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Overview
Comment:Enhance the optimizer so that IS NULL can use an available index. (CVS 3494)
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
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Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1:64762a9d582e4655d6bc5989d8e0ad773d659a7d
User & Date: drh 2006-10-28 00:28:09
Context
2006-10-30
13:37
Changes to support non-ASCII characters in win95 filenames. Ticket #2047. (CVS 3495) check-in: 9fa3ae58 user: drh tags: trunk
2006-10-28
00:28
Enhance the optimizer so that IS NULL can use an available index. (CVS 3494) check-in: 64762a9d user: drh tags: trunk
2006-10-27
14:21
Fix the ".dump" command in the command-line shell so that it shows TRIGGERs and VIEWs. Ticket #2044. (CVS 3493) check-in: 58171a41 user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/vdbe.c.

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**
** Various scripts scan this source file in order to generate HTML
** documentation, headers files, or other derived files.  The formatting
** of the code in this file is, therefore, important.  See other comments
** in this file for details.  If in doubt, do not deviate from existing
** commenting and indentation practices when changing or adding code.
**
** $Id: vdbe.c,v 1.578 2006/10/27 14:06:58 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "os.h"
#include <ctype.h>
#include "vdbeInt.h"

/*
................................................................................
    }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_IdxGE ){
      res++;
    }
    if( res>0 ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1 ;
    }
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxIsNull P1 P2 *
**
** The top of the stack contains an index entry such as might be generated
** by the MakeIdxRec opcode.  This routine looks at the first P1 fields of
** that key.  If any of the first P1 fields are NULL, then a jump is made
** to address P2.  Otherwise we fall straight through.
**
** The index entry is always popped from the stack.
*/
case OP_IdxIsNull: {        /* no-push */
  int i = pOp->p1;
  int k, n;
  const char *z;
  u32 serial_type;

  assert( pTos>=p->aStack );
  assert( pTos->flags & MEM_Blob );
  z = pTos->z;
  n = pTos->n;
  k = sqlite3GetVarint32((u8*)z, &serial_type);
  for(; k<n && i>0; i--){
    k += sqlite3GetVarint32((u8*)&z[k], &serial_type);
    if( serial_type==0 ){   /* Serial type 0 is a NULL */
      pc = pOp->p2-1;
      break;
    }
  }
  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Destroy P1 P2 *
**







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**
** Various scripts scan this source file in order to generate HTML
** documentation, headers files, or other derived files.  The formatting
** of the code in this file is, therefore, important.  See other comments
** in this file for details.  If in doubt, do not deviate from existing
** commenting and indentation practices when changing or adding code.
**
** $Id: vdbe.c,v 1.579 2006/10/28 00:28:09 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "os.h"
#include <ctype.h>
#include "vdbeInt.h"

/*
................................................................................
    }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_IdxGE ){
      res++;
    }
    if( res>0 ){
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1 ;
    }
  }
































  Release(pTos);
  pTos--;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Destroy P1 P2 *
**

Changes to src/where.c.

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** This module contains C code that generates VDBE code used to process
** the WHERE clause of SQL statements.  This module is reponsible for
** generating the code that loops through a table looking for applicable
** rows.  Indices are selected and used to speed the search when doing
** so is applicable.  Because this module is responsible for selecting
** indices, you might also think of this module as the "query optimizer".
**
** $Id: where.c,v 1.230 2006/10/27 14:06:59 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"

/*
** The number of bits in a Bitmask.  "BMS" means "BitMask Size".
*/
#define BMS  (sizeof(Bitmask)*8)
................................................................................
#define WO_IN     1
#define WO_EQ     2
#define WO_LT     (WO_EQ<<(TK_LT-TK_EQ))
#define WO_LE     (WO_EQ<<(TK_LE-TK_EQ))
#define WO_GT     (WO_EQ<<(TK_GT-TK_EQ))
#define WO_GE     (WO_EQ<<(TK_GE-TK_EQ))
#define WO_MATCH  64


/*
** Value for flags returned by bestIndex()
*/
#define WHERE_ROWID_EQ       0x0001   /* rowid=EXPR or rowid IN (...) */
#define WHERE_ROWID_RANGE    0x0002   /* rowid<EXPR and/or rowid>EXPR */
#define WHERE_COLUMN_EQ      0x0010   /* x=EXPR or x IN (...) */
................................................................................
** "=", "<", ">", "<=", ">=", and "IN".
*/
static int allowedOp(int op){
  assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ && TK_GT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LT>TK_EQ && TK_LT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LE>TK_EQ && TK_LE<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_GE==TK_EQ+4 );
  return op==TK_IN || (op>=TK_EQ && op<=TK_GE);
}

/*
** Swap two objects of type T.
*/
#define SWAP(TYPE,A,B) {TYPE t=A; A=B; B=t;}

................................................................................
** Translate from TK_xx operator to WO_xx bitmask.
*/
static int operatorMask(int op){
  int c;
  assert( allowedOp(op) );
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    c = WO_IN;


  }else{
    c = WO_EQ<<(op-TK_EQ);
  }

  assert( op!=TK_IN || c==WO_IN );
  assert( op!=TK_EQ || c==WO_EQ );
  assert( op!=TK_LT || c==WO_LT );
  assert( op!=TK_LE || c==WO_LE );
  assert( op!=TK_GT || c==WO_GT );
  assert( op!=TK_GE || c==WO_GE );
  return c;
................................................................................
  int k;
  for(pTerm=pWC->a, k=pWC->nTerm; k; k--, pTerm++){
    if( pTerm->leftCursor==iCur
       && (pTerm->prereqRight & notReady)==0
       && pTerm->leftColumn==iColumn
       && (pTerm->eOperator & op)!=0
    ){
      if( iCur>=0 && pIdx ){
        Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        CollSeq *pColl;
        char idxaff;
        int j;
        Parse *pParse = pWC->pParse;

        idxaff = pIdx->pTable->aCol[iColumn].affinity;
................................................................................
){
  WhereTerm *pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
  Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
  Bitmask prereqLeft;
  Bitmask prereqAll;
  int nPattern;
  int isComplete;


  if( sqlite3MallocFailed() ) return;
  prereqLeft = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);

  if( pExpr->op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );
    pTerm->prereqRight = exprListTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pList)
                          | exprSelectTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pSelect);


  }else{
    pTerm->prereqRight = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pRight);
  }
  prereqAll = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr);
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ){
    prereqAll |= getMask(pMaskSet, pExpr->iRightJoinTable);
  }
  pTerm->prereqAll = prereqAll;
  pTerm->leftCursor = -1;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(pExpr->op) && (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ){
    Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
    Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
    if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      pTerm->leftCursor = pLeft->iTable;
      pTerm->leftColumn = pLeft->iColumn;
      pTerm->eOperator = operatorMask(pExpr->op);
    }
    if( pRight && pRight->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      WhereTerm *pNew;
      Expr *pDup;
      if( pTerm->leftCursor>=0 ){
        int idxNew;
        pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(pExpr);
................................................................................

    /* Count the number of columns in the index that are satisfied
    ** by x=EXPR constraints or x IN (...) constraints.
    */
    flags = 0;
    for(i=0; i<pProbe->nColumn; i++){
      int j = pProbe->aiColumn[i];
      pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, j, notReady, WO_EQ|WO_IN, pProbe);
      if( pTerm==0 ) break;
      flags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
        Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
        flags |= WHERE_COLUMN_IN;
        if( pExpr->pSelect!=0 ){
          inMultiplier *= 25;
................................................................................
        disableTerm(pLevel, pOther);
      }
    }
  }
}

/*
** Generate code that builds a probe for an index.  Details:
**
**    *  Check the top nColumn entries on the stack.  If any
**       of those entries are NULL, jump immediately to brk,
**       which is the loop exit, since no index entry will match
**       if any part of the key is NULL. Pop (nColumn+nExtra) 
**       elements from the stack.
**
**    *  Construct a probe entry from the top nColumn entries in
**       the stack with affinities appropriate for index pIdx. 
**       Only nColumn elements are popped from the stack in this case
**       (by OP_MakeRecord).
**
*/
static void buildIndexProbe(
  Vdbe *v,        /* Generate code into this VM */
  int nColumn,    /* The number of columns to check for NULL */
  int nExtra,     /* Number of extra values beyond nColumn */
  int brk,        /* Jump to here if no match is possible */
  Index *pIdx     /* Index that we will be searching */
){
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_NotNull, -nColumn, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)+3);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Pop, nColumn+nExtra, 0);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Goto, 0, brk);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MakeRecord, nColumn, 0);
  sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(v, pIdx);
}


/*
** Generate code for a single equality term of the WHERE clause.  An equality
................................................................................
static void codeEqualityTerm(
  Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context */
  WhereTerm *pTerm,   /* The term of the WHERE clause to be coded */
  int brk,            /* Jump here to abandon the loop */
  WhereLevel *pLevel  /* When level of the FROM clause we are working on */
){
  Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
  if( pX->op!=TK_IN ){
    assert( pX->op==TK_EQ );
    sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pX->pRight);


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  }else{
    int iTab;
    int *aIn;
    Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;


    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX);
    iTab = pX->iTable;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Rewind, iTab, 0);
    VdbeComment((v, "# %.*s", pX->span.n, pX->span.z));
    pLevel->nIn++;
    sqliteReallocOrFree((void**)&pLevel->aInLoop,
                                 sizeof(pLevel->aInLoop[0])*2*pLevel->nIn);
................................................................................
    termsInMem = 1;
  }

  /* Evaluate the equality constraints
  */
  for(j=0; j<pIdx->nColumn; j++){
    int k = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
    pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, k, notReady, WO_EQ|WO_IN, pIdx);
    if( pTerm==0 ) break;
    assert( (pTerm->flags & TERM_CODED)==0 );
    codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, brk, pLevel);
#if 0  /* WORK IN PROGRESS */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IsNull, termsInMem ? -1 : -(j+1), brk);
#endif

    if( termsInMem ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem+j+1, 1);
    }
  }
  assert( j==nEq );

  /* Make sure all the constraint values are on the top of the stack
................................................................................
      KeyInfo *pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIx);
      assert( pIx->pSchema==pTab->pSchema );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Integer, iDb, 0);
      VdbeComment((v, "# %s", pIx->zName));
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_OpenRead, iIdxCur, pIx->tnum,
                     (char*)pKey, P3_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
    }
    if( (pLevel->flags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)!=0 ){


      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_SetNumColumns, iIdxCur, pIx->nColumn+1);
    }
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
  }
  pWInfo->iTop = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);

  /* Generate the code to do the search.  Each iteration of the for
................................................................................
      */
      int start;
      int nEq = pLevel->nEq;
      int topEq=0;        /* True if top limit uses ==. False is strictly < */
      int btmEq=0;        /* True if btm limit uses ==. False if strictly > */
      int topOp, btmOp;   /* Operators for the top and bottom search bounds */
      int testOp;
      int nNotNull;       /* Number of rows of index that must be non-NULL */
      int topLimit = (pLevel->flags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)!=0;
      int btmLimit = (pLevel->flags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT)!=0;

      /* Generate code to evaluate all constraint terms using == or IN
      ** and level the values of those terms on the stack.
      */
      codeAllEqualityTerms(pParse, pLevel, &wc, notReady, brk);
................................................................................
      }

      /* Figure out what comparison operators to use for top and bottom 
      ** search bounds. For an ascending index, the bottom bound is a > or >=
      ** operator and the top bound is a < or <= operator.  For a descending
      ** index the operators are reversed.
      */
      nNotNull = nEq + topLimit;
      if( pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_ASC ){
        topOp = WO_LT|WO_LE;
        btmOp = WO_GT|WO_GE;
      }else{
        topOp = WO_GT|WO_GE;
        btmOp = WO_LT|WO_LE;
        SWAP(int, topLimit, btmLimit);
................................................................................
        Expr *pX;
        int k = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
        pTerm = findTerm(&wc, iCur, k, notReady, topOp, pIdx);
        assert( pTerm!=0 );
        pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        assert( (pTerm->flags & TERM_CODED)==0 );
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pX->pRight);

        topEq = pTerm->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
        testOp = OP_IdxGE;
      }else{
        testOp = nEq>0 ? OP_IdxGE : OP_Noop;
        topEq = 1;
      }
      if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
        int nCol = nEq + topLimit;
        pLevel->iMem = pParse->nMem++;
        buildIndexProbe(v, nCol, nEq, brk, pIdx);
        if( bRev ){
          int op = topEq ? OP_MoveLe : OP_MoveLt;
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, op, iIdxCur, brk);
        }else{
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 1);
        }
      }else if( bRev ){
................................................................................
        Expr *pX;
        int k = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
        pTerm = findTerm(&wc, iCur, k, notReady, btmOp, pIdx);
        assert( pTerm!=0 );
        pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        assert( (pTerm->flags & TERM_CODED)==0 );
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pX->pRight);

        btmEq = pTerm->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
      }else{
        btmEq = 1;
      }
      if( nEq>0 || btmLimit ){
        int nCol = nEq + btmLimit;
        buildIndexProbe(v, nCol, 0, brk, pIdx);
        if( bRev ){
          pLevel->iMem = pParse->nMem++;
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 1);
          testOp = OP_IdxLT;
        }else{
          int op = btmEq ? OP_MoveGe : OP_MoveGt;
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, op, iIdxCur, brk);
................................................................................
      if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemLoad, pLevel->iMem, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, testOp, iIdxCur, brk);
        if( (topEq && !bRev) || (!btmEq && bRev) ){
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(v, -1, "+", P3_STATIC);
        }
      }

      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_RowKey, iIdxCur, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IdxIsNull, nNotNull, cont);

      if( !omitTable ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IdxRowid, iIdxCur, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MoveGe, iCur, 0);
      }

      /* Record the instruction used to terminate the loop.
      */
................................................................................
      ** and leave the values of those terms on the stack.
      */
      codeAllEqualityTerms(pParse, pLevel, &wc, notReady, brk);

      /* Generate a single key that will be used to both start and terminate
      ** the search
      */
      buildIndexProbe(v, nEq, 0, brk, pIdx);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 0);

      /* Generate code (1) to move to the first matching element of the table.
      ** Then generate code (2) that jumps to "brk" after the cursor is past
      ** the last matching element of the table.  The code (1) is executed
      ** once to initialize the search, the code (2) is executed before each
      ** iteration of the scan to see if the scan has finished. */
................................................................................
      }else{
        /* Scan in the forward order */
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MoveGe, iIdxCur, brk);
        start = sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemLoad, pLevel->iMem, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_IdxGE, iIdxCur, brk, "+", P3_STATIC);
        pLevel->op = OP_Next;
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_RowKey, iIdxCur, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IdxIsNull, nEq, cont);
      if( !omitTable ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IdxRowid, iIdxCur, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MoveGe, iCur, 0);
      }
      pLevel->p1 = iIdxCur;
      pLevel->p2 = start;
    }else{







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** This module contains C code that generates VDBE code used to process
** the WHERE clause of SQL statements.  This module is reponsible for
** generating the code that loops through a table looking for applicable
** rows.  Indices are selected and used to speed the search when doing
** so is applicable.  Because this module is responsible for selecting
** indices, you might also think of this module as the "query optimizer".
**
** $Id: where.c,v 1.231 2006/10/28 00:28:09 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"

/*
** The number of bits in a Bitmask.  "BMS" means "BitMask Size".
*/
#define BMS  (sizeof(Bitmask)*8)
................................................................................
#define WO_IN     1
#define WO_EQ     2
#define WO_LT     (WO_EQ<<(TK_LT-TK_EQ))
#define WO_LE     (WO_EQ<<(TK_LE-TK_EQ))
#define WO_GT     (WO_EQ<<(TK_GT-TK_EQ))
#define WO_GE     (WO_EQ<<(TK_GE-TK_EQ))
#define WO_MATCH  64
#define WO_ISNULL 128

/*
** Value for flags returned by bestIndex()
*/
#define WHERE_ROWID_EQ       0x0001   /* rowid=EXPR or rowid IN (...) */
#define WHERE_ROWID_RANGE    0x0002   /* rowid<EXPR and/or rowid>EXPR */
#define WHERE_COLUMN_EQ      0x0010   /* x=EXPR or x IN (...) */
................................................................................
** "=", "<", ">", "<=", ">=", and "IN".
*/
static int allowedOp(int op){
  assert( TK_GT>TK_EQ && TK_GT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LT>TK_EQ && TK_LT<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_LE>TK_EQ && TK_LE<TK_GE );
  assert( TK_GE==TK_EQ+4 );
  return op==TK_IN || (op>=TK_EQ && op<=TK_GE) || op==TK_ISNULL;
}

/*
** Swap two objects of type T.
*/
#define SWAP(TYPE,A,B) {TYPE t=A; A=B; B=t;}

................................................................................
** Translate from TK_xx operator to WO_xx bitmask.
*/
static int operatorMask(int op){
  int c;
  assert( allowedOp(op) );
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    c = WO_IN;
  }else if( op==TK_ISNULL ){
    c = WO_ISNULL;
  }else{
    c = WO_EQ<<(op-TK_EQ);
  }
  assert( op!=TK_ISNULL || c==WO_ISNULL );
  assert( op!=TK_IN || c==WO_IN );
  assert( op!=TK_EQ || c==WO_EQ );
  assert( op!=TK_LT || c==WO_LT );
  assert( op!=TK_LE || c==WO_LE );
  assert( op!=TK_GT || c==WO_GT );
  assert( op!=TK_GE || c==WO_GE );
  return c;
................................................................................
  int k;
  for(pTerm=pWC->a, k=pWC->nTerm; k; k--, pTerm++){
    if( pTerm->leftCursor==iCur
       && (pTerm->prereqRight & notReady)==0
       && pTerm->leftColumn==iColumn
       && (pTerm->eOperator & op)!=0
    ){
      if( iCur>=0 && pIdx && pTerm->eOperator!=WO_ISNULL ){
        Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        CollSeq *pColl;
        char idxaff;
        int j;
        Parse *pParse = pWC->pParse;

        idxaff = pIdx->pTable->aCol[iColumn].affinity;
................................................................................
){
  WhereTerm *pTerm = &pWC->a[idxTerm];
  Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
  Bitmask prereqLeft;
  Bitmask prereqAll;
  int nPattern;
  int isComplete;
  int op;

  if( sqlite3MallocFailed() ) return;
  prereqLeft = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pLeft);
  op = pExpr->op;
  if( op==TK_IN ){
    assert( pExpr->pRight==0 );
    pTerm->prereqRight = exprListTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pList)
                          | exprSelectTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pSelect);
  }else if( op==TK_ISNULL ){
    pTerm->prereqRight = 0;
  }else{
    pTerm->prereqRight = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr->pRight);
  }
  prereqAll = exprTableUsage(pMaskSet, pExpr);
  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ){
    prereqAll |= getMask(pMaskSet, pExpr->iRightJoinTable);
  }
  pTerm->prereqAll = prereqAll;
  pTerm->leftCursor = -1;
  pTerm->iParent = -1;
  pTerm->eOperator = 0;
  if( allowedOp(op) && (pTerm->prereqRight & prereqLeft)==0 ){
    Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
    Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
    if( pLeft->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      pTerm->leftCursor = pLeft->iTable;
      pTerm->leftColumn = pLeft->iColumn;
      pTerm->eOperator = operatorMask(op);
    }
    if( pRight && pRight->op==TK_COLUMN ){
      WhereTerm *pNew;
      Expr *pDup;
      if( pTerm->leftCursor>=0 ){
        int idxNew;
        pDup = sqlite3ExprDup(pExpr);
................................................................................

    /* Count the number of columns in the index that are satisfied
    ** by x=EXPR constraints or x IN (...) constraints.
    */
    flags = 0;
    for(i=0; i<pProbe->nColumn; i++){
      int j = pProbe->aiColumn[i];
      pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, j, notReady, WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_ISNULL, pProbe);
      if( pTerm==0 ) break;
      flags |= WHERE_COLUMN_EQ;
      if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
        Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
        flags |= WHERE_COLUMN_IN;
        if( pExpr->pSelect!=0 ){
          inMultiplier *= 25;
................................................................................
        disableTerm(pLevel, pOther);
      }
    }
  }
}

/*
** Generate code that builds a probe for an index.
**
** There should be nColumn values on the stack.  The index
** to be probed is pIdx.  Pop the values from the stack and
** replace them all with a single record that is the index
** problem.







*/
static void buildIndexProbe(
  Vdbe *v,        /* Generate code into this VM */
  int nColumn,    /* The number of columns to check for NULL */


  Index *pIdx     /* Index that we will be searching */
){



  sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MakeRecord, nColumn, 0);
  sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(v, pIdx);
}


/*
** Generate code for a single equality term of the WHERE clause.  An equality
................................................................................
static void codeEqualityTerm(
  Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context */
  WhereTerm *pTerm,   /* The term of the WHERE clause to be coded */
  int brk,            /* Jump here to abandon the loop */
  WhereLevel *pLevel  /* When level of the FROM clause we are working on */
){
  Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  if( pX->op==TK_EQ ){
    sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pX->pRight);
  }else if( pX->op==TK_ISNULL ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Null, 0, 0);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  }else{
    int iTab;
    int *aIn;


    assert( pX->op==TK_IN );
    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX);
    iTab = pX->iTable;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Rewind, iTab, 0);
    VdbeComment((v, "# %.*s", pX->span.n, pX->span.z));
    pLevel->nIn++;
    sqliteReallocOrFree((void**)&pLevel->aInLoop,
                                 sizeof(pLevel->aInLoop[0])*2*pLevel->nIn);
................................................................................
    termsInMem = 1;
  }

  /* Evaluate the equality constraints
  */
  for(j=0; j<pIdx->nColumn; j++){
    int k = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
    pTerm = findTerm(pWC, iCur, k, notReady, WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_ISNULL, pIdx);
    if( pTerm==0 ) break;
    assert( (pTerm->flags & TERM_CODED)==0 );
    codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, brk, pLevel);
    if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_ISNULL)==0 ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IsNull, termsInMem ? -1 : -(j+1), brk);

    }
    if( termsInMem ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem+j+1, 1);
    }
  }
  assert( j==nEq );

  /* Make sure all the constraint values are on the top of the stack
................................................................................
      KeyInfo *pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIx);
      assert( pIx->pSchema==pTab->pSchema );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Integer, iDb, 0);
      VdbeComment((v, "# %s", pIx->zName));
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_OpenRead, iIdxCur, pIx->tnum,
                     (char*)pKey, P3_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
    }
    if( (pLevel->flags & (WHERE_IDX_ONLY|WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE))!=0 ){
      /* Only call OP_SetNumColumns on the index if we might later use
      ** OP_Column on the index. */
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_SetNumColumns, iIdxCur, pIx->nColumn+1);
    }
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
  }
  pWInfo->iTop = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);

  /* Generate the code to do the search.  Each iteration of the for
................................................................................
      */
      int start;
      int nEq = pLevel->nEq;
      int topEq=0;        /* True if top limit uses ==. False is strictly < */
      int btmEq=0;        /* True if btm limit uses ==. False if strictly > */
      int topOp, btmOp;   /* Operators for the top and bottom search bounds */
      int testOp;

      int topLimit = (pLevel->flags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)!=0;
      int btmLimit = (pLevel->flags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT)!=0;

      /* Generate code to evaluate all constraint terms using == or IN
      ** and level the values of those terms on the stack.
      */
      codeAllEqualityTerms(pParse, pLevel, &wc, notReady, brk);
................................................................................
      }

      /* Figure out what comparison operators to use for top and bottom 
      ** search bounds. For an ascending index, the bottom bound is a > or >=
      ** operator and the top bound is a < or <= operator.  For a descending
      ** index the operators are reversed.
      */

      if( pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_ASC ){
        topOp = WO_LT|WO_LE;
        btmOp = WO_GT|WO_GE;
      }else{
        topOp = WO_GT|WO_GE;
        btmOp = WO_LT|WO_LE;
        SWAP(int, topLimit, btmLimit);
................................................................................
        Expr *pX;
        int k = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
        pTerm = findTerm(&wc, iCur, k, notReady, topOp, pIdx);
        assert( pTerm!=0 );
        pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        assert( (pTerm->flags & TERM_CODED)==0 );
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pX->pRight);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IsNull, -(nEq+1), brk);
        topEq = pTerm->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
        testOp = OP_IdxGE;
      }else{
        testOp = nEq>0 ? OP_IdxGE : OP_Noop;
        topEq = 1;
      }
      if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
        int nCol = nEq + topLimit;
        pLevel->iMem = pParse->nMem++;
        buildIndexProbe(v, nCol, pIdx);
        if( bRev ){
          int op = topEq ? OP_MoveLe : OP_MoveLt;
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, op, iIdxCur, brk);
        }else{
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 1);
        }
      }else if( bRev ){
................................................................................
        Expr *pX;
        int k = pIdx->aiColumn[j];
        pTerm = findTerm(&wc, iCur, k, notReady, btmOp, pIdx);
        assert( pTerm!=0 );
        pX = pTerm->pExpr;
        assert( (pTerm->flags & TERM_CODED)==0 );
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pX->pRight);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IsNull, -(nEq+1), brk);
        btmEq = pTerm->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
      }else{
        btmEq = 1;
      }
      if( nEq>0 || btmLimit ){
        int nCol = nEq + btmLimit;
        buildIndexProbe(v, nCol, pIdx);
        if( bRev ){
          pLevel->iMem = pParse->nMem++;
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 1);
          testOp = OP_IdxLT;
        }else{
          int op = btmEq ? OP_MoveGe : OP_MoveGt;
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, op, iIdxCur, brk);
................................................................................
      if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemLoad, pLevel->iMem, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, testOp, iIdxCur, brk);
        if( (topEq && !bRev) || (!btmEq && bRev) ){
          sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(v, -1, "+", P3_STATIC);
        }
      }
      if( topLimit | btmLimit ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Column, iIdxCur, nEq);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IsNull, 1, cont);
      }
      if( !omitTable ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IdxRowid, iIdxCur, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MoveGe, iCur, 0);
      }

      /* Record the instruction used to terminate the loop.
      */
................................................................................
      ** and leave the values of those terms on the stack.
      */
      codeAllEqualityTerms(pParse, pLevel, &wc, notReady, brk);

      /* Generate a single key that will be used to both start and terminate
      ** the search
      */
      buildIndexProbe(v, nEq, pIdx);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemStore, pLevel->iMem, 0);

      /* Generate code (1) to move to the first matching element of the table.
      ** Then generate code (2) that jumps to "brk" after the cursor is past
      ** the last matching element of the table.  The code (1) is executed
      ** once to initialize the search, the code (2) is executed before each
      ** iteration of the scan to see if the scan has finished. */
................................................................................
      }else{
        /* Scan in the forward order */
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MoveGe, iIdxCur, brk);
        start = sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemLoad, pLevel->iMem, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_IdxGE, iIdxCur, brk, "+", P3_STATIC);
        pLevel->op = OP_Next;
      }


      if( !omitTable ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_IdxRowid, iIdxCur, 0);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MoveGe, iCur, 0);
      }
      pLevel->p1 = iIdxCur;
      pLevel->p2 = start;
    }else{