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Overview
Comment:The Index object now has nKeyCol and nColumn. nColumn is the total number of columns and nKeyCol is the number of key columns. Currently these always differ by one. Refactor aiColumn[] to be of type i16 instead of int.
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SHA1:a106ce86cd4afd1f81603826de77df1fb25e9ab5
User & Date: drh 2013-10-22 18:01:40
Context
2013-10-23
00:32
Build internal data structures appropriately for WITHOUT ROWID tables. check-in: 35a36060 user: drh tags: omit-rowid
2013-10-22
18:01
The Index object now has nKeyCol and nColumn. nColumn is the total number of columns and nKeyCol is the number of key columns. Currently these always differ by one. Refactor aiColumn[] to be of type i16 instead of int. check-in: a106ce86 user: drh tags: omit-rowid
14:28
Add a procedure to handle the messy details of allocating an Index object from the heap. check-in: 45efc94f user: drh tags: omit-rowid
Changes
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Changes to src/analyze.c.

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    int addrRewind;               /* Address of "OP_Rewind iIdxCur" */
    int addrGotoChng0;            /* Address of "Goto addr_chng_0" */
    int addrNextRow;              /* Address of "next_row:" */

    if( pOnlyIdx && pOnlyIdx!=pIdx ) continue;
    if( pIdx->pPartIdxWhere==0 ) needTableCnt = 0;
    VdbeNoopComment((v, "Begin analysis of %s", pIdx->zName));
    nCol = pIdx->nColumn;
    aGotoChng = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, sizeof(int)*(nCol+1));
    if( aGotoChng==0 ) continue;
    pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);

    /* Populate the register containing the index name. */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, regIdxname, 0, pIdx->zName, 0);

................................................................................
      callStatGet(v, regStat4, STAT_GET_NDLT, regDLt);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iTabCur, addrNext, regSampleRowid);
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3
      sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iTabCur, 
                                      pIdx->aiColumn[0], regSample);
#else
      for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
        int iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
        sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iTabCur, iCol, regCol+i);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regCol, nCol+1, regSample);
#endif
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, regTabname, 6, regTemp, "bbbbbb", 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iStatCur+1, regNewRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iStatCur+1, regTemp, regNewRowid);
................................................................................
    pIndex = sqlite3FindIndex(pInfo->db, argv[1], pInfo->zDatabase);
  }else{
    pIndex = 0;
  }
  z = argv[2];

  if( pIndex ){
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, pIndex->nColumn+1, pIndex->aiRowEst, pIndex);
    if( pIndex->pPartIdxWhere==0 ) pTable->nRowEst = pIndex->aiRowEst[0];
  }else{
    Index fakeIdx;
    fakeIdx.szIdxRow = pTable->szTabRow;
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, 1, &pTable->nRowEst, &fakeIdx);
    pTable->szTabRow = fakeIdx.szIdxRow;
  }
................................................................................
** stored in pIdx->aSample[]. 
*/
static void initAvgEq(Index *pIdx){
  if( pIdx ){
    IndexSample *aSample = pIdx->aSample;
    IndexSample *pFinal = &aSample[pIdx->nSample-1];
    int iCol;
    for(iCol=0; iCol<pIdx->nColumn; iCol++){
      int i;                    /* Used to iterate through samples */
      tRowcnt sumEq = 0;        /* Sum of the nEq values */
      tRowcnt nSum = 0;         /* Number of terms contributing to sumEq */
      tRowcnt avgEq = 0;
      tRowcnt nDLt = pFinal->anDLt[iCol];

      /* Set nSum to the number of distinct (iCol+1) field prefixes that
................................................................................
    nSample = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 1);
    pIdx = sqlite3FindIndex(db, zIndex, zDb);
    assert( pIdx==0 || bStat3 || pIdx->nSample==0 );
    /* Index.nSample is non-zero at this point if data has already been
    ** loaded from the stat4 table. In this case ignore stat3 data.  */
    if( pIdx==0 || pIdx->nSample ) continue;
    if( bStat3==0 ){
      nIdxCol = pIdx->nColumn+1;
      nAvgCol = pIdx->nColumn;
    }
    pIdx->nSampleCol = nIdxCol;
    nByte = sizeof(IndexSample) * nSample;
    nByte += sizeof(tRowcnt) * nIdxCol * 3 * nSample;
    nByte += nAvgCol * sizeof(tRowcnt);     /* Space for Index.aAvgEq[] */

    pIdx->aSample = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte);







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    int addrRewind;               /* Address of "OP_Rewind iIdxCur" */
    int addrGotoChng0;            /* Address of "Goto addr_chng_0" */
    int addrNextRow;              /* Address of "next_row:" */

    if( pOnlyIdx && pOnlyIdx!=pIdx ) continue;
    if( pIdx->pPartIdxWhere==0 ) needTableCnt = 0;
    VdbeNoopComment((v, "Begin analysis of %s", pIdx->zName));
    nCol = pIdx->nKeyCol;
    aGotoChng = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, sizeof(int)*(nCol+1));
    if( aGotoChng==0 ) continue;
    pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);

    /* Populate the register containing the index name. */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, regIdxname, 0, pIdx->zName, 0);

................................................................................
      callStatGet(v, regStat4, STAT_GET_NDLT, regDLt);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iTabCur, addrNext, regSampleRowid);
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3
      sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iTabCur, 
                                      pIdx->aiColumn[0], regSample);
#else
      for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
        i16 iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
        sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iTabCur, iCol, regCol+i);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regCol, nCol+1, regSample);
#endif
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, regTabname, 6, regTemp, "bbbbbb", 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iStatCur+1, regNewRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iStatCur+1, regTemp, regNewRowid);
................................................................................
    pIndex = sqlite3FindIndex(pInfo->db, argv[1], pInfo->zDatabase);
  }else{
    pIndex = 0;
  }
  z = argv[2];

  if( pIndex ){
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, pIndex->nKeyCol+1, pIndex->aiRowEst, pIndex);
    if( pIndex->pPartIdxWhere==0 ) pTable->nRowEst = pIndex->aiRowEst[0];
  }else{
    Index fakeIdx;
    fakeIdx.szIdxRow = pTable->szTabRow;
    decodeIntArray((char*)z, 1, &pTable->nRowEst, &fakeIdx);
    pTable->szTabRow = fakeIdx.szIdxRow;
  }
................................................................................
** stored in pIdx->aSample[]. 
*/
static void initAvgEq(Index *pIdx){
  if( pIdx ){
    IndexSample *aSample = pIdx->aSample;
    IndexSample *pFinal = &aSample[pIdx->nSample-1];
    int iCol;
    for(iCol=0; iCol<pIdx->nKeyCol; iCol++){
      int i;                    /* Used to iterate through samples */
      tRowcnt sumEq = 0;        /* Sum of the nEq values */
      tRowcnt nSum = 0;         /* Number of terms contributing to sumEq */
      tRowcnt avgEq = 0;
      tRowcnt nDLt = pFinal->anDLt[iCol];

      /* Set nSum to the number of distinct (iCol+1) field prefixes that
................................................................................
    nSample = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 1);
    pIdx = sqlite3FindIndex(db, zIndex, zDb);
    assert( pIdx==0 || bStat3 || pIdx->nSample==0 );
    /* Index.nSample is non-zero at this point if data has already been
    ** loaded from the stat4 table. In this case ignore stat3 data.  */
    if( pIdx==0 || pIdx->nSample ) continue;
    if( bStat3==0 ){
      nIdxCol = pIdx->nKeyCol+1;
      nAvgCol = pIdx->nKeyCol;
    }
    pIdx->nSampleCol = nIdxCol;
    nByte = sizeof(IndexSample) * nSample;
    nByte += sizeof(tRowcnt) * nIdxCol * 3 * nSample;
    nByte += nAvgCol * sizeof(tRowcnt);     /* Space for Index.aAvgEq[] */

    pIdx->aSample = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte);

Changes to src/build.c.

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    p->aCol[i].zColl = zColl;
  
    /* If the column is declared as "<name> PRIMARY KEY COLLATE <type>",
    ** then an index may have been created on this column before the
    ** collation type was added. Correct this if it is the case.
    */
    for(pIdx=p->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      assert( pIdx->nColumn==1 );
      if( pIdx->aiColumn[0]==i ){
        pIdx->azColl[0] = p->aCol[i].zColl;
      }
    }
  }else{
    sqlite3DbFree(db, zColl);
  }
................................................................................
  pTab->szTabRow = sqlite3LogEst(wTable*4);
}

/*
** Estimate the average size of a row for an index.
*/
static void estimateIndexWidth(Index *pIdx){
  unsigned wIndex = 1;
  int i;
  const Column *aCol = pIdx->pTable->aCol;
  for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){

    assert( pIdx->aiColumn[i]>=0 && pIdx->aiColumn[i]<pIdx->pTable->nCol );
    wIndex += aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[i]].szEst;
  }
  pIdx->szIdxRow = sqlite3LogEst(wIndex*4);
}

/*
** This routine is called to report the final ")" that terminates
** a CREATE TABLE statement.
................................................................................
**
** Increase the allocation size to provide an extra nExtra bytes
** of 8-byte aligned space after the Index object and return a
** pointer to this extra space in *ppExtra.
*/
Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(
  sqlite3 *db,         /* Database connection */
  int nCol,            /* Number of columns in the index */
  int nExtra,          /* Number of bytes of extra space to alloc */
  char **ppExtra       /* Pointer to the "extra" space */
){
  Index *p;            /* Allocated index object */
  int nByte;           /* Bytes of space for Index object + arrays */

  nByte = ROUND8(sizeof(Index)) +              /* Index structure  */
          ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol) +         /* Index.azColl     */
          ROUND8(sizeof(tRowcnt)*(nCol+1) +    /* Index.aiRowEst   */
                 sizeof(int)*nCol +            /* Index.aiColumn   */
                 sizeof(u8)*nCol);             /* Index.aSortOrder */
  p = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte + nExtra);
  if( p ){
    char *pExtra = ((char*)p)+ROUND8(sizeof(Index));
    p->azColl = (char**)pExtra;      pExtra += ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol);
    p->aiRowEst = (tRowcnt*)pExtra;  pExtra += sizeof(tRowcnt)*(nCol+1);
    p->aiColumn = (int*)pExtra;      pExtra += sizeof(int)*nCol;
    p->aSortOrder = (u8*)pExtra;
    p->nColumn = nCol;

    *ppExtra = ((char*)p) + nByte;
  }
  return p;
}

/*
** Create a new index for an SQL table.  pName1.pName2 is the name of the index 
................................................................................
    }
  }

  /* 
  ** Allocate the index structure. 
  */
  nName = sqlite3Strlen30(zName);
  pIndex = sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(db, pList->nExpr,
                                      nName + nExtra + 1, &zExtra);
  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    goto exit_create_index;
  }
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->aiRowEst) );
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->azColl) );
  pIndex->zName = zExtra;
  zExtra += nName + 1;
  memcpy(pIndex->zName, zName, nName+1);
  pIndex->pTable = pTab;
  pIndex->nColumn = pList->nExpr;
  pIndex->onError = (u8)onError;
  pIndex->uniqNotNull = onError==OE_Abort;
  pIndex->autoIndex = (u8)(pName==0);
  pIndex->pSchema = db->aDb[iDb].pSchema;
  if( pPIWhere ){
    sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(pParse, pTab, NC_PartIdx, pPIWhere, 0);
    pIndex->pPartIdxWhere = pPIWhere;
................................................................................
    }
    if( j>=pTab->nCol ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "table %s has no column named %s",
        pTab->zName, zColName);
      pParse->checkSchema = 1;
      goto exit_create_index;
    }

    pIndex->aiColumn[i] = j;
    if( pListItem->pExpr ){
      int nColl;
      assert( pListItem->pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE );
      zColl = pListItem->pExpr->u.zToken;
      nColl = sqlite3Strlen30(zColl) + 1;
      assert( nExtra>=nColl );
      memcpy(zExtra, zColl, nColl);
................................................................................
      goto exit_create_index;
    }
    pIndex->azColl[i] = zColl;
    requestedSortOrder = pListItem->sortOrder & sortOrderMask;
    pIndex->aSortOrder[i] = (u8)requestedSortOrder;
    if( pTab->aCol[j].notNull==0 ) pIndex->uniqNotNull = 0;
  }


  sqlite3DefaultRowEst(pIndex);
  if( pParse->pNewTable==0 ) estimateIndexWidth(pIndex);

  if( pTab==pParse->pNewTable ){
    /* This routine has been called to create an automatic index as a
    ** result of a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE clause on a column definition, or
    ** a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE clause following the column definitions.
................................................................................
    Index *pIdx;
    for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      int k;
      assert( pIdx->onError!=OE_None );
      assert( pIdx->autoIndex );
      assert( pIndex->onError!=OE_None );

      if( pIdx->nColumn!=pIndex->nColumn ) continue;
      for(k=0; k<pIdx->nColumn; k++){
        const char *z1;
        const char *z2;
        if( pIdx->aiColumn[k]!=pIndex->aiColumn[k] ) break;
        z1 = pIdx->azColl[k];
        z2 = pIndex->azColl[k];
        if( z1!=z2 && sqlite3StrICmp(z1, z2) ) break;
      }
      if( k==pIdx->nColumn ){
        if( pIdx->onError!=pIndex->onError ){
          /* This constraint creates the same index as a previous
          ** constraint specified somewhere in the CREATE TABLE statement.
          ** However the ON CONFLICT clauses are different. If both this 
          ** constraint and the previous equivalent constraint have explicit
          ** ON CONFLICT clauses this is an error. Otherwise, use the
          ** explicitly specified behavior for the index.
................................................................................
  tRowcnt *a = pIdx->aiRowEst;
  int i;
  tRowcnt n;
  assert( a!=0 );
  a[0] = pIdx->pTable->nRowEst;
  if( a[0]<10 ) a[0] = 10;
  n = 10;
  for(i=1; i<=pIdx->nColumn; i++){
    a[i] = n;
    if( n>5 ) n--;
  }
  if( pIdx->onError!=OE_None ){
    a[pIdx->nColumn] = 1;
  }
}

/*
** This routine will drop an existing named index.  This routine
** implements the DROP INDEX statement.
*/
................................................................................
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_REINDEX
static int collationMatch(const char *zColl, Index *pIndex){
  int i;
  assert( zColl!=0 );
  for(i=0; i<pIndex->nColumn; i++){
    const char *z = pIndex->azColl[i];
    assert( z!=0 );
    if( 0==sqlite3StrICmp(z, zColl) ){
      return 1;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}
#endif

................................................................................
** the caller is responsible for calling sqlite3DbFree(db, ) on the returned 
** pointer. If an error occurs (out of memory or missing collation 
** sequence), NULL is returned and the state of pParse updated to reflect
** the error.
*/
KeyInfo *sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(Parse *pParse, Index *pIdx){
  int i;
  int nCol = pIdx->nColumn;
  KeyInfo *pKey;

  pKey = sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, nCol);
  if( pKey ){
    for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
      char *zColl = pIdx->azColl[i];
      assert( zColl );







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    p->aCol[i].zColl = zColl;
  
    /* If the column is declared as "<name> PRIMARY KEY COLLATE <type>",
    ** then an index may have been created on this column before the
    ** collation type was added. Correct this if it is the case.
    */
    for(pIdx=p->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      assert( pIdx->nKeyCol==1 );
      if( pIdx->aiColumn[0]==i ){
        pIdx->azColl[0] = p->aCol[i].zColl;
      }
    }
  }else{
    sqlite3DbFree(db, zColl);
  }
................................................................................
  pTab->szTabRow = sqlite3LogEst(wTable*4);
}

/*
** Estimate the average size of a row for an index.
*/
static void estimateIndexWidth(Index *pIdx){
  unsigned wIndex = 0;
  int i;
  const Column *aCol = pIdx->pTable->aCol;
  for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
    i16 x = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
    assert( x<pIdx->pTable->nCol );
    wIndex += x<0 ? 1 : aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[i]].szEst;
  }
  pIdx->szIdxRow = sqlite3LogEst(wIndex*4);
}

/*
** This routine is called to report the final ")" that terminates
** a CREATE TABLE statement.
................................................................................
**
** Increase the allocation size to provide an extra nExtra bytes
** of 8-byte aligned space after the Index object and return a
** pointer to this extra space in *ppExtra.
*/
Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(
  sqlite3 *db,         /* Database connection */
  i16 nCol,            /* Total number of columns in the index */
  int nExtra,          /* Number of bytes of extra space to alloc */
  char **ppExtra       /* Pointer to the "extra" space */
){
  Index *p;            /* Allocated index object */
  int nByte;           /* Bytes of space for Index object + arrays */

  nByte = ROUND8(sizeof(Index)) +              /* Index structure  */
          ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol) +         /* Index.azColl     */
          ROUND8(sizeof(tRowcnt)*(nCol+1) +    /* Index.aiRowEst   */
                 sizeof(i16)*nCol +            /* Index.aiColumn   */
                 sizeof(u8)*nCol);             /* Index.aSortOrder */
  p = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte + nExtra);
  if( p ){
    char *pExtra = ((char*)p)+ROUND8(sizeof(Index));
    p->azColl = (char**)pExtra;      pExtra += ROUND8(sizeof(char*)*nCol);
    p->aiRowEst = (tRowcnt*)pExtra;  pExtra += sizeof(tRowcnt)*(nCol+1);
    p->aiColumn = (i16*)pExtra;      pExtra += sizeof(i16)*nCol;
    p->aSortOrder = (u8*)pExtra;
    p->nColumn = nCol;
    p->nKeyCol = nCol - 1;
    *ppExtra = ((char*)p) + nByte;
  }
  return p;
}

/*
** Create a new index for an SQL table.  pName1.pName2 is the name of the index 
................................................................................
    }
  }

  /* 
  ** Allocate the index structure. 
  */
  nName = sqlite3Strlen30(zName);
  pIndex = sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(db, pList->nExpr + 1,
                                      nName + nExtra + 1, &zExtra);
  if( db->mallocFailed ){
    goto exit_create_index;
  }
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->aiRowEst) );
  assert( EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(pIndex->azColl) );
  pIndex->zName = zExtra;
  zExtra += nName + 1;
  memcpy(pIndex->zName, zName, nName+1);
  pIndex->pTable = pTab;

  pIndex->onError = (u8)onError;
  pIndex->uniqNotNull = onError==OE_Abort;
  pIndex->autoIndex = (u8)(pName==0);
  pIndex->pSchema = db->aDb[iDb].pSchema;
  if( pPIWhere ){
    sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(pParse, pTab, NC_PartIdx, pPIWhere, 0);
    pIndex->pPartIdxWhere = pPIWhere;
................................................................................
    }
    if( j>=pTab->nCol ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "table %s has no column named %s",
        pTab->zName, zColName);
      pParse->checkSchema = 1;
      goto exit_create_index;
    }
    assert( pTab->nCol<=0x7fff && j<=0x7fff );
    pIndex->aiColumn[i] = (i16)j;
    if( pListItem->pExpr ){
      int nColl;
      assert( pListItem->pExpr->op==TK_COLLATE );
      zColl = pListItem->pExpr->u.zToken;
      nColl = sqlite3Strlen30(zColl) + 1;
      assert( nExtra>=nColl );
      memcpy(zExtra, zColl, nColl);
................................................................................
      goto exit_create_index;
    }
    pIndex->azColl[i] = zColl;
    requestedSortOrder = pListItem->sortOrder & sortOrderMask;
    pIndex->aSortOrder[i] = (u8)requestedSortOrder;
    if( pTab->aCol[j].notNull==0 ) pIndex->uniqNotNull = 0;
  }
  pIndex->aiColumn[i] = -1;
  pIndex->azColl[i] = "BINARY";
  sqlite3DefaultRowEst(pIndex);
  if( pParse->pNewTable==0 ) estimateIndexWidth(pIndex);

  if( pTab==pParse->pNewTable ){
    /* This routine has been called to create an automatic index as a
    ** result of a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE clause on a column definition, or
    ** a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE clause following the column definitions.
................................................................................
    Index *pIdx;
    for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      int k;
      assert( pIdx->onError!=OE_None );
      assert( pIdx->autoIndex );
      assert( pIndex->onError!=OE_None );

      if( pIdx->nKeyCol!=pIndex->nKeyCol ) continue;
      for(k=0; k<pIdx->nKeyCol; k++){
        const char *z1;
        const char *z2;
        if( pIdx->aiColumn[k]!=pIndex->aiColumn[k] ) break;
        z1 = pIdx->azColl[k];
        z2 = pIndex->azColl[k];
        if( z1!=z2 && sqlite3StrICmp(z1, z2) ) break;
      }
      if( k==pIdx->nKeyCol ){
        if( pIdx->onError!=pIndex->onError ){
          /* This constraint creates the same index as a previous
          ** constraint specified somewhere in the CREATE TABLE statement.
          ** However the ON CONFLICT clauses are different. If both this 
          ** constraint and the previous equivalent constraint have explicit
          ** ON CONFLICT clauses this is an error. Otherwise, use the
          ** explicitly specified behavior for the index.
................................................................................
  tRowcnt *a = pIdx->aiRowEst;
  int i;
  tRowcnt n;
  assert( a!=0 );
  a[0] = pIdx->pTable->nRowEst;
  if( a[0]<10 ) a[0] = 10;
  n = 10;
  for(i=1; i<=pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){
    a[i] = n;
    if( n>5 ) n--;
  }
  if( pIdx->onError!=OE_None ){
    a[pIdx->nKeyCol] = 1;
  }
}

/*
** This routine will drop an existing named index.  This routine
** implements the DROP INDEX statement.
*/
................................................................................
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_REINDEX
static int collationMatch(const char *zColl, Index *pIndex){
  int i;
  assert( zColl!=0 );
  for(i=0; i<pIndex->nColumn; i++){
    const char *z = pIndex->azColl[i];
    assert( z!=0 || pIndex->aiColumn[i]<0 );
    if( pIndex->aiColumn[i]>=0 && 0==sqlite3StrICmp(z, zColl) ){
      return 1;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}
#endif

................................................................................
** the caller is responsible for calling sqlite3DbFree(db, ) on the returned 
** pointer. If an error occurs (out of memory or missing collation 
** sequence), NULL is returned and the state of pParse updated to reflect
** the error.
*/
KeyInfo *sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(Parse *pParse, Index *pIdx){
  int i;
  int nCol = pIdx->nKeyCol;
  KeyInfo *pKey;

  pKey = sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, nCol);
  if( pKey ){
    for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
      char *zColl = pIdx->azColl[i];
      assert( zColl );

Changes to src/delete.c.

594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
...
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
  int r1;
  int iPartIdxLabel;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;

  for(i=1, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; i++, pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( aRegIdx!=0 && aRegIdx[i-1]==0 ) continue;
    r1 = sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIdx, iCur, 0, 0, &iPartIdxLabel);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IdxDelete, iCur+i, r1, pIdx->nColumn+1);
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iPartIdxLabel);
  }
}

/*
** Generate code that will assemble an index key and put it in register
** regOut.  The key with be for index pIdx which is an index on pTab.
................................................................................
      pParse->iPartIdxTab = iCur;
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pIdx->pPartIdxWhere, *piPartIdxLabel, 
                         SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
    }else{
      *piPartIdxLabel = 0;
    }
  }
  nCol = pIdx->nColumn;
  regBase = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nCol+1);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iCur, regBase+nCol);
  for(j=0; j<nCol; j++){
    int idx = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
    if( idx==pTab->iPKey ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regBase+nCol, regBase+j);
    }else{
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iCur, idx, regBase+j);
      sqlite3ColumnDefault(v, pTab, idx, -1);
    }
  }







|







 







|



|







594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
...
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
  int r1;
  int iPartIdxLabel;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;

  for(i=1, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; i++, pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( aRegIdx!=0 && aRegIdx[i-1]==0 ) continue;
    r1 = sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIdx, iCur, 0, 0, &iPartIdxLabel);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IdxDelete, iCur+i, r1, pIdx->nKeyCol+1);
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iPartIdxLabel);
  }
}

/*
** Generate code that will assemble an index key and put it in register
** regOut.  The key with be for index pIdx which is an index on pTab.
................................................................................
      pParse->iPartIdxTab = iCur;
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pIdx->pPartIdxWhere, *piPartIdxLabel, 
                         SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
    }else{
      *piPartIdxLabel = 0;
    }
  }
  nCol = pIdx->nKeyCol;
  regBase = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nCol+1);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iCur, regBase+nCol);
  for(j=0; j<nCol; j++){
    i16 idx = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
    if( idx==pTab->iPKey ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regBase+nCol, regBase+j);
    }else{
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iCur, idx, regBase+j);
      sqlite3ColumnDefault(v, pTab, idx, -1);
    }
  }

Changes to src/expr.c.

1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
....
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
  ** ephemeral table.
  */
  p = (ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ? pX->x.pSelect : 0);
  if( ALWAYS(pParse->nErr==0) && isCandidateForInOpt(p) ){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;              /* Database connection */
    Table *pTab;                           /* Table <table>. */
    Expr *pExpr;                           /* Expression <column> */
    int iCol;                              /* Index of column <column> */
    int iDb;                               /* Database idx for pTab */

    assert( p );                        /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList!=0 );             /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList->a[0].pExpr!=0 ); /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pSrc!=0 );               /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    pTab = p->pSrc->a[0].pTab;
    pExpr = p->pEList->a[0].pExpr;
    iCol = pExpr->iColumn;
   
    /* Code an OP_VerifyCookie and OP_TableLock for <table>. */
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pTab->pSchema);
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
    sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, pTab->tnum, 0, pTab->zName);

    /* This function is only called from two places. In both cases the vdbe
................................................................................
      ** it is not, it is not possible to use any index.
      */
      int affinity_ok = sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(pX, pTab->aCol[iCol].affinity);

      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx && eType==0 && affinity_ok; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        if( (pIdx->aiColumn[0]==iCol)
         && sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), pIdx->azColl[0], 0)==pReq
         && (!mustBeUnique || (pIdx->nColumn==1 && pIdx->onError!=OE_None))
        ){
          int iAddr;
          char *pKey;
  
          pKey = (char *)sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);
          iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);
  







|
|







|







 







|







1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
....
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
  ** ephemeral table.
  */
  p = (ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ? pX->x.pSelect : 0);
  if( ALWAYS(pParse->nErr==0) && isCandidateForInOpt(p) ){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;              /* Database connection */
    Table *pTab;                           /* Table <table>. */
    Expr *pExpr;                           /* Expression <column> */
    i16 iCol;                              /* Index of column <column> */
    i16 iDb;                               /* Database idx for pTab */

    assert( p );                        /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList!=0 );             /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList->a[0].pExpr!=0 ); /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pSrc!=0 );               /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    pTab = p->pSrc->a[0].pTab;
    pExpr = p->pEList->a[0].pExpr;
    iCol = (i16)pExpr->iColumn;
   
    /* Code an OP_VerifyCookie and OP_TableLock for <table>. */
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pTab->pSchema);
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
    sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, pTab->tnum, 0, pTab->zName);

    /* This function is only called from two places. In both cases the vdbe
................................................................................
      ** it is not, it is not possible to use any index.
      */
      int affinity_ok = sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(pX, pTab->aCol[iCol].affinity);

      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx && eType==0 && affinity_ok; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        if( (pIdx->aiColumn[0]==iCol)
         && sqlite3FindCollSeq(db, ENC(db), pIdx->azColl[0], 0)==pReq
         && (!mustBeUnique || (pIdx->nKeyCol==1 && pIdx->onError!=OE_None))
        ){
          int iAddr;
          char *pKey;
  
          pKey = (char *)sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);
          iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);
  

Changes to src/fkey.c.

221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
...
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
...
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
...
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
    assert( nCol>1 );
    aiCol = (int *)sqlite3DbMallocRaw(pParse->db, nCol*sizeof(int));
    if( !aiCol ) return 1;
    *paiCol = aiCol;
  }

  for(pIdx=pParent->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( pIdx->nColumn==nCol && pIdx->onError!=OE_None ){ 
      /* pIdx is a UNIQUE index (or a PRIMARY KEY) and has the right number
      ** of columns. If each indexed column corresponds to a foreign key
      ** column of pFKey, then this index is a winner.  */

      if( zKey==0 ){
        /* If zKey is NULL, then this foreign key is implicitly mapped to 
        ** the PRIMARY KEY of table pParent. The PRIMARY KEY index may be 
................................................................................
      }else{
        /* If zKey is non-NULL, then this foreign key was declared to
        ** map to an explicit list of columns in table pParent. Check if this
        ** index matches those columns. Also, check that the index uses
        ** the default collation sequences for each column. */
        int i, j;
        for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
          int iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];     /* Index of column in parent tbl */
          char *zDfltColl;                  /* Def. collation for column */
          char *zIdxCol;                    /* Name of indexed column */

          /* If the index uses a collation sequence that is different from
          ** the default collation sequence for the column, this index is
          ** unusable. Bail out early in this case.  */
          zDfltColl = pParent->aCol[iCol].zColl;
................................................................................
  ** the parent key columns. The affinity of the parent key column should
  ** be applied to each child key value before the comparison takes place.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pFKey->nCol; i++){
    Expr *pLeft;                  /* Value from parent table row */
    Expr *pRight;                 /* Column ref to child table */
    Expr *pEq;                    /* Expression (pLeft = pRight) */
    int iCol;                     /* Index of column in child table */ 
    const char *zCol;             /* Name of column in child table */

    pLeft = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_REGISTER, 0);
    if( pLeft ){
      /* Set the collation sequence and affinity of the LHS of each TK_EQ
      ** expression to the parent key column defaults.  */
      if( pIdx ){
................................................................................
    for(p=pTab->pFKey; p; p=p->pNextFrom){
      for(i=0; i<p->nCol; i++) mask |= COLUMN_MASK(p->aCol[i].iFrom);
    }
    for(p=sqlite3FkReferences(pTab); p; p=p->pNextTo){
      Index *pIdx = 0;
      sqlite3FkLocateIndex(pParse, pTab, p, &pIdx, 0);
      if( pIdx ){
        for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++) mask |= COLUMN_MASK(pIdx->aiColumn[i]);
      }
    }
  }
  return mask;
}









|







 







|







 







|







 







|







221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
...
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
...
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
...
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
    assert( nCol>1 );
    aiCol = (int *)sqlite3DbMallocRaw(pParse->db, nCol*sizeof(int));
    if( !aiCol ) return 1;
    *paiCol = aiCol;
  }

  for(pIdx=pParent->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( pIdx->nKeyCol==nCol && pIdx->onError!=OE_None ){ 
      /* pIdx is a UNIQUE index (or a PRIMARY KEY) and has the right number
      ** of columns. If each indexed column corresponds to a foreign key
      ** column of pFKey, then this index is a winner.  */

      if( zKey==0 ){
        /* If zKey is NULL, then this foreign key is implicitly mapped to 
        ** the PRIMARY KEY of table pParent. The PRIMARY KEY index may be 
................................................................................
      }else{
        /* If zKey is non-NULL, then this foreign key was declared to
        ** map to an explicit list of columns in table pParent. Check if this
        ** index matches those columns. Also, check that the index uses
        ** the default collation sequences for each column. */
        int i, j;
        for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
          i16 iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];     /* Index of column in parent tbl */
          char *zDfltColl;                  /* Def. collation for column */
          char *zIdxCol;                    /* Name of indexed column */

          /* If the index uses a collation sequence that is different from
          ** the default collation sequence for the column, this index is
          ** unusable. Bail out early in this case.  */
          zDfltColl = pParent->aCol[iCol].zColl;
................................................................................
  ** the parent key columns. The affinity of the parent key column should
  ** be applied to each child key value before the comparison takes place.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pFKey->nCol; i++){
    Expr *pLeft;                  /* Value from parent table row */
    Expr *pRight;                 /* Column ref to child table */
    Expr *pEq;                    /* Expression (pLeft = pRight) */
    i16 iCol;                     /* Index of column in child table */ 
    const char *zCol;             /* Name of column in child table */

    pLeft = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_REGISTER, 0);
    if( pLeft ){
      /* Set the collation sequence and affinity of the LHS of each TK_EQ
      ** expression to the parent key column defaults.  */
      if( pIdx ){
................................................................................
    for(p=pTab->pFKey; p; p=p->pNextFrom){
      for(i=0; i<p->nCol; i++) mask |= COLUMN_MASK(p->aCol[i].iFrom);
    }
    for(p=sqlite3FkReferences(pTab); p; p=p->pNextTo){
      Index *pIdx = 0;
      sqlite3FkLocateIndex(pParse, pTab, p, &pIdx, 0);
      if( pIdx ){
        for(i=0; i<pIdx->nKeyCol; i++) mask |= COLUMN_MASK(pIdx->aiColumn[i]);
      }
    }
  }
  return mask;
}


Changes to src/insert.c.

63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
....
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
....
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
....
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
....
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
    ** The column affinity string will eventually be deleted by
    ** sqliteDeleteIndex() when the Index structure itself is cleaned
    ** up.
    */
    int n;
    Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;
    sqlite3 *db = sqlite3VdbeDb(v);
    pIdx->zColAff = (char *)sqlite3DbMallocRaw(0, pIdx->nColumn+2);
    if( !pIdx->zColAff ){
      db->mallocFailed = 1;
      return 0;
    }
    for(n=0; n<pIdx->nColumn; n++){
      pIdx->zColAff[n] = pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[n]].affinity;
    }
    pIdx->zColAff[n++] = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    pIdx->zColAff[n] = 0;
  }
 
  return pIdx->zColAff;
................................................................................
      pParse->ckBase = regData;
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pIdx->pPartIdxWhere, addrSkipRow,
                         SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      pParse->ckBase = 0;
    }

    /* Create a key for accessing the index entry */
    regIdx = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, pIdx->nColumn+1);
    for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
      int idx = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
      if( idx==pTab->iPKey ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regRowid, regIdx+i);
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regData+idx, regIdx+i);
      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regRowid, regIdx+i);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regIdx, pIdx->nColumn+1, aRegIdx[iCur]);
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, -1, sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(v, pIdx), P4_TRANSIENT);
    sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, regIdx, pIdx->nColumn+1);

    /* Find out what action to take in case there is an indexing conflict */
    onError = pIdx->onError;
    if( onError==OE_None ){ 
      sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regIdx, pIdx->nColumn+1);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrSkipRow);
      continue;  /* pIdx is not a UNIQUE index */
    }
    if( overrideError!=OE_Default ){
      onError = overrideError;
    }else if( onError==OE_Default ){
      onError = OE_Abort;
................................................................................
    
    /* Check to see if the new index entry will be unique */
    regR = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regOldRowid, regR);
    j3 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_IsUnique, baseCur+iCur+1, 0,
                           regR, SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(regIdx),
                           P4_INT32);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regIdx, pIdx->nColumn+1);

    /* Generate code that executes if the new index entry is not unique */
    assert( onError==OE_Rollback || onError==OE_Abort || onError==OE_Fail
        || onError==OE_Ignore || onError==OE_Replace );
    switch( onError ){
      case OE_Rollback:
      case OE_Abort:
................................................................................
        int j;
        StrAccum errMsg;
        const char *zSep;
        char *zErr;

        sqlite3StrAccumInit(&errMsg, 0, 0, 200);
        errMsg.db = db;
        zSep = pIdx->nColumn>1 ? "columns " : "column ";
        for(j=0; j<pIdx->nColumn; j++){
          char *zCol = pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[j]].zName;
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, zSep, -1);
          zSep = ", ";
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, zCol, -1);
        }
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg,
            pIdx->nColumn>1 ? " are not unique" : " is not unique", -1);
        zErr = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&errMsg);
        sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE,
                              onError, zErr, 0);
        sqlite3DbFree(errMsg.db, zErr);
        break;
      }
      case OE_Ignore: {
................................................................................
**    *   The same collating sequence on each column
**    *   The index has the exact same WHERE clause
*/
static int xferCompatibleIndex(Index *pDest, Index *pSrc){
  int i;
  assert( pDest && pSrc );
  assert( pDest->pTable!=pSrc->pTable );
  if( pDest->nColumn!=pSrc->nColumn ){
    return 0;   /* Different number of columns */
  }
  if( pDest->onError!=pSrc->onError ){
    return 0;   /* Different conflict resolution strategies */
  }
  for(i=0; i<pSrc->nColumn; i++){
    if( pSrc->aiColumn[i]!=pDest->aiColumn[i] ){
      return 0;   /* Different columns indexed */
    }
    if( pSrc->aSortOrder[i]!=pDest->aSortOrder[i] ){
      return 0;   /* Different sort orders */
    }
    if( !xferCompatibleCollation(pSrc->azColl[i],pDest->azColl[i]) ){







|




|







 







|

|
|





<
|

|




|







 







|







 







|
|






|







 







|





|







63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
....
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404

1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
....
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
....
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
....
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
    ** The column affinity string will eventually be deleted by
    ** sqliteDeleteIndex() when the Index structure itself is cleaned
    ** up.
    */
    int n;
    Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;
    sqlite3 *db = sqlite3VdbeDb(v);
    pIdx->zColAff = (char *)sqlite3DbMallocRaw(0, pIdx->nKeyCol+2);
    if( !pIdx->zColAff ){
      db->mallocFailed = 1;
      return 0;
    }
    for(n=0; n<pIdx->nKeyCol; n++){
      pIdx->zColAff[n] = pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[n]].affinity;
    }
    pIdx->zColAff[n++] = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    pIdx->zColAff[n] = 0;
  }
 
  return pIdx->zColAff;
................................................................................
      pParse->ckBase = regData;
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pIdx->pPartIdxWhere, addrSkipRow,
                         SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      pParse->ckBase = 0;
    }

    /* Create a key for accessing the index entry */
    regIdx = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, pIdx->nKeyCol+1);
    for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
      i16 idx = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
      if( idx<0 || idx==pTab->iPKey ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regRowid, regIdx+i);
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regData+idx, regIdx+i);
      }
    }

    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regIdx, pIdx->nColumn, aRegIdx[iCur]);
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, -1, sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(v, pIdx), P4_TRANSIENT);
    sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, regIdx, pIdx->nColumn);

    /* Find out what action to take in case there is an indexing conflict */
    onError = pIdx->onError;
    if( onError==OE_None ){ 
      sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regIdx, pIdx->nKeyCol+1);
      sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrSkipRow);
      continue;  /* pIdx is not a UNIQUE index */
    }
    if( overrideError!=OE_Default ){
      onError = overrideError;
    }else if( onError==OE_Default ){
      onError = OE_Abort;
................................................................................
    
    /* Check to see if the new index entry will be unique */
    regR = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, regOldRowid, regR);
    j3 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_IsUnique, baseCur+iCur+1, 0,
                           regR, SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(regIdx),
                           P4_INT32);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regIdx, pIdx->nKeyCol+1);

    /* Generate code that executes if the new index entry is not unique */
    assert( onError==OE_Rollback || onError==OE_Abort || onError==OE_Fail
        || onError==OE_Ignore || onError==OE_Replace );
    switch( onError ){
      case OE_Rollback:
      case OE_Abort:
................................................................................
        int j;
        StrAccum errMsg;
        const char *zSep;
        char *zErr;

        sqlite3StrAccumInit(&errMsg, 0, 0, 200);
        errMsg.db = db;
        zSep = pIdx->nKeyCol>1 ? "columns " : "column ";
        for(j=0; j<pIdx->nKeyCol; j++){
          char *zCol = pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[j]].zName;
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, zSep, -1);
          zSep = ", ";
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, zCol, -1);
        }
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg,
            pIdx->nKeyCol>1 ? " are not unique" : " is not unique", -1);
        zErr = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&errMsg);
        sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE,
                              onError, zErr, 0);
        sqlite3DbFree(errMsg.db, zErr);
        break;
      }
      case OE_Ignore: {
................................................................................
**    *   The same collating sequence on each column
**    *   The index has the exact same WHERE clause
*/
static int xferCompatibleIndex(Index *pDest, Index *pSrc){
  int i;
  assert( pDest && pSrc );
  assert( pDest->pTable!=pSrc->pTable );
  if( pDest->nKeyCol!=pSrc->nKeyCol ){
    return 0;   /* Different number of columns */
  }
  if( pDest->onError!=pSrc->onError ){
    return 0;   /* Different conflict resolution strategies */
  }
  for(i=0; i<pSrc->nKeyCol; i++){
    if( pSrc->aiColumn[i]!=pDest->aiColumn[i] ){
      return 0;   /* Different columns indexed */
    }
    if( pSrc->aSortOrder[i]!=pDest->aSortOrder[i] ){
      return 0;   /* Different sort orders */
    }
    if( !xferCompatibleCollation(pSrc->azColl[i],pDest->azColl[i]) ){

Changes to src/pragma.c.

1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
....
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
      pTab = pIdx->pTable;
      sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(v, 3);
      pParse->nMem = 3;
      sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 0, COLNAME_NAME, "seqno", SQLITE_STATIC);
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 1, COLNAME_NAME, "cid", SQLITE_STATIC);
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 2, COLNAME_NAME, "name", SQLITE_STATIC);
      for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
        int cnum = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, i, 1);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, cnum, 2);
        assert( pTab->nCol>cnum );
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, 3, 0, pTab->aCol[cnum].zName, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, 1, 3);
      }
    }
................................................................................
            { OP_Concat,      6,  3,  3},
            { OP_ResultRow,   3,  1,  0},
            { OP_IfPos,       1,  0,  0},    /* 9 */
            { OP_Halt,        0,  0,  0},
          };
          r1 = sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIdx, 1, 3, 0, &jmp3);
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AddImm, 7+j, 1);  /* increment entry count */
          jmp2 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, j+2, 0, r1, pIdx->nColumn+1);
          addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(v, ArraySize(idxErr), idxErr);
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr+1, "rowid ", P4_STATIC);
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr+3, " missing from index ", P4_STATIC);
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr+4, pIdx->zName, P4_TRANSIENT);
          sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr+9);
          sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmp2);
          sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, jmp3);







|
|







 







|







1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
....
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
      pTab = pIdx->pTable;
      sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(v, 3);
      pParse->nMem = 3;
      sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 0, COLNAME_NAME, "seqno", SQLITE_STATIC);
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 1, COLNAME_NAME, "cid", SQLITE_STATIC);
      sqlite3VdbeSetColName(v, 2, COLNAME_NAME, "name", SQLITE_STATIC);
      for(i=0; i<pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){
        i16 cnum = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, i, 1);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, cnum, 2);
        assert( pTab->nCol>cnum );
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_String8, 0, 3, 0, pTab->aCol[cnum].zName, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_ResultRow, 1, 3);
      }
    }
................................................................................
            { OP_Concat,      6,  3,  3},
            { OP_ResultRow,   3,  1,  0},
            { OP_IfPos,       1,  0,  0},    /* 9 */
            { OP_Halt,        0,  0,  0},
          };
          r1 = sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIdx, 1, 3, 0, &jmp3);
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AddImm, 7+j, 1);  /* increment entry count */
          jmp2 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, j+2, 0, r1, pIdx->nKeyCol+1);
          addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(v, ArraySize(idxErr), idxErr);
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr+1, "rowid ", P4_STATIC);
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr+3, " missing from index ", P4_STATIC);
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr+4, pIdx->zName, P4_TRANSIENT);
          sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr+9);
          sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmp2);
          sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, jmp3);

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590

1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
....
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
*/
struct Index {
  char *zName;             /* Name of this index */
  int *aiColumn;           /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  tRowcnt *aiRowEst;       /* From ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;           /* The SQL table being indexed */
  char *zColAff;           /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;            /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema;         /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;          /* for each column: True==DESC, False==ASC */
  char **azColl;           /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
  Expr *pPartIdxWhere;     /* WHERE clause for partial indices */
  int tnum;                /* DB Page containing root of this index */
  LogEst szIdxRow;         /* Estimated average row size in bytes */

  u16 nColumn;             /* Number of columns in table used by this index */
  u8 onError;              /* OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, OE_Replace, or OE_None */
  unsigned autoIndex:2;    /* 1==UNIQUE, 2==PRIMARY KEY, 0==CREATE INDEX */
  unsigned bUnordered:1;   /* Use this index for == or IN queries only */
  unsigned uniqNotNull:1;  /* True if UNIQUE and NOT NULL for all columns */
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  int nSample;             /* Number of elements in aSample[] */
  int nSampleCol;          /* Size of IndexSample.anEq[] and so on */
................................................................................
                                      Token*, Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
void sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(Parse *, SrcList *, Token *);
int sqlite3IndexedByLookup(Parse *, struct SrcList_item *);
void sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(SrcList*);
void sqlite3SrcListAssignCursors(Parse*, SrcList*);
void sqlite3IdListDelete(sqlite3*, IdList*);
void sqlite3SrcListDelete(sqlite3*, SrcList*);
Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(sqlite3*,int,int,char**);
Index *sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                          Expr*, int, int);
void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*);
Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
                         Expr*,ExprList*,u16,Expr*,Expr*);
void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);







|










>
|







 







|







1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
....
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
*/
struct Index {
  char *zName;             /* Name of this index */
  i16 *aiColumn;           /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  tRowcnt *aiRowEst;       /* From ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;           /* The SQL table being indexed */
  char *zColAff;           /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;            /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema;         /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;          /* for each column: True==DESC, False==ASC */
  char **azColl;           /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
  Expr *pPartIdxWhere;     /* WHERE clause for partial indices */
  int tnum;                /* DB Page containing root of this index */
  LogEst szIdxRow;         /* Estimated average row size in bytes */
  u16 nKeyCol;             /* Number of columns forming the key */
  u16 nColumn;             /* Number of columns stored in the index */
  u8 onError;              /* OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, OE_Replace, or OE_None */
  unsigned autoIndex:2;    /* 1==UNIQUE, 2==PRIMARY KEY, 0==CREATE INDEX */
  unsigned bUnordered:1;   /* Use this index for == or IN queries only */
  unsigned uniqNotNull:1;  /* True if UNIQUE and NOT NULL for all columns */
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
  int nSample;             /* Number of elements in aSample[] */
  int nSampleCol;          /* Size of IndexSample.anEq[] and so on */
................................................................................
                                      Token*, Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
void sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(Parse *, SrcList *, Token *);
int sqlite3IndexedByLookup(Parse *, struct SrcList_item *);
void sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(SrcList*);
void sqlite3SrcListAssignCursors(Parse*, SrcList*);
void sqlite3IdListDelete(sqlite3*, IdList*);
void sqlite3SrcListDelete(sqlite3*, SrcList*);
Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(sqlite3*,i16,int,char**);
Index *sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                          Expr*, int, int);
void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*);
Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
                         Expr*,ExprList*,u16,Expr*,Expr*);
void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);

Changes to src/update.c.

246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
  }
  for(j=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, j++){
    int reg;
    if( hasFK || chngRowid || pIdx->pPartIdxWhere ){
      reg = ++pParse->nMem;
    }else{
      reg = 0;
      for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
        if( aXRef[pIdx->aiColumn[i]]>=0 ){
          reg = ++pParse->nMem;
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    aRegIdx[j] = reg;







|







246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
  }
  for(j=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, j++){
    int reg;
    if( hasFK || chngRowid || pIdx->pPartIdxWhere ){
      reg = ++pParse->nMem;
    }else{
      reg = 0;
      for(i=0; i<pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){
        if( aXRef[pIdx->aiColumn[i]]>=0 ){
          reg = ++pParse->nMem;
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    aRegIdx[j] = reg;

Changes to src/vdbeblob.c.

231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
            }
          }
        }
      }
#endif
      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<pIdx->nColumn; j++){
          if( pIdx->aiColumn[j]==iCol ){
            zFault = "indexed";
          }
        }
      }
      if( zFault ){
        sqlite3DbFree(db, zErr);







|







231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
            }
          }
        }
      }
#endif
      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<pIdx->nKeyCol; j++){
          if( pIdx->aiColumn[j]==iCol ){
            zFault = "indexed";
          }
        }
      }
      if( zFault ){
        sqlite3DbFree(db, zErr);

Changes to src/vdbemem.c.

1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
  if( p ){
    UnpackedRecord *pRec = p->ppRec[0];

    if( pRec==0 ){
      Index *pIdx = p->pIdx;      /* Index being probed */
      int nByte;                  /* Bytes of space to allocate */
      int i;                      /* Counter variable */
      int nCol = pIdx->nColumn+1; /* Number of index columns including rowid */
  
      nByte = sizeof(Mem) * nCol + sizeof(UnpackedRecord);
      pRec = (UnpackedRecord*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte);
      if( pRec ){
        pRec->pKeyInfo = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(p->pParse, pIdx);
        if( pRec->pKeyInfo ){
          assert( pRec->pKeyInfo->nField+1==nCol );







|







1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
  if( p ){
    UnpackedRecord *pRec = p->ppRec[0];

    if( pRec==0 ){
      Index *pIdx = p->pIdx;      /* Index being probed */
      int nByte;                  /* Bytes of space to allocate */
      int i;                      /* Counter variable */
      int nCol = pIdx->nKeyCol+1; /* Number of index columns including rowid */
  
      nByte = sizeof(Mem) * nCol + sizeof(UnpackedRecord);
      pRec = (UnpackedRecord*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, nByte);
      if( pRec ){
        pRec->pKeyInfo = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(p->pParse, pIdx);
        if( pRec->pKeyInfo ){
          assert( pRec->pKeyInfo->nField+1==nCol );

Changes to src/where.c.

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  /* memset(pScan, 0, sizeof(*pScan)); */
  pScan->pOrigWC = pWC;
  pScan->pWC = pWC;
  if( pIdx && iColumn>=0 ){
    pScan->idxaff = pIdx->pTable->aCol[iColumn].affinity;
    for(j=0; pIdx->aiColumn[j]!=iColumn; j++){
      if( NEVER(j>=pIdx->nColumn) ) return 0;
    }
    pScan->zCollName = pIdx->azColl[j];
  }else{
    pScan->idxaff = 0;
    pScan->zCollName = 0;
  }
  pScan->opMask = opMask;
................................................................................
  **      comparison and select-list expressions must match those of the index.
  **
  **   3. All of those index columns for which the WHERE clause does not
  **      contain a "col=X" term are subject to a NOT NULL constraint.
  */
  for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( pIdx->onError==OE_None ) continue;
    for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
      int iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
      if( 0==findTerm(pWC, iBase, iCol, ~(Bitmask)0, WO_EQ, pIdx) ){
        int iIdxCol = findIndexCol(pParse, pDistinct, iBase, pIdx, i);
        if( iIdxCol<0 || pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[i]].notNull==0 ){
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    if( i==pIdx->nColumn ){
      /* This index implies that the DISTINCT qualifier is redundant. */
      return 1;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}
................................................................................
static void constructAutomaticIndex(
  Parse *pParse,              /* The parsing context */
  WhereClause *pWC,           /* The WHERE clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc,  /* The FROM clause term to get the next index */
  Bitmask notReady,           /* Mask of cursors that are not available */
  WhereLevel *pLevel          /* Write new index here */
){
  int nColumn;                /* Number of columns in the constructed index */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;           /* A single term of the WHERE clause */
  WhereTerm *pWCEnd;          /* End of pWC->a[] */
  Index *pIdx;                /* Object describing the transient index */
  Vdbe *v;                    /* Prepared statement under construction */
  int addrInit;               /* Address of the initialization bypass jump */
  Table *pTable;              /* The table being indexed */
  KeyInfo *pKeyinfo;          /* Key information for the index */   
................................................................................
  ** transient index on 2nd and subsequent iterations of the loop. */
  v = pParse->pVdbe;
  assert( v!=0 );
  addrInit = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);

  /* Count the number of columns that will be added to the index
  ** and used to match WHERE clause constraints */
  nColumn = 0;
  pTable = pSrc->pTab;
  pWCEnd = &pWC->a[pWC->nTerm];
  pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
  idxCols = 0;
  for(pTerm=pWC->a; pTerm<pWCEnd; pTerm++){
    if( termCanDriveIndex(pTerm, pSrc, notReady) ){
      int iCol = pTerm->u.leftColumn;
................................................................................
      if( !sentWarning ){
        sqlite3_log(SQLITE_WARNING_AUTOINDEX,
            "automatic index on %s(%s)", pTable->zName,
            pTable->aCol[iCol].zName);
        sentWarning = 1;
      }
      if( (idxCols & cMask)==0 ){
        if( whereLoopResize(pParse->db, pLoop, nColumn+1) ) return;
        pLoop->aLTerm[nColumn++] = pTerm;
        idxCols |= cMask;
      }
    }
  }
  assert( nColumn>0 );
  pLoop->u.btree.nEq = pLoop->nLTerm = nColumn;
  pLoop->wsFlags = WHERE_COLUMN_EQ | WHERE_IDX_ONLY | WHERE_INDEXED
                     | WHERE_AUTO_INDEX;

  /* Count the number of additional columns needed to create a
  ** covering index.  A "covering index" is an index that contains all
  ** columns that are needed by the query.  With a covering index, the
  ** original table never needs to be accessed.  Automatic indices must
................................................................................
  ** if they go out of sync.
  */
  extraCols = pSrc->colUsed & (~idxCols | MASKBIT(BMS-1));
  mxBitCol = (pTable->nCol >= BMS-1) ? BMS-1 : pTable->nCol;
  testcase( pTable->nCol==BMS-1 );
  testcase( pTable->nCol==BMS-2 );
  for(i=0; i<mxBitCol; i++){
    if( extraCols & MASKBIT(i) ) nColumn++;
  }
  if( pSrc->colUsed & MASKBIT(BMS-1) ){
    nColumn += pTable->nCol - BMS + 1;
  }
  pLoop->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ | WHERE_IDX_ONLY;

  /* Construct the Index object to describe this index */
  pIdx = sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(pParse->db, nColumn, 0, &zNotUsed);
  if( pIdx==0 ) return;
  pLoop->u.btree.pIndex = pIdx;
  pIdx->zName = "auto-index";
  pIdx->pTable = pTable;
  n = 0;
  idxCols = 0;
  for(pTerm=pWC->a; pTerm<pWCEnd; pTerm++){
................................................................................
  if( pSrc->colUsed & MASKBIT(BMS-1) ){
    for(i=BMS-1; i<pTable->nCol; i++){
      pIdx->aiColumn[n] = i;
      pIdx->azColl[n] = "BINARY";
      n++;
    }
  }
  assert( n==nColumn );

  /* Create the automatic index */
  pKeyinfo = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);
  assert( pLevel->iIdxCur>=0 );
  pLevel->iIdxCur = pParse->nTab++;
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenAutoindex, pLevel->iIdxCur, nColumn+1, 0,
                    (char*)pKeyinfo, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
  VdbeComment((v, "for %s", pTable->zName));

  /* Fill the automatic index with content */
  addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Rewind, pLevel->iTabCur);
  regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIdx, pLevel->iTabCur, regRecord, 1, 0);
................................................................................
    if( i==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
      iUpper = aSample[0].anLt[iCol];
    }else{
      iUpper = i>=pIdx->nSample ? pIdx->aiRowEst[0] : aSample[i].anLt[iCol];
      iLower = aSample[i-1].anEq[iCol] + aSample[i-1].anLt[iCol];
    }
    aStat[1] = (pIdx->nColumn>iCol ? pIdx->aAvgEq[iCol] : 1);
    if( iLower>=iUpper ){
      iGap = 0;
    }else{
      iGap = iUpper - iLower;
    }
    if( roundUp ){
      iGap = (iGap*2)/3;
................................................................................
    ** less than the upper bound of the range query. Where the upper bound
    ** is either ($P) or ($P:$U). Again, even if $U is available, both values
    ** of iUpper are requested of whereKeyStats() and the smaller used.
    */
    tRowcnt iLower;
    tRowcnt iUpper;

    if( nEq==p->nColumn ){
      aff = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    }else{
      aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq]].affinity;
    }
    /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
    if( nEq==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
................................................................................
  UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;
  u8 aff;                   /* Column affinity */
  int rc;                   /* Subfunction return code */
  tRowcnt a[2];             /* Statistics */
  int bOk;

  assert( nEq>=1 );
  assert( nEq<=(p->nColumn+1) );
  assert( p->aSample!=0 );
  assert( p->nSample>0 );
  assert( pBuilder->nRecValid<nEq );

  /* If values are not available for all fields of the index to the left
  ** of this one, no estimate can be made. Return SQLITE_NOTFOUND. */
  if( pBuilder->nRecValid<(nEq-1) ){
    return SQLITE_NOTFOUND;
  }

  /* This is an optimization only. The call to sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue()
  ** below would return the same value.  */
  if( nEq>p->nColumn ){
    *pnRow = 1;
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }

  aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq-1]].affinity;
  rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq-1, &bOk);
  pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
................................................................................
** no longer required.
*/
static char *explainIndexRange(sqlite3 *db, WhereLoop *pLoop, Table *pTab){
  Index *pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
  int i, j;
  Column *aCol = pTab->aCol;
  int *aiColumn = pIndex->aiColumn;
  StrAccum txt;

  if( nEq==0 && (pLoop->wsFlags & (WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))==0 ){
    return 0;
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&txt, 0, 0, SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
  txt.db = db;
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&txt, " (", 2);
  for(i=0; i<nEq; i++){
    char *z = (i==pIndex->nColumn ) ? "rowid" : aCol[aiColumn[i]].zName;
    explainAppendTerm(&txt, i, z, "=");
  }

  j = i;
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    char *z = (j==pIndex->nColumn ) ? "rowid" : aCol[aiColumn[j]].zName;
    explainAppendTerm(&txt, i++, z, ">");
  }
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
    char *z = (j==pIndex->nColumn ) ? "rowid" : aCol[aiColumn[j]].zName;
    explainAppendTerm(&txt, i, z, "<");
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&txt, ")", 1);
  return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&txt);
}

/*
................................................................................
    ** a single iteration. This means that the first row returned
    ** should not have a NULL value stored in 'x'. If column 'x' is
    ** the first one after the nEq equality constraints in the index,
    ** this requires some special handling.
    */
    if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags&WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN)!=0
     && (pWInfo->bOBSat!=0)
     && (pIdx->nColumn>nEq)
    ){
      /* assert( pOrderBy->nExpr==1 ); */
      /* assert( pOrderBy->a[0].pExpr->iColumn==pIdx->aiColumn[nEq] ); */
      isMinQuery = 1;
      nExtraReg = 1;
    }

................................................................................
    zEndAff = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, zStartAff);
    addrNxt = pLevel->addrNxt;

    /* If we are doing a reverse order scan on an ascending index, or
    ** a forward order scan on a descending index, interchange the 
    ** start and end terms (pRangeStart and pRangeEnd).
    */
    if( (nEq<pIdx->nColumn && bRev==(pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_ASC))
     || (bRev && pIdx->nColumn==nEq)
    ){
      SWAP(WhereTerm *, pRangeEnd, pRangeStart);
    }

    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
................................................................................
  }else if( pProbe->tnum<=0 || (pSrc->jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }else{
    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_ISNULL|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }
  if( pProbe->bUnordered ) opMask &= ~(WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE);

  assert( pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nColumn );
  if( pNew->u.btree.nEq < pProbe->nColumn ){
    iCol = pProbe->aiColumn[pNew->u.btree.nEq];
    nRowEst = sqlite3LogEst(pProbe->aiRowEst[pNew->u.btree.nEq+1]);
    if( nRowEst==0 && pProbe->onError==OE_None ) nRowEst = 1;
  }else{
    iCol = -1;
    nRowEst = 0;
  }
................................................................................
      pNew->nOut = nRowEst + nInMul + nIn;
    }else if( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_EQ) ){
      assert( (pNew->wsFlags & (WHERE_COLUMN_NULL|WHERE_COLUMN_IN))!=0
                  || nInMul==0 );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      if( iCol<0  
       || (pProbe->onError!=OE_None && nInMul==0
           && pNew->u.btree.nEq==pProbe->nColumn-1)
      ){
        assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_IN)==0 || iCol<0 );
        pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_ONEROW;
      }
      pNew->u.btree.nEq++;
      pNew->nOut = nRowEst + nInMul;
    }else if( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_ISNULL) ){
................................................................................
      pNew->rRun =  sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun,rLogSize>27 ? rLogSize-17 : 10);
    }
    /* Step cost for each output row */
    pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun, pNew->nOut);
    whereLoopOutputAdjust(pBuilder->pWC, pNew);
    rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
    if( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)==0
     && pNew->u.btree.nEq<(pProbe->nColumn + (pProbe->zName!=0))
    ){
      whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(pBuilder, pSrc, pProbe, nInMul+nIn);
    }
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
    pBuilder->nRecValid = nRecValid;
#endif
................................................................................

  if( pIndex->bUnordered ) return 0;
  if( (pOB = pBuilder->pWInfo->pOrderBy)==0 ) return 0;
  for(ii=0; ii<pOB->nExpr; ii++){
    Expr *pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pOB->a[ii].pExpr);
    if( pExpr->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return 0;
    if( pExpr->iTable==iCursor ){
      for(jj=0; jj<pIndex->nColumn; jj++){
        if( pExpr->iColumn==pIndex->aiColumn[jj] ) return 1;
      }
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

................................................................................
/*
** Return a bitmask where 1s indicate that the corresponding column of
** the table is used by an index.  Only the first 63 columns are considered.
*/
static Bitmask columnsInIndex(Index *pIdx){
  Bitmask m = 0;
  int j;
  for(j=pIdx->nColumn-1; j>=0; j--){
    int x = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
    assert( x>=0 );
    testcase( x==BMS-1 );
    testcase( x==BMS-2 );
    if( x<BMS-1 ) m |= MASKBIT(x);
  }
  return m;
................................................................................
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder, /* WHERE clause information */
  Bitmask mExtra              /* Extra prerequesites for using this table */
){
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;          /* WHERE analysis context */
  Index *pProbe;              /* An index we are evaluating */
  Index sPk;                  /* A fake index object for the primary key */
  tRowcnt aiRowEstPk[2];      /* The aiRowEst[] value for the sPk index */
  int aiColumnPk = -1;        /* The aColumn[] value for the sPk index */
  SrcList *pTabList;          /* The FROM clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc;  /* The FROM clause btree term to add */
  WhereLoop *pNew;            /* Template WhereLoop object */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;         /* Return code */
  int iSortIdx = 1;           /* Index number */
  int b;                      /* A boolean value */
  LogEst rSize;               /* number of rows in the table */
................................................................................
  }else{
    /* There is no INDEXED BY clause.  Create a fake Index object in local
    ** variable sPk to represent the rowid primary key index.  Make this
    ** fake index the first in a chain of Index objects with all of the real
    ** indices to follow */
    Index *pFirst;                  /* First of real indices on the table */
    memset(&sPk, 0, sizeof(Index));
    sPk.nColumn = 1;
    sPk.aiColumn = &aiColumnPk;
    sPk.aiRowEst = aiRowEstPk;
    sPk.onError = OE_Replace;
    sPk.pTable = pTab;
    aiRowEstPk[0] = pTab->nRowEst;
    aiRowEstPk[1] = 1;
    pFirst = pSrc->pTab->pIndex;
................................................................................
){
  u8 revSet;            /* True if rev is known */
  u8 rev;               /* Composite sort order */
  u8 revIdx;            /* Index sort order */
  u8 isOrderDistinct;   /* All prior WhereLoops are order-distinct */
  u8 distinctColumns;   /* True if the loop has UNIQUE NOT NULL columns */
  u8 isMatch;           /* iColumn matches a term of the ORDER BY clause */
  u16 nColumn;          /* Number of columns in pIndex */
  u16 nOrderBy;         /* Number terms in the ORDER BY clause */
  int iLoop;            /* Index of WhereLoop in pPath being processed */
  int i, j;             /* Loop counters */
  int iCur;             /* Cursor number for current WhereLoop */
  int iColumn;          /* A column number within table iCur */
  WhereLoop *pLoop = 0; /* Current WhereLoop being processed. */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;     /* A single term of the WHERE clause */
................................................................................
      }
      obSat |= MASKBIT(i);
    }

    if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_ONEROW)==0 ){
      if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IPK ){
        pIndex = 0;
        nColumn = 0;
      }else if( (pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex)==0 || pIndex->bUnordered ){
        return 0;
      }else{
        nColumn = pIndex->nColumn;
        isOrderDistinct = pIndex->onError!=OE_None;
      }

      /* Loop through all columns of the index and deal with the ones
      ** that are not constrained by == or IN.
      */
      rev = revSet = 0;
      distinctColumns = 0;
      for(j=0; j<=nColumn; j++){
        u8 bOnce;   /* True to run the ORDER BY search loop */

        /* Skip over == and IS NULL terms */
        if( j<pLoop->u.btree.nEq
         && ((i = pLoop->aLTerm[j]->eOperator) & (WO_EQ|WO_ISNULL))!=0
        ){
          if( i & WO_ISNULL ){
................................................................................
          }
          continue;  
        }

        /* Get the column number in the table (iColumn) and sort order
        ** (revIdx) for the j-th column of the index.
        */
        if( j<nColumn ){
          /* Normal index columns */
          iColumn = pIndex->aiColumn[j];
          revIdx = pIndex->aSortOrder[j];
          if( iColumn==pIndex->pTable->iPKey ) iColumn = -1;
        }else{
          /* The ROWID column at the end */
          assert( j==nColumn );
          iColumn = -1;
          revIdx = 0;
        }

        /* An unconstrained column that might be NULL means that this
        ** WhereLoop is not well-ordered 
        */
................................................................................
              rev = revIdx ^ pOrderBy->a[i].sortOrder;
              if( rev ) *pRevMask |= MASKBIT(iLoop);
              revSet = 1;
            }
          }
        }else{
          /* No match found */
          if( j==0 || j<nColumn ){
            testcase( isOrderDistinct!=0 );
            isOrderDistinct = 0;
          }
          break;
        }
      } /* end Loop over all index columns */
      if( distinctColumns ){
................................................................................
    pLoop->rRun = 33;  /* 33==sqlite3LogEst(10) */
  }else{
    for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      assert( pLoop->aLTermSpace==pLoop->aLTerm );
      assert( ArraySize(pLoop->aLTermSpace)==4 );
      if( pIdx->onError==OE_None 
       || pIdx->pPartIdxWhere!=0 
       || pIdx->nColumn>ArraySize(pLoop->aLTermSpace) 
      ) continue;
      for(j=0; j<pIdx->nColumn; j++){
        pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, pIdx->aiColumn[j], 0, WO_EQ, pIdx);
        if( pTerm==0 ) break;
        pLoop->aLTerm[j] = pTerm;
      }
      if( j!=pIdx->nColumn ) continue;
      pLoop->wsFlags = WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_ONEROW|WHERE_INDEXED;
      if( (pItem->colUsed & ~columnsInIndex(pIdx))==0 ){
        pLoop->wsFlags |= WHERE_IDX_ONLY;
      }
      pLoop->nLTerm = j;
      pLoop->u.btree.nEq = j;
      pLoop->u.btree.pIndex = pIdx;
................................................................................

      last = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
      k = pLevel->addrBody;
      pOp = sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, k);
      for(; k<last; k++, pOp++){
        if( pOp->p1!=pLevel->iTabCur ) continue;
        if( pOp->opcode==OP_Column ){
          for(j=0; j<pIdx->nColumn; j++){
            if( pOp->p2==pIdx->aiColumn[j] ){
              pOp->p2 = j;
              pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
              break;
            }
          }
          assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)==0 || j<pIdx->nColumn );
        }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_Rowid ){
          pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
          pOp->opcode = OP_IdxRowid;
        }
      }
    }
  }







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  /* memset(pScan, 0, sizeof(*pScan)); */
  pScan->pOrigWC = pWC;
  pScan->pWC = pWC;
  if( pIdx && iColumn>=0 ){
    pScan->idxaff = pIdx->pTable->aCol[iColumn].affinity;
    for(j=0; pIdx->aiColumn[j]!=iColumn; j++){
      if( NEVER(j>=pIdx->nKeyCol) ) return 0;
    }
    pScan->zCollName = pIdx->azColl[j];
  }else{
    pScan->idxaff = 0;
    pScan->zCollName = 0;
  }
  pScan->opMask = opMask;
................................................................................
  **      comparison and select-list expressions must match those of the index.
  **
  **   3. All of those index columns for which the WHERE clause does not
  **      contain a "col=X" term are subject to a NOT NULL constraint.
  */
  for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
    if( pIdx->onError==OE_None ) continue;
    for(i=0; i<pIdx->nKeyCol; i++){
      i16 iCol = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
      if( 0==findTerm(pWC, iBase, iCol, ~(Bitmask)0, WO_EQ, pIdx) ){
        int iIdxCol = findIndexCol(pParse, pDistinct, iBase, pIdx, i);
        if( iIdxCol<0 || pTab->aCol[iCol].notNull==0 ){
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    if( i==pIdx->nKeyCol ){
      /* This index implies that the DISTINCT qualifier is redundant. */
      return 1;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}
................................................................................
static void constructAutomaticIndex(
  Parse *pParse,              /* The parsing context */
  WhereClause *pWC,           /* The WHERE clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc,  /* The FROM clause term to get the next index */
  Bitmask notReady,           /* Mask of cursors that are not available */
  WhereLevel *pLevel          /* Write new index here */
){
  int nKeyCol;                /* Number of columns in the constructed index */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;           /* A single term of the WHERE clause */
  WhereTerm *pWCEnd;          /* End of pWC->a[] */
  Index *pIdx;                /* Object describing the transient index */
  Vdbe *v;                    /* Prepared statement under construction */
  int addrInit;               /* Address of the initialization bypass jump */
  Table *pTable;              /* The table being indexed */
  KeyInfo *pKeyinfo;          /* Key information for the index */   
................................................................................
  ** transient index on 2nd and subsequent iterations of the loop. */
  v = pParse->pVdbe;
  assert( v!=0 );
  addrInit = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);

  /* Count the number of columns that will be added to the index
  ** and used to match WHERE clause constraints */
  nKeyCol = 0;
  pTable = pSrc->pTab;
  pWCEnd = &pWC->a[pWC->nTerm];
  pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
  idxCols = 0;
  for(pTerm=pWC->a; pTerm<pWCEnd; pTerm++){
    if( termCanDriveIndex(pTerm, pSrc, notReady) ){
      int iCol = pTerm->u.leftColumn;
................................................................................
      if( !sentWarning ){
        sqlite3_log(SQLITE_WARNING_AUTOINDEX,
            "automatic index on %s(%s)", pTable->zName,
            pTable->aCol[iCol].zName);
        sentWarning = 1;
      }
      if( (idxCols & cMask)==0 ){
        if( whereLoopResize(pParse->db, pLoop, nKeyCol+1) ) return;
        pLoop->aLTerm[nKeyCol++] = pTerm;
        idxCols |= cMask;
      }
    }
  }
  assert( nKeyCol>0 );
  pLoop->u.btree.nEq = pLoop->nLTerm = nKeyCol;
  pLoop->wsFlags = WHERE_COLUMN_EQ | WHERE_IDX_ONLY | WHERE_INDEXED
                     | WHERE_AUTO_INDEX;

  /* Count the number of additional columns needed to create a
  ** covering index.  A "covering index" is an index that contains all
  ** columns that are needed by the query.  With a covering index, the
  ** original table never needs to be accessed.  Automatic indices must
................................................................................
  ** if they go out of sync.
  */
  extraCols = pSrc->colUsed & (~idxCols | MASKBIT(BMS-1));
  mxBitCol = (pTable->nCol >= BMS-1) ? BMS-1 : pTable->nCol;
  testcase( pTable->nCol==BMS-1 );
  testcase( pTable->nCol==BMS-2 );
  for(i=0; i<mxBitCol; i++){
    if( extraCols & MASKBIT(i) ) nKeyCol++;
  }
  if( pSrc->colUsed & MASKBIT(BMS-1) ){
    nKeyCol += pTable->nCol - BMS + 1;
  }
  pLoop->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ | WHERE_IDX_ONLY;

  /* Construct the Index object to describe this index */
  pIdx = sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(pParse->db, nKeyCol+1, 0, &zNotUsed);
  if( pIdx==0 ) return;
  pLoop->u.btree.pIndex = pIdx;
  pIdx->zName = "auto-index";
  pIdx->pTable = pTable;
  n = 0;
  idxCols = 0;
  for(pTerm=pWC->a; pTerm<pWCEnd; pTerm++){
................................................................................
  if( pSrc->colUsed & MASKBIT(BMS-1) ){
    for(i=BMS-1; i<pTable->nCol; i++){
      pIdx->aiColumn[n] = i;
      pIdx->azColl[n] = "BINARY";
      n++;
    }
  }
  assert( n==nKeyCol );

  /* Create the automatic index */
  pKeyinfo = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);
  assert( pLevel->iIdxCur>=0 );
  pLevel->iIdxCur = pParse->nTab++;
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenAutoindex, pLevel->iIdxCur, nKeyCol+1, 0,
                    (char*)pKeyinfo, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
  VdbeComment((v, "for %s", pTable->zName));

  /* Fill the automatic index with content */
  addrTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Rewind, pLevel->iTabCur);
  regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIdx, pLevel->iTabCur, regRecord, 1, 0);
................................................................................
    if( i==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
      iUpper = aSample[0].anLt[iCol];
    }else{
      iUpper = i>=pIdx->nSample ? pIdx->aiRowEst[0] : aSample[i].anLt[iCol];
      iLower = aSample[i-1].anEq[iCol] + aSample[i-1].anLt[iCol];
    }
    aStat[1] = (pIdx->nKeyCol>iCol ? pIdx->aAvgEq[iCol] : 1);
    if( iLower>=iUpper ){
      iGap = 0;
    }else{
      iGap = iUpper - iLower;
    }
    if( roundUp ){
      iGap = (iGap*2)/3;
................................................................................
    ** less than the upper bound of the range query. Where the upper bound
    ** is either ($P) or ($P:$U). Again, even if $U is available, both values
    ** of iUpper are requested of whereKeyStats() and the smaller used.
    */
    tRowcnt iLower;
    tRowcnt iUpper;

    if( nEq==p->nKeyCol ){
      aff = SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER;
    }else{
      aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq]].affinity;
    }
    /* Determine iLower and iUpper using ($P) only. */
    if( nEq==0 ){
      iLower = 0;
................................................................................
  UnpackedRecord *pRec = pBuilder->pRec;
  u8 aff;                   /* Column affinity */
  int rc;                   /* Subfunction return code */
  tRowcnt a[2];             /* Statistics */
  int bOk;

  assert( nEq>=1 );
  assert( nEq<=(p->nKeyCol+1) );
  assert( p->aSample!=0 );
  assert( p->nSample>0 );
  assert( pBuilder->nRecValid<nEq );

  /* If values are not available for all fields of the index to the left
  ** of this one, no estimate can be made. Return SQLITE_NOTFOUND. */
  if( pBuilder->nRecValid<(nEq-1) ){
    return SQLITE_NOTFOUND;
  }

  /* This is an optimization only. The call to sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue()
  ** below would return the same value.  */
  if( nEq>p->nKeyCol ){
    *pnRow = 1;
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }

  aff = p->pTable->aCol[p->aiColumn[nEq-1]].affinity;
  rc = sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(pParse, p, &pRec, pExpr, aff, nEq-1, &bOk);
  pBuilder->pRec = pRec;
................................................................................
** no longer required.
*/
static char *explainIndexRange(sqlite3 *db, WhereLoop *pLoop, Table *pTab){
  Index *pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  int nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
  int i, j;
  Column *aCol = pTab->aCol;
  i16 *aiColumn = pIndex->aiColumn;
  StrAccum txt;

  if( nEq==0 && (pLoop->wsFlags & (WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))==0 ){
    return 0;
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&txt, 0, 0, SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
  txt.db = db;
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&txt, " (", 2);
  for(i=0; i<nEq; i++){
    char *z = (i==pIndex->nKeyCol ) ? "rowid" : aCol[aiColumn[i]].zName;
    explainAppendTerm(&txt, i, z, "=");
  }

  j = i;
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    char *z = (j==pIndex->nKeyCol ) ? "rowid" : aCol[aiColumn[j]].zName;
    explainAppendTerm(&txt, i++, z, ">");
  }
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
    char *z = (j==pIndex->nKeyCol ) ? "rowid" : aCol[aiColumn[j]].zName;
    explainAppendTerm(&txt, i, z, "<");
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&txt, ")", 1);
  return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&txt);
}

/*
................................................................................
    ** a single iteration. This means that the first row returned
    ** should not have a NULL value stored in 'x'. If column 'x' is
    ** the first one after the nEq equality constraints in the index,
    ** this requires some special handling.
    */
    if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags&WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN)!=0
     && (pWInfo->bOBSat!=0)
     && (pIdx->nKeyCol>nEq)
    ){
      /* assert( pOrderBy->nExpr==1 ); */
      /* assert( pOrderBy->a[0].pExpr->iColumn==pIdx->aiColumn[nEq] ); */
      isMinQuery = 1;
      nExtraReg = 1;
    }

................................................................................
    zEndAff = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, zStartAff);
    addrNxt = pLevel->addrNxt;

    /* If we are doing a reverse order scan on an ascending index, or
    ** a forward order scan on a descending index, interchange the 
    ** start and end terms (pRangeStart and pRangeEnd).
    */
    if( (nEq<pIdx->nKeyCol && bRev==(pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_ASC))
     || (bRev && pIdx->nKeyCol==nEq)
    ){
      SWAP(WhereTerm *, pRangeEnd, pRangeStart);
    }

    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
................................................................................
  }else if( pProbe->tnum<=0 || (pSrc->jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }else{
    opMask = WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_ISNULL|WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE;
  }
  if( pProbe->bUnordered ) opMask &= ~(WO_GT|WO_GE|WO_LT|WO_LE);

  assert( pNew->u.btree.nEq<=pProbe->nKeyCol );
  if( pNew->u.btree.nEq < pProbe->nKeyCol ){
    iCol = pProbe->aiColumn[pNew->u.btree.nEq];
    nRowEst = sqlite3LogEst(pProbe->aiRowEst[pNew->u.btree.nEq+1]);
    if( nRowEst==0 && pProbe->onError==OE_None ) nRowEst = 1;
  }else{
    iCol = -1;
    nRowEst = 0;
  }
................................................................................
      pNew->nOut = nRowEst + nInMul + nIn;
    }else if( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_EQ) ){
      assert( (pNew->wsFlags & (WHERE_COLUMN_NULL|WHERE_COLUMN_IN))!=0
                  || nInMul==0 );
      pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      if( iCol<0  
       || (pProbe->onError!=OE_None && nInMul==0
           && pNew->u.btree.nEq==pProbe->nKeyCol-1)
      ){
        assert( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_IN)==0 || iCol<0 );
        pNew->wsFlags |= WHERE_ONEROW;
      }
      pNew->u.btree.nEq++;
      pNew->nOut = nRowEst + nInMul;
    }else if( pTerm->eOperator & (WO_ISNULL) ){
................................................................................
      pNew->rRun =  sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun,rLogSize>27 ? rLogSize-17 : 10);
    }
    /* Step cost for each output row */
    pNew->rRun = sqlite3LogEstAdd(pNew->rRun, pNew->nOut);
    whereLoopOutputAdjust(pBuilder->pWC, pNew);
    rc = whereLoopInsert(pBuilder, pNew);
    if( (pNew->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)==0
     && pNew->u.btree.nEq<(pProbe->nKeyCol + (pProbe->zName!=0))
    ){
      whereLoopAddBtreeIndex(pBuilder, pSrc, pProbe, nInMul+nIn);
    }
    pNew->nOut = saved_nOut;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3_OR_STAT4
    pBuilder->nRecValid = nRecValid;
#endif
................................................................................

  if( pIndex->bUnordered ) return 0;
  if( (pOB = pBuilder->pWInfo->pOrderBy)==0 ) return 0;
  for(ii=0; ii<pOB->nExpr; ii++){
    Expr *pExpr = sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(pOB->a[ii].pExpr);
    if( pExpr->op!=TK_COLUMN ) return 0;
    if( pExpr->iTable==iCursor ){
      for(jj=0; jj<pIndex->nKeyCol; jj++){
        if( pExpr->iColumn==pIndex->aiColumn[jj] ) return 1;
      }
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

................................................................................
/*
** Return a bitmask where 1s indicate that the corresponding column of
** the table is used by an index.  Only the first 63 columns are considered.
*/
static Bitmask columnsInIndex(Index *pIdx){
  Bitmask m = 0;
  int j;
  for(j=pIdx->nKeyCol-1; j>=0; j--){
    int x = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
    assert( x>=0 );
    testcase( x==BMS-1 );
    testcase( x==BMS-2 );
    if( x<BMS-1 ) m |= MASKBIT(x);
  }
  return m;
................................................................................
  WhereLoopBuilder *pBuilder, /* WHERE clause information */
  Bitmask mExtra              /* Extra prerequesites for using this table */
){
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;          /* WHERE analysis context */
  Index *pProbe;              /* An index we are evaluating */
  Index sPk;                  /* A fake index object for the primary key */
  tRowcnt aiRowEstPk[2];      /* The aiRowEst[] value for the sPk index */
  i16 aiColumnPk = -1;        /* The aColumn[] value for the sPk index */
  SrcList *pTabList;          /* The FROM clause */
  struct SrcList_item *pSrc;  /* The FROM clause btree term to add */
  WhereLoop *pNew;            /* Template WhereLoop object */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;         /* Return code */
  int iSortIdx = 1;           /* Index number */
  int b;                      /* A boolean value */
  LogEst rSize;               /* number of rows in the table */
................................................................................
  }else{
    /* There is no INDEXED BY clause.  Create a fake Index object in local
    ** variable sPk to represent the rowid primary key index.  Make this
    ** fake index the first in a chain of Index objects with all of the real
    ** indices to follow */
    Index *pFirst;                  /* First of real indices on the table */
    memset(&sPk, 0, sizeof(Index));
    sPk.nKeyCol = 1;
    sPk.aiColumn = &aiColumnPk;
    sPk.aiRowEst = aiRowEstPk;
    sPk.onError = OE_Replace;
    sPk.pTable = pTab;
    aiRowEstPk[0] = pTab->nRowEst;
    aiRowEstPk[1] = 1;
    pFirst = pSrc->pTab->pIndex;
................................................................................
){
  u8 revSet;            /* True if rev is known */
  u8 rev;               /* Composite sort order */
  u8 revIdx;            /* Index sort order */
  u8 isOrderDistinct;   /* All prior WhereLoops are order-distinct */
  u8 distinctColumns;   /* True if the loop has UNIQUE NOT NULL columns */
  u8 isMatch;           /* iColumn matches a term of the ORDER BY clause */
  u16 nKeyCol;          /* Number of columns in pIndex */
  u16 nOrderBy;         /* Number terms in the ORDER BY clause */
  int iLoop;            /* Index of WhereLoop in pPath being processed */
  int i, j;             /* Loop counters */
  int iCur;             /* Cursor number for current WhereLoop */
  int iColumn;          /* A column number within table iCur */
  WhereLoop *pLoop = 0; /* Current WhereLoop being processed. */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;     /* A single term of the WHERE clause */
................................................................................
      }
      obSat |= MASKBIT(i);
    }

    if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_ONEROW)==0 ){
      if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IPK ){
        pIndex = 0;
        nKeyCol = 0;
      }else if( (pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex)==0 || pIndex->bUnordered ){
        return 0;
      }else{
        nKeyCol = pIndex->nKeyCol;
        isOrderDistinct = pIndex->onError!=OE_None;
      }

      /* Loop through all columns of the index and deal with the ones
      ** that are not constrained by == or IN.
      */
      rev = revSet = 0;
      distinctColumns = 0;
      for(j=0; j<=nKeyCol; j++){
        u8 bOnce;   /* True to run the ORDER BY search loop */

        /* Skip over == and IS NULL terms */
        if( j<pLoop->u.btree.nEq
         && ((i = pLoop->aLTerm[j]->eOperator) & (WO_EQ|WO_ISNULL))!=0
        ){
          if( i & WO_ISNULL ){
................................................................................
          }
          continue;  
        }

        /* Get the column number in the table (iColumn) and sort order
        ** (revIdx) for the j-th column of the index.
        */
        if( j<nKeyCol ){
          /* Normal index columns */
          iColumn = pIndex->aiColumn[j];
          revIdx = pIndex->aSortOrder[j];
          if( iColumn==pIndex->pTable->iPKey ) iColumn = -1;
        }else{
          /* The ROWID column at the end */
          assert( j==nKeyCol );
          iColumn = -1;
          revIdx = 0;
        }

        /* An unconstrained column that might be NULL means that this
        ** WhereLoop is not well-ordered 
        */
................................................................................
              rev = revIdx ^ pOrderBy->a[i].sortOrder;
              if( rev ) *pRevMask |= MASKBIT(iLoop);
              revSet = 1;
            }
          }
        }else{
          /* No match found */
          if( j==0 || j<nKeyCol ){
            testcase( isOrderDistinct!=0 );
            isOrderDistinct = 0;
          }
          break;
        }
      } /* end Loop over all index columns */
      if( distinctColumns ){
................................................................................
    pLoop->rRun = 33;  /* 33==sqlite3LogEst(10) */
  }else{
    for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
      assert( pLoop->aLTermSpace==pLoop->aLTerm );
      assert( ArraySize(pLoop->aLTermSpace)==4 );
      if( pIdx->onError==OE_None 
       || pIdx->pPartIdxWhere!=0 
       || pIdx->nKeyCol>ArraySize(pLoop->aLTermSpace) 
      ) continue;
      for(j=0; j<pIdx->nKeyCol; j++){
        pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, pIdx->aiColumn[j], 0, WO_EQ, pIdx);
        if( pTerm==0 ) break;
        pLoop->aLTerm[j] = pTerm;
      }
      if( j!=pIdx->nKeyCol ) continue;
      pLoop->wsFlags = WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_ONEROW|WHERE_INDEXED;
      if( (pItem->colUsed & ~columnsInIndex(pIdx))==0 ){
        pLoop->wsFlags |= WHERE_IDX_ONLY;
      }
      pLoop->nLTerm = j;
      pLoop->u.btree.nEq = j;
      pLoop->u.btree.pIndex = pIdx;
................................................................................

      last = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
      k = pLevel->addrBody;
      pOp = sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, k);
      for(; k<last; k++, pOp++){
        if( pOp->p1!=pLevel->iTabCur ) continue;
        if( pOp->opcode==OP_Column ){
          for(j=0; j<pIdx->nKeyCol; j++){
            if( pOp->p2==pIdx->aiColumn[j] ){
              pOp->p2 = j;
              pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
              break;
            }
          }
          assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)==0 || j<pIdx->nKeyCol );
        }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_Rowid ){
          pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
          pOp->opcode = OP_IdxRowid;
        }
      }
    }
  }