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Overview
Comment::-) (CVS 3)
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 9e36a6014b9e8298d8fff71f0f1e3fd5610c30bd
User & Date: drh 2000-05-29 18:20:15
Context
2000-05-29
18:32
:-) (CVS 4) check-in: 1d328670 user: drh tags: trunk
18:20
:-) (CVS 3) check-in: 9e36a601 user: drh tags: trunk
17:44
:-) (CVS 2) check-in: 53841c66 user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

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#
# Run this Tcl script to generate the sqlite.html file.
#
set rcsid {$Id: c_interface.tcl,v 1.1 2000/05/29 18:20:15 drh Exp $}

puts {<html>
<head>
  <title>The C language interface to the SQLite library</title>
</head>
<body bgcolor=white>
<h1 align=center>
The C language interface to the SQLite library
</h1>}
puts "<p align=center>
(This page was last modified on [lrange $rcsid 3 4] GMT)
</p>"

puts {
<p>The SQLite library is designed to be very easy to use from
a C or C++ program.  This document gives an overview of the C/C++
programming interface.</p>

<p>The interface to the SQLite library consists of 4 functions
and one opaque data structure.</p>

<blockquote><pre>
typedef struct sqlite sqlite;
sqlite *sqlite_open(const char *filename, int mode, char **errmsg);
void sqlite_close(sqlite*);
int sqlite_exec(
  sqlite*,
  char *sql,
  int (*)(void*,int,char**,char**),
  void*,
  char **errmsg
);
int sqlite_complete(const char *sql);
</pre></blockquote>

<p>All of the above definitions are included in the "sqlite.h"
header file that comes in the source tree.</p>

<h2>Opening a database</h2>

<p>Use the <b>sqlite_open</b> function to open an existing SQLite
database or to create a new SQLite database.  The first argument
is the database name.  The second argument is a constant 0666 to
open the database for reading and writing and 0444 to open the
database read only.  The third argument is a pointer to a string
pointer.  If the third argument is not NULL and an error occurs
while trying to open the database, then an error message will be
written to memory obtained from malloc() and *errmsg will be made
to point to this error message.  The calling function is responsible
for freeing the memory when it has finished with it.</p>

<p>An SQLite database is just a directory containing a collection of
GDBM files.  There is one GDBM file for each table and index in the
database.  All GDBM files end with the ".tbl" suffix.  Every SQLite
database also contains a special database table named <b>sqlite_master</b>
stored in its own GDBM file.  This special table records the database
schema.</p>

<p>To create a new SQLite database, all you have to do is call
<b>sqlite_open()</b> with the first parameter set to the name of
an empty directory and the second parameter set to 0666.</p>

<p>The return value of the <b>sqlite_open()</b> function is a
pointer to an opaque <b>sqlite</b> structure.  This pointer will
be the first argument to all subsequent SQLite function calls that
deal with the same database.</p>

<h2>Closing the database</h2>

<p>To close an SQLite database, just call the <b>sqlite_close()</b>
function passing it the sqlite structure pointer that was obtained
from a prior call to <b>sqlite_open</b>.

<h2>Executing SQL statements</h2>

<p>The <b>sqlite_exec()</b> function is used to process SQL statements
and queries.  This function requires 5 parameters as follows:</p>

<ol>
<li><p>A pointer to the sqlite structure obtained from a prior call
       to <b>sqlite_open()</b>.</p></li>
<li><p>A null-terminated string containing the text of the SQL statements
       and/or queries to be processed.</p></li>
<li><p>A pointer to a callback function which is invoked once for each
       row in the result of a query.  This argument may be NULL, in which
       case no callbacks will ever be invoked.</p></li>
<li><p>A pointer to anything that is forward to become the first argument
       to the callback function.</p></li>
<li><p>A pointer to a string pointer into which error messages are written.
       This argument may be NULL, in which case error messages are not
       reported back to the calling function.</p></li>
</ol>

<p>
The callback function is used to receive the results of a query.  A
prototype for the callback function is as follows:</p>

<blockquote><pre>
int Callback(void *pArg, int argc, char **argv, char **columnNames){
  return 0;
}
</pre></blockquote>

<p>The first argument to the callback is just a copy of the fourth argument
to <b>sqlite_exec()</b>  This parameter can be used to pass arbitrary
information through to the callback function from client code.
The second argument is the number columns in the query result.
The third argument is an array of pointers to string where each string
is a single column of the result for that record.  The names of the
columns are contained in the fourth argument.</p>

<p>The callback function should normally return 0.  If the callback
function returns non-zero, the query is immediately aborted and the
return value of the callback is returned from <b>sqlite_exec()</b>.

<h2>Testing for a complete SQL statement</h2>

<p>The last interface routine to SQLite is a convenience function used
to test whether or not a string forms a complete SQL statement.
If the <b>sqlite_complete</b> function returns true when its input
is a string, then the argument forms a complete SQL statement.
There are no guarantees that the syntax of that statement is correct,
but we at least know the statement is complete.  If <b>sqlite_complete</b>
returns false, then more text is required to complete the SQL statement.</p>

<p>For the purpose of the <b>sqlite_complete()</b> function, an SQL
statement is complete if it ends in a semicolon.</p>

puts {
<p><hr /></p>
<p><a href="index.html"><img src="/goback.jpg" border=0 />
Back to the SQLite Home Page</a>
</p>

</body></html>}

Changes to www/index.tcl.

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#
# Run this TCL script to generate HTML for the index.html file.
#
set rcsid {$Id: index.tcl,v 1.1 2000/05/29 17:44:25 drh Exp $}

puts {<html>
<head><title>SQLite: An SQL Frontend For GDBM</title></head>
<body bgcolor=white>
<h1 align=center>SQLite: An SQL Frontend For GDBM</h1>
<p align=center>}
puts "Version 0.1 (alpha)<br />"
puts "Last modified [lrange $rcsid 3 4]"
puts {</p>}

puts {<h2>Introduction</h2>

<p>SQLite is a C library that implements an SQL frontend to GDBM.
SQLite is intended for use in standalone programs that need 
to use an SQL database but which do not have access to a full-blown 
SQL RDBMS.</p>

<p>The C interface to SQLite is very simple, consisting of only
four functions and a single opaque data structure.  A Tcl interface


to SQLite is also available and is included in the source tree.

Interfaces for perl and python may be supplied in future releases.</p>

<p>There is a standalone C program named "sqlite" that can be used
to interactively create, update and/or query an SQLite database.
The sources to the sqlite program are part of the source tree and
can be used as an example of how to interact with the SQLite C
library.</p>


<p>SQLite does not try to implement every feature of SQL.  But it
does strive to implement to most commonly used features.  SQLite
currently understands the following SQL commands:</p>

<p>
<ul>
................................................................................
<li>INSERT INTO</li>
<li>UPDATE</li>
<li>SELECT</li>
<li>DELETE FROM</li>
</ul>
</p>

<p>SQLite does not (at present) implement any of these features:</p>


<p>
<ul>
<li>ALTER TABLE</li>
<li>The GROUP BY or HAVING clauses of a SELECT</li>
<li>The LIKE or IN operators of expressions</li>
<li>Constraints</li>

<li>Transactions or rollback</li>
</ul>
</p>

<H2>Status</h2>

<p>The current version of SQLite should be considered "alpha" software.
................................................................................
<a href="http://www.egroups.com/subscribe/sqlite">
<img src="http://www.egroups.com/img/ui/join.gif" border=0 /><br />
Click to subscribe to sqlite</a>
</center>}

puts {<h2>Download</h2>

<p>You can download a tarball containing complete SQLite source
code at <a href="sqlite.tar.gz">sqlite.tar.gz</a>.}
puts "This is a [file size sqlite.tar.gz] byte download.  The
tarball was last modified at [clock format [file mtime sqlite.tar.gz]]"
puts {</p>}








puts {<h2>Related Sites</h2>

<ul>
<li><p>The cannonical site for GDBM is
       <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gdbm/gdbm.html">
       http://www.gnu.org/software/gdbm/gdbm.html</a></p></li>

<li><p>Someday, we would like to port SQLite to work with
       the Berkeley DB library in addition to GDBM.  For information
       about the Berkeley DB library, see
       <a href="http://www.sleepcat.com/">http://www.sleepycat.com</a>



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#
# Run this TCL script to generate HTML for the index.html file.
#
set rcsid {$Id: index.tcl,v 1.2 2000/05/29 18:20:15 drh Exp $}

puts {<html>
<head><title>SQLite: An SQL Frontend For GDBM</title></head>
<body bgcolor=white>
<h1 align=center>SQLite: An SQL Frontend For GDBM</h1>
<p align=center>}

puts "Last modified [lrange $rcsid 3 4] GMT"
puts {</p>}

puts {<h2>Introduction</h2>

<p>SQLite is a C library that implements an SQL frontend to GDBM.
SQLite is intended for use in standalone programs that need 
to use an SQL database but which do not have access to a full-blown 
SQL RDBMS.</p>

<p>The C interface to SQLite is very simple, consisting of only
four functions and a single opaque data structure.  
See <a href="c_interface.html">c_interface.html</a> for details.
A Tcl interface
to SQLite is also available and is included in the source tree.
Documentation on the Tcl interface is pending.
Interfaces for perl and python may be supplied in future releases.</p>

<p>There is a standalone C program named "sqlite" that can be used
to interactively create, update and/or query an SQLite database.
The sources to the sqlite program are part of the source tree and
can be used as an example of how to interact with the SQLite C
library.  For more information on the sqlite program,
see <a href="sqlite.html">sqlite.html</a>.</p>

<p>SQLite does not try to implement every feature of SQL.  But it
does strive to implement to most commonly used features.  SQLite
currently understands the following SQL commands:</p>

<p>
<ul>
................................................................................
<li>INSERT INTO</li>
<li>UPDATE</li>
<li>SELECT</li>
<li>DELETE FROM</li>
</ul>
</p>

<p>Some the many SQL features that SQLite does not (currently) 
implement are as follows:</p>

<p>
<ul>
<li>ALTER TABLE</li>
<li>The GROUP BY or HAVING clauses of a SELECT</li>
<li>The LIKE or IN</li>
<li>Constraints</li>
<li>Nested queries</li>
<li>Transactions or rollback</li>
</ul>
</p>

<H2>Status</h2>

<p>The current version of SQLite should be considered "alpha" software.
................................................................................
<a href="http://www.egroups.com/subscribe/sqlite">
<img src="http://www.egroups.com/img/ui/join.gif" border=0 /><br />
Click to subscribe to sqlite</a>
</center>}

puts {<h2>Download</h2>

<p>You can download a tarball containing all C source
code for SQLite at <a href="sqlite.tar.gz">sqlite.tar.gz</a>.}
puts "This is a [file size sqlite.tar.gz] byte download.  The
tarball was last modified at [clock format [file mtime sqlite.tar.gz]]"
puts {</p>

<p>You can also download a larger tarball that contains everything
in the source tarball plus all of the sources for the text that
appears on this website, and other miscellaneous files.  The
complete tarball is found at <a href="all.tar.gz">all.tar.gz</a>.}
puts "This is a [file size all.tar.gz] byte download and was
was last modified at [clock format [file mtime sqlite.tar.gz]]</p>"

puts {<h2>Related Sites</h2>

<ul>
<li><p>The canonical site for GDBM is
       <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gdbm/gdbm.html">
       http://www.gnu.org/software/gdbm/gdbm.html</a></p></li>

<li><p>Someday, we would like to port SQLite to work with
       the Berkeley DB library in addition to GDBM.  For information
       about the Berkeley DB library, see
       <a href="http://www.sleepcat.com/">http://www.sleepycat.com</a>

Changes to www/sqlite.tcl.

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#
# Run this Tcl script to generate the sqlite.html file.
#
set rcsid {$Id: sqlite.tcl,v 1.1 2000/05/29 17:44:26 drh Exp $}

puts {<html>
<head>
  <title>sqlite: A program of interacting with SQLite databases</title>
</head>
<body bgcolor=white>
<h1 align=center>
<tt>sqlite</tt>: A program to administer SQLite databases
</h1>}

puts "<p align=center>(This page was last modified on [lrange $rcsid 3 4])</p>"


puts {
<p>The SQLite library includes a simple command-line utility named
<b>sqlite</b> that allows the user to manually enter and execute SQL
commands against an SQLite database.  This document provides a brief
introduction on how to use <b>sqlite</b>.

................................................................................
hello       10        
goodbye     20        
sql>
}

puts {
<p>By default, each column is 10 characters wide. 
Data that is too wide to fit in a column is trucated.  You can
adjust the column widths using the ".width" command.  Like this:</p>}

Code {
sql> (((.width 12 6)))
sql> (((select * from tbl1;)))
one           two   
------------  ------
................................................................................
sql>
}

puts {
<p>The third output mode supported by sqlite is called "list".  In
list mode, each record of a query result is written on one line of
output and each field within that record is separated by a specific
separator string.  The default separator is a pipe symbolc ("|").
List mode is especially useful when you are going to send the output
of a query to another program (such as AWK) for additional process.</p>}

Code {
sql> (((.mode list)))
sql> (((select * from tbl1;)))
hello|10
................................................................................
<h2>Other Dot Commands</h2>

<p>The ".explain" dot command can be used to set the output mode
to "column" and to set the column widths to values that are reasonable
for looking at the output of an EXPLAIN command.  The EXPLAIN command
is an SQLite-specific command that is useful for debugging.  If any
regular SQL is prefaced by EXPLAIN, then the SQL command is parsed and
analyized but is not executed.  Instead, the sequence of virtual machine
instructions that would have been used to execute the SQL command are
returned like a query result.  For example:</p>}

Code {
sql> (((.explain)))
sql> (((explain delete from tbl1 where two<20;)))
addr  opcode        p1     p2     p3          



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#
# Run this Tcl script to generate the sqlite.html file.
#
set rcsid {$Id: sqlite.tcl,v 1.2 2000/05/29 18:20:15 drh Exp $}

puts {<html>
<head>
  <title>sqlite: A program of interacting with SQLite databases</title>
</head>
<body bgcolor=white>
<h1 align=center>
sqlite: A program to administer SQLite databases
</h1>}
puts "<p align=center>
(This page was last modified on [lrange $rcsid 3 4] GMT)
</p>"

puts {
<p>The SQLite library includes a simple command-line utility named
<b>sqlite</b> that allows the user to manually enter and execute SQL
commands against an SQLite database.  This document provides a brief
introduction on how to use <b>sqlite</b>.

................................................................................
hello       10        
goodbye     20        
sql>
}

puts {
<p>By default, each column is 10 characters wide. 
Data that is too wide to fit in a column is truncated.  You can
adjust the column widths using the ".width" command.  Like this:</p>}

Code {
sql> (((.width 12 6)))
sql> (((select * from tbl1;)))
one           two   
------------  ------
................................................................................
sql>
}

puts {
<p>The third output mode supported by sqlite is called "list".  In
list mode, each record of a query result is written on one line of
output and each field within that record is separated by a specific
separator string.  The default separator is a pipe symbol ("|").
List mode is especially useful when you are going to send the output
of a query to another program (such as AWK) for additional process.</p>}

Code {
sql> (((.mode list)))
sql> (((select * from tbl1;)))
hello|10
................................................................................
<h2>Other Dot Commands</h2>

<p>The ".explain" dot command can be used to set the output mode
to "column" and to set the column widths to values that are reasonable
for looking at the output of an EXPLAIN command.  The EXPLAIN command
is an SQLite-specific command that is useful for debugging.  If any
regular SQL is prefaced by EXPLAIN, then the SQL command is parsed and
analyzed but is not executed.  Instead, the sequence of virtual machine
instructions that would have been used to execute the SQL command are
returned like a query result.  For example:</p>}

Code {
sql> (((.explain)))
sql> (((explain delete from tbl1 where two<20;)))
addr  opcode        p1     p2     p3