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Overview
Comment:When reusing pages as part of creating a new index, allocate the leaves from each free-list trunk page in ascending order, instead of trying to maximize localization for each individual allocation. This increases the chance that pages will be written to disk in ascending order by a large CREATE INDEX statement, improving overall performance.
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SHA1:d045f8b2d44e388d8c4549ff02d4ca7eff4e2038
User & Date: dan 2012-08-06 18:50:11
Context
2012-08-06
19:12
Fix a crash that could follow an OOM condition. Closed-Leaf check-in: 2e5741f7 user: dan tags: sorter-coalesce-writes
18:50
When reusing pages as part of creating a new index, allocate the leaves from each free-list trunk page in ascending order, instead of trying to maximize localization for each individual allocation. This increases the chance that pages will be written to disk in ascending order by a large CREATE INDEX statement, improving overall performance. check-in: d045f8b2 user: dan tags: sorter-coalesce-writes
18:10
Update sorter-coalesce-writes branch with latest trunk changes. check-in: 214f8cda user: dan tags: sorter-coalesce-writes
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/analyze.c.

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      ** side-effect of the CREATE TABLE statement is to leave the rootpage 
      ** of the new table in register pParse->regRoot. This is important 
      ** because the OpenWrite opcode below will be needing it. */
      sqlite3NestedParse(pParse,
          "CREATE TABLE %Q.%s(%s)", pDb->zName, zTab, aTable[i].zCols
      );
      aRoot[i] = pParse->regRoot;
      aCreateTbl[i] = 1;
    }else{
      /* The table already exists. If zWhere is not NULL, delete all entries 
      ** associated with the table zWhere. If zWhere is NULL, delete the
      ** entire contents of the table. */
      aRoot[i] = pStat->tnum;
      sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, aRoot[i], 1, zTab);
      if( zWhere ){







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      ** side-effect of the CREATE TABLE statement is to leave the rootpage 
      ** of the new table in register pParse->regRoot. This is important 
      ** because the OpenWrite opcode below will be needing it. */
      sqlite3NestedParse(pParse,
          "CREATE TABLE %Q.%s(%s)", pDb->zName, zTab, aTable[i].zCols
      );
      aRoot[i] = pParse->regRoot;
      aCreateTbl[i] = OPFLAG_P2ISREG;
    }else{
      /* The table already exists. If zWhere is not NULL, delete all entries 
      ** associated with the table zWhere. If zWhere is NULL, delete the
      ** entire contents of the table. */
      aRoot[i] = pStat->tnum;
      sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, aRoot[i], 1, zTab);
      if( zWhere ){

Changes to src/btree.c.

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** If aOvflSpace is set to a null pointer, this function returns 
** SQLITE_NOMEM.
*/
static int balance_nonroot(
  MemPage *pParent,               /* Parent page of siblings being balanced */
  int iParentIdx,                 /* Index of "the page" in pParent */
  u8 *aOvflSpace,                 /* page-size bytes of space for parent ovfl */
  int isRoot                      /* True if pParent is a root-page */

){
  BtShared *pBt;               /* The whole database */
  int nCell = 0;               /* Number of cells in apCell[] */
  int nMaxCells = 0;           /* Allocated size of apCell, szCell, aFrom. */
  int nNew = 0;                /* Number of pages in apNew[] */
  int nOld;                    /* Number of pages in apOld[] */
  int i, j, k;                 /* Loop counters */
................................................................................
      pNew = apNew[i] = apOld[i];
      apOld[i] = 0;
      rc = sqlite3PagerWrite(pNew->pDbPage);
      nNew++;
      if( rc ) goto balance_cleanup;
    }else{
      assert( i>0 );
      rc = allocateBtreePage(pBt, &pNew, &pgno, pgno, 0);
      if( rc ) goto balance_cleanup;
      apNew[i] = pNew;
      nNew++;

      /* Set the pointer-map entry for the new sibling page. */
      if( ISAUTOVACUUM ){
        ptrmapPut(pBt, pNew->pgno, PTRMAP_BTREE, pParent->pgno, &rc);
................................................................................
          ** different page). Once this subsequent call to balance_nonroot() 
          ** has completed, it is safe to release the pSpace buffer used by
          ** the previous call, as the overflow cell data will have been 
          ** copied either into the body of a database page or into the new
          ** pSpace buffer passed to the latter call to balance_nonroot().
          */
          u8 *pSpace = sqlite3PageMalloc(pCur->pBt->pageSize);
          rc = balance_nonroot(pParent, iIdx, pSpace, iPage==1);
          if( pFree ){
            /* If pFree is not NULL, it points to the pSpace buffer used 
            ** by a previous call to balance_nonroot(). Its contents are
            ** now stored either on real database pages or within the 
            ** new pSpace buffer, so it may be safely freed here. */
            sqlite3PageFree(pFree);
          }
................................................................................
      }
    }
  }

  pBt->btsFlags &= ~BTS_NO_WAL;
  return rc;
}

















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** If aOvflSpace is set to a null pointer, this function returns 
** SQLITE_NOMEM.
*/
static int balance_nonroot(
  MemPage *pParent,               /* Parent page of siblings being balanced */
  int iParentIdx,                 /* Index of "the page" in pParent */
  u8 *aOvflSpace,                 /* page-size bytes of space for parent ovfl */
  int isRoot,                     /* True if pParent is a root-page */
  int bBulk                       /* True if this call is part of a bulk load */
){
  BtShared *pBt;               /* The whole database */
  int nCell = 0;               /* Number of cells in apCell[] */
  int nMaxCells = 0;           /* Allocated size of apCell, szCell, aFrom. */
  int nNew = 0;                /* Number of pages in apNew[] */
  int nOld;                    /* Number of pages in apOld[] */
  int i, j, k;                 /* Loop counters */
................................................................................
      pNew = apNew[i] = apOld[i];
      apOld[i] = 0;
      rc = sqlite3PagerWrite(pNew->pDbPage);
      nNew++;
      if( rc ) goto balance_cleanup;
    }else{
      assert( i>0 );
      rc = allocateBtreePage(pBt, &pNew, &pgno, (bBulk ? 1 : pgno), 0);
      if( rc ) goto balance_cleanup;
      apNew[i] = pNew;
      nNew++;

      /* Set the pointer-map entry for the new sibling page. */
      if( ISAUTOVACUUM ){
        ptrmapPut(pBt, pNew->pgno, PTRMAP_BTREE, pParent->pgno, &rc);
................................................................................
          ** different page). Once this subsequent call to balance_nonroot() 
          ** has completed, it is safe to release the pSpace buffer used by
          ** the previous call, as the overflow cell data will have been 
          ** copied either into the body of a database page or into the new
          ** pSpace buffer passed to the latter call to balance_nonroot().
          */
          u8 *pSpace = sqlite3PageMalloc(pCur->pBt->pageSize);
          rc = balance_nonroot(pParent, iIdx, pSpace, iPage==1, pCur->hints);
          if( pFree ){
            /* If pFree is not NULL, it points to the pSpace buffer used 
            ** by a previous call to balance_nonroot(). Its contents are
            ** now stored either on real database pages or within the 
            ** new pSpace buffer, so it may be safely freed here. */
            sqlite3PageFree(pFree);
          }
................................................................................
      }
    }
  }

  pBt->btsFlags &= ~BTS_NO_WAL;
  return rc;
}

/*
** set the mask of hint flags for cursor pCsr. Currently the only valid
** values are 0 and BTREE_BULKLOAD.
*/
void sqlite3BtreeCursorHints(BtCursor *pCsr, unsigned int mask){
  assert( mask==BTREE_BULKLOAD || mask==0 );
  pCsr->hints = mask;
}

Changes to src/btree.h.

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#define BTREE_FILE_FORMAT         2
#define BTREE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE  3
#define BTREE_LARGEST_ROOT_PAGE   4
#define BTREE_TEXT_ENCODING       5
#define BTREE_USER_VERSION        6
#define BTREE_INCR_VACUUM         7







int sqlite3BtreeCursor(
  Btree*,                              /* BTree containing table to open */
  int iTable,                          /* Index of root page */
  int wrFlag,                          /* 1 for writing.  0 for read-only */
  struct KeyInfo*,                     /* First argument to compare function */
  BtCursor *pCursor                    /* Space to write cursor structure */
);
................................................................................

char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(Btree*, int *aRoot, int nRoot, int, int*);
struct Pager *sqlite3BtreePager(Btree*);

int sqlite3BtreePutData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
void sqlite3BtreeCacheOverflow(BtCursor *);
void sqlite3BtreeClearCursor(BtCursor *);

int sqlite3BtreeSetVersion(Btree *pBt, int iVersion);


#ifndef NDEBUG
int sqlite3BtreeCursorIsValid(BtCursor*);
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_BTREECOUNT
int sqlite3BtreeCount(BtCursor *, i64 *);







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#define BTREE_FILE_FORMAT         2
#define BTREE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE  3
#define BTREE_LARGEST_ROOT_PAGE   4
#define BTREE_TEXT_ENCODING       5
#define BTREE_USER_VERSION        6
#define BTREE_INCR_VACUUM         7

/*
** Values that may be OR'd together to form the second argument of an
** sqlite3BtreeCursorHints() call.
*/
#define BTREE_BULKLOAD 0x00000001

int sqlite3BtreeCursor(
  Btree*,                              /* BTree containing table to open */
  int iTable,                          /* Index of root page */
  int wrFlag,                          /* 1 for writing.  0 for read-only */
  struct KeyInfo*,                     /* First argument to compare function */
  BtCursor *pCursor                    /* Space to write cursor structure */
);
................................................................................

char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(Btree*, int *aRoot, int nRoot, int, int*);
struct Pager *sqlite3BtreePager(Btree*);

int sqlite3BtreePutData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
void sqlite3BtreeCacheOverflow(BtCursor *);
void sqlite3BtreeClearCursor(BtCursor *);

int sqlite3BtreeSetVersion(Btree *pBt, int iVersion);
void sqlite3BtreeCursorHints(BtCursor *, unsigned int mask);

#ifndef NDEBUG
int sqlite3BtreeCursorIsValid(BtCursor*);
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_BTREECOUNT
int sqlite3BtreeCount(BtCursor *, i64 *);

Changes to src/btreeInt.h.

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  u8 wrFlag;                /* True if writable */
  u8 atLast;                /* Cursor pointing to the last entry */
  u8 validNKey;             /* True if info.nKey is valid */
  u8 eState;                /* One of the CURSOR_XXX constants (see below) */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INCRBLOB
  u8 isIncrblobHandle;      /* True if this cursor is an incr. io handle */
#endif

  i16 iPage;                            /* Index of current page in apPage */
  u16 aiIdx[BTCURSOR_MAX_DEPTH];        /* Current index in apPage[i] */
  MemPage *apPage[BTCURSOR_MAX_DEPTH];  /* Pages from root to current page */
};

/*
** Potential values for BtCursor.eState.







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  u8 wrFlag;                /* True if writable */
  u8 atLast;                /* Cursor pointing to the last entry */
  u8 validNKey;             /* True if info.nKey is valid */
  u8 eState;                /* One of the CURSOR_XXX constants (see below) */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INCRBLOB
  u8 isIncrblobHandle;      /* True if this cursor is an incr. io handle */
#endif
  u8 hints;                             /* As configured by CursorSetHints() */
  i16 iPage;                            /* Index of current page in apPage */
  u16 aiIdx[BTCURSOR_MAX_DEPTH];        /* Current index in apPage[i] */
  MemPage *apPage[BTCURSOR_MAX_DEPTH];  /* Pages from root to current page */
};

/*
** Potential values for BtCursor.eState.

Changes to src/build.c.

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    */
    if( pSelect ){
      SelectDest dest;
      Table *pSelTab;

      assert(pParse->nTab==1);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenWrite, 1, pParse->regRoot, iDb);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
      pParse->nTab = 2;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Table, 1);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, 1);
      if( pParse->nErr==0 ){
        pSelTab = sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(pParse, pSelect);
        if( pSelTab==0 ) return;
................................................................................
  }else{
    tnum = pIndex->tnum;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Clear, tnum, iDb);
  }
  pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIndex);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenWrite, iIdx, tnum, iDb, 
                    (char *)pKey, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
  if( memRootPage>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
  }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  /* Open the sorter cursor if we are to use one. */
  iSorter = pParse->nTab++;
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_SorterOpen, iSorter, 0, 0, (char*)pKey, P4_KEYINFO);
#else
  iSorter = iTab;







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    */
    if( pSelect ){
      SelectDest dest;
      Table *pSelTab;

      assert(pParse->nTab==1);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenWrite, 1, pParse->regRoot, iDb);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_P2ISREG);
      pParse->nTab = 2;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Table, 1);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, 1);
      if( pParse->nErr==0 ){
        pSelTab = sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(pParse, pSelect);
        if( pSelTab==0 ) return;
................................................................................
  }else{
    tnum = pIndex->tnum;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Clear, tnum, iDb);
  }
  pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIndex);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenWrite, iIdx, tnum, iDb, 
                    (char *)pKey, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);

  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_BULKCSR|((memRootPage>=0)?OPFLAG_P2ISREG:0));


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  /* Open the sorter cursor if we are to use one. */
  iSorter = pParse->nTab++;
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_SorterOpen, iSorter, 0, 0, (char*)pKey, P4_KEYINFO);
#else
  iSorter = iTab;

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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#define OPFLAG_LASTROWID     0x02    /* Set to update db->lastRowid */
#define OPFLAG_ISUPDATE      0x04    /* This OP_Insert is an sql UPDATE */
#define OPFLAG_APPEND        0x08    /* This is likely to be an append */
#define OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT 0x10    /* Try to avoid a seek in BtreeInsert() */
#define OPFLAG_CLEARCACHE    0x20    /* Clear pseudo-table cache in OP_Column */
#define OPFLAG_LENGTHARG     0x40    /* OP_Column only used for length() */
#define OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG     0x80    /* OP_Column only used for typeof() */



/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 







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#define OPFLAG_LASTROWID     0x02    /* Set to update db->lastRowid */
#define OPFLAG_ISUPDATE      0x04    /* This OP_Insert is an sql UPDATE */
#define OPFLAG_APPEND        0x08    /* This is likely to be an append */
#define OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT 0x10    /* Try to avoid a seek in BtreeInsert() */
#define OPFLAG_CLEARCACHE    0x20    /* Clear pseudo-table cache in OP_Column */
#define OPFLAG_LENGTHARG     0x40    /* OP_Column only used for length() */
#define OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG     0x80    /* OP_Column only used for typeof() */
#define OPFLAG_BULKCSR       0x01    /* OP_Open** used to open bulk cursor */
#define OPFLAG_P2ISREG       0x02    /* P2 to OP_Open** is a register number */

/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 

Changes to src/test_vfs.c.

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){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  TestvfsFd *pFd = tvfsGetFd(pFile);
  Testvfs *p = (Testvfs *)pFd->pVfs->pAppData;

  if( p->pScript && p->mask&TESTVFS_WRITE_MASK ){
    tvfsExecTcl(p, "xWrite", 
        Tcl_NewStringObj(pFd->zFilename, -1), pFd->pShmId, 0

    );
    tvfsResultCode(p, &rc);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && tvfsInjectFullerr(p) ){
    rc = SQLITE_FULL;
  }







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){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  TestvfsFd *pFd = tvfsGetFd(pFile);
  Testvfs *p = (Testvfs *)pFd->pVfs->pAppData;

  if( p->pScript && p->mask&TESTVFS_WRITE_MASK ){
    tvfsExecTcl(p, "xWrite", 
        Tcl_NewStringObj(pFd->zFilename, -1), pFd->pShmId, 
        Tcl_NewWideIntObj(iOfst)
    );
    tvfsResultCode(p, &rc);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && tvfsInjectFullerr(p) ){
    rc = SQLITE_FULL;
  }

Changes to src/vdbe.c.

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  int p2;
  int iDb;
  int wrFlag;
  Btree *pX;
  VdbeCursor *pCur;
  Db *pDb;




  if( p->expired ){
    rc = SQLITE_ABORT;
    break;
  }

  nField = 0;
  pKeyInfo = 0;
................................................................................
    assert( sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(db, iDb, 0) );
    if( pDb->pSchema->file_format < p->minWriteFileFormat ){
      p->minWriteFileFormat = pDb->pSchema->file_format;
    }
  }else{
    wrFlag = 0;
  }
  if( pOp->p5 ){
    assert( p2>0 );
    assert( p2<=p->nMem );
    pIn2 = &aMem[p2];
    assert( memIsValid(pIn2) );
    assert( (pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 );
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn2);
    p2 = (int)pIn2->u.i;
................................................................................
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 );
  pCur = allocateCursor(p, pOp->p1, nField, iDb, 1);
  if( pCur==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCur->nullRow = 1;
  pCur->isOrdered = 1;
  rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pX, p2, wrFlag, pKeyInfo, pCur->pCursor);
  pCur->pKeyInfo = pKeyInfo;



  /* Since it performs no memory allocation or IO, the only value that
  ** sqlite3BtreeCursor() may return is SQLITE_OK. */
  assert( rc==SQLITE_OK );

  /* Set the VdbeCursor.isTable and isIndex variables. Previous versions of
  ** SQLite used to check if the root-page flags were sane at this point







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  int p2;
  int iDb;
  int wrFlag;
  Btree *pX;
  VdbeCursor *pCur;
  Db *pDb;

  assert( (pOp->p5&(OPFLAG_P2ISREG|OPFLAG_BULKCSR))==pOp->p5 );
  assert( pOp->opcode==OP_OpenWrite || pOp->p5==0 );

  if( p->expired ){
    rc = SQLITE_ABORT;
    break;
  }

  nField = 0;
  pKeyInfo = 0;
................................................................................
    assert( sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(db, iDb, 0) );
    if( pDb->pSchema->file_format < p->minWriteFileFormat ){
      p->minWriteFileFormat = pDb->pSchema->file_format;
    }
  }else{
    wrFlag = 0;
  }
  if( pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_P2ISREG ){
    assert( p2>0 );
    assert( p2<=p->nMem );
    pIn2 = &aMem[p2];
    assert( memIsValid(pIn2) );
    assert( (pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 );
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn2);
    p2 = (int)pIn2->u.i;
................................................................................
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 );
  pCur = allocateCursor(p, pOp->p1, nField, iDb, 1);
  if( pCur==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCur->nullRow = 1;
  pCur->isOrdered = 1;
  rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pX, p2, wrFlag, pKeyInfo, pCur->pCursor);
  pCur->pKeyInfo = pKeyInfo;
  assert( OPFLAG_BULKCSR==BTREE_BULKLOAD );
  sqlite3BtreeCursorHints(pCur->pCursor, (pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_BULKCSR));

  /* Since it performs no memory allocation or IO, the only value that
  ** sqlite3BtreeCursor() may return is SQLITE_OK. */
  assert( rc==SQLITE_OK );

  /* Set the VdbeCursor.isTable and isIndex variables. Previous versions of
  ** SQLite used to check if the root-page flags were sane at this point

Added test/index5.test.























































































































































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# 2012 August 6
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
#


set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix index5

do_test 1.1 {
  execsql {
    PRAGMA page_size = 1024;
    CREATE TABLE t1(x);
    BEGIN;
  }
  for {set i 0} {$i < 100000} {incr i} {
    execsql { INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(randstr(100,100)) }
  }
  execsql COMMIT
  execsql { 
    CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(x);
    DROP INDEX I1;
    PRAGMA main.page_size;
  }
} {1024}

db close
testvfs tvfs
tvfs filter xWrite
tvfs script write_cb
proc write_cb {xCall file handle iOfst} {
  if {[file tail $file]=="test.db"} {
    lappend ::write_list [expr $iOfst/1024]
  }
  puts "$xCall $file $args"
}

do_test 1.2 {
  sqlite3 db test.db -vfs tvfs
  set ::write_list [list]
  execsql { CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(x) }
} {}

do_test 1.3 {
  set nForward 0
  set nBackward 0
  set nNoncont 0
  set iPrev [lindex $::write_list 0]
  for {set i 1} {$i < [llength $::write_list]} {incr i} {
    set iNext [lindex $::write_list $i]
    if {$iNext==($iPrev+1)} {
      incr nForward
    } elseif {$iNext==($iPrev-1)} { 
      incr nBackward 
    } else {
      incr nNoncont
    }
    set iPrev $iNext
  }

  expr {$nForward > $nBackward}
} {1}
db close
tvfs delete

finish_test