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Comment:Add a header comment to wal.c describing the differences between wal and wal2 mode.
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SHA3-256: 9c80cd202f1c966929b279e18f19c663912686fcf92f03b85a02b9c7e55a0fc6
User & Date: dan 2017-10-09 19:49:08
Wiki:wal2
Context
2017-10-09
19:50
Merge latest trunk changes with this branch. check-in: d218d815 user: dan tags: wal2
19:49
Add a header comment to wal.c describing the differences between wal and wal2 mode. check-in: 9c80cd20 user: dan tags: wal2
2017-10-07
19:55
Ignore the *-wal2 file if the *-wal file is zero bytes in size. check-in: f7360fad user: dan tags: wal2
Changes
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Changes to src/wal.c.

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** being considered valid at the same time and being checkpointing together
** following a crash.
**
** READER ALGORITHM
**
** To read a page from the database (call it page number P), a reader
** first checks the WAL to see if it contains page P.  If so, then the
** last valid instance of page P that is a followed by a commit frame
** or is a commit frame itself becomes the value read.  If the WAL
** contains no copies of page P that are valid and which are a commit
** frame or are followed by a commit frame, then page P is read from
** the database file.
**
** To start a read transaction, the reader records the index of the last
** valid frame in the WAL.  The reader uses this recorded "mxFrame" value
................................................................................
**
** Note that entries are added in order of increasing K.  Hence, one
** reader might be using some value K0 and a second reader that started
** at a later time (after additional transactions were added to the WAL
** and to the wal-index) might be using a different value K1, where K1>K0.
** Both readers can use the same hash table and mapping section to get
** the correct result.  There may be entries in the hash table with
** K>K0 but to the first reader, those entries will appear to be unused
** slots in the hash table and so the first reader will get an answer as
** if no values greater than K0 had ever been inserted into the hash table
** in the first place - which is what reader one wants.  Meanwhile, the
** second reader using K1 will see additional values that were inserted
** later, which is exactly what reader two wants.  
**
** When a rollback occurs, the value of K is decreased. Hash table entries
** that correspond to frames greater than the new K value are removed
** from the hash table at this point.
*/
































































































































































#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL

#include "wal.h"

/*
** Trace output macros
*/
................................................................................
      /* When *-wal may follow *-wal2 */
      if( (nCkpt2==0x0F && nCkpt1==0) || (nCkpt2<0x0F && nCkpt2==nCkpt1-1) ){
        if( sqlite3Get4byte((u8*)(&hdr.aSalt[0]))==pWal->hdr.aFrameCksum[0]
         && sqlite3Get4byte((u8*)(&hdr.aSalt[1]))==pWal->hdr.aFrameCksum[1]
        ){
          SWAP(WalIndexHdr, pWal->hdr, hdr);
          walidxSetMxFrame(&pWal->hdr, 1, hdr.mxFrame);




        }
      }else

      /* Fallback */
      if( nCkpt1<=nCkpt2 ){
        pWal->hdr = hdr;
      }else{







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** being considered valid at the same time and being checkpointing together
** following a crash.
**
** READER ALGORITHM
**
** To read a page from the database (call it page number P), a reader
** first checks the WAL to see if it contains page P.  If so, then the
** last valid instance of page P that is followed by a commit frame
** or is a commit frame itself becomes the value read.  If the WAL
** contains no copies of page P that are valid and which are a commit
** frame or are followed by a commit frame, then page P is read from
** the database file.
**
** To start a read transaction, the reader records the index of the last
** valid frame in the WAL.  The reader uses this recorded "mxFrame" value
................................................................................
**
** Note that entries are added in order of increasing K.  Hence, one
** reader might be using some value K0 and a second reader that started
** at a later time (after additional transactions were added to the WAL
** and to the wal-index) might be using a different value K1, where K1>K0.
** Both readers can use the same hash table and mapping section to get
** the correct result.  There may be entries in the hash table with
** K>K0, but to the first reader those entries will appear to be unused
** slots in the hash table and so the first reader will get an answer as
** if no values greater than K0 had ever been inserted into the hash table
** in the first place - which is what reader one wants.  Meanwhile, the
** second reader using K1 will see additional values that were inserted
** later, which is exactly what reader two wants.  
**
** When a rollback occurs, the value of K is decreased. Hash table entries
** that correspond to frames greater than the new K value are removed
** from the hash table at this point.
*/

/*
** WAL2 NOTES
**
** This file also contains the implementation of "wal2" mode - activated
** using "PRAGMA journal_mode = wal2". Wal2 mode is very similar to wal
** mode, except that it uses two wal files instead of one. Under some
** circumstances, wal2 mode provides more concurrency than legacy wal 
** mode.
**
** THE PROBLEM WAL2 SOLVES:
**
** In legacy wal mode, if a writer wishes to write to the database while
** a checkpoint is ongoing, it may append frames to the existing wal file.
** This means that after the checkpoint has finished, the wal file consists
** of a large block of checkpointed frames, followed by a block of
** uncheckpointed frames. In a deployment that features a high volume of
** write traffic, this may mean that the wal file is never completely
** checkpointed. And so grows indefinitely.
**
** An alternative is to use "PRAGMA wal_checkpoint=RESTART" or similar to
** force a complete checkpoint of the wal file. But this must:
**
**   1) Wait on all existing readers to finish,
**   2) Wait on any existing writer, and then block all new writers,
**   3) Do the checkpoint,
**   4) Wait on any new readers that started during steps 2 and 3. Writers
**      are still blocked during this step.
**
** This means that in order to avoid the wal file growing indefinitely 
** in a busy system, writers must periodically pause to allow a checkpoint
** to complete. In a system with long running readers, such pauses may be
** for a non-trivial amount of time.
**
** OVERVIEW OF SOLUTION
**
** Wal2 mode uses two wal files. After writers have grown the first wal 
** file to a pre-configured size, they begin appending transactions to 
** the second wal file. Once all existing readers are reading snapshots
** new enough to include the entire first wal file, a checkpointer can
** checkpoint it.
**
** Meanwhile, writers are writing transactions to the second wal file.
** Once that wal file has grown larger than the pre-configured size, each
** new writer checks if:
**
**    * the first wal file has been checkpointed, and if so, if
**    * there are no readers still reading from the first wal file (once
**      it has been checkpointed, new readers read only from the second
**      wal file).
**
** If both these conditions are true, the writer may switch back to the
** first wal file. Eventually, a checkpointer can checkpoint the second
** wal file, and so on.
**
** The wal file that writers are currently appending to (the one they
** don't have to check the above two criteria before writing to) is called
** the "current" wal file.
**
** The first wal file takes the same name as the wal file in legacy wal
** mode systems - "<db>-wal". The second is named "<db>-wal2".
**
** WAL FILE FORMAT
**
** The file format used for each wal file in wal2 mode is the same as for
** legacy wal mode.  Except, the file format field is set to 3021000 
** instead of 3007000.
**
** WAL-INDEX FORMAT
**
** The wal-index format is also very similar. Even though there are two
** wal files, there is still a single wal-index shared-memory area (*-shm
** file with the default unix or win32 VFS). The wal-index header is the
** same size, with the following exceptions it has the same format:
**
**   * The version field is set to 3021000 instead of 3007000.
**
**   * An unused 32-bit field in the legacy wal-index header is
**     now used to store (a) a single bit indicating which of the
**     two wal files writers should append to and (b) the number
**     of frames in the second wal file (31 bits).
**
** The first hash table in the wal-index contains entries corresponding
** to the first HASHTABLE_NPAGE_ONE frames stored in the first wal file.
** The second hash table in the wal-index contains entries indexing the
** first HASHTABLE_NPAGE frames in the second wal file. The third hash
** table contains the next HASHTABLE_NPAGE frames in the first wal file,
** and so on.
**
** LOCKS
**
** Read-locks are simpler than for legacy wal mode. There are no locking
** slots that contain frame numbers. Instead, there are four distinct
** combinations of read locks a reader may hold:
**
**   WAL_LOCK_PART1:       "part" lock on first wal, none of second.
**   WAL_LOCK_PART1_FULL2: "part" lock on first wal, "full" of second.
**   WAL_LOCK_PART2: no lock on first wal, "part" lock on second.
**   WAL_LOCK_PART2_FULL1: "full" lock on first wal, "part" lock on second.
**
** When a reader reads the wal-index header as part of opening a read
** transaction, it takes a "part" lock on the current wal file. "Part" 
** because the wal file may grow while the read transaction is active, in 
** which case the reader would be reading only part of the wal file. 
** A part lock prevents a checkpointer from checkpointing the wal file 
** on which it is held.
**
** If there is data in the non-current wal file that has not been 
** checkpointed, the reader takes a "full" lock on that wal file. A 
** "full" lock indicates that the reader is using the entire wal file.
** A full lock prevents a writer from overwriting the wal file on which
** it is held, but does not prevent a checkpointer from checkpointing 
** it.
**
** There is still a single WRITER and a single CHECKPOINTER lock. The
** recovery procedure still takes the same exclusive lock on the entire
** range of SQLITE_SHM_NLOCK shm-locks. This works because the read-locks
** above use four of the six read-locking slots used by legacy wal mode.
** See the header comment for function walLockReader() for details.
**
** STARTUP/RECOVERY
**
** The read and write version fields of the database header in a wal2
** database are set to 0x03, instead of 0x02 as in legacy wal mode.
**
** The wal file format used in wal2 mode is the same as the format used
** in legacy wal mode. However, in order to support recovery, there are two
** differences in the way wal file header fields are populated, as follows:
**
**   * When the first wal file is first created, the "nCkpt" field in
**     the wal file header is set to 0. Thereafter, each time the writer
**     switches wal file, it sets the nCkpt field in the new wal file
**     header to ((nCkpt0 + 1) & 0x0F), where nCkpt0 is the value in
**     the previous wal file header. This means that the first wal file
**     always has an even value in the nCkpt field, and the second wal
**     file always has an odd value.
**
**   * When a writer switches wal file, it sets the salt values in the
**     new wal file to a copy of the checksum for the final frame in
**     the previous wal file.
**
** Recovery proceeds as follows:
**
** 1. Each wal file is recovered separately. Except, if the first wal 
**    file does not exist or is zero bytes in size, the second wal file
**    is truncated to zero bytes before it is "recovered".
**
** 2. If both wal files contain valid headers, then the nCkpt fields
**    are compared to see which of the two wal files is older. If the
**    salt keys in the second wal file match the final frame checksum 
**    in the older wal file, then both wal files are used. Otherwise,
**    the newer wal file is ignored.
**
** 3. Or, if only one or neither of the wal files has a valid header, 
**    then only a single or no wal files are recovered into the 
**    reconstructed wal-index.
**
** Refer to header comments for walIndexRecover() for further details.
*/

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL

#include "wal.h"

/*
** Trace output macros
*/
................................................................................
      /* When *-wal may follow *-wal2 */
      if( (nCkpt2==0x0F && nCkpt1==0) || (nCkpt2<0x0F && nCkpt2==nCkpt1-1) ){
        if( sqlite3Get4byte((u8*)(&hdr.aSalt[0]))==pWal->hdr.aFrameCksum[0]
         && sqlite3Get4byte((u8*)(&hdr.aSalt[1]))==pWal->hdr.aFrameCksum[1]
        ){
          SWAP(WalIndexHdr, pWal->hdr, hdr);
          walidxSetMxFrame(&pWal->hdr, 1, hdr.mxFrame);
        }else{
          walidxSetFile(&pWal->hdr, 1);
          walidxSetMxFrame(&pWal->hdr, 1, pWal->hdr.mxFrame);
          walidxSetMxFrame(&pWal->hdr, 0, 0);
        }
      }else

      /* Fallback */
      if( nCkpt1<=nCkpt2 ){
        pWal->hdr = hdr;
      }else{