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Overview
Comment:Make the internal dynamic string interface available to extensions using the new sqlite3_str object and its associated methods. This is mostly just a renaming of internal objects and methods to use external names, through there are a few small wrapper functions.
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SHA3-256:87f261f0cb800b06ad786f6df16f2c4dddd0d93dfdcc77b4a4eaa22920b56bf1
User & Date: drh 2018-05-09 13:46:26
Context
2018-05-09
14:29
Fix minor problems with the sqlite3_str interface. check-in: 43ea8a68 user: drh tags: trunk
13:46
Make the internal dynamic string interface available to extensions using the new sqlite3_str object and its associated methods. This is mostly just a renaming of internal objects and methods to use external names, through there are a few small wrapper functions. check-in: 87f261f0 user: drh tags: trunk
10:11
Fix a typo in a comment used for documentation. No code changes. check-in: b866693e user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/btree.c.

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){
  va_list ap;
  if( !pCheck->mxErr ) return;
  pCheck->mxErr--;
  pCheck->nErr++;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  if( pCheck->errMsg.nChar ){
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&pCheck->errMsg, "\n", 1);
  }
  if( pCheck->zPfx ){
    sqlite3XPrintf(&pCheck->errMsg, pCheck->zPfx, pCheck->v1, pCheck->v2);
  }
  sqlite3VXPrintf(&pCheck->errMsg, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  if( pCheck->errMsg.accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM ){
    pCheck->mallocFailed = 1;
  }
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK

................................................................................

  /* Clean  up and report errors.
  */
integrity_ck_cleanup:
  sqlite3PageFree(sCheck.heap);
  sqlite3_free(sCheck.aPgRef);
  if( sCheck.mallocFailed ){
    sqlite3StrAccumReset(&sCheck.errMsg);
    sCheck.nErr++;
  }
  *pnErr = sCheck.nErr;
  if( sCheck.nErr==0 ) sqlite3StrAccumReset(&sCheck.errMsg);
  /* Make sure this analysis did not leave any unref() pages. */
  assert( nRef==sqlite3PagerRefcount(pBt->pPager) );
  sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
  return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&sCheck.errMsg);
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */








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){
  va_list ap;
  if( !pCheck->mxErr ) return;
  pCheck->mxErr--;
  pCheck->nErr++;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  if( pCheck->errMsg.nChar ){
    sqlite3_str_append(&pCheck->errMsg, "\n", 1);
  }
  if( pCheck->zPfx ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(&pCheck->errMsg, pCheck->zPfx, pCheck->v1, pCheck->v2);
  }
  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&pCheck->errMsg, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  if( pCheck->errMsg.accError==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
    pCheck->mallocFailed = 1;
  }
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK

................................................................................

  /* Clean  up and report errors.
  */
integrity_ck_cleanup:
  sqlite3PageFree(sCheck.heap);
  sqlite3_free(sCheck.aPgRef);
  if( sCheck.mallocFailed ){
    sqlite3_str_reset(&sCheck.errMsg);
    sCheck.nErr++;
  }
  *pnErr = sCheck.nErr;
  if( sCheck.nErr==0 ) sqlite3_str_reset(&sCheck.errMsg);
  /* Make sure this analysis did not leave any unref() pages. */
  assert( nRef==sqlite3PagerRefcount(pBt->pPager) );
  sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
  return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&sCheck.errMsg);
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_INTEGRITY_CHECK */

Changes to src/build.c.

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  char *zErr;
  int j;
  StrAccum errMsg;
  Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;

  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&errMsg, pParse->db, 0, 0, 200);
  if( pIdx->aColExpr ){
    sqlite3XPrintf(&errMsg, "index '%q'", pIdx->zName);
  }else{
    for(j=0; j<pIdx->nKeyCol; j++){
      char *zCol;
      assert( pIdx->aiColumn[j]>=0 );
      zCol = pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[j]].zName;
      if( j ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, ", ", 2);
      sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&errMsg, pTab->zName);
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&errMsg, ".", 1);
      sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&errMsg, zCol);
    }
  }
  zErr = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&errMsg);
  sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, 
    IsPrimaryKeyIndex(pIdx) ? SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_PRIMARYKEY 
                            : SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE,
    onError, zErr, P4_DYNAMIC, P5_ConstraintUnique);







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  char *zErr;
  int j;
  StrAccum errMsg;
  Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;

  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&errMsg, pParse->db, 0, 0, 200);
  if( pIdx->aColExpr ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(&errMsg, "index '%q'", pIdx->zName);
  }else{
    for(j=0; j<pIdx->nKeyCol; j++){
      char *zCol;
      assert( pIdx->aiColumn[j]>=0 );
      zCol = pTab->aCol[pIdx->aiColumn[j]].zName;
      if( j ) sqlite3_str_append(&errMsg, ", ", 2);
      sqlite3_str_appendall(&errMsg, pTab->zName);
      sqlite3_str_append(&errMsg, ".", 1);
      sqlite3_str_appendall(&errMsg, zCol);
    }
  }
  zErr = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&errMsg);
  sqlite3HaltConstraint(pParse, 
    IsPrimaryKeyIndex(pIdx) ? SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_PRIMARYKEY 
                            : SQLITE_CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE,
    onError, zErr, P4_DYNAMIC, P5_ConstraintUnique);

Changes to src/func.c.

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  if( argc>=1 && (zFormat = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]))!=0 ){
    x.nArg = argc-1;
    x.nUsed = 0;
    x.apArg = argv+1;
    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&str, db, 0, 0, db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
    str.printfFlags = SQLITE_PRINTF_SQLFUNC;
    sqlite3XPrintf(&str, zFormat, &x);
    n = str.nChar;
    sqlite3_result_text(context, sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&str), n,
                        SQLITE_DYNAMIC);
  }
}

/*
................................................................................
      if( argc==2 ){
        zSep = (char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[1]);
        nSep = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[1]);
      }else{
        zSep = ",";
        nSep = 1;
      }
      if( zSep ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, zSep, nSep);
    }
    zVal = (char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
    nVal = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[0]);
    if( zVal ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, zVal, nVal);
  }
}
static void groupConcatFinalize(sqlite3_context *context){
  StrAccum *pAccum;
  pAccum = sqlite3_aggregate_context(context, 0);
  if( pAccum ){
    if( pAccum->accError==STRACCUM_TOOBIG ){
      sqlite3_result_error_toobig(context);
    }else if( pAccum->accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM ){
      sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
    }else{    
      sqlite3_result_text(context, sqlite3StrAccumFinish(pAccum), -1, 
                          sqlite3_free);
    }
  }
}







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  if( argc>=1 && (zFormat = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]))!=0 ){
    x.nArg = argc-1;
    x.nUsed = 0;
    x.apArg = argv+1;
    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&str, db, 0, 0, db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
    str.printfFlags = SQLITE_PRINTF_SQLFUNC;
    sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, zFormat, &x);
    n = str.nChar;
    sqlite3_result_text(context, sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&str), n,
                        SQLITE_DYNAMIC);
  }
}

/*
................................................................................
      if( argc==2 ){
        zSep = (char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[1]);
        nSep = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[1]);
      }else{
        zSep = ",";
        nSep = 1;
      }
      if( zSep ) sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, zSep, nSep);
    }
    zVal = (char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
    nVal = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[0]);
    if( zVal ) sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, zVal, nVal);
  }
}
static void groupConcatFinalize(sqlite3_context *context){
  StrAccum *pAccum;
  pAccum = sqlite3_aggregate_context(context, 0);
  if( pAccum ){
    if( pAccum->accError==SQLITE_TOOBIG ){
      sqlite3_result_error_toobig(context);
    }else if( pAccum->accError==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
      sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
    }else{    
      sqlite3_result_text(context, sqlite3StrAccumFinish(pAccum), -1, 
                          sqlite3_free);
    }
  }
}

Changes to src/mutex.c.

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int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p==0 || sqlite3GlobalConfig.mutex.xMutexNotheld );
  return p==0 || sqlite3GlobalConfig.mutex.xMutexNotheld(p);
}
#endif

#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT) */








<
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int sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex *p){
  assert( p==0 || sqlite3GlobalConfig.mutex.xMutexNotheld );
  return p==0 || sqlite3GlobalConfig.mutex.xMutexNotheld(p);
}
#endif

#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT) */

Changes to src/pragma.c.

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  char cSep = '(';
  StrAccum acc;
  char zBuf[200];

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(argc);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(argv);
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
  sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, "CREATE TABLE x");
  for(i=0, j=pPragma->iPragCName; i<pPragma->nPragCName; i++, j++){
    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "%c\"%s\"", cSep, pragCName[j]);
    cSep = ',';
  }
  if( i==0 ){
    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "(\"%s\"", pPragma->zName);
    cSep = ',';
    i++;
  }
  j = 0;
  if( pPragma->mPragFlg & PragFlg_Result1 ){
    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, ",arg HIDDEN");
    j++;
  }
  if( pPragma->mPragFlg & (PragFlg_SchemaOpt|PragFlg_SchemaReq) ){
    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, ",schema HIDDEN");
    j++;
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, ")", 1);
  sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  assert( strlen(zBuf) < sizeof(zBuf)-1 );
  rc = sqlite3_declare_vtab(db, zBuf);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pTab = (PragmaVtab*)sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(PragmaVtab));
    if( pTab==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
................................................................................
      pCsr->azArg[j] = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zText);
      if( pCsr->azArg[j]==0 ){
        return SQLITE_NOMEM;
      }
    }
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, 0, 0, pTab->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH]);
  sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, "PRAGMA ");
  if( pCsr->azArg[1] ){
    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "%Q.", pCsr->azArg[1]);
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&acc, pTab->pName->zName);
  if( pCsr->azArg[0] ){
    sqlite3XPrintf(&acc, "=%Q", pCsr->azArg[0]);
  }
  zSql = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  if( zSql==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(pTab->db, zSql, -1, &pCsr->pPragma, 0);
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    pTab->base.zErrMsg = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", sqlite3_errmsg(pTab->db));







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  char cSep = '(';
  StrAccum acc;
  char zBuf[200];

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(argc);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(argv);
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
  sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, "CREATE TABLE x");
  for(i=0, j=pPragma->iPragCName; i<pPragma->nPragCName; i++, j++){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "%c\"%s\"", cSep, pragCName[j]);
    cSep = ',';
  }
  if( i==0 ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "(\"%s\"", pPragma->zName);
    cSep = ',';
    i++;
  }
  j = 0;
  if( pPragma->mPragFlg & PragFlg_Result1 ){
    sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, ",arg HIDDEN");
    j++;
  }
  if( pPragma->mPragFlg & (PragFlg_SchemaOpt|PragFlg_SchemaReq) ){
    sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, ",schema HIDDEN");
    j++;
  }
  sqlite3_str_append(&acc, ")", 1);
  sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  assert( strlen(zBuf) < sizeof(zBuf)-1 );
  rc = sqlite3_declare_vtab(db, zBuf);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pTab = (PragmaVtab*)sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(PragmaVtab));
    if( pTab==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
................................................................................
      pCsr->azArg[j] = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zText);
      if( pCsr->azArg[j]==0 ){
        return SQLITE_NOMEM;
      }
    }
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, 0, 0, pTab->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH]);
  sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, "PRAGMA ");
  if( pCsr->azArg[1] ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "%Q.", pCsr->azArg[1]);
  }
  sqlite3_str_appendall(&acc, pTab->pName->zName);
  if( pCsr->azArg[0] ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(&acc, "=%Q", pCsr->azArg[0]);
  }
  zSql = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  if( zSql==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(pTab->db, zSql, -1, &pCsr->pPragma, 0);
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    pTab->base.zErrMsg = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", sqlite3_errmsg(pTab->db));

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}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT */

/*
** Set the StrAccum object to an error mode.
*/
static void setStrAccumError(StrAccum *p, u8 eError){
  assert( eError==STRACCUM_NOMEM || eError==STRACCUM_TOOBIG );
  p->accError = eError;
  p->nAlloc = 0;
}

/*
** Extra argument values from a PrintfArguments object
*/
................................................................................
# define SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE 70
#endif
#define etBUFSIZE SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE  /* Size of the output buffer */

/*
** Render a string given by "fmt" into the StrAccum object.
*/
void sqlite3VXPrintf(
  StrAccum *pAccum,          /* Accumulate results here */
  const char *fmt,           /* Format string */
  va_list ap                 /* arguments */
){
  int c;                     /* Next character in the format string */
  char *bufpt;               /* Pointer to the conversion buffer */
  int precision;             /* Precision of the current field */
  int length;                /* Length of the field */
................................................................................
    if( c!='%' ){
      bufpt = (char *)fmt;
#if HAVE_STRCHRNUL
      fmt = strchrnul(fmt, '%');
#else
      do{ fmt++; }while( *fmt && *fmt != '%' );
#endif
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, (int)(fmt - bufpt));
      if( *fmt==0 ) break;
    }
    if( (c=(*++fmt))==0 ){
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, "%", 1);
      break;
    }
    /* Find out what flags are present */
    flag_leftjustify = flag_prefix = cThousand =
     flag_alternateform = flag_altform2 = flag_zeropad = 0;
    done = 0;
    do{
................................................................................
        if( precision<etBUFSIZE-10-etBUFSIZE/3 ){
          nOut = etBUFSIZE;
          zOut = buf;
        }else{
          u64 n = (u64)precision + 10 + precision/3;
          zOut = zExtra = sqlite3Malloc( n );
          if( zOut==0 ){
            setStrAccumError(pAccum, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
            return;
          }
          nOut = (int)n;
        }
        bufpt = &zOut[nOut-1];
        if( xtype==etORDINAL ){
          static const char zOrd[] = "thstndrd";
................................................................................
        }else{
          e2 = exp;
        }
        if( MAX(e2,0)+(i64)precision+(i64)width > etBUFSIZE - 15 ){
          bufpt = zExtra 
              = sqlite3Malloc( MAX(e2,0)+(i64)precision+(i64)width+15 );
          if( bufpt==0 ){
            setStrAccumError(pAccum, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
            return;
          }
        }
        zOut = bufpt;
        nsd = 16 + flag_altform2*10;
        flag_dp = (precision>0 ?1:0) | flag_alternateform | flag_altform2;
        /* The sign in front of the number */
................................................................................
            buf[3] = 0x80 + (u8)(ch & 0x3f);
            length = 4;
          }
        }
        if( precision>1 ){
          width -= precision-1;
          if( width>1 && !flag_leftjustify ){
            sqlite3AppendChar(pAccum, width-1, ' ');
            width = 0;
          }
          while( precision-- > 1 ){
            sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, buf, length);
          }
        }
        bufpt = buf;
        flag_altform2 = 1;
        goto adjust_width_for_utf8;
      case etSTRING:
      case etDYNSTRING:
................................................................................
          }
        }
        needQuote = !isnull && xtype==etSQLESCAPE2;
        n += i + 3;
        if( n>etBUFSIZE ){
          bufpt = zExtra = sqlite3Malloc( n );
          if( bufpt==0 ){
            setStrAccumError(pAccum, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
            return;
          }
        }else{
          bufpt = buf;
        }
        j = 0;
        if( needQuote ) bufpt[j++] = q;
................................................................................
      }
      case etTOKEN: {
        Token *pToken;
        if( (pAccum->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL)==0 ) return;
        pToken = va_arg(ap, Token*);
        assert( bArgList==0 );
        if( pToken && pToken->n ){
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, (const char*)pToken->z, pToken->n);
        }
        length = width = 0;
        break;
      }
      case etSRCLIST: {
        SrcList *pSrc;
        int k;
................................................................................
        if( (pAccum->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL)==0 ) return;
        pSrc = va_arg(ap, SrcList*);
        k = va_arg(ap, int);
        pItem = &pSrc->a[k];
        assert( bArgList==0 );
        assert( k>=0 && k<pSrc->nSrc );
        if( pItem->zDatabase ){
          sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pAccum, pItem->zDatabase);
          sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, ".", 1);
        }
        sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pAccum, pItem->zName);
        length = width = 0;
        break;
      }
      default: {
        assert( xtype==etINVALID );
        return;
      }
................................................................................
    ** the output.  Both length and width are in bytes, not characters,
    ** at this point.  If the "!" flag was present on string conversions
    ** indicating that width and precision should be expressed in characters,
    ** then the values have been translated prior to reaching this point.
    */
    width -= length;
    if( width>0 ){
      if( !flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3AppendChar(pAccum, width, ' ');
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, length);
      if( flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3AppendChar(pAccum, width, ' ');
    }else{
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pAccum, bufpt, length);
    }

    if( zExtra ){
      sqlite3DbFree(pAccum->db, zExtra);
      zExtra = 0;
    }
  }/* End for loop over the format string */
................................................................................
** Return the number of bytes of text that StrAccum is able to accept
** after the attempted enlargement.  The value returned might be zero.
*/
static int sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(StrAccum *p, int N){
  char *zNew;
  assert( p->nChar+(i64)N >= p->nAlloc ); /* Only called if really needed */
  if( p->accError ){
    testcase(p->accError==STRACCUM_TOOBIG);
    testcase(p->accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM);
    return 0;
  }
  if( p->mxAlloc==0 ){
    N = p->nAlloc - p->nChar - 1;
    setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_TOOBIG);
    return N;
  }else{
    char *zOld = isMalloced(p) ? p->zText : 0;
    i64 szNew = p->nChar;
    szNew += N + 1;
    if( szNew+p->nChar<=p->mxAlloc ){
      /* Force exponential buffer size growth as long as it does not overflow,
      ** to avoid having to call this routine too often */
      szNew += p->nChar;
    }
    if( szNew > p->mxAlloc ){
      sqlite3StrAccumReset(p);
      setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_TOOBIG);
      return 0;
    }else{
      p->nAlloc = (int)szNew;
    }
    if( p->db ){
      zNew = sqlite3DbRealloc(p->db, zOld, p->nAlloc);
    }else{
................................................................................
    if( zNew ){
      assert( p->zText!=0 || p->nChar==0 );
      if( !isMalloced(p) && p->nChar>0 ) memcpy(zNew, p->zText, p->nChar);
      p->zText = zNew;
      p->nAlloc = sqlite3DbMallocSize(p->db, zNew);
      p->printfFlags |= SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
    }else{
      sqlite3StrAccumReset(p);
      setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
      return 0;
    }
  }
  return N;
}

/*
** Append N copies of character c to the given string buffer.
*/
void sqlite3AppendChar(StrAccum *p, int N, char c){
  testcase( p->nChar + (i64)N > 0x7fffffff );
  if( p->nChar+(i64)N >= p->nAlloc && (N = sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(p, N))<=0 ){
    return;
  }
  while( (N--)>0 ) p->zText[p->nChar++] = c;
}

/*
** The StrAccum "p" is not large enough to accept N new bytes of z[].
** So enlarge if first, then do the append.
**
** This is a helper routine to sqlite3StrAccumAppend() that does special-case
** work (enlarging the buffer) using tail recursion, so that the
** sqlite3StrAccumAppend() routine can use fast calling semantics.
*/
static void SQLITE_NOINLINE enlargeAndAppend(StrAccum *p, const char *z, int N){
  N = sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(p, N);
  if( N>0 ){
    memcpy(&p->zText[p->nChar], z, N);
    p->nChar += N;
  }
}

/*
** Append N bytes of text from z to the StrAccum object.  Increase the
** size of the memory allocation for StrAccum if necessary.
*/
void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum *p, const char *z, int N){
  assert( z!=0 || N==0 );
  assert( p->zText!=0 || p->nChar==0 || p->accError );
  assert( N>=0 );
  assert( p->accError==0 || p->nAlloc==0 );
  if( p->nChar+N >= p->nAlloc ){
    enlargeAndAppend(p,z,N);
  }else if( N ){
................................................................................
    memcpy(&p->zText[p->nChar-N], z, N);
  }
}

/*
** Append the complete text of zero-terminated string z[] to the p string.
*/
void sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(StrAccum *p, const char *z){
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(p, z, sqlite3Strlen30(z));
}


/*
** Finish off a string by making sure it is zero-terminated.
** Return a pointer to the resulting string.  Return a NULL
** pointer if any kind of error was encountered.
................................................................................
  char *zText;
  assert( p->mxAlloc>0 && !isMalloced(p) );
  zText = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(p->db, p->nChar+1 );
  if( zText ){
    memcpy(zText, p->zText, p->nChar+1);
    p->printfFlags |= SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
  }else{
    setStrAccumError(p, STRACCUM_NOMEM);
  }
  p->zText = zText;
  return zText;
}
char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum *p){
  if( p->zText ){
    p->zText[p->nChar] = 0;
    if( p->mxAlloc>0 && !isMalloced(p) ){
      return strAccumFinishRealloc(p);
    }
  }
  return p->zText;
}





























/*
** Reset an StrAccum string.  Reclaim all malloced memory.
*/
void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum *p){
  if( isMalloced(p) ){
    sqlite3DbFree(p->db, p->zText);
    p->printfFlags &= ~SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
  }
  p->zText = 0;
}

................................................................................
  p->db = db;
  p->nAlloc = n;
  p->mxAlloc = mx;
  p->nChar = 0;
  p->accError = 0;
  p->printfFlags = 0;
}










/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
*/
char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
  char *z;
  char zBase[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE];
  StrAccum acc;
  assert( db!=0 );
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, db, zBase, sizeof(zBase),
                      db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
  acc.printfFlags = SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL;
  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  if( acc.accError==STRACCUM_NOMEM ){
    sqlite3OomFault(db);
  }
  return z;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
................................................................................
    return 0;
  }
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
  if( sqlite3_initialize() ) return 0;
#endif
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBase, sizeof(zBase), SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  return z;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc()().  Omit the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
................................................................................
  if( zBuf==0 || zFormat==0 ) {
    (void)SQLITE_MISUSE_BKPT;
    if( zBuf ) zBuf[0] = 0;
    return zBuf;
  }
#endif
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, n, 0);
  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  zBuf[acc.nChar] = 0;
  return zBuf;
}
char *sqlite3_snprintf(int n, char *zBuf, const char *zFormat, ...){
  char *z;
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
................................................................................
** We house it in a separate routine from sqlite3_log() to avoid using
** stack space on small-stack systems when logging is disabled.
**
** sqlite3_log() must render into a static buffer.  It cannot dynamically
** allocate memory because it might be called while the memory allocator
** mutex is held.
**
** sqlite3VXPrintf() might ask for *temporary* memory allocations for
** certain format characters (%q) or for very large precisions or widths.
** Care must be taken that any sqlite3_log() calls that occur while the
** memory mutex is held do not use these mechanisms.
*/
static void renderLogMsg(int iErrCode, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
  StrAccum acc;                          /* String accumulator */
  char zMsg[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE*3];    /* Complete log message */

  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zMsg, sizeof(zMsg), 0);
  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  sqlite3GlobalConfig.xLog(sqlite3GlobalConfig.pLogArg, iErrCode,
                           sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc));
}

/*
** Format and write a message to the log if logging is enabled.
*/
................................................................................
*/
void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  StrAccum acc;
  char zBuf[500];
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
  sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
#ifdef SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC
  {
    extern void SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC(const char *zBuf, int nBuf);
    SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC(zBuf, sizeof(zBuf));
  }
................................................................................
  fflush(stdout);
#endif
}
#endif


/*
** variable-argument wrapper around sqlite3VXPrintf().  The bFlags argument
** can contain the bit SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL enable internal formats.
*/
void sqlite3XPrintf(StrAccum *p, const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
  sqlite3VXPrintf(p, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
}







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130
131
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135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
...
164
165
166
167
168
169
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171
172
173
174
175
176
177
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179
...
222
223
224
225
226
227
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229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
...
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
...
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
...
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
...
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
...
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
...
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
...
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
...
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
...
874
875
876
877
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879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
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899
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902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
...
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
...
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
....
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
....
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
....
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
....
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
....
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
....
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT */

/*
** Set the StrAccum object to an error mode.
*/
static void setStrAccumError(StrAccum *p, u8 eError){
  assert( eError==SQLITE_NOMEM || eError==SQLITE_TOOBIG );
  p->accError = eError;
  p->nAlloc = 0;
}

/*
** Extra argument values from a PrintfArguments object
*/
................................................................................
# define SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE 70
#endif
#define etBUFSIZE SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE  /* Size of the output buffer */

/*
** Render a string given by "fmt" into the StrAccum object.
*/
void sqlite3_str_vappendf(
  sqlite3_str *pAccum,       /* Accumulate results here */
  const char *fmt,           /* Format string */
  va_list ap                 /* arguments */
){
  int c;                     /* Next character in the format string */
  char *bufpt;               /* Pointer to the conversion buffer */
  int precision;             /* Precision of the current field */
  int length;                /* Length of the field */
................................................................................
    if( c!='%' ){
      bufpt = (char *)fmt;
#if HAVE_STRCHRNUL
      fmt = strchrnul(fmt, '%');
#else
      do{ fmt++; }while( *fmt && *fmt != '%' );
#endif
      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, bufpt, (int)(fmt - bufpt));
      if( *fmt==0 ) break;
    }
    if( (c=(*++fmt))==0 ){
      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, "%", 1);
      break;
    }
    /* Find out what flags are present */
    flag_leftjustify = flag_prefix = cThousand =
     flag_alternateform = flag_altform2 = flag_zeropad = 0;
    done = 0;
    do{
................................................................................
        if( precision<etBUFSIZE-10-etBUFSIZE/3 ){
          nOut = etBUFSIZE;
          zOut = buf;
        }else{
          u64 n = (u64)precision + 10 + precision/3;
          zOut = zExtra = sqlite3Malloc( n );
          if( zOut==0 ){
            setStrAccumError(pAccum, SQLITE_NOMEM);
            return;
          }
          nOut = (int)n;
        }
        bufpt = &zOut[nOut-1];
        if( xtype==etORDINAL ){
          static const char zOrd[] = "thstndrd";
................................................................................
        }else{
          e2 = exp;
        }
        if( MAX(e2,0)+(i64)precision+(i64)width > etBUFSIZE - 15 ){
          bufpt = zExtra 
              = sqlite3Malloc( MAX(e2,0)+(i64)precision+(i64)width+15 );
          if( bufpt==0 ){
            setStrAccumError(pAccum, SQLITE_NOMEM);
            return;
          }
        }
        zOut = bufpt;
        nsd = 16 + flag_altform2*10;
        flag_dp = (precision>0 ?1:0) | flag_alternateform | flag_altform2;
        /* The sign in front of the number */
................................................................................
            buf[3] = 0x80 + (u8)(ch & 0x3f);
            length = 4;
          }
        }
        if( precision>1 ){
          width -= precision-1;
          if( width>1 && !flag_leftjustify ){
            sqlite3_str_appendchar(pAccum, width-1, ' ');
            width = 0;
          }
          while( precision-- > 1 ){
            sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, buf, length);
          }
        }
        bufpt = buf;
        flag_altform2 = 1;
        goto adjust_width_for_utf8;
      case etSTRING:
      case etDYNSTRING:
................................................................................
          }
        }
        needQuote = !isnull && xtype==etSQLESCAPE2;
        n += i + 3;
        if( n>etBUFSIZE ){
          bufpt = zExtra = sqlite3Malloc( n );
          if( bufpt==0 ){
            setStrAccumError(pAccum, SQLITE_NOMEM);
            return;
          }
        }else{
          bufpt = buf;
        }
        j = 0;
        if( needQuote ) bufpt[j++] = q;
................................................................................
      }
      case etTOKEN: {
        Token *pToken;
        if( (pAccum->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL)==0 ) return;
        pToken = va_arg(ap, Token*);
        assert( bArgList==0 );
        if( pToken && pToken->n ){
          sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, (const char*)pToken->z, pToken->n);
        }
        length = width = 0;
        break;
      }
      case etSRCLIST: {
        SrcList *pSrc;
        int k;
................................................................................
        if( (pAccum->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL)==0 ) return;
        pSrc = va_arg(ap, SrcList*);
        k = va_arg(ap, int);
        pItem = &pSrc->a[k];
        assert( bArgList==0 );
        assert( k>=0 && k<pSrc->nSrc );
        if( pItem->zDatabase ){
          sqlite3_str_appendall(pAccum, pItem->zDatabase);
          sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, ".", 1);
        }
        sqlite3_str_appendall(pAccum, pItem->zName);
        length = width = 0;
        break;
      }
      default: {
        assert( xtype==etINVALID );
        return;
      }
................................................................................
    ** the output.  Both length and width are in bytes, not characters,
    ** at this point.  If the "!" flag was present on string conversions
    ** indicating that width and precision should be expressed in characters,
    ** then the values have been translated prior to reaching this point.
    */
    width -= length;
    if( width>0 ){
      if( !flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3_str_appendchar(pAccum, width, ' ');
      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, bufpt, length);
      if( flag_leftjustify ) sqlite3_str_appendchar(pAccum, width, ' ');
    }else{
      sqlite3_str_append(pAccum, bufpt, length);
    }

    if( zExtra ){
      sqlite3DbFree(pAccum->db, zExtra);
      zExtra = 0;
    }
  }/* End for loop over the format string */
................................................................................
** Return the number of bytes of text that StrAccum is able to accept
** after the attempted enlargement.  The value returned might be zero.
*/
static int sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(StrAccum *p, int N){
  char *zNew;
  assert( p->nChar+(i64)N >= p->nAlloc ); /* Only called if really needed */
  if( p->accError ){
    testcase(p->accError==SQLITE_TOOBIG);
    testcase(p->accError==SQLITE_NOMEM);
    return 0;
  }
  if( p->mxAlloc==0 ){
    N = p->nAlloc - p->nChar - 1;
    setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_TOOBIG);
    return N;
  }else{
    char *zOld = isMalloced(p) ? p->zText : 0;
    i64 szNew = p->nChar;
    szNew += N + 1;
    if( szNew+p->nChar<=p->mxAlloc ){
      /* Force exponential buffer size growth as long as it does not overflow,
      ** to avoid having to call this routine too often */
      szNew += p->nChar;
    }
    if( szNew > p->mxAlloc ){
      sqlite3_str_reset(p);
      setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_TOOBIG);
      return 0;
    }else{
      p->nAlloc = (int)szNew;
    }
    if( p->db ){
      zNew = sqlite3DbRealloc(p->db, zOld, p->nAlloc);
    }else{
................................................................................
    if( zNew ){
      assert( p->zText!=0 || p->nChar==0 );
      if( !isMalloced(p) && p->nChar>0 ) memcpy(zNew, p->zText, p->nChar);
      p->zText = zNew;
      p->nAlloc = sqlite3DbMallocSize(p->db, zNew);
      p->printfFlags |= SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
    }else{
      sqlite3_str_reset(p);
      setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_NOMEM);
      return 0;
    }
  }
  return N;
}

/*
** Append N copies of character c to the given string buffer.
*/
void sqlite3_str_appendchar(sqlite3_str *p, int N, char c){
  testcase( p->nChar + (i64)N > 0x7fffffff );
  if( p->nChar+(i64)N >= p->nAlloc && (N = sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(p, N))<=0 ){
    return;
  }
  while( (N--)>0 ) p->zText[p->nChar++] = c;
}

/*
** The StrAccum "p" is not large enough to accept N new bytes of z[].
** So enlarge if first, then do the append.
**
** This is a helper routine to sqlite3_str_append() that does special-case
** work (enlarging the buffer) using tail recursion, so that the
** sqlite3_str_append() routine can use fast calling semantics.
*/
static void SQLITE_NOINLINE enlargeAndAppend(StrAccum *p, const char *z, int N){
  N = sqlite3StrAccumEnlarge(p, N);
  if( N>0 ){
    memcpy(&p->zText[p->nChar], z, N);
    p->nChar += N;
  }
}

/*
** Append N bytes of text from z to the StrAccum object.  Increase the
** size of the memory allocation for StrAccum if necessary.
*/
void sqlite3_str_append(sqlite3_str *p, const char *z, int N){
  assert( z!=0 || N==0 );
  assert( p->zText!=0 || p->nChar==0 || p->accError );
  assert( N>=0 );
  assert( p->accError==0 || p->nAlloc==0 );
  if( p->nChar+N >= p->nAlloc ){
    enlargeAndAppend(p,z,N);
  }else if( N ){
................................................................................
    memcpy(&p->zText[p->nChar-N], z, N);
  }
}

/*
** Append the complete text of zero-terminated string z[] to the p string.
*/
void sqlite3_str_appendall(sqlite3_str *p, const char *z){
  sqlite3_str_append(p, z, sqlite3Strlen30(z));
}


/*
** Finish off a string by making sure it is zero-terminated.
** Return a pointer to the resulting string.  Return a NULL
** pointer if any kind of error was encountered.
................................................................................
  char *zText;
  assert( p->mxAlloc>0 && !isMalloced(p) );
  zText = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(p->db, p->nChar+1 );
  if( zText ){
    memcpy(zText, p->zText, p->nChar+1);
    p->printfFlags |= SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
  }else{
    setStrAccumError(p, SQLITE_NOMEM);
  }
  p->zText = zText;
  return zText;
}
char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum *p){
  if( p->zText ){
    p->zText[p->nChar] = 0;
    if( p->mxAlloc>0 && !isMalloced(p) ){
      return strAccumFinishRealloc(p);
    }
  }
  return p->zText;
}

/* Finalize a string created using sqlite3_str_new().
*/
char *sqlite3_str_finish(sqlite3_str *p){
  char *z;
  if( p ){
    z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(p);
    sqlite3DbFree(p->db, p);
  }else{
    z = 0;
  }
  return z;
}

/* Return any error code associated with p */
int sqlite3_str_errcode(sqlite3_str *p){
  return p ? p->accError : SQLITE_NOMEM;
}

/* Return the current length of p in bytes */
int sqlite3_str_length(sqlite3_str *p){
  return p ? p->nChar : 0;
}

/* Return the current value for p */
char *sqlite3_str_value(sqlite3_str *p){
  return p ? p->zText : 0;
}

/*
** Reset an StrAccum string.  Reclaim all malloced memory.
*/
void sqlite3_str_reset(StrAccum *p){
  if( isMalloced(p) ){
    sqlite3DbFree(p->db, p->zText);
    p->printfFlags &= ~SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED;
  }
  p->zText = 0;
}

................................................................................
  p->db = db;
  p->nAlloc = n;
  p->mxAlloc = mx;
  p->nChar = 0;
  p->accError = 0;
  p->printfFlags = 0;
}

/* Allocate and initialize a new dynamic string object */
sqlite3_str *sqlite3_str_new(sqlite3 *db){
  sqlite3_str *p = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, sizeof(*p));
  if( p ){
    sqlite3StrAccumInit(p, db, 0, 0, SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
  }
  return p;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
*/
char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3 *db, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
  char *z;
  char zBase[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE];
  StrAccum acc;
  assert( db!=0 );
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, db, zBase, sizeof(zBase),
                      db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
  acc.printfFlags = SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL;
  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  if( acc.accError==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
    sqlite3OomFault(db);
  }
  return z;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqliteMalloc().  Use the internal
................................................................................
    return 0;
  }
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT
  if( sqlite3_initialize() ) return 0;
#endif
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBase, sizeof(zBase), SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  z = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  return z;
}

/*
** Print into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc()().  Omit the internal
** %-conversion extensions.
................................................................................
  if( zBuf==0 || zFormat==0 ) {
    (void)SQLITE_MISUSE_BKPT;
    if( zBuf ) zBuf[0] = 0;
    return zBuf;
  }
#endif
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, n, 0);
  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  zBuf[acc.nChar] = 0;
  return zBuf;
}
char *sqlite3_snprintf(int n, char *zBuf, const char *zFormat, ...){
  char *z;
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
................................................................................
** We house it in a separate routine from sqlite3_log() to avoid using
** stack space on small-stack systems when logging is disabled.
**
** sqlite3_log() must render into a static buffer.  It cannot dynamically
** allocate memory because it might be called while the memory allocator
** mutex is held.
**
** sqlite3_str_vappendf() might ask for *temporary* memory allocations for
** certain format characters (%q) or for very large precisions or widths.
** Care must be taken that any sqlite3_log() calls that occur while the
** memory mutex is held do not use these mechanisms.
*/
static void renderLogMsg(int iErrCode, const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
  StrAccum acc;                          /* String accumulator */
  char zMsg[SQLITE_PRINT_BUF_SIZE*3];    /* Complete log message */

  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zMsg, sizeof(zMsg), 0);
  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  sqlite3GlobalConfig.xLog(sqlite3GlobalConfig.pLogArg, iErrCode,
                           sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc));
}

/*
** Format and write a message to the log if logging is enabled.
*/
................................................................................
*/
void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  StrAccum acc;
  char zBuf[500];
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
  sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
#ifdef SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC
  {
    extern void SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC(const char *zBuf, int nBuf);
    SQLITE_OS_TRACE_PROC(zBuf, sizeof(zBuf));
  }
................................................................................
  fflush(stdout);
#endif
}
#endif


/*
** variable-argument wrapper around sqlite3_str_vappendf(). The bFlags argument
** can contain the bit SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL enable internal formats.
*/
void sqlite3_str_appendf(StrAccum *p, const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap,zFormat);
  sqlite3_str_vappendf(p, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
}

Changes to src/sqlite.h.in.

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** SQLite is compiled with the [-DSQLITE_OMIT_VACUUM] option.  Also,
** new keywords may be added to future releases of SQLite.
*/
int sqlite3_keyword_count(void);
int sqlite3_keyword_name(int,const char**,int*);
int sqlite3_keyword_check(const char*,int);
































































































































/*
** CAPI3REF: SQLite Runtime Status
**
** ^These interfaces are used to retrieve runtime status information
** about the performance of SQLite, and optionally to reset various
** highwater marks.  ^The first argument is an integer code for
** the specific parameter to measure.  ^(Recognized integer codes







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** SQLite is compiled with the [-DSQLITE_OMIT_VACUUM] option.  Also,
** new keywords may be added to future releases of SQLite.
*/
int sqlite3_keyword_count(void);
int sqlite3_keyword_name(int,const char**,int*);
int sqlite3_keyword_check(const char*,int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Dynamic String Object
** KEYWORDS: {dynamic string}
**
** An instance of the sqlite3_str object contains a dynamically-sized
** string under construction.
**
** The lifecycle of an sqlite3_str object is as follows:
** <ol>
** <li> The sqlite3_str object is created using [sqlite3_str_new()].
** <li> Text is appended to the sqlite3_str object using various
** methods, such as [sqlite3_str_appendf()].
** <li> The sqlite3_str object is destroyed and the string it created
** is returned using the [sqlite3_str_finish()] interface.
** </ol>
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_str sqlite3_str;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Create A New Dynamic String Object
** CONSTRUCTOR: sqlite3_str
**
** The [sqlite3_str_new(D)] allocates and initializes a new [sqlite3_str]
** object.  The [sqlite3_str_new(D)] interface returns NULL on an out-of-memory
** condition.  To avoid memory leaks, the object returned by
** [sqlite3_str_new(D)] must be freed by a subsequent call to 
** [sqlite3_str_finish(S)].
**
** If the D argument to [sqlite3_str_new(D)] is NULL then memory used to
** construct the string is always taken from the global memory pool used
** by [sqlite3_malloc64()].  If D is not NULL, then a private memory pool
** used by connection D might also be used.  This private memory pool is
** faster, but is limited in space, and should only be used for transient
** allocations.  The final string returned by [sqlite3_str_finish(X)] is
** always stored in space obtained from [sqlite3_malloc64()] regardless
** of whether or not the private per-connection memory pool is used during
** its construction.
*/
sqlite3_str *sqlite3_str_new(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Finalize A Dynamic String
** DESTRUCTOR: sqlite3_str
**
** The [sqlite3_str_finish(X)] interface destroys the sqlite3_str object X
** and returns a pointer to a memory buffer obtained from [sqlite3_malloc64()]
** that contains the constructed string.  The calling application should
** pass the returned value to [sqlite3_free()] to avoid a memory leak.
** The [sqlite3_str_finish(X)] interface may return a NULL pointer if any
** errors were encountered during construction of the string.  The
** [sqlite3_str_finish(X)] interface will also return a NULL pointer if the
** string in [sqlite3_str] object X is zero bytes long.
*/
char *sqlite3_str_finish(sqlite3_str*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Add Content To A Dynamic String
** METHOD: sqlite3_str
**
** These interfaces add content to an sqlite3_str object previously obtained
** from [sqlite3_str_new()].
**
** The [sqlite3_str_appendf(X,F,...)] and 
** [sqlite3_str_vappendf(X,F,V)] interfaces uses the [built-in printf]
** functionality of SQLite to append formatted text onto the end of 
** [sqlite3_str] object X.
**
** The [sqlite3_str_append(X,S,N)] method appends exactly N bytes from string S
** onto the end of the [sqlite3_str] object X.  N must be non-negative.
** S must contain at least N non-zero bytes of content.  To append a
** zero-terminated string in its entirety, use the [sqlite3_str_appendall()]
** method instead.
**
** The [sqlite3_str_appendall(X,S)] method the complete content of
** zero-terminated string S onto the end of [sqlite3_str] object X.
**
** The [sqlite3_str_appendchar(X,N,C)] method appends N copies of the
** single-byte character C onto the end of [sqlite3_str] object X.
** This method can be used, for example, to add whitespace indentation.
**
** The [sqlite3_str_reset(X)] method resets the string under construction
** inside [sqlite3_str] object X back to zero bytes in length.  
**
** These methods do not return a result code.  If an error occurs, that fact
** is recorded in the [sqlite3_str] object and can be recovered by a
** subsequent call to [sqlite3_str_errcode(X)].
*/
void sqlite3_str_appendf(sqlite3_str*, const char *zFormat, ...);
void sqlite3_str_vappendf(sqlite3_str*, const char *zFormat, va_list);
void sqlite3_str_append(sqlite3_str*, const char *zIn, int N);
void sqlite3_str_appendall(sqlite3_str*, const char *zIn);
void sqlite3_str_appendchar(sqlite3_str*, int N, char C);
void sqlite3_str_reset(sqlite3_str*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Status Of A Dynamic String
** METHOD: sqlite3_str
**
** These interfaces return the current status of an [sqlite3_str] object.
**
** If any prior errors have occurred while constructing the dynamic string
** in sqlite3_str X, then the [sqlite3_str_errcode(X)] method will return
** an appropriate error code.  The [sqlite3_str_errcode(X)] method returns
** [SQLITE_NOMEM] following any out-of-memory error, or
** [SQLITE_TOOBIG] if the size of the dynamic string exceeds
** [SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH], or [SQLITE_OK] if there have been no errors.
**
** The [sqlite3_str_length(X)] method returns the current length, in bytes,
** of the dynamic string under construction in [sqlite3_str] object X.
** The length returned by [sqlite3_str_length(X)] does not include the
** zero-termination byte.
**
** The [sqlite3_str_value(X)] method returns a pointer to the current
** content of the dynamic string under construction in X.  The value
** returned by [sqlite3_str_value(X)] is managed by the sqlite3_str object X
** and might be freed or altered by any subsequent method on the same
** [sqlite3_str] object.  Applications must not used the pointer returned
** [sqlite3_str_value(X)] after any subsequent method call on the same
** object.  Applications may change the content of the string returned
** by [sqlite3_str_value(X)] as long as they do not write into any bytes
** outside the range of 0 to [sqlite3_str_length(X)] and do not read or
** write any byte after any subsequent sqlite3_str method call.
*/
int sqlite3_str_errcode(sqlite3_str*);
int sqlite3_str_length(sqlite3_str*);
char *sqlite3_str_value(sqlite3_str*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQLite Runtime Status
**
** ^These interfaces are used to retrieve runtime status information
** about the performance of SQLite, and optionally to reset various
** highwater marks.  ^The first argument is an integer code for
** the specific parameter to measure.  ^(Recognized integer codes

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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typedef struct PrintfArguments PrintfArguments;
typedef struct RowSet RowSet;
typedef struct Savepoint Savepoint;
typedef struct Select Select;
typedef struct SQLiteThread SQLiteThread;
typedef struct SelectDest SelectDest;
typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
typedef struct StrAccum StrAccum;
typedef struct Table Table;
typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
typedef struct Token Token;
typedef struct TreeView TreeView;
typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
typedef struct TriggerPrg TriggerPrg;
typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
................................................................................
  const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */
};

/*
** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
*/
struct StrAccum {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* Optional database for lookaside.  Can be NULL */
  char *zText;         /* The string collected so far */
  u32  nAlloc;         /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
  u32  mxAlloc;        /* Maximum allowed allocation.  0 for no malloc usage */
  u32  nChar;          /* Length of the string so far */
  u8   accError;       /* STRACCUM_NOMEM or STRACCUM_TOOBIG */
  u8   printfFlags;    /* SQLITE_PRINTF flags below */
};
#define STRACCUM_NOMEM   1
#define STRACCUM_TOOBIG  2
#define SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL 0x01  /* Internal-use-only converters allowed */
#define SQLITE_PRINTF_SQLFUNC  0x02  /* SQL function arguments to VXPrintf */
#define SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED 0x04  /* True if xText is allocated space */

#define isMalloced(X)  (((X)->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED)!=0)


................................................................................
*/
struct PrintfArguments {
  int nArg;                /* Total number of arguments */
  int nUsed;               /* Number of arguments used so far */
  sqlite3_value **apArg;   /* The argument values */
};

void sqlite3VXPrintf(StrAccum*, const char*, va_list);
void sqlite3XPrintf(StrAccum*, const char*, ...);
char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_HAVE_OS_TRACE)
  void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
  void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);
................................................................................
);
void sqlite3OomFault(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3OomClear(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);

void sqlite3StrAccumInit(StrAccum*, sqlite3*, char*, int, int);
void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum*,const char*,int);
void sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(StrAccum*,const char*);
void sqlite3AppendChar(StrAccum*,int,char);
char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);
Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *, SrcList *, int, int);

void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY







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typedef struct PrintfArguments PrintfArguments;
typedef struct RowSet RowSet;
typedef struct Savepoint Savepoint;
typedef struct Select Select;
typedef struct SQLiteThread SQLiteThread;
typedef struct SelectDest SelectDest;
typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
typedef struct sqlite3_str StrAccum; /* Internal alias for sqlite3_str */
typedef struct Table Table;
typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
typedef struct Token Token;
typedef struct TreeView TreeView;
typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
typedef struct TriggerPrg TriggerPrg;
typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
................................................................................
  const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */
};

/*
** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
*/
struct sqlite3_str {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* Optional database for lookaside.  Can be NULL */
  char *zText;         /* The string collected so far */
  u32  nAlloc;         /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
  u32  mxAlloc;        /* Maximum allowed allocation.  0 for no malloc usage */
  u32  nChar;          /* Length of the string so far */
  u8   accError;       /* SQLITE_NOMEM or SQLITE_TOOBIG */
  u8   printfFlags;    /* SQLITE_PRINTF flags below */
};


#define SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL 0x01  /* Internal-use-only converters allowed */
#define SQLITE_PRINTF_SQLFUNC  0x02  /* SQL function arguments to VXPrintf */
#define SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED 0x04  /* True if xText is allocated space */

#define isMalloced(X)  (((X)->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED)!=0)


................................................................................
*/
struct PrintfArguments {
  int nArg;                /* Total number of arguments */
  int nUsed;               /* Number of arguments used so far */
  sqlite3_value **apArg;   /* The argument values */
};



char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_HAVE_OS_TRACE)
  void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
#endif
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
  void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);
................................................................................
);
void sqlite3OomFault(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3OomClear(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);

void sqlite3StrAccumInit(StrAccum*, sqlite3*, char*, int, int);



char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);

void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);
Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *, SrcList *, int, int);

void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

Changes to src/treeview.c.

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  va_list ap;
  int i;
  StrAccum acc;
  char zBuf[500];
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
  if( p ){
    for(i=0; i<p->iLevel && i<sizeof(p->bLine)-1; i++){
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|   " : "    ", 4);
    }
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|-- " : "'-- ", 4);
  }
  if( zFormat!=0 ){
    va_start(ap, zFormat);
    sqlite3VXPrintf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    assert( acc.nChar>0 );
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&acc, "\n", 1);
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  fprintf(stdout,"%s", zBuf);
  fflush(stdout);
}

/*
................................................................................
  if( pWith->nCte>0 ){
    pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, 1);
    for(i=0; i<pWith->nCte; i++){
      StrAccum x;
      char zLine[1000];
      const struct Cte *pCte = &pWith->a[i];
      sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zLine, sizeof(zLine), 0);
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s", pCte->zName);
      if( pCte->pCols && pCte->pCols->nExpr>0 ){
        char cSep = '(';
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<pCte->pCols->nExpr; j++){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%c%s", cSep, pCte->pCols->a[j].zName);
          cSep = ',';
        }
        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, ")");
      }
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " AS");
      sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
      sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, zLine, i<pWith->nCte-1);
      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pCte->pSelect, 0);
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
  }
................................................................................
      pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FROM");
      for(i=0; i<p->pSrc->nSrc; i++){
        struct SrcList_item *pItem = &p->pSrc->a[i];
        StrAccum x;
        char zLine[100];
        sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zLine, sizeof(zLine), 0);
        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "{%d,*}", pItem->iCursor);
        if( pItem->zDatabase ){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " %s.%s", pItem->zDatabase, pItem->zName);
        }else if( pItem->zName ){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " %s", pItem->zName);
        }
        if( pItem->pTab ){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " tabname=%Q", pItem->pTab->zName);
        }
        if( pItem->zAlias ){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " (AS %s)", pItem->zAlias);
        }
        if( pItem->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT ){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&x, " LEFT-JOIN");
        }
        sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
        sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, zLine, i<p->pSrc->nSrc-1); 
        if( pItem->pSelect ){
          sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pItem->pSelect, 0);
        }
        if( pItem->fg.isTabFunc ){







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  va_list ap;
  int i;
  StrAccum acc;
  char zBuf[500];
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&acc, 0, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), 0);
  if( p ){
    for(i=0; i<p->iLevel && i<sizeof(p->bLine)-1; i++){
      sqlite3_str_append(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|   " : "    ", 4);
    }
    sqlite3_str_append(&acc, p->bLine[i] ? "|-- " : "'-- ", 4);
  }
  if( zFormat!=0 ){
    va_start(ap, zFormat);
    sqlite3_str_vappendf(&acc, zFormat, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    assert( acc.nChar>0 );
    sqlite3_str_append(&acc, "\n", 1);
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&acc);
  fprintf(stdout,"%s", zBuf);
  fflush(stdout);
}

/*
................................................................................
  if( pWith->nCte>0 ){
    pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, 1);
    for(i=0; i<pWith->nCte; i++){
      StrAccum x;
      char zLine[1000];
      const struct Cte *pCte = &pWith->a[i];
      sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zLine, sizeof(zLine), 0);
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s", pCte->zName);
      if( pCte->pCols && pCte->pCols->nExpr>0 ){
        char cSep = '(';
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<pCte->pCols->nExpr; j++){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%c%s", cSep, pCte->pCols->a[j].zName);
          cSep = ',';
        }
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ")");
      }
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " AS");
      sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
      sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, zLine, i<pWith->nCte-1);
      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pCte->pSelect, 0);
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
  }
................................................................................
      pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FROM");
      for(i=0; i<p->pSrc->nSrc; i++){
        struct SrcList_item *pItem = &p->pSrc->a[i];
        StrAccum x;
        char zLine[100];
        sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zLine, sizeof(zLine), 0);
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "{%d,*}", pItem->iCursor);
        if( pItem->zDatabase ){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " %s.%s", pItem->zDatabase, pItem->zName);
        }else if( pItem->zName ){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " %s", pItem->zName);
        }
        if( pItem->pTab ){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " tabname=%Q", pItem->pTab->zName);
        }
        if( pItem->zAlias ){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " (AS %s)", pItem->zAlias);
        }
        if( pItem->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT ){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, " LEFT-JOIN");
        }
        sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&x);
        sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, zLine, i<p->pSrc->nSrc-1); 
        if( pItem->pSelect ){
          sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pItem->pSelect, 0);
        }
        if( pItem->fg.isTabFunc ){

Changes to src/vdbeaux.c.

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** Translate the P4.pExpr value for an OP_CursorHint opcode into text
** that can be displayed in the P4 column of EXPLAIN output.
*/
static void displayP4Expr(StrAccum *p, Expr *pExpr){
  const char *zOp = 0;
  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_STRING:
      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
      break;
    case TK_INTEGER:
      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%d", pExpr->u.iValue);
      break;
    case TK_NULL:
      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "NULL");
      break;
    case TK_REGISTER: {
      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "r[%d]", pExpr->iTable);
      break;
    }
    case TK_COLUMN: {
      if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
        sqlite3XPrintf(p, "rowid");
      }else{
        sqlite3XPrintf(p, "c%d", (int)pExpr->iColumn);
      }
      break;
    }
    case TK_LT:      zOp = "LT";      break;
    case TK_LE:      zOp = "LE";      break;
    case TK_GT:      zOp = "GT";      break;
    case TK_GE:      zOp = "GE";      break;
................................................................................
    case TK_UPLUS:   zOp = "PLUS";    break;
    case TK_BITNOT:  zOp = "BITNOT";  break;
    case TK_NOT:     zOp = "NOT";     break;
    case TK_ISNULL:  zOp = "ISNULL";  break;
    case TK_NOTNULL: zOp = "NOTNULL"; break;

    default:
      sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%s", "expr");
      break;
  }

  if( zOp ){
    sqlite3XPrintf(p, "%s(", zOp);
    displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pLeft);
    if( pExpr->pRight ){
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(p, ",", 1);
      displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pRight);
    }
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(p, ")", 1);
  }
}
#endif /* VDBE_DISPLAY_P4 && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS) */


#if VDBE_DISPLAY_P4
/*
................................................................................
  assert( nTemp>=20 );
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zTemp, nTemp, 0);
  switch( pOp->p4type ){
    case P4_KEYINFO: {
      int j;
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
      assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "k(%d", pKeyInfo->nKeyField);
      for(j=0; j<pKeyInfo->nKeyField; j++){
        CollSeq *pColl = pKeyInfo->aColl[j];
        const char *zColl = pColl ? pColl->zName : "";
        if( strcmp(zColl, "BINARY")==0 ) zColl = "B";

        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, ",%s%s", pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[j] ? "-" : "", zColl);
      }
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&x, ")", 1);
      break;
    }
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS
    case P4_EXPR: {
      displayP4Expr(&x, pOp->p4.pExpr);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case P4_COLLSEQ: {
      CollSeq *pColl = pOp->p4.pColl;
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "(%.20s)", pColl->zName);
      break;
    }
    case P4_FUNCDEF: {
      FuncDef *pDef = pOp->p4.pFunc;
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
      break;
    }
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(VDBE_PROFILE)
    case P4_FUNCCTX: {
      FuncDef *pDef = pOp->p4.pCtx->pFunc;
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case P4_INT64: {
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%lld", *pOp->p4.pI64);
      break;
    }
    case P4_INT32: {
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%d", pOp->p4.i);
      break;
    }
    case P4_REAL: {
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%.16g", *pOp->p4.pReal);
      break;
    }
    case P4_MEM: {
      Mem *pMem = pOp->p4.pMem;
      if( pMem->flags & MEM_Str ){
        zP4 = pMem->z;
      }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Int ){
        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%lld", pMem->u.i);
      }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Real ){
        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%.16g", pMem->u.r);
      }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Null ){
        zP4 = "NULL";
      }else{
        assert( pMem->flags & MEM_Blob );
        zP4 = "(blob)";
      }
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    case P4_VTAB: {
      sqlite3_vtab *pVtab = pOp->p4.pVtab->pVtab;
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "vtab:%p", pVtab);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case P4_INTARRAY: {
      int i;
      int *ai = pOp->p4.ai;
      int n = ai[0];   /* The first element of an INTARRAY is always the
                       ** count of the number of elements to follow */
      for(i=1; i<=n; i++){
        sqlite3XPrintf(&x, ",%d", ai[i]);
      }
      zTemp[0] = '[';
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&x, "]", 1);
      break;
    }
    case P4_SUBPROGRAM: {
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "program");
      break;
    }
    case P4_DYNBLOB:
    case P4_ADVANCE: {
      zTemp[0] = 0;
      break;
    }
    case P4_TABLE: {
      sqlite3XPrintf(&x, "%s", pOp->p4.pTab->zName);
      break;
    }
    default: {
      zP4 = pOp->p4.z;
      if( zP4==0 ){
        zP4 = zTemp;
        zTemp[0] = 0;







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** Translate the P4.pExpr value for an OP_CursorHint opcode into text
** that can be displayed in the P4 column of EXPLAIN output.
*/
static void displayP4Expr(StrAccum *p, Expr *pExpr){
  const char *zOp = 0;
  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_STRING:
      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%Q", pExpr->u.zToken);
      break;
    case TK_INTEGER:
      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%d", pExpr->u.iValue);
      break;
    case TK_NULL:
      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "NULL");
      break;
    case TK_REGISTER: {
      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "r[%d]", pExpr->iTable);
      break;
    }
    case TK_COLUMN: {
      if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
        sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "rowid");
      }else{
        sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "c%d", (int)pExpr->iColumn);
      }
      break;
    }
    case TK_LT:      zOp = "LT";      break;
    case TK_LE:      zOp = "LE";      break;
    case TK_GT:      zOp = "GT";      break;
    case TK_GE:      zOp = "GE";      break;
................................................................................
    case TK_UPLUS:   zOp = "PLUS";    break;
    case TK_BITNOT:  zOp = "BITNOT";  break;
    case TK_NOT:     zOp = "NOT";     break;
    case TK_ISNULL:  zOp = "ISNULL";  break;
    case TK_NOTNULL: zOp = "NOTNULL"; break;

    default:
      sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s", "expr");
      break;
  }

  if( zOp ){
    sqlite3_str_appendf(p, "%s(", zOp);
    displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pLeft);
    if( pExpr->pRight ){
      sqlite3_str_append(p, ",", 1);
      displayP4Expr(p, pExpr->pRight);
    }
    sqlite3_str_append(p, ")", 1);
  }
}
#endif /* VDBE_DISPLAY_P4 && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS) */


#if VDBE_DISPLAY_P4
/*
................................................................................
  assert( nTemp>=20 );
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&x, 0, zTemp, nTemp, 0);
  switch( pOp->p4type ){
    case P4_KEYINFO: {
      int j;
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
      assert( pKeyInfo->aSortOrder!=0 );
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "k(%d", pKeyInfo->nKeyField);
      for(j=0; j<pKeyInfo->nKeyField; j++){
        CollSeq *pColl = pKeyInfo->aColl[j];
        const char *zColl = pColl ? pColl->zName : "";
        if( strcmp(zColl, "BINARY")==0 ) zColl = "B";
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ",%s%s", 
               pKeyInfo->aSortOrder[j] ? "-" : "", zColl);
      }
      sqlite3_str_append(&x, ")", 1);
      break;
    }
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS
    case P4_EXPR: {
      displayP4Expr(&x, pOp->p4.pExpr);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case P4_COLLSEQ: {
      CollSeq *pColl = pOp->p4.pColl;
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "(%.20s)", pColl->zName);
      break;
    }
    case P4_FUNCDEF: {
      FuncDef *pDef = pOp->p4.pFunc;
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
      break;
    }
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(VDBE_PROFILE)
    case P4_FUNCCTX: {
      FuncDef *pDef = pOp->p4.pCtx->pFunc;
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s(%d)", pDef->zName, pDef->nArg);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case P4_INT64: {
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%lld", *pOp->p4.pI64);
      break;
    }
    case P4_INT32: {
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%d", pOp->p4.i);
      break;
    }
    case P4_REAL: {
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%.16g", *pOp->p4.pReal);
      break;
    }
    case P4_MEM: {
      Mem *pMem = pOp->p4.pMem;
      if( pMem->flags & MEM_Str ){
        zP4 = pMem->z;
      }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Int ){
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%lld", pMem->u.i);
      }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Real ){
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%.16g", pMem->u.r);
      }else if( pMem->flags & MEM_Null ){
        zP4 = "NULL";
      }else{
        assert( pMem->flags & MEM_Blob );
        zP4 = "(blob)";
      }
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    case P4_VTAB: {
      sqlite3_vtab *pVtab = pOp->p4.pVtab->pVtab;
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "vtab:%p", pVtab);
      break;
    }
#endif
    case P4_INTARRAY: {
      int i;
      int *ai = pOp->p4.ai;
      int n = ai[0];   /* The first element of an INTARRAY is always the
                       ** count of the number of elements to follow */
      for(i=1; i<=n; i++){
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, ",%d", ai[i]);
      }
      zTemp[0] = '[';
      sqlite3_str_append(&x, "]", 1);
      break;
    }
    case P4_SUBPROGRAM: {
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "program");
      break;
    }
    case P4_DYNBLOB:
    case P4_ADVANCE: {
      zTemp[0] = 0;
      break;
    }
    case P4_TABLE: {
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&x, "%s", pOp->p4.pTab->zName);
      break;
    }
    default: {
      zP4 = pOp->p4.z;
      if( zP4==0 ){
        zP4 = zTemp;
        zTemp[0] = 0;

Changes to src/vdbetrace.c.

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  db = p->db;
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&out, 0, zBase, sizeof(zBase), 
                      db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
  if( db->nVdbeExec>1 ){
    while( *zRawSql ){
      const char *zStart = zRawSql;
      while( *(zRawSql++)!='\n' && *zRawSql );
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "-- ", 3);
      assert( (zRawSql - zStart) > 0 );
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, zStart, (int)(zRawSql-zStart));
    }
  }else if( p->nVar==0 ){
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, zRawSql, sqlite3Strlen30(zRawSql));
  }else{
    while( zRawSql[0] ){
      n = findNextHostParameter(zRawSql, &nToken);
      assert( n>0 );
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, zRawSql, n);
      zRawSql += n;
      assert( zRawSql[0] || nToken==0 );
      if( nToken==0 ) break;
      if( zRawSql[0]=='?' ){
        if( nToken>1 ){
          assert( sqlite3Isdigit(zRawSql[1]) );
          sqlite3GetInt32(&zRawSql[1], &idx);
................................................................................
        assert( idx>0 );
      }
      zRawSql += nToken;
      nextIndex = idx + 1;
      assert( idx>0 && idx<=p->nVar );
      pVar = &p->aVar[idx-1];
      if( pVar->flags & MEM_Null ){
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "NULL", 4);
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Int ){
        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "%lld", pVar->u.i);
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Real ){
        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "%!.15g", pVar->u.r);
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Str ){
        int nOut;  /* Number of bytes of the string text to include in output */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
        u8 enc = ENC(db);
        if( enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ){
          memset(&utf8, 0, sizeof(utf8));
          utf8.db = db;
          sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(&utf8, pVar->z, pVar->n, enc, SQLITE_STATIC);
          if( SQLITE_NOMEM==sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(&utf8, SQLITE_UTF8) ){
            out.accError = STRACCUM_NOMEM;
            out.nAlloc = 0;
          }
          pVar = &utf8;
        }
#endif
        nOut = pVar->n;
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut>SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT ){
          nOut = SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT;
          while( nOut<pVar->n && (pVar->z[nOut]&0xc0)==0x80 ){ nOut++; }
        }
#endif    
        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "'%.*q'", nOut, pVar->z);
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut<pVar->n ){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
        }
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
        if( enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ) sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&utf8);
#endif
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Zero ){
        sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "zeroblob(%d)", pVar->u.nZero);
      }else{
        int nOut;  /* Number of bytes of the blob to include in output */
        assert( pVar->flags & MEM_Blob );
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "x'", 2);
        nOut = pVar->n;
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut>SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT ) nOut = SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT;
#endif
        for(i=0; i<nOut; i++){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "%02x", pVar->z[i]&0xff);
        }
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&out, "'", 1);
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut<pVar->n ){
          sqlite3XPrintf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
        }
#endif
      }
    }
  }
  if( out.accError ) sqlite3StrAccumReset(&out);
  return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&out);
}

#endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */







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  db = p->db;
  sqlite3StrAccumInit(&out, 0, zBase, sizeof(zBase), 
                      db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]);
  if( db->nVdbeExec>1 ){
    while( *zRawSql ){
      const char *zStart = zRawSql;
      while( *(zRawSql++)!='\n' && *zRawSql );
      sqlite3_str_append(&out, "-- ", 3);
      assert( (zRawSql - zStart) > 0 );
      sqlite3_str_append(&out, zStart, (int)(zRawSql-zStart));
    }
  }else if( p->nVar==0 ){
    sqlite3_str_append(&out, zRawSql, sqlite3Strlen30(zRawSql));
  }else{
    while( zRawSql[0] ){
      n = findNextHostParameter(zRawSql, &nToken);
      assert( n>0 );
      sqlite3_str_append(&out, zRawSql, n);
      zRawSql += n;
      assert( zRawSql[0] || nToken==0 );
      if( nToken==0 ) break;
      if( zRawSql[0]=='?' ){
        if( nToken>1 ){
          assert( sqlite3Isdigit(zRawSql[1]) );
          sqlite3GetInt32(&zRawSql[1], &idx);
................................................................................
        assert( idx>0 );
      }
      zRawSql += nToken;
      nextIndex = idx + 1;
      assert( idx>0 && idx<=p->nVar );
      pVar = &p->aVar[idx-1];
      if( pVar->flags & MEM_Null ){
        sqlite3_str_append(&out, "NULL", 4);
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Int ){
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "%lld", pVar->u.i);
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Real ){
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "%!.15g", pVar->u.r);
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Str ){
        int nOut;  /* Number of bytes of the string text to include in output */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
        u8 enc = ENC(db);
        if( enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ){
          memset(&utf8, 0, sizeof(utf8));
          utf8.db = db;
          sqlite3VdbeMemSetStr(&utf8, pVar->z, pVar->n, enc, SQLITE_STATIC);
          if( SQLITE_NOMEM==sqlite3VdbeChangeEncoding(&utf8, SQLITE_UTF8) ){
            out.accError = SQLITE_NOMEM;
            out.nAlloc = 0;
          }
          pVar = &utf8;
        }
#endif
        nOut = pVar->n;
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut>SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT ){
          nOut = SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT;
          while( nOut<pVar->n && (pVar->z[nOut]&0xc0)==0x80 ){ nOut++; }
        }
#endif    
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "'%.*q'", nOut, pVar->z);
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut<pVar->n ){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
        }
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_UTF16
        if( enc!=SQLITE_UTF8 ) sqlite3VdbeMemRelease(&utf8);
#endif
      }else if( pVar->flags & MEM_Zero ){
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "zeroblob(%d)", pVar->u.nZero);
      }else{
        int nOut;  /* Number of bytes of the blob to include in output */
        assert( pVar->flags & MEM_Blob );
        sqlite3_str_append(&out, "x'", 2);
        nOut = pVar->n;
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut>SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT ) nOut = SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT;
#endif
        for(i=0; i<nOut; i++){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "%02x", pVar->z[i]&0xff);
        }
        sqlite3_str_append(&out, "'", 1);
#ifdef SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT
        if( nOut<pVar->n ){
          sqlite3_str_appendf(&out, "/*+%d bytes*/", pVar->n-nOut);
        }
#endif
      }
    }
  }
  if( out.accError ) sqlite3_str_reset(&out);
  return sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&out);
}

#endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */

Changes to src/wherecode.c.

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  int iTerm,                  /* Zero-based index of first term. */
  int bAnd,                   /* Non-zero to append " AND " */
  const char *zOp             /* Name of the operator */
){
  int i;

  assert( nTerm>=1 );
  if( bAnd ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pStr, explainIndexColumnName(pIdx, iTerm+i));
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);

  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, zOp, 1);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "?", 1);
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** Argument pLevel describes a strategy for scanning table pTab. This 
** function appends text to pStr that describes the subset of table
** rows scanned by the strategy in the form of an SQL expression.
**
................................................................................
static void explainIndexRange(StrAccum *pStr, WhereLoop *pLoop){
  Index *pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  u16 nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
  u16 nSkip = pLoop->nSkip;
  int i, j;

  if( nEq==0 && (pLoop->wsFlags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))==0 ) return;
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " (", 2);
  for(i=0; i<nEq; i++){
    const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, i);
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);
    sqlite3XPrintf(pStr, i>=nSkip ? "%s=?" : "ANY(%s)", z);
  }

  j = i;
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nBtm, j, i, ">");
    i = 1;
  }
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nTop, j, i, "<");
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** This function is a no-op unless currently processing an EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
** command, or if either SQLITE_DEBUG or SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS was
** defined at compile-time. If it is not a no-op, a single OP_Explain opcode 
** is added to the output to describe the table scan strategy in pLevel.
................................................................................
    if( (flags&WHERE_MULTI_OR) || (wctrlFlags&WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE) ) return 0;

    isSearch = (flags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))!=0
            || ((flags&WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 && (pLoop->u.btree.nEq>0))
            || (wctrlFlags&(WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN|WHERE_ORDERBY_MAX));

    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&str, db, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&str, isSearch ? "SEARCH" : "SCAN");
    if( pItem->pSelect ){
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " SUBQUERY 0x%p", pItem->pSelect);
    }else{
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " TABLE %s", pItem->zName);
    }

    if( pItem->zAlias ){
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " AS %s", pItem->zAlias);
    }
    if( (flags & (WHERE_IPK|WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE))==0 ){
      const char *zFmt = 0;
      Index *pIdx;

      assert( pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0 );
      pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
................................................................................
        zFmt = "AUTOMATIC COVERING INDEX";
      }else if( flags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY ){
        zFmt = "COVERING INDEX %s";
      }else{
        zFmt = "INDEX %s";
      }
      if( zFmt ){
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&str, " USING ", 7);
        sqlite3XPrintf(&str, zFmt, pIdx->zName);
        explainIndexRange(&str, pLoop);
      }
    }else if( (flags & WHERE_IPK)!=0 && (flags & WHERE_CONSTRAINT)!=0 ){
      const char *zRangeOp;
      if( flags&(WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_COLUMN_IN) ){
        zRangeOp = "=";
      }else if( (flags&WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT)==WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT ){
................................................................................
        zRangeOp = ">? AND rowid<";
      }else if( flags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
        zRangeOp = ">";
      }else{
        assert( flags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT);
        zRangeOp = "<";
      }

      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid%s?)",zRangeOp);
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    else if( (flags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)!=0 ){
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " VIRTUAL TABLE INDEX %d:%s",
                  pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr);
    }
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_EXPLAIN_ESTIMATED_ROWS
    if( pLoop->nOut>=10 ){

      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " (~%llu rows)", sqlite3LogEstToInt(pLoop->nOut));
    }else{
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&str, " (~1 row)", 9);
    }
#endif
    zMsg = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&str);
    ret = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v),
                            pParse->addrExplain, 0, zMsg,P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
  return ret;







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  int iTerm,                  /* Zero-based index of first term. */
  int bAnd,                   /* Non-zero to append " AND " */
  const char *zOp             /* Name of the operator */
){
  int i;

  assert( nTerm>=1 );
  if( bAnd ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, " AND ", 5);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3_str_appendall(pStr, explainIndexColumnName(pIdx, iTerm+i));
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ")", 1);

  sqlite3_str_append(pStr, zOp, 1);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3_str_append(pStr, "?", 1);
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** Argument pLevel describes a strategy for scanning table pTab. This 
** function appends text to pStr that describes the subset of table
** rows scanned by the strategy in the form of an SQL expression.
**
................................................................................
static void explainIndexRange(StrAccum *pStr, WhereLoop *pLoop){
  Index *pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  u16 nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
  u16 nSkip = pLoop->nSkip;
  int i, j;

  if( nEq==0 && (pLoop->wsFlags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))==0 ) return;
  sqlite3_str_append(pStr, " (", 2);
  for(i=0; i<nEq; i++){
    const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, i);
    if( i ) sqlite3_str_append(pStr, " AND ", 5);
    sqlite3_str_appendf(pStr, i>=nSkip ? "%s=?" : "ANY(%s)", z);
  }

  j = i;
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nBtm, j, i, ">");
    i = 1;
  }
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nTop, j, i, "<");
  }
  sqlite3_str_append(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** This function is a no-op unless currently processing an EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
** command, or if either SQLITE_DEBUG or SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS was
** defined at compile-time. If it is not a no-op, a single OP_Explain opcode 
** is added to the output to describe the table scan strategy in pLevel.
................................................................................
    if( (flags&WHERE_MULTI_OR) || (wctrlFlags&WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE) ) return 0;

    isSearch = (flags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))!=0
            || ((flags&WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 && (pLoop->u.btree.nEq>0))
            || (wctrlFlags&(WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN|WHERE_ORDERBY_MAX));

    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&str, db, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
    sqlite3_str_appendall(&str, isSearch ? "SEARCH" : "SCAN");
    if( pItem->pSelect ){
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " SUBQUERY 0x%p", pItem->pSelect);
    }else{
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " TABLE %s", pItem->zName);
    }

    if( pItem->zAlias ){
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " AS %s", pItem->zAlias);
    }
    if( (flags & (WHERE_IPK|WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE))==0 ){
      const char *zFmt = 0;
      Index *pIdx;

      assert( pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0 );
      pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
................................................................................
        zFmt = "AUTOMATIC COVERING INDEX";
      }else if( flags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY ){
        zFmt = "COVERING INDEX %s";
      }else{
        zFmt = "INDEX %s";
      }
      if( zFmt ){
        sqlite3_str_append(&str, " USING ", 7);
        sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, zFmt, pIdx->zName);
        explainIndexRange(&str, pLoop);
      }
    }else if( (flags & WHERE_IPK)!=0 && (flags & WHERE_CONSTRAINT)!=0 ){
      const char *zRangeOp;
      if( flags&(WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_COLUMN_IN) ){
        zRangeOp = "=";
      }else if( (flags&WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT)==WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT ){
................................................................................
        zRangeOp = ">? AND rowid<";
      }else if( flags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
        zRangeOp = ">";
      }else{
        assert( flags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT);
        zRangeOp = "<";
      }
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, 
          " USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid%s?)",zRangeOp);
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    else if( (flags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)!=0 ){
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " VIRTUAL TABLE INDEX %d:%s",
                  pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr);
    }
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_EXPLAIN_ESTIMATED_ROWS
    if( pLoop->nOut>=10 ){
      sqlite3_str_appendf(&str, " (~%llu rows)",
             sqlite3LogEstToInt(pLoop->nOut));
    }else{
      sqlite3_str_append(&str, " (~1 row)", 9);
    }
#endif
    zMsg = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&str);
    ret = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v),
                            pParse->addrExplain, 0, zMsg,P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
  return ret;