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Overview
Comment:Separate out the code generators for the RHS of an IN operator and for SELECT/EXISTS expressions.
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SHA1:61c34ba71b733b81312078d90c1e21a8cbad669a
User & Date: drh 2014-02-05 19:10:06
Context
2014-02-06
03:31
Use OpenHash instead of OpenEphemeral for the RHS of IN operators if the result is not needed for sorting. check-in: 715fac77 user: drh tags: subquery-codegen-refactor
2014-02-05
19:10
Separate out the code generators for the RHS of an IN operator and for SELECT/EXISTS expressions. check-in: 61c34ba7 user: drh tags: subquery-codegen-refactor
18:15
Use a new opcode, OP_OpenHash, to indicate that ephemeral tables can be unordered, rather than using the BTREE_UNORDERED bit in the P5 field. check-in: 2997e181 user: drh tags: subquery-codegen-refactor
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/expr.c.

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** address of the new instruction.
*/
int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *pParse){
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);      /* Virtual machine being coded */
  return sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Once, pParse->nOnce++);
}










































































































































































/*
** This function is used by the implementation of the IN (...) operator.
** The pX parameter is the expression on the RHS of the IN operator, which
** might be either a list of expressions or a subquery.
**
** The job of this routine is to find or create a b-tree object that can
** be used either to test for membership in the RHS set or to iterate through
................................................................................
int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *pParse, Expr *pX, int *prNotFound){
  Select *p;                            /* SELECT to the right of IN operator */
  int eType = 0;                        /* Type of RHS table. IN_INDEX_* */
  int iTab = pParse->nTab++;            /* Cursor of the RHS table */
  int mustBeUnique = (prNotFound==0);   /* True if RHS must be unique */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);     /* Virtual machine being coded */


  assert( pX->op==TK_IN );

  /* Check to see if an existing table or index can be used to
  ** satisfy the query.  This is preferable to generating a new 
  ** ephemeral table.
  */
  p = (ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ? pX->x.pSelect : 0);
  if( ALWAYS(pParse->nErr==0) && isCandidateForInOpt(p) ){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;              /* Database connection */
    Table *pTab;                           /* Table <table>. */
    Expr *pExpr;                           /* Expression <column> */
    i16 iCol;                              /* Index of column <column> */
    i16 iDb;                               /* Database idx for pTab */

    assert( p );                        /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList!=0 );             /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList->a[0].pExpr!=0 ); /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pSrc!=0 );               /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    pTab = p->pSrc->a[0].pTab;
    pExpr = p->pEList->a[0].pExpr;
................................................................................
    iCol = (i16)pExpr->iColumn;
   
    /* Code an OP_VerifyCookie and OP_TableLock for <table>. */
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pTab->pSchema);
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
    sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, pTab->tnum, 0, pTab->zName);

    /* This function is only called from two places. In both cases the vdbe
    ** has already been allocated. So assume sqlite3GetVdbe() is always
    ** successful here.
    */
    assert(v);
    if( iCol<0 ){
      int iAddr;

      iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);

      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTab, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
      eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;

      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, iAddr);
    }else{
      Index *pIdx;                         /* Iterator variable */

      /* The collation sequence used by the comparison. If an index is to
      ** be used in place of a temp-table, it must be ordered according
      ** to this collation sequence.  */
................................................................................
    }else{
      testcase( pParse->nQueryLoop>0 );
      pParse->nQueryLoop = 0;
      if( pX->pLeft->iColumn<0 && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;
      }
    }
    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX, rMayHaveNull, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);
    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
  }else{
    pX->iTable = iTab;
  }
  return eType;
}
#endif

/*
** Generate code for scalar subqueries used as a subquery expression, EXISTS,
** or IN operators.  Examples:
**
**     (SELECT a FROM b)          -- subquery
**     EXISTS (SELECT a FROM b)   -- EXISTS subquery
**     x IN (4,5,11)              -- IN operator with list on right-hand side
**     x IN (SELECT a FROM b)     -- IN operator with subquery on the right
**
** The pExpr parameter describes the expression that contains the IN
** operator or subquery.
**
** If parameter isRowid is non-zero, then expression pExpr is guaranteed
** to be of the form "<rowid> IN (?, ?, ?)", where <rowid> is a reference
** to some integer key column of a table B-Tree. In this case, use an
** intkey B-Tree to store the set of IN(...) values instead of the usual
** (slower) variable length keys B-Tree.
**
** If rMayHaveNull is non-zero, that means that the operation is an IN
** (not a SELECT or EXISTS) and that the RHS might contains NULLs.
** Furthermore, the IN is in a WHERE clause and that we really want
** to iterate over the RHS of the IN operator in order to quickly locate
** all corresponding LHS elements.  All this routine does is initialize
** the register given by rMayHaveNull to NULL.  Calling routines will take
** care of changing this register value to non-NULL if the RHS is NULL-free.
**
** If rMayHaveNull is zero, that means that the subquery is being used
** for membership testing only.  There is no need to initialize any
** registers to indicate the presence or absence of NULLs on the RHS.
**
** For a SELECT or EXISTS operator, return the register that holds the
** result.  For IN operators or if an error occurs, the return value is 0.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pExpr,            /* The IN, SELECT, or EXISTS operator */
  int rMayHaveNull,       /* Register that records whether NULLs exist in RHS */
  int isRowid             /* If true, LHS of IN operator is a rowid */

){
  int testAddr = -1;                      /* One-time test address */
  int rReg = 0;                           /* Register storing resulting */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);



  if( NEVER(v==0) ) return 0;




  sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);

  /* This code must be run in its entirety every time it is encountered
  ** if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  The right-hand side is a correlated subquery
  **    *  The right-hand side is an expression list containing variables
  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
  */
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect) ){
    testAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);
  }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
  if( pParse->explain==2 ){
    char *zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf(
        pParse->db, "EXECUTE %s%s SUBQUERY %d", testAddr>=0?"":"CORRELATED ",
        pExpr->op==TK_IN?"LIST":"SCALAR", pParse->iNextSelectId
    );
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
#endif

  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_IN: {
      char affinity;              /* Affinity of the LHS of the IN */
      int addr;                   /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral instruction */
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft; /* the LHS of the IN operator */
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = 0;      /* Key information */

      if( rMayHaveNull ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, rMayHaveNull);
      }

      affinity = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft);

      /* Whether this is an 'x IN(SELECT...)' or an 'x IN(<exprlist>)'
      ** expression it is handled the same way.  An ephemeral table is 
      ** filled with single-field index keys representing the results
      ** from the SELECT or the <exprlist>.
      **
      ** If the 'x' expression is a column value, or the SELECT...
      ** statement returns a column value, then the affinity of that
      ** column is used to build the index keys. If both 'x' and the
      ** SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity is used
      ** if either column has NUMERIC or INTEGER affinity. If neither
      ** 'x' nor the SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity
      ** is used.
      */
      pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, pExpr->iTable, !isRowid);
      pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, 1, 1);

      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        /* Case 1:     expr IN (SELECT ...)
        **
        ** Generate code to write the results of the select into the temporary
        ** table allocated and opened above.
        */
        SelectDest dest;
        ExprList *pEList;

        assert( !isRowid );
        sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Set, pExpr->iTable);
        dest.affSdst = (u8)affinity;
        assert( (pExpr->iTable&0x0000FFFF)==pExpr->iTable );
        pExpr->x.pSelect->iLimit = 0;
        testcase( pKeyInfo==0 ); /* Caused by OOM in sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc() */
        if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pExpr->x.pSelect, &dest) ){
          sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(pKeyInfo);
          return 0;
        }
        pEList = pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList;
        assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
        assert( pEList!=0 );
        assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
        assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
        pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft,
                                                         pEList->a[0].pExpr);
      }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList!=0) ){
        /* Case 2:     expr IN (exprlist)
        **
        ** For each expression, build an index key from the evaluation and
        ** store it in the temporary table. If <expr> is a column, then use
        ** that columns affinity when building index keys. If <expr> is not
        ** a column, use numeric affinity.
        */
        int i;
        ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
        struct ExprList_item *pItem;
        int r1, r2, r3;

        if( !affinity ){
          affinity = SQLITE_AFF_NONE;
        }
        if( pKeyInfo ){
          assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
          pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
        }

        /* Loop through each expression in <exprlist>. */
        r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        r2 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, r2);
        for(i=pList->nExpr, pItem=pList->a; i>0; i--, pItem++){
          Expr *pE2 = pItem->pExpr;
          int iValToIns;

          /* If the expression is not constant then we will need to
          ** disable the test that was generated above that makes sure
          ** this code only executes once.  Because for a non-constant
          ** expression we need to rerun this code each time.
          */
          if( testAddr>=0 && !sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pE2) ){
            sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(v, testAddr);
            testAddr = -1;
          }

          /* Evaluate the expression and insert it into the temp table */
          if( isRowid && sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pE2, &iValToIns) ){
            sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InsertInt, pExpr->iTable, r2, iValToIns);
          }else{
            r3 = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pE2, r1);
            if( isRowid ){
              sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_MustBeInt, r3,
                                sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)+2);
              sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, pExpr->iTable, r2, r3);
            }else{
              sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, r3, 1, r2, &affinity, 1);
              sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, r3, 1);
              sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, pExpr->iTable, r2);
            }
          }
        }
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
      }
      if( pKeyInfo ){
        sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr, (void *)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
      }
      break;
    }

    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT:
    default: {
      /* If this has to be a scalar SELECT.  Generate code to put the
      ** value of this select in a memory cell and record the number
      ** of the memory cell in iColumn.  If this is an EXISTS, write
      ** an integer 0 (not exists) or 1 (exists) into a memory cell
      ** and record that memory cell in iColumn.
      */
      Select *pSel;                         /* SELECT statement to encode */
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECt result */

      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );

      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, 0, ++pParse->nMem);
      if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
        dest.eDest = SRT_Mem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, dest.iSDParm);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init subquery result"));
      }else{
        dest.eDest = SRT_Exists;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, dest.iSDParm);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init EXISTS result"));
      }
      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pSel->pLimit);
      pSel->pLimit = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_INTEGER, 0, 0,
                                  &sqlite3IntTokens[1]);
      pSel->iLimit = 0;
      if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest) ){
        return 0;
      }
      rReg = dest.iSDParm;
      ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);
      break;
    }
  }

  if( testAddr>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, testAddr);
  }
  sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse, 1);

  return rReg;
................................................................................
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT: {
      testcase( op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( op==TK_SELECT );
      inReg = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr, 0, 0);
      break;
    }
    case TK_IN: {
      int destIfFalse = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      int destIfNull = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, target);
      sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, destIfFalse, destIfNull);







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** address of the new instruction.
*/
int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *pParse){
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);      /* Virtual machine being coded */
  return sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Once, pParse->nOnce++);
}

/*
** Generate code that constructs a transient table for the RHS of an IN
** operator:
**
**     x IN (4,5,11)              -- IN operator with list on right-hand side
**     x IN (SELECT a FROM b)     -- IN operator with subquery on the right
**
** The pExpr parameter is the IN expression.
**
** If parameter isRowid is non-zero, then expression pExpr is guaranteed
** to be of the form "<rowid> IN (?, ?, ?)", where <rowid> is a reference
** to some integer key column of a table B-Tree. In this case, use an
** intkey B-Tree to store the set of IN(...) values instead of the usual
** (slower) variable length keys B-Tree.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
static void sqlite3CreateInOperatorRhsTable(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pExpr,            /* The IN, SELECT, or EXISTS operator */
  int isRowid             /* If true, LHS of IN operator is a rowid */
){
  int testAddr = -1;                      /* One-time test address */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);       /* prepared stmt under construction */
  char affinity;                          /* Affinity of the LHS of the IN */
  int addr;                               /* Address of OP_Open.. instruction */
  Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;             /* the LHS of the IN operator */
  KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = 0;                  /* Key information */

  assert( v!=0 );
  assert( pExpr->op==TK_IN );
  sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);

  /* This code must be run in its entirety every time it is encountered
  ** if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  The right-hand side is a correlated subquery
  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
  */
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect) ){
    testAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);
  }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
  if( pParse->explain==2 ){
    char *zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf(
        pParse->db, "EXECUTE %sLIST SUBQUERY %d", testAddr>=0?"":"CORRELATED ",
        pParse->iNextSelectId
    );
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
#endif

  affinity = sqlite3ExprAffinity(pLeft);

  /* Whether this is an 'x IN(SELECT...)' or an 'x IN(<exprlist>)'
  ** expression it is handled the same way.  An ephemeral table is 
  ** filled with single-field index keys representing the results
  ** from the SELECT or the <exprlist>.
  **
  ** If the 'x' expression is a column value, or the SELECT...
  ** statement returns a column value, then the affinity of that
  ** column is used to build the index keys. If both 'x' and the
  ** SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity is used
  ** if either column has NUMERIC or INTEGER affinity. If neither
  ** 'x' nor the SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity
  ** is used.
  */
  pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
  addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, pExpr->iTable, !isRowid);
  pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, 1, 1);

  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
    /* Case 1:     expr IN (SELECT ...)
    **
    ** Generate code to write the results of the select into the temporary
    ** table allocated and opened above.
    */
    SelectDest dest;
    ExprList *pEList;

    assert( !isRowid );
    sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Set, pExpr->iTable);
    dest.affSdst = (u8)affinity;
    assert( (pExpr->iTable&0x0000FFFF)==pExpr->iTable );
    pExpr->x.pSelect->iLimit = 0;
    testcase( pKeyInfo==0 ); /* Caused by OOM in sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc() */
    if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pExpr->x.pSelect, &dest) ){
      sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(pKeyInfo);
      return;
    }
    pEList = pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList;
    assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
    assert( pEList!=0 );
    assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
    assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
    pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft,
                                                     pEList->a[0].pExpr);
  }else if( ALWAYS(pExpr->x.pList!=0) ){
    /* Case 2:     expr IN (exprlist)
    **
    ** For each expression, build an index key from the evaluation and
    ** store it in the temporary table. If <expr> is a column, then use
    ** that columns affinity when building index keys. If <expr> is not
    ** a column, use numeric affinity.
    */
    int i;
    ExprList *pList = pExpr->x.pList;
    struct ExprList_item *pItem;
    int r1, r2, r3;

    if( !affinity ){
      affinity = SQLITE_AFF_NONE;
    }
    if( pKeyInfo ){
      assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
      pKeyInfo->aColl[0] = sqlite3ExprCollSeq(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
    }

    /* Loop through each expression in <exprlist>. */
    r1 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    r2 = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, r2);
    for(i=pList->nExpr, pItem=pList->a; i>0; i--, pItem++){
      Expr *pE2 = pItem->pExpr;
      int iValToIns;

      /* If the expression is not constant then we will need to
      ** disable the test that was generated above that makes sure
      ** this code only executes once.  Because for a non-constant
      ** expression we need to rerun this code each time.
      */
      if( testAddr>=0 && !sqlite3ExprIsConstant(pE2) ){
        sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(v, testAddr);
        testAddr = -1;
      }

      /* Evaluate the expression and insert it into the temp table */
      if( isRowid && sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pE2, &iValToIns) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InsertInt, pExpr->iTable, r2, iValToIns);
      }else{
        r3 = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pE2, r1);
        if( isRowid ){
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_MustBeInt, r3,
                            sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v)+2);
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, pExpr->iTable, r2, r3);
        }else{
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, r3, 1, r2, &affinity, 1);
          sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, r3, 1);
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, pExpr->iTable, r2);
        }
      }
    }
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
  }
  if( pKeyInfo ){
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr, (void *)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
  }

  if( testAddr>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, testAddr);
  }
  sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse, 1);
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */

/*
** This function is used by the implementation of the IN (...) operator.
** The pX parameter is the expression on the RHS of the IN operator, which
** might be either a list of expressions or a subquery.
**
** The job of this routine is to find or create a b-tree object that can
** be used either to test for membership in the RHS set or to iterate through
................................................................................
int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *pParse, Expr *pX, int *prNotFound){
  Select *p;                            /* SELECT to the right of IN operator */
  int eType = 0;                        /* Type of RHS table. IN_INDEX_* */
  int iTab = pParse->nTab++;            /* Cursor of the RHS table */
  int mustBeUnique = (prNotFound==0);   /* True if RHS must be unique */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);     /* Virtual machine being coded */

  assert( v!=0 );
  assert( pX->op==TK_IN );

  /* Check to see if an existing table or index can be used to
  ** satisfy the query.  This is preferable to generating a new 
  ** ephemeral table.
  */
  p = (ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ? pX->x.pSelect : 0);
  if( ALWAYS(pParse->nErr==0) && isCandidateForInOpt(p) ){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;           /* Database connection */
    Table *pTab;                        /* Table <table>. */
    Expr *pExpr;                        /* Expression <column> */
    i16 iCol;                           /* Index of column <column> */
    i16 iDb;                            /* Database idx for pTab */

    assert( p );                        /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList!=0 );             /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pEList->a[0].pExpr!=0 ); /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    assert( p->pSrc!=0 );               /* Because of isCandidateForInOpt(p) */
    pTab = p->pSrc->a[0].pTab;
    pExpr = p->pEList->a[0].pExpr;
................................................................................
    iCol = (i16)pExpr->iColumn;
   
    /* Code an OP_VerifyCookie and OP_TableLock for <table>. */
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pTab->pSchema);
    sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(pParse, iDb);
    sqlite3TableLock(pParse, iDb, pTab->tnum, 0, pTab->zName);






    if( iCol<0 ){


      int iAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);

      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTab, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
      eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;

      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, iAddr);
    }else{
      Index *pIdx;                         /* Iterator variable */

      /* The collation sequence used by the comparison. If an index is to
      ** be used in place of a temp-table, it must be ordered according
      ** to this collation sequence.  */
................................................................................
    }else{
      testcase( pParse->nQueryLoop>0 );
      pParse->nQueryLoop = 0;
      if( pX->pLeft->iColumn<0 && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;
      }
    }
    sqlite3CreateInOperatorRhsTable(pParse, pX, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);
    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
  }else{
    pX->iTable = iTab;
  }
  return eType;
}
#endif

/*
** Generate code for scalar subqueries used as a subquery expression:

**
**     (SELECT a FROM b)          -- subquery
**     EXISTS (SELECT a FROM b)   -- EXISTS subquery


**
** The pExpr parameter describes the expression that contains the subquery.

**


















** Return the register that holds the result.

*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
static int sqlite3CodeScalarSubquery(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */



  Expr *pExpr             /* The SELECT or EXISTS operator */
){
  int testAddr = -1;                      /* One-time test address */
  int rReg = 0;                           /* Register storing resulting */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
  Select *pSel;                           /* SELECT statement to encode */
  SelectDest dest;                        /* How to deal with SELECt result */

  if( NEVER(v==0) ) return 0;
  testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
  testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
  assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
  assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );
  sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);

  /* This code must be run in its entirety every time it is encountered
  ** if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  pExpr is a correlated subquery

  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
  */
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect) ){
    testAddr = sqlite3CodeOnce(pParse);
  }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN
  if( pParse->explain==2 ){
    char *zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf(
        pParse->db, "EXECUTE %sSCALAR SUBQUERY %d",
        testAddr>=0?"":"CORRELATED ", pParse->iNextSelectId
    );
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, pParse->iSelectId, 0, 0, zMsg, P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
#endif










































































































































  pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
  sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, 0, ++pParse->nMem);
  if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
    dest.eDest = SRT_Mem;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, dest.iSDParm);
    VdbeComment((v, "Init subquery result"));
  }else{
    dest.eDest = SRT_Exists;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, dest.iSDParm);
    VdbeComment((v, "Init EXISTS result"));
  }
  sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pSel->pLimit);
  pSel->pLimit = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_INTEGER, 0, 0,
                              &sqlite3IntTokens[1]);
  pSel->iLimit = 0;
  if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest) ){
    return 0;
  }
  rReg = dest.iSDParm;
  ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);




  if( testAddr>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, testAddr);
  }
  sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse, 1);

  return rReg;
................................................................................
      break;
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT: {
      testcase( op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( op==TK_SELECT );
      inReg = sqlite3CodeScalarSubquery(pParse, pExpr);
      break;
    }
    case TK_IN: {
      int destIfFalse = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      int destIfNull = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, target);
      sqlite3ExprCodeIN(pParse, pExpr, destIfFalse, destIfNull);

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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void sqlite3RootPageMoved(sqlite3*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *, Expr *, int, int);
void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);
int sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy(Parse*, Select*, ExprList*, const char*);
void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int, int);







<







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void sqlite3RootPageMoved(sqlite3*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);

void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);
int sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy(Parse*, Select*, ExprList*, const char*);
void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int, int);