
22:41
Fix a bug in the whereRangeSkipScanEst() procedure (added by check-in [d09ca6d5efad3e4cfa]) where it fails to consider the possibility of a ROWID column when computing the affinity of a table column. check-in: 6aea2258 user: drh tags: trunk
Context
2014-06-30
19:28
Bump the version number to 3.8.6. check-in: f925e9ba user: drh tags: trunk
19:07
Attempt to use STAT4 information to estimate the selectivity of WHERE clause terms when using the skip-scan optimization. check-in: d09ca6d5 user: drh tags: trunk
18:57
Fix for ticket [b2fa5424e6fcb15]: Better define the format of the sqlite_stat4 file for WITHOUT ROWID tables and make sure the ANALYZE command generates a file in the appropriate format. Use the sqlite_stat4 data to enable the use of WHERE terms that cover all indexed columns plus some prefix of columns in the primary key. check-in: bc2de809 user: drh tags: trunk
2014-06-28
19:06
Add an OOM fault injection test for the new code on this branch. Closed-Leaf check-in: c96de490 user: dan tags: stat4-skipscan
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void);
int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(Parse*,Index*,UnpackedRecord**,Expr*,u8,int,int*);

void sqlite3Stat4ProbeFree(UnpackedRecord*);

#endif

/*
** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
*/
void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(size_t));
void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));







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void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void);
int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(Parse*,Index*,UnpackedRecord**,Expr*,u8,int,int*);
int sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(Parse*, Expr*, u8, sqlite3_value**);
void sqlite3Stat4ProbeFree(UnpackedRecord*);
int sqlite3Stat4Column(sqlite3*, const void*, int, int, sqlite3_value**);
#endif

/*
** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
*/
void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(size_t));
void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));

Changes to src/vdbe.h.

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void sqlite3VdbeSwap(Vdbe*,Vdbe*);
VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeTakeOpArray(Vdbe*, int*, int*);
sqlite3_value *sqlite3VdbeGetBoundValue(Vdbe*, int, u8);
void sqlite3VdbeSetVarmask(Vdbe*, int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
  char *sqlite3VdbeExpandSql(Vdbe*, const char*);
#endif


void sqlite3VdbeRecordUnpack(KeyInfo*,int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*);
int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*,int);
UnpackedRecord *sqlite3VdbeAllocUnpackedRecord(KeyInfo *, char *, int, char **);

typedef int (*RecordCompare)(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*,int);
RecordCompare sqlite3VdbeFindCompare(UnpackedRecord*);







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void sqlite3VdbeSwap(Vdbe*,Vdbe*);
VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeTakeOpArray(Vdbe*, int*, int*);
sqlite3_value *sqlite3VdbeGetBoundValue(Vdbe*, int, u8);
void sqlite3VdbeSetVarmask(Vdbe*, int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
  char *sqlite3VdbeExpandSql(Vdbe*, const char*);
#endif
int sqlite3MemCompare(const Mem*, const Mem*, const CollSeq*);

void sqlite3VdbeRecordUnpack(KeyInfo*,int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*);
int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*,int);
UnpackedRecord *sqlite3VdbeAllocUnpackedRecord(KeyInfo *, char *, int, char **);

typedef int (*RecordCompare)(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*,int);
RecordCompare sqlite3VdbeFindCompare(UnpackedRecord*);

Changes to src/vdbeInt.h.

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u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialPut(unsigned char*, Mem*, u32);
u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(const unsigned char*, u32, Mem*);
void sqlite3VdbeDeleteAuxData(Vdbe*, int, int);

int sqlite2BtreeKeyCompare(BtCursor *, const void *, int, int, int *);
int sqlite3VdbeIdxKeyCompare(VdbeCursor*,UnpackedRecord*,int*);
int sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(sqlite3*, BtCursor *, i64 *);
int sqlite3MemCompare(const Mem*, const Mem*, const CollSeq*);
int sqlite3VdbeExec(Vdbe*);
int sqlite3VdbeList(Vdbe*);
int sqlite3VdbeHalt(Vdbe*);
int sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(Mem *, int);
int sqlite3VdbeMemTooBig(Mem*);
int sqlite3VdbeMemCopy(Mem*, const Mem*);
void sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(Mem*, const Mem*, int);







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u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialPut(unsigned char*, Mem*, u32);
u32 sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(const unsigned char*, u32, Mem*);
void sqlite3VdbeDeleteAuxData(Vdbe*, int, int);

int sqlite2BtreeKeyCompare(BtCursor *, const void *, int, int, int *);
int sqlite3VdbeIdxKeyCompare(VdbeCursor*,UnpackedRecord*,int*);
int sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(sqlite3*, BtCursor *, i64 *);

int sqlite3VdbeExec(Vdbe*);
int sqlite3VdbeList(Vdbe*);
int sqlite3VdbeHalt(Vdbe*);
int sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(Mem *, int);
int sqlite3VdbeMemTooBig(Mem*);
int sqlite3VdbeMemCopy(Mem*, const Mem*);
void sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(Mem*, const Mem*, int);

Changes to src/vdbeaux.c.

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  assert( mem1.zMalloc==0 );

  /* rc==0 here means that one or both of the keys ran out of fields and
  ** all the fields up to that point were equal. Return the the default_rc
  ** value.  */
  assert( CORRUPT_DB 
       || pPKey2->default_rc==vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2) 

  );
  return pPKey2->default_rc;
}

/*
** This function is an optimized version of sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare() 
** that (a) the first field of pPKey2 is an integer, and (b) the 
................................................................................
    }
  }

  assert( (res==0 && vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2)==0)
       || (res<0 && vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2)<0)
       || (res>0 && vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2)>0)
       || CORRUPT_DB

  );
  return res;
}

/*
** Return a pointer to an sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare() compatible function
** suitable for comparing serialized records to the unpacked record passed







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  assert( mem1.zMalloc==0 );

  /* rc==0 here means that one or both of the keys ran out of fields and
  ** all the fields up to that point were equal. Return the the default_rc
  ** value.  */
  assert( CORRUPT_DB 
       || pPKey2->default_rc==vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2) 
       || pKeyInfo->db->mallocFailed
  );
  return pPKey2->default_rc;
}

/*
** This function is an optimized version of sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare() 
** that (a) the first field of pPKey2 is an integer, and (b) the 
................................................................................
    }
  }

  assert( (res==0 && vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2)==0)
       || (res<0 && vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2)<0)
       || (res>0 && vdbeRecordCompareDebug(nKey1, pKey1, pPKey2)>0)
       || CORRUPT_DB
       || pPKey2->pKeyInfo->db->mallocFailed
  );
  return res;
}

/*
** Return a pointer to an sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare() compatible function
** suitable for comparing serialized records to the unpacked record passed

Changes to src/vdbemem.c.

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  int i;
  FuncDefHash *pHash = &GLOBAL(FuncDefHash, sqlite3GlobalFunctions);
  FuncDef *aFunc = (FuncDef*)&GLOBAL(FuncDef, aAnalyzeTableFuncs);
  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aAnalyzeTableFuncs); i++){
    sqlite3FuncDefInsert(pHash, &aFunc[i]);
  }
}































































/*
** This function is used to allocate and populate UnpackedRecord 
** structures intended to be compared against sample index keys stored 
** in the sqlite_stat4 table.
**
** A single call to this function attempts to populates field iVal (leftmost 
................................................................................
  Index *pIdx,                    /* Index being probed */
  UnpackedRecord **ppRec,         /* IN/OUT: Probe record */
  Expr *pExpr,                    /* The expression to extract a value from */
  u8 affinity,                    /* Affinity to use */
  int iVal,                       /* Array element to populate */
  int *pbOk                       /* OUT: True if value was extracted */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;


  struct ValueNewStat4Ctx alloc;
  alloc.pParse = pParse;
  alloc.pIdx = pIdx;
  alloc.ppRec = ppRec;
  alloc.iVal = iVal;

  /* Skip over any TK_COLLATE nodes */
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);



  if( !pExpr ){
    pVal = valueNew(db, &alloc);
    if( pVal ){
      sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull((Mem*)pVal);
    }


  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_VARIABLE
        || NEVER(pExpr->op==TK_REGISTER && pExpr->op2==TK_VARIABLE)












  ){
    Vdbe *v;
    int iBindVar = pExpr->iColumn;
    sqlite3VdbeSetVarmask(pParse->pVdbe, iBindVar);
    if( (v = pParse->pReprepare)!=0 ){
      pVal = valueNew(db, &alloc);
      if( pVal ){
        rc = sqlite3VdbeMemCopy((Mem*)pVal, &v->aVar[iBindVar-1]);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
          sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(pVal, affinity, ENC(db));

        }
        pVal->db = pParse->db;
      }























    }
  }else{
    rc = valueFromExpr(db, pExpr, ENC(db), affinity, &pVal, &alloc);











  }
  *pbOk = (pVal!=0);







  assert( pVal==0 || pVal->db==db );


  return rc;
}

/*
** Unless it is NULL, the argument must be an UnpackedRecord object returned
** by an earlier call to sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(). This call deletes
** the object.
*/







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  int i;
  FuncDefHash *pHash = &GLOBAL(FuncDefHash, sqlite3GlobalFunctions);
  FuncDef *aFunc = (FuncDef*)&GLOBAL(FuncDef, aAnalyzeTableFuncs);
  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aAnalyzeTableFuncs); i++){
    sqlite3FuncDefInsert(pHash, &aFunc[i]);
  }
}

/*
** Attempt to extract a value from pExpr and use it to construct *ppVal.
**
** If pAlloc is not NULL, then an UnpackedRecord object is created for
** pAlloc if one does not exist and the new value is added to the
** UnpackedRecord object.
**
** A value is extracted in the following cases:
**
**  * (pExpr==0). In this case the value is assumed to be an SQL NULL,
**
**  * The expression is a bound variable, and this is a reprepare, or
**
**  * The expression is a literal value.
**
** On success, *ppVal is made to point to the extracted value.  The caller
** is responsible for ensuring that the value is eventually freed.
*/
static int stat4ValueFromExpr(
  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
  Expr *pExpr,                    /* The expression to extract a value from */
  u8 affinity,                    /* Affinity to use */
  struct ValueNewStat4Ctx *pAlloc,/* How to allocate space.  Or NULL */
  sqlite3_value **ppVal           /* OUT: New value object (or NULL) */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;

  /* Skip over any TK_COLLATE nodes */
  pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pExpr);

  if( !pExpr ){
    pVal = valueNew(db, pAlloc);
    if( pVal ){
      sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull((Mem*)pVal);
    }
  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_VARIABLE
        || NEVER(pExpr->op==TK_REGISTER && pExpr->op2==TK_VARIABLE)
  ){
    Vdbe *v;
    int iBindVar = pExpr->iColumn;
    sqlite3VdbeSetVarmask(pParse->pVdbe, iBindVar);
    if( (v = pParse->pReprepare)!=0 ){
      pVal = valueNew(db, pAlloc);
      if( pVal ){
        rc = sqlite3VdbeMemCopy((Mem*)pVal, &v->aVar[iBindVar-1]);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
          sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(pVal, affinity, ENC(db));
        }
        pVal->db = pParse->db;
      }
    }
  }else{
    rc = valueFromExpr(db, pExpr, ENC(db), affinity, &pVal, pAlloc);
  }

  assert( pVal==0 || pVal->db==db );
  *ppVal = pVal;
  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is used to allocate and populate UnpackedRecord 
** structures intended to be compared against sample index keys stored 
** in the sqlite_stat4 table.
**
** A single call to this function attempts to populates field iVal (leftmost 
................................................................................
  Index *pIdx,                    /* Index being probed */
  UnpackedRecord **ppRec,         /* IN/OUT: Probe record */
  Expr *pExpr,                    /* The expression to extract a value from */
  u8 affinity,                    /* Affinity to use */
  int iVal,                       /* Array element to populate */
  int *pbOk                       /* OUT: True if value was extracted */
){
  int rc;
  sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;
  struct ValueNewStat4Ctx alloc;



  alloc.pParse = pParse;
  alloc.pIdx = pIdx;
  alloc.ppRec = ppRec;
  alloc.iVal = iVal;

  rc = stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pExpr, affinity, &alloc, &pVal);
  assert( pVal==0 || pVal->db==pParse->db );
  *pbOk = (pVal!=0);
  return rc;
}





/*
** Attempt to extract a value from expression pExpr using the methods
** as described for sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue() above. 

**
** If successful, set *ppVal to point to a new value object and return 
** SQLITE_OK. If no value can be extracted, but no other error occurs
** (e.g. OOM), return SQLITE_OK and set *ppVal to NULL. Or, if an error
** does occur, return an SQLite error code. The final value of *ppVal
** is undefined in this case.
*/
int sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(
  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
  Expr *pExpr,                    /* The expression to extract a value from */
  u8 affinity,                    /* Affinity to use */
  sqlite3_value **ppVal           /* OUT: New value object (or NULL) */
){









  return stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pExpr, affinity, 0, ppVal);
}


/*
** Extract the iCol-th column from the nRec-byte record in pRec.  Write
** the column value into *ppVal.  If *ppVal is initially NULL then a new
** sqlite3_value object is allocated.
**
** If *ppVal is initially NULL then the caller is responsible for 
** ensuring that the value written into *ppVal is eventually freed.
*/
int sqlite3Stat4Column(
  sqlite3 *db,                    /* Database handle */
  const void *pRec,               /* Pointer to buffer containing record */
  int nRec,                       /* Size of buffer pRec in bytes */
  int iCol,                       /* Column to extract */
  sqlite3_value **ppVal           /* OUT: Extracted value */
){
  u32 t;                          /* a column type code */
  int nHdr;                       /* Size of the header in the record */
  int iHdr;                       /* Next unread header byte */
  int iField;                     /* Next unread data byte */
  int szField;                    /* Size of the current data field */
  int i;                          /* Column index */
  u8 *a = (u8*)pRec;              /* Typecast byte array */
  Mem *pMem = *ppVal;             /* Write result into this Mem object */



  assert( iCol>0 );
  iHdr = getVarint32(a, nHdr);
  if( nHdr>nRec || iHdr>=nHdr ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
  iField = nHdr;
  for(i=0; i<=iCol; i++){
    iHdr += getVarint32(&a[iHdr], t);
    testcase( iHdr==nHdr );
    testcase( iHdr==nHdr+1 );
    if( iHdr>nHdr ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
    szField = sqlite3VdbeSerialTypeLen(t);
    iField += szField;
  }

  testcase( iField==nRec );
  testcase( iField==nRec+1 );
  if( iField>nRec ) return SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
  if( pMem==0 ){
    pMem = *ppVal = sqlite3ValueNew(db);
    if( pMem==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }

  sqlite3VdbeSerialGet(&a[iField-szField], t, pMem);
  pMem->enc = ENC(db);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Unless it is NULL, the argument must be an UnpackedRecord object returned
** by an earlier call to sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(). This call deletes
** the object.
*/

Changes to src/where.c.

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    }else if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 ){
      nRet -= 20;        assert( 20==sqlite3LogEst(4) );
    }
  }
  return nRet;
}













































































































/*
** This function is used to estimate the number of rows that will be visited
** by scanning an index for a range of values. The range may have an upper
** bound, a lower bound, or both. The WHERE clause terms that set the upper
** and lower bounds are represented by pLower and pUpper respectively. For
** example, assuming that index p is on t1(a):
**
................................................................................
  LogEst nNew;

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  Index *p = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;

  if( p->nSample>0
   && nEq==pBuilder->nRecValid
   && nEq<p->nSampleCol
   && OptimizationEnabled(pParse->db, SQLITE_Stat3) 
  ){

    UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;
    tRowcnt a[2];
    u8 aff;

    /* Variable iLower will be set to the estimate of the number of rows in 
    ** the index that are less than the lower bound of the range query. The
    ** lower bound being the concatenation of $P and $L, where $P is the
    ** key-prefix formed by the nEq values matched against the nEq left-most
    ** columns of the index, and $L is the value in pLower.
    **
    ** Or, if pLower is NULL or $L cannot be extracted from it (because it
    ** is not a simple variable or literal value), the lower bound of the
    ** range is $P. Due to a quirk in the way whereKeyStats() works, even
    ** if $L is available, whereKeyStats() is called for both ($P) and 
    ** ($P:$L) and the larger of the two returned values used.
    **
    ** Similarly, iUpper is to be set to the estimate of the number of rows
    ** less than the upper bound of the range query. Where the upper bound
    ** is either ($P) or ($P:$U). Again, even if $U is available, both values
    ** of iUpper are requested of whereKeyStats() and the smaller used.
    */
    tRowcnt iLower;
    tRowcnt iUpper;

    if( nEq==p->nKeyCol ){
      aff = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    }else{
      aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq]].affinity;
    }
    /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
    if( nEq==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
      iUpper = sqlite3LogEstToInt(p->aiRowLogEst[0]);
    }else{
      /* Note: this call could be optimized away - since the same values must 
      ** have been requested when testing key $P in whereEqualScanEst().  */
      whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
      iLower = a[0];
      iUpper = a[0] + a[1];
    }

    /* If possible, improve on the iLower estimate using ($P:$L). */
    if( pLower ){
      int bOk;                    /* True if value is extracted from pExpr */
      Expr *pExpr = pLower->pExpr->pRight;
      assert( (pLower->eOperator & (WO_GT|WO_GE))!=0 );
      rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq, &bOk);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK && bOk ){
        tRowcnt iNew;
        whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
        iNew = a[0] + ((pLower->eOperator & WO_GT) ? a[1] : 0);
        if( iNew>iLower ) iLower = iNew;
        nOut--;
      }
    }

    /* If possible, improve on the iUpper estimate using ($P:$U). */
    if( pUpper ){
      int bOk;                    /* True if value is extracted from pExpr */
      Expr *pExpr = pUpper->pExpr->pRight;
      assert( (pUpper->eOperator & (WO_LT|WO_LE))!=0 );
      rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq, &bOk);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK && bOk ){
        tRowcnt iNew;
        whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 1, a);
        iNew = a[0] + ((pUpper->eOperator & WO_LE) ? a[1] : 0);
        if( iNew<iUpper ) iUpper = iNew;
        nOut--;
      }
    }

    pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      if( iUpper>iLower ){
        nNew = sqlite3LogEst(iUpper - iLower);
      }else{
        nNew = 10;        assert( 10==sqlite3LogEst(2) );
      }
      if( nNew<nOut ){
        nOut = nNew;
      }
      pLoop->nOut = (LogEst)nOut;
      WHERETRACE(0x10, ("range scan regions: %u..%u  est=%d\n",
                         (u32)iLower, (u32)iUpper, nOut));
      return SQLITE_OK;





    }
  }
#else
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pParse);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pBuilder);
#endif
  assert( pLower || pUpper );







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    }else if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 ){
      nRet -= 20;        assert( 20==sqlite3LogEst(4) );
    }
  }
  return nRet;
}

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
/* 
** This function is called to estimate the number of rows visited by a
** range-scan on a skip-scan index. For example:
**
**   CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a, b, c);
**   SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a=? AND c BETWEEN ? AND ?;
**
** Value pLoop->nOut is currently set to the estimated number of rows 
** visited for scanning (a=? AND b=?). This function reduces that estimate 
** by some factor to account for the (c BETWEEN ? AND ?) expression based
** on the stat4 data for the index. this scan will be peformed multiple 
** times (once for each (a,b) combination that matches a=?) is dealt with 
** by the caller.
**
** It does this by scanning through all stat4 samples, comparing values
** extracted from pLower and pUpper with the corresponding column in each
** sample. If L and U are the number of samples found to be less than or
** equal to the values extracted from pLower and pUpper respectively, and
** N is the total number of samples, the pLoop->nOut value is adjusted
** as follows:
**
**   nOut = nOut * ( min(U - L, 1) / N )
**
** If pLower is NULL, or a value cannot be extracted from the term, L is
** set to zero. If pUpper is NULL, or a value cannot be extracted from it,
** U is set to N.
**
** Normally, this function sets *pbDone to 1 before returning. However,
** if no value can be extracted from either pLower or pUpper (and so the
** estimate of the number of rows delivered remains unchanged), *pbDone
** is left as is.
**
** If an error occurs, an SQLite error code is returned. Otherwise, 
** SQLITE_OK.
*/
static int whereRangeSkipScanEst(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing & code generating context */
  WhereTerm *pLower,   /* Lower bound on the range. ex: "x>123" Might be NULL */
  WhereTerm *pUpper,   /* Upper bound on the range. ex: "x<455" Might be NULL */
  WhereLoop *pLoop,    /* Update the .nOut value of this loop */
  int *pbDone          /* Set to true if at least one expr. value extracted */
){
  Index *p = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  int nLower = -1;
  int nUpper = p->nSample+1;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  u8 aff = p->pTable->aCol[ p->aiColumn[nEq] ].affinity;
  CollSeq *pColl;
  
  sqlite3_value *p1 = 0;          /* Value extracted from pLower */
  sqlite3_value *p2 = 0;          /* Value extracted from pUpper */
  sqlite3_value *pVal = 0;        /* Value extracted from record */

  pColl = sqlite3LocateCollSeq(pParse, p->azColl[nEq]);
  if( pLower ){
    rc = sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pLower->pExpr->pRight, aff, &p1);
    nLower = 0;
  }
  if( pUpper && rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(pParse, pUpper->pExpr->pRight, aff, &p2);
    nUpper = p2 ? 0 : p->nSample;
  }

  if( p1 || p2 ){
    int i;
    int nDiff;
    for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<p->nSample; i++){
      rc = sqlite3Stat4Column(db, p->aSample[i].p, p->aSample[i].n, nEq, &pVal);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK && p1 ){
        int res = sqlite3MemCompare(p1, pVal, pColl);
        if( res>=0 ) nLower++;
      }
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK && p2 ){
        int res = sqlite3MemCompare(p2, pVal, pColl);
        if( res>=0 ) nUpper++;
      }
    }
    nDiff = (nUpper - nLower);
    if( nDiff<=0 ) nDiff = 1;

    /* If there is both an upper and lower bound specified, and the 
    ** comparisons indicate that they are close together, use the fallback
    ** method (assume that the scan visits 1/64 of the rows) for estimating
    ** the number of rows visited. Otherwise, estimate the number of rows
    ** using the method described in the header comment for this function. */
    if( nDiff!=1 || pUpper==0 || pLower==0 ){
      int nAdjust = (sqlite3LogEst(p->nSample) - sqlite3LogEst(nDiff));
      pLoop->nOut -= nAdjust;
      *pbDone = 1;
      WHERETRACE(0x10, ("range skip-scan regions: %u..%u  adjust=%d est=%d\n",
                           nLower, nUpper, nAdjust*-1, pLoop->nOut));
    }

  }else{
    assert( *pbDone==0 );
  }

  sqlite3ValueFree(p1);
  sqlite3ValueFree(p2);
  sqlite3ValueFree(pVal);

  return rc;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4 */

/*
** This function is used to estimate the number of rows that will be visited
** by scanning an index for a range of values. The range may have an upper
** bound, a lower bound, or both. The WHERE clause terms that set the upper
** and lower bounds are represented by pLower and pUpper respectively. For
** example, assuming that index p is on t1(a):
**
................................................................................
  LogEst nNew;

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  Index *p = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;

  if( p->nSample>0

   && nEq<p->nSampleCol
   && OptimizationEnabled(pParse->db, SQLITE_Stat3) 
  ){
    if( nEq==pBuilder->nRecValid ){
      UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;
      tRowcnt a[2];
      u8 aff;

      /* Variable iLower will be set to the estimate of the number of rows in 
      ** the index that are less than the lower bound of the range query. The
      ** lower bound being the concatenation of $P and $L, where $P is the
      ** key-prefix formed by the nEq values matched against the nEq left-most
      ** columns of the index, and $L is the value in pLower.
      **
      ** Or, if pLower is NULL or $L cannot be extracted from it (because it
      ** is not a simple variable or literal value), the lower bound of the
      ** range is $P. Due to a quirk in the way whereKeyStats() works, even
      ** if $L is available, whereKeyStats() is called for both ($P) and 
      ** ($P:$L) and the larger of the two returned values used.
      **
      ** Similarly, iUpper is to be set to the estimate of the number of rows
      ** less than the upper bound of the range query. Where the upper bound
      ** is either ($P) or ($P:$U). Again, even if $U is available, both values
      ** of iUpper are requested of whereKeyStats() and the smaller used.
      */
      tRowcnt iLower;
      tRowcnt iUpper;

      if( nEq==p->nKeyCol ){
        aff = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
      }else{
        aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq]].affinity;
      }
      /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
      if( nEq==0 ){
        iLower = 0;
        iUpper = sqlite3LogEstToInt(p->aiRowLogEst[0]);
      }else{
        /* Note: this call could be optimized away - since the same values must 
        ** have been requested when testing key $P in whereEqualScanEst().  */
        whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
        iLower = a[0];
        iUpper = a[0] + a[1];
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iLower estimate using ($P:$L). */
      if( pLower ){
        int bOk;                    /* True if value is extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr = pLower->pExpr->pRight;
        assert( (pLower->eOperator & (WO_GT|WO_GE))!=0 );
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq, &bOk);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && bOk ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 0, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pLower->eOperator & WO_GT) ? a[1] : 0);
          if( iNew>iLower ) iLower = iNew;
          nOut--;
        }
      }

      /* If possible, improve on the iUpper estimate using ($P:$U). */
      if( pUpper ){
        int bOk;                    /* True if value is extracted from pExpr */
        Expr *pExpr = pUpper->pExpr->pRight;
        assert( (pUpper->eOperator & (WO_LT|WO_LE))!=0 );
        rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq, &bOk);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && bOk ){
          tRowcnt iNew;
          whereKeyStats(pParse, p, pRec, 1, a);
          iNew = a[0] + ((pUpper->eOperator & WO_LE) ? a[1] : 0);
          if( iNew<iUpper ) iUpper = iNew;
          nOut--;
        }
      }

      pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        if( iUpper>iLower ){
          nNew = sqlite3LogEst(iUpper - iLower);
        }else{
          nNew = 10;        assert( 10==sqlite3LogEst(2) );
        }
        if( nNew<nOut ){
          nOut = nNew;
        }
        pLoop->nOut = (LogEst)nOut;
        WHERETRACE(0x10, ("range scan regions: %u..%u  est=%d\n",
                           (u32)iLower, (u32)iUpper, nOut));
        return SQLITE_OK;
      }
    }else{
      int bDone = 0;
      rc = whereRangeSkipScanEst(pParse, pLower, pUpper, pLoop, &bDone);
      if( bDone ) return rc;
    }
  }
#else
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pParse);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pBuilder);
#endif
  assert( pLower || pUpper );

Changes to test/mallocK.test.

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# This test script checks malloc failures in WHERE clause analysis.
# 
# $Id: mallocK.test,v 1.3 2009/01/08 21:00:03 drh Exp $

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
source $testdir/malloc_common.tcl


set sql {SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE (a=1 OR a=2)}
for {set x 1} {$x<5} {incr x} {
  append sql " AND b=y"
  do_malloc_test mallocK-1.$x -sqlbody $sql -sqlprep {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b);
    CREATE TABLE t2(x,y);
................................................................................
        CREATE TABLE t1(a,b);
        CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE t2 USING echo(t1);
      }
    }
  }
}


































































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# This test script checks malloc failures in WHERE clause analysis.
# 
# $Id: mallocK.test,v 1.3 2009/01/08 21:00:03 drh Exp $

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
source $testdir/malloc_common.tcl
set testprefix mallocK

set sql {SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE (a=1 OR a=2)}
for {set x 1} {$x<5} {incr x} {
  append sql " AND b=y"
  do_malloc_test mallocK-1.$x -sqlbody $sql -sqlprep {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b);
    CREATE TABLE t2(x,y);
................................................................................
        CREATE TABLE t1(a,b);
        CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE t2 USING echo(t1);
      }
    }
  }
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test that OOM errors are correctly handled by the code that uses stat4
# data to estimate the number of rows visited by a skip-scan range query.
#
add_alignment_test_collations db
do_execsql_test 6.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t3(a TEXT, b TEXT COLLATE utf16_aligned, c);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.....', 0);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '....x', 1);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '...x.', 2);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '...xx', 3);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '..x..', 4);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '..x.x', 5);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '..xx.', 6);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '..xxx', 7);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.x...', 8);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.x..x', 9);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.x.x.', 10);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.x.xx', 11);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.xx..', 12);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.xx.x', 13);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.xxx.', 14);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('one', '.xxxx', 15);

  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x....', 16);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x...x', 17);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x..x.', 18);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x..xx', 19);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x.x..', 20);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x.x.x', 21);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x.xx.', 22);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'x.xxx', 23);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xx...', 24);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xx..x', 25);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xx.x.', 26);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xx.xx', 27);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xxx..', 28);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xxx.x', 29);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xxxx.', 30);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('two', 'xxxxx', 31);

  INSERT INTO t3 SELECT * FROM t3;

  CREATE INDEX i3 ON t3(a, b);
  ANALYZE;

  SELECT 'x' > '.';
} {1}

ifcapable stat4 {
  do_eqp_test 6.1 {
    SELECT DISTINCT c FROM t3 WHERE b BETWEEN '.xx..' AND '.xxxx';
  } {
    0 0 0 {SEARCH TABLE t3 USING INDEX i3 (ANY(a) AND b>? AND b<?)} 
    0 0 0 {USE TEMP B-TREE FOR DISTINCT}
  }
}

do_faultsim_test 6 -faults oom* -body {
  db cache flush
  db eval { SELECT DISTINCT c FROM t3 WHERE b BETWEEN '.xx..' AND '.xxxx' }
} -test {
  faultsim_test_result {0 {12 13 14 15}} 
}

finish_test

Added test/skipscan5.test.





















































































































































































































































































































































































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# 2013-11-13
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
#
# This file implements tests of the "skip-scan" query strategy. In 
# particular it tests that stat4 data can be used by a range query
# that uses the skip-scan approach.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set testprefix skipscan5

ifcapable !stat4 {
  finish_test
  return
}

do_execsql_test 1.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a INT, b INT, c INT);
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a, b);
} {}

expr srand(4)
do_test 1.2 {
  for {set i 0} {$i < 100} {incr i} {
    set a [expr int(rand()*4.0) + 1]
    set b [expr int(rand()*20.0) + 1]
    execsql { INSERT INTO t1 VALUES($a, $b, NULL) }
  }
  execsql ANALYZE
} {}

foreach {tn q res} {
  1  "b = 5"                   {/*ANY(a) AND b=?*/}
  2  "b > 12 AND b < 16"       {/*ANY(a) AND b>? AND b<?*/}
  3  "b > 2 AND b < 16"        {/*SCAN TABLE t1*/}
  4  "b > 18 AND b < 25"       {/*ANY(a) AND b>? AND b<?*/}
  5  "b > 15"                  {/*ANY(a) AND b>?*/}
  6  "b > 5"                   {/*SCAN TABLE t1*/}
  7  "b < 15"                  {/*SCAN TABLE t1*/}
  8  "b < 5"                   {/*ANY(a) AND b<?*/}
  9  "5 > b"                   {/*ANY(a) AND b<?*/}
  10 "b = '5'"                 {/*ANY(a) AND b=?*/}
  11 "b > '12' AND b < '16'"   {/*ANY(a) AND b>? AND b<?*/}
  12 "b > '2' AND b < '16'"    {/*SCAN TABLE t1*/}
  13 "b > '18' AND b < '25'"   {/*ANY(a) AND b>? AND b<?*/}
  14 "b > '15'"                {/*ANY(a) AND b>?*/}
  15 "b > '5'"                 {/*SCAN TABLE t1*/}
  16 "b < '15'"                {/*SCAN TABLE t1*/}
  17 "b < '5'"                 {/*ANY(a) AND b<?*/}
  18 "'5' > b"                 {/*ANY(a) AND b<?*/}
} {
  set sql "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE $q"
  do_execsql_test 1.3.$tn $sql $res
}


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test that range-query/skip-scan estimation works with text values.
# And on UTF-16 databases when there is no UTF-16 collation sequence
# available.
#

proc test_collate {enc lhs rhs} {
  string compare $lhs $rhs
}

foreach {tn dbenc coll} {
  1 UTF-8   { add_test_collate db 0 0 1 }
  2 UTF-16  { add_test_collate db 1 0 0 }
  3 UTF-8   { add_test_collate db 0 1 0 }
} {
  reset_db
  eval $coll

  do_execsql_test 2.$tn.1 " PRAGMA encoding = '$dbenc' "
  do_execsql_test 2.$tn.2 {
    CREATE TABLE t2(a TEXT, b TEXT, c TEXT COLLATE test_collate, d TEXT);
    CREATE INDEX i2 ON t2(a, b, c);
  }

  set vocab(d) { :) }
  set vocab(c) { a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t }
  set vocab(b) { one two three }
  set vocab(a) { sql }

  do_test 2.$tn.3 {
    for {set i 0} {$i < 100} {incr i} {
      foreach var {a b c d} { 
        set $var [lindex $vocab($var) [expr $i % [llength $vocab($var)]]]
      }
      execsql { INSERT INTO t2 VALUES($a, $b, $c, $d) }
    }
    execsql ANALYZE
  } {}

  foreach {tn2 q res} {
    1 { c BETWEEN 'd' AND 'e' }       {/*ANY(a) AND ANY(b) AND c>? AND c<?*/}
    2 { c BETWEEN 'b' AND 'r' }       {/*SCAN TABLE t2*/}
    3 { c > 'q' }                     {/*ANY(a) AND ANY(b) AND c>?*/}
    4 { c > 'e' }                     {/*SCAN TABLE t2*/}
    5 { c < 'q' }                     {/*SCAN TABLE t2*/}
    4 { c < 'e' }                     {/*ANY(a) AND ANY(b) AND c<?*/}
  } {
    set sql "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE $q" 
    do_execsql_test 2.$tn.$tn2 $sql $res
  }

}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test that range-query/skip-scan estimation works on columns that contain
# a variety of types.
#

reset_db
do_execsql_test 3.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t3(a, b, c);
  CREATE INDEX i3 ON t3(a, b);
}

set values {
    NULL NULL NULL
    NULL -9567 -9240
    -8725 -8659 -8248.340244520614
    -8208 -7939 -7746.985758536954
    -7057 -6550 -5916
    -5363 -4935.781822975623 -4935.063633571875
    -3518.4554911770183 -2537 -2026
    -1511.2603881914456 -1510.4195994839156 -1435
    -1127.4210136045804 -1045 99
    1353 1457 1563.2908193223611
    2245 2286 2552
    2745.18831295203 2866.279926554429 3075.0468527316334
    3447 3867 4237.892420141907
    4335 5052.9775000424015 5232.178240656935
    5541.784919585003 5749.725576373621 5758
    6005 6431 7263.477992854769
    7441 7541 8667.279760663994
    8857 9199.638673662972 'dl'
    'dro' 'h' 'igprfq'
    'jnbd' 'k' 'kordee'
    'lhwcv' 'mzlb' 'nbjked'
    'nufpo' 'nxqkdq' 'shelln'
    'tvzn' 'wpnt' 'wylf'
    'ydkgu' 'zdb' X''
    X'0a' X'203f6429f1f33f' X'23858e324545e0362b'
    X'3f9f8a' X'516f7ddd4b' X'68f1df0930ac6b'
    X'9ea60d' X'a06f' X'aefd342a39ce36df'
    X'afaa020fe2' X'be201c' X'c47d97b209601e45'
}

do_test 3.2 {
  set c 0
  foreach v $values {
    execsql "INSERT INTO t3 VALUES($c % 2, $v, $c)"
    incr c
  }
  execsql ANALYZE
} {}

foreach {tn q res} {
  1 "b BETWEEN -10000 AND -8000"       {/*ANY(a) AND b>? AND b<?*/}
  2 "b BETWEEN -10000 AND 'qqq'"       {/*SCAN TABLE t3*/}
  3 "b < X'5555'"                      {/*SCAN TABLE t3*/}
  4 "b > X'5555'"                      {/*ANY(a) AND b>?*/}
  5 "b > 'zzz'"                        {/*ANY(a) AND b>?*/}
  6 "b < 'zzz'"                        {/*SCAN TABLE t3*/}
} {
  set sql "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT * FROM t3 WHERE $q" 
  do_execsql_test 3.3.$tn $sql $res
}

finish_test