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Overview
Comment:Pager optimization: do not write or journal free pages. This results in a 2x performance gain for large INSERTs and a 5x performance gain for large DELETEs. (CVS 410)
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Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
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SHA1:cf1ebcfb741786f84a596c406f4c492f68cbe881
User & Date: drh 2002-03-02 20:41:58
Context
2002-03-03
02:49
Bug fixes and additional tests for the subquery flattener. (CVS 411) check-in: 2c05389e user: drh tags: trunk
2002-03-02
20:41
Pager optimization: do not write or journal free pages. This results in a 2x performance gain for large INSERTs and a 5x performance gain for large DELETEs. (CVS 410) check-in: cf1ebcfb user: drh tags: trunk
19:00
Change the btree node balancers to sort nodes into accending order. This improves insert and delete speed by 25%. (CVS 409) check-in: abbb999d user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/btree.c.

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** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** $Id: btree.c,v 1.56 2002/03/02 19:00:31 drh Exp $
**
** This file implements a external (disk-based) database using BTrees.
** For a detailed discussion of BTrees, refer to
**
**     Donald E. Knuth, THE ART OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, Volume 3:
**     "Sorting And Searching", pages 473-480. Addison-Wesley
**     Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts.
................................................................................
typedef struct PageOne PageOne;
typedef struct MemPage MemPage;
typedef struct PageHdr PageHdr;
typedef struct Cell Cell;
typedef struct CellHdr CellHdr;
typedef struct FreeBlk FreeBlk;
typedef struct OverflowPage OverflowPage;


/*
** All structures on a database page are aligned to 4-byte boundries.
** This routine rounds up a number of bytes to the next multiple of 4.
**
** This might need to change for computer architectures that require
** and 8-byte alignment boundry for structures.
................................................................................
** page number of the first page in a linked list of unused database
** pages.
*/
struct OverflowPage {
  Pgno iNext;
  char aPayload[OVERFLOW_SIZE];
};













/*
** For every page in the database file, an instance of the following structure
** is stored in memory.  The u.aDisk[] array contains the raw bits read from
** the disk.  The rest is auxiliary information held in memory only. The
** auxiliary info is only valid for regular database pages - it is not
** used for overflow pages and pages on the freelist.
................................................................................
** Do not invoke sqlitepager_unref() on *ppPage if an error is returned.
*/
static int allocatePage(Btree *pBt, MemPage **ppPage, Pgno *pPgno){
  PageOne *pPage1 = pBt->page1;
  int rc;
  if( pPage1->freeList ){
    OverflowPage *pOvfl;


    rc = sqlitepager_write(pPage1);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    *pPgno = pPage1->freeList;
    rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, pPage1->freeList, (void**)&pOvfl);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    rc = sqlitepager_write(pOvfl);
    if( rc ){
      sqlitepager_unref(pOvfl);
      return rc;
    }



    pPage1->freeList = pOvfl->iNext;
    pPage1->nFree--;
    *ppPage = (MemPage*)pOvfl;










  }else{
    *pPgno = sqlitepager_pagecount(pBt->pPager) + 1;
    rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, *pPgno, (void**)ppPage);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    rc = sqlitepager_write(*ppPage);
  }
  return rc;
................................................................................
    assert( pOvfl!=0 );
    pgno = sqlitepager_pagenumber(pOvfl);
  }
  assert( pgno>2 );
  rc = sqlitepager_write(pPage1);
  if( rc ){
    return rc;



















  }
  if( pOvfl==0 ){
    assert( pgno>0 );
    rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, pgno, (void**)&pOvfl);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    needUnref = 1;
  }
................................................................................
  rc = sqlitepager_write(pOvfl);
  if( rc ){
    if( needUnref ) sqlitepager_unref(pOvfl);
    return rc;
  }
  pOvfl->iNext = pPage1->freeList;
  pPage1->freeList = pgno;
  pPage1->nFree++;
  memset(pOvfl->aPayload, 0, OVERFLOW_SIZE);
  pMemPage = (MemPage*)pPage;
  pMemPage->isInit = 0;
  if( pMemPage->pParent ){
    sqlitepager_unref(pMemPage->pParent);
    pMemPage->pParent = 0;
  }
................................................................................
  return  (pCheck->anRef[iPage]++)>1;
}

/*
** Check the integrity of the freelist or of an overflow page list.
** Verify that the number of pages on the list is N.
*/
static void checkList(IntegrityCk *pCheck, int iPage, int N, char *zContext){







  char zMsg[100];
  while( N-- ){
    OverflowPage *pOvfl;
    if( iPage<1 ){
      sprintf(zMsg, "%d pages missing from overflow list", N+1);
      checkAppendMsg(pCheck, zContext, zMsg);
      break;
    }
    if( checkRef(pCheck, iPage, zContext) ) break;
    if( sqlitepager_get(pCheck->pPager, (Pgno)iPage, (void**)&pOvfl) ){
      sprintf(zMsg, "failed to get page %d", iPage);
      checkAppendMsg(pCheck, zContext, zMsg);
      break;
    }







    iPage = (int)pOvfl->iNext;
    sqlitepager_unref(pOvfl);
  }
}

/*
** Return negative if zKey1<zKey2.
................................................................................
    /* Check payload overflow pages
    */
    nKey2 = NKEY(pCell->h);
    sz = nKey2 + NDATA(pCell->h);
    sprintf(zContext, "On page %d cell %d: ", iPage, i);
    if( sz>MX_LOCAL_PAYLOAD ){
      int nPage = (sz - MX_LOCAL_PAYLOAD + OVERFLOW_SIZE - 1)/OVERFLOW_SIZE;
      checkList(pCheck, pCell->ovfl, nPage, zContext);
    }

    /* Check that keys are in the right order
    */
    cur.idx = i;
    zKey2 = sqliteMalloc( nKey2+1 );
    getPayload(&cur, 0, nKey2, zKey2);
................................................................................
  sCheck.anRef = sqliteMalloc( (sCheck.nPage+1)*sizeof(sCheck.anRef[0]) );
  sCheck.anRef[1] = 1;
  for(i=2; i<=sCheck.nPage; i++){ sCheck.anRef[i] = 0; }
  sCheck.zErrMsg = 0;

  /* Check the integrity of the freelist
  */
  checkList(&sCheck, pBt->page1->freeList, pBt->page1->nFree,"Main freelist: ");


  /* Check all the tables.
  */
  for(i=0; i<nRoot; i++){
    checkTreePage(&sCheck, aRoot[i], 0, "List of tree roots: ", 0,0,0,0);
  }








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** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** $Id: btree.c,v 1.57 2002/03/02 20:41:58 drh Exp $
**
** This file implements a external (disk-based) database using BTrees.
** For a detailed discussion of BTrees, refer to
**
**     Donald E. Knuth, THE ART OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, Volume 3:
**     "Sorting And Searching", pages 473-480. Addison-Wesley
**     Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts.
................................................................................
typedef struct PageOne PageOne;
typedef struct MemPage MemPage;
typedef struct PageHdr PageHdr;
typedef struct Cell Cell;
typedef struct CellHdr CellHdr;
typedef struct FreeBlk FreeBlk;
typedef struct OverflowPage OverflowPage;
typedef struct FreelistInfo FreelistInfo;

/*
** All structures on a database page are aligned to 4-byte boundries.
** This routine rounds up a number of bytes to the next multiple of 4.
**
** This might need to change for computer architectures that require
** and 8-byte alignment boundry for structures.
................................................................................
** page number of the first page in a linked list of unused database
** pages.
*/
struct OverflowPage {
  Pgno iNext;
  char aPayload[OVERFLOW_SIZE];
};

/*
** The PageOne.freeList field points to a linked list of overflow pages
** hold information about free pages.  The aPayload section of each
** overflow page contains an instance of the following structure.  The
** aFree[] array holds the page number of nFree unused pages in the disk
** file.
*/
struct FreelistInfo {
  int nFree;
  Pgno aFree[(OVERFLOW_SIZE-sizeof(int))/sizeof(Pgno)];
};

/*
** For every page in the database file, an instance of the following structure
** is stored in memory.  The u.aDisk[] array contains the raw bits read from
** the disk.  The rest is auxiliary information held in memory only. The
** auxiliary info is only valid for regular database pages - it is not
** used for overflow pages and pages on the freelist.
................................................................................
** Do not invoke sqlitepager_unref() on *ppPage if an error is returned.
*/
static int allocatePage(Btree *pBt, MemPage **ppPage, Pgno *pPgno){
  PageOne *pPage1 = pBt->page1;
  int rc;
  if( pPage1->freeList ){
    OverflowPage *pOvfl;
    FreelistInfo *pInfo;

    rc = sqlitepager_write(pPage1);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    pPage1->nFree--;
    rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, pPage1->freeList, (void**)&pOvfl);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    rc = sqlitepager_write(pOvfl);
    if( rc ){
      sqlitepager_unref(pOvfl);
      return rc;
    }
    pInfo = (FreelistInfo*)pOvfl->aPayload;
    if( pInfo->nFree==0 ){
      *pPgno = pPage1->freeList;
      pPage1->freeList = pOvfl->iNext;

      *ppPage = (MemPage*)pOvfl;
    }else{
      pInfo->nFree--;
      *pPgno = pInfo->aFree[pInfo->nFree];
      rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, *pPgno, (void**)ppPage);
      sqlitepager_unref(pOvfl);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        sqlitepager_dont_rollback(*ppPage);
        rc = sqlitepager_write(*ppPage);
      }
    }
  }else{
    *pPgno = sqlitepager_pagecount(pBt->pPager) + 1;
    rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, *pPgno, (void**)ppPage);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    rc = sqlitepager_write(*ppPage);
  }
  return rc;
................................................................................
    assert( pOvfl!=0 );
    pgno = sqlitepager_pagenumber(pOvfl);
  }
  assert( pgno>2 );
  rc = sqlitepager_write(pPage1);
  if( rc ){
    return rc;
  }
  pPage1->nFree++;
  if( pPage1->nFree>0 && pPage1->freeList ){
    OverflowPage *pFreeIdx;
    rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, pPage1->freeList, (void**)&pFreeIdx);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      FreelistInfo *pInfo = (FreelistInfo*)pFreeIdx->aPayload;
      if( pInfo->nFree<(sizeof(pInfo->aFree)/sizeof(pInfo->aFree[0])) ){
        rc = sqlitepager_write(pFreeIdx);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
          pInfo->aFree[pInfo->nFree] = pgno;
          pInfo->nFree++;
          sqlitepager_unref(pFreeIdx);
          sqlitepager_dont_write(pBt->pPager, pgno);
          return rc;
        }
      }
      sqlitepager_unref(pFreeIdx);
    }
  }
  if( pOvfl==0 ){
    assert( pgno>0 );
    rc = sqlitepager_get(pBt->pPager, pgno, (void**)&pOvfl);
    if( rc ) return rc;
    needUnref = 1;
  }
................................................................................
  rc = sqlitepager_write(pOvfl);
  if( rc ){
    if( needUnref ) sqlitepager_unref(pOvfl);
    return rc;
  }
  pOvfl->iNext = pPage1->freeList;
  pPage1->freeList = pgno;

  memset(pOvfl->aPayload, 0, OVERFLOW_SIZE);
  pMemPage = (MemPage*)pPage;
  pMemPage->isInit = 0;
  if( pMemPage->pParent ){
    sqlitepager_unref(pMemPage->pParent);
    pMemPage->pParent = 0;
  }
................................................................................
  return  (pCheck->anRef[iPage]++)>1;
}

/*
** Check the integrity of the freelist or of an overflow page list.
** Verify that the number of pages on the list is N.
*/
static void checkList(
  IntegrityCk *pCheck,  /* Integrity checking context */
  int isFreeList,       /* True for a freelist.  False for overflow page list */
  int iPage,            /* Page number for first page in the list */
  int N,                /* Expected number of pages in the list */
  char *zContext        /* Context for error messages */
){
  int i;
  char zMsg[100];
  while( N-- > 0 ){
    OverflowPage *pOvfl;
    if( iPage<1 ){
      sprintf(zMsg, "%d pages missing from overflow list", N+1);
      checkAppendMsg(pCheck, zContext, zMsg);
      break;
    }
    if( checkRef(pCheck, iPage, zContext) ) break;
    if( sqlitepager_get(pCheck->pPager, (Pgno)iPage, (void**)&pOvfl) ){
      sprintf(zMsg, "failed to get page %d", iPage);
      checkAppendMsg(pCheck, zContext, zMsg);
      break;
    }
    if( isFreeList ){
      FreelistInfo *pInfo = (FreelistInfo*)pOvfl->aPayload;
      for(i=0; i<pInfo->nFree; i++){
        checkRef(pCheck, pInfo->aFree[i], zMsg);
      }
      N -= pInfo->nFree;
    }
    iPage = (int)pOvfl->iNext;
    sqlitepager_unref(pOvfl);
  }
}

/*
** Return negative if zKey1<zKey2.
................................................................................
    /* Check payload overflow pages
    */
    nKey2 = NKEY(pCell->h);
    sz = nKey2 + NDATA(pCell->h);
    sprintf(zContext, "On page %d cell %d: ", iPage, i);
    if( sz>MX_LOCAL_PAYLOAD ){
      int nPage = (sz - MX_LOCAL_PAYLOAD + OVERFLOW_SIZE - 1)/OVERFLOW_SIZE;
      checkList(pCheck, 0, pCell->ovfl, nPage, zContext);
    }

    /* Check that keys are in the right order
    */
    cur.idx = i;
    zKey2 = sqliteMalloc( nKey2+1 );
    getPayload(&cur, 0, nKey2, zKey2);
................................................................................
  sCheck.anRef = sqliteMalloc( (sCheck.nPage+1)*sizeof(sCheck.anRef[0]) );
  sCheck.anRef[1] = 1;
  for(i=2; i<=sCheck.nPage; i++){ sCheck.anRef[i] = 0; }
  sCheck.zErrMsg = 0;

  /* Check the integrity of the freelist
  */
  checkList(&sCheck, 1, pBt->page1->freeList, pBt->page1->nFree,
            "Main freelist: ");

  /* Check all the tables.
  */
  for(i=0; i<nRoot; i++){
    checkTreePage(&sCheck, aRoot[i], 0, "List of tree roots: ", 0,0,0,0);
  }

Changes to src/pager.c.

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** The pager is used to access a database disk file.  It implements
** atomic commit and rollback through the use of a journal file that
** is separate from the database file.  The pager also implements file
** locking to prevent two processes from writing the same database
** file simultaneously, or one process from reading the database while
** another is writing.
**
** @(#) $Id: pager.c,v 1.40 2002/02/19 13:39:22 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "pager.h"
#include "os.h"
#include <assert.h>
#include <string.h>

................................................................................
** to sqlitepager_write().  In other words, return TRUE if it is ok
** to change the content of the page.
*/
int sqlitepager_iswriteable(void *pData){
  PgHdr *pPg = DATA_TO_PGHDR(pData);
  return pPg->dirty;
}


















































/*
** Commit all changes to the database and release the write lock.
**
** If the commit fails for any reason, a rollback attempt is made
** and an error code is returned.  If the commit worked, SQLITE_OK
** is returned.







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** The pager is used to access a database disk file.  It implements
** atomic commit and rollback through the use of a journal file that
** is separate from the database file.  The pager also implements file
** locking to prevent two processes from writing the same database
** file simultaneously, or one process from reading the database while
** another is writing.
**
** @(#) $Id: pager.c,v 1.41 2002/03/02 20:41:59 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "pager.h"
#include "os.h"
#include <assert.h>
#include <string.h>

................................................................................
** to sqlitepager_write().  In other words, return TRUE if it is ok
** to change the content of the page.
*/
int sqlitepager_iswriteable(void *pData){
  PgHdr *pPg = DATA_TO_PGHDR(pData);
  return pPg->dirty;
}

/*
** A call to this routine tells the pager that it is not necessary to
** write the information on page "pgno" back to the disk, even though
** that page might be marked as dirty.
**
** The overlying software layer calls this routine when all of the data
** on the given page is unused.  The pager marks the page as clean so
** that it does not get written to disk.
**
** Tests show that this optimization, together with the
** sqlitepager_dont_rollback() below, more than double the speed
** of large INSERT operations and quadruple the speed of large DELETEs.
*/
void sqlitepager_dont_write(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno){
  PgHdr *pPg;
  pPg = pager_lookup(pPager, pgno);
  if( pPg && pPg->dirty ){
    pPg->dirty = 0;
  }
}

/*
** A call to this routine tells the pager that if a rollback occurs,
** it is not necessary to restore the data on the given page.  This
** means that the pager does not have to record the given page in the
** rollback journal.
*/
void sqlitepager_dont_rollback(void *pData){
  PgHdr *pPg = DATA_TO_PGHDR(pData);
  Pager *pPager = pPg->pPager;

  if( pPager->state!=SQLITE_WRITELOCK || pPager->journalOpen==0 ) return;
  if( !pPg->inJournal && (int)pPg->pgno <= pPager->origDbSize ){
    assert( pPager->aInJournal!=0 );
    pPager->aInJournal[pPg->pgno/8] |= 1<<(pPg->pgno&7);
    pPg->inJournal = 1;
    if( pPager->ckptOpen ){
      pPager->aInCkpt[pPg->pgno/8] |= 1<<(pPg->pgno&7);
      pPg->inCkpt = 1;
    }
  }
  if( pPager->ckptOpen && !pPg->inCkpt && (int)pPg->pgno<=pPager->ckptSize ){
    assert( pPg->inJournal || (int)pPg->pgno>pPager->origDbSize );
    assert( pPager->aInCkpt!=0 );
    pPager->aInCkpt[pPg->pgno/8] |= 1<<(pPg->pgno&7);
    pPg->inCkpt = 1;
  }
}

/*
** Commit all changes to the database and release the write lock.
**
** If the commit fails for any reason, a rollback attempt is made
** and an error code is returned.  If the commit worked, SQLITE_OK
** is returned.

Changes to src/pager.h.

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**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
** subsystem.  The page cache subsystem reads and writes a file a page
** at a time and provides a journal for rollback.
**
** @(#) $Id: pager.h,v 1.14 2002/02/02 15:01:16 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** The size of one page
**
** You can change this value to another (reasonable) power of two
** such as 512, 2048, 4096, or 8192 and things will still work.  But
................................................................................
int sqlitepager_pagecount(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_commit(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_rollback(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_isreadonly(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_ckpt_begin(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_ckpt_commit(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_ckpt_rollback(Pager*);


int *sqlitepager_stats(Pager*);

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
void sqlitepager_refdump(Pager*);
int pager_refinfo_enable;
#endif







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>
>






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**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
** subsystem.  The page cache subsystem reads and writes a file a page
** at a time and provides a journal for rollback.
**
** @(#) $Id: pager.h,v 1.15 2002/03/02 20:41:59 drh Exp $
*/

/*
** The size of one page
**
** You can change this value to another (reasonable) power of two
** such as 512, 2048, 4096, or 8192 and things will still work.  But
................................................................................
int sqlitepager_pagecount(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_commit(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_rollback(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_isreadonly(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_ckpt_begin(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_ckpt_commit(Pager*);
int sqlitepager_ckpt_rollback(Pager*);
void sqlitepager_dont_rollback(void*);
void sqlitepager_dont_write(Pager*, Pgno);
int *sqlitepager_stats(Pager*);

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
void sqlitepager_refdump(Pager*);
int pager_refinfo_enable;
#endif