/ Check-in [53fd040c]
Login

Many hyperlinks are disabled.
Use anonymous login to enable hyperlinks.

Overview
Comment:Enhance Lemon to generate more compact and efficient code for yy_reduce(). Update the main SQL grammar to take advantage of the new capabilities.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 53fd040c98d9647ea135d43c493777bf8da4aebd
User & Date: drh 2016-02-17 13:24:12
Context
2016-02-17
14:11
Improve test coverage of demo code in fts5_test_mi.c. check-in: 8a78050d user: dan tags: trunk
13:24
Enhance Lemon to generate more compact and efficient code for yy_reduce(). Update the main SQL grammar to take advantage of the new capabilities. check-in: 53fd040c user: drh tags: trunk
12:34
More agressive use of /*A-overwrites-X*/ in the parser. Fix an off-by-one error in parser stack overflow detection. Closed-Leaf check-in: 417e7777 user: drh tags: parser-performance
11:13
Documentation typo on sqlite3_wal_hook(). No changes to code. check-in: fc2043eb user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to doc/lemon.html.

157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164

165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
...
258
259
260
261
262
263
264






265
266
267
268
269
270
271
...
613
614
615
616
617
618
619

620
621
622
623
624
625
626
the type of the third argument is integer, but the grammar will
usually redefine this type to be some kind of structure.
Typically the second argument will be a broad category of tokens
such as ``identifier'' or ``number'' and the third argument will
be the name of the identifier or the value of the number.</p>

<p>The Parse() function may have either three or four arguments,
depending on the grammar.  If the grammar specification file request

it, the Parse() function will have a fourth parameter that can be
of any type chosen by the programmer.  The parser doesn't do anything
with this argument except to pass it through to action routines.
This is a convenient mechanism for passing state information down
to the action routines without having to use global variables.</p>

<p>A typical use of a Lemon parser might look something like the
following:
................................................................................
<li>Lemon allows multiple parsers to be running simultaneously.  Yacc
    and bison do not.
</ul>
These differences may cause some initial confusion for programmers
with prior yacc and bison experience.
But after years of experience using Lemon, I firmly
believe that the Lemon way of doing things is better.</p>







<h2>Input File Syntax</h2>

<p>The main purpose of the grammar specification file for Lemon is
to define the grammar for the parser.  But the input file also
specifies additional information Lemon requires to do its job.
Most of the work in using Lemon is in writing an appropriate
................................................................................
the destructor is not called in this circumstance.</p>

<p>By appropriate use of destructors, it is possible to
build a parser using Lemon that can be used within a long-running
program, such as a GUI, that will not leak memory or other resources.
To do the same using yacc or bison is much more difficult.</p>


<h4>The <tt>%extra_argument</tt> directive</h4>

The %extra_argument directive instructs Lemon to add a 4th parameter
to the parameter list of the Parse() function it generates.  Lemon
doesn't do anything itself with this extra argument, but it does
make the argument available to C-code action routines, destructors,
and so forth.  For example, if the grammar file contains:</p>







|
>
|







 







>
>
>
>
>
>







 







>







157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
...
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
...
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
the type of the third argument is integer, but the grammar will
usually redefine this type to be some kind of structure.
Typically the second argument will be a broad category of tokens
such as ``identifier'' or ``number'' and the third argument will
be the name of the identifier or the value of the number.</p>

<p>The Parse() function may have either three or four arguments,
depending on the grammar.  If the grammar specification file requests
it (via the <a href='#extraarg'><tt>extra_argument</tt> directive</a>),
the Parse() function will have a fourth parameter that can be
of any type chosen by the programmer.  The parser doesn't do anything
with this argument except to pass it through to action routines.
This is a convenient mechanism for passing state information down
to the action routines without having to use global variables.</p>

<p>A typical use of a Lemon parser might look something like the
following:
................................................................................
<li>Lemon allows multiple parsers to be running simultaneously.  Yacc
    and bison do not.
</ul>
These differences may cause some initial confusion for programmers
with prior yacc and bison experience.
But after years of experience using Lemon, I firmly
believe that the Lemon way of doing things is better.</p>

<p><i>Updated as of 2016-02-16:</i>
The text above was written in the 1990s.
We are told that Bison has lately been enhanced to support the
tokenizer-calls-parser paradigm used by Lemon, and to obviate the
need for global variables.</p>

<h2>Input File Syntax</h2>

<p>The main purpose of the grammar specification file for Lemon is
to define the grammar for the parser.  But the input file also
specifies additional information Lemon requires to do its job.
Most of the work in using Lemon is in writing an appropriate
................................................................................
the destructor is not called in this circumstance.</p>

<p>By appropriate use of destructors, it is possible to
build a parser using Lemon that can be used within a long-running
program, such as a GUI, that will not leak memory or other resources.
To do the same using yacc or bison is much more difficult.</p>

<a name="extraarg"></a>
<h4>The <tt>%extra_argument</tt> directive</h4>

The %extra_argument directive instructs Lemon to add a 4th parameter
to the parameter list of the Parse() function it generates.  Lemon
doesn't do anything itself with this extra argument, but it does
make the argument available to C-code action routines, destructors,
and so forth.  For example, if the grammar file contains:</p>

Changes to ext/fts5/fts5parse.y.

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
%syntax_error {
  UNUSED_PARAM(yymajor); /* Silence a compiler warning */
  sqlite3Fts5ParseError(
    pParse, "fts5: syntax error near \"%.*s\"",TOKEN.n,TOKEN.p
  );
}
%stack_overflow {
  UNUSED_PARAM(yypMinor); /* Silence a compiler warning */
  sqlite3Fts5ParseError(pParse, "fts5: parser stack overflow");
}

// The name of the generated procedure that implements the parser
// is as follows:
%name sqlite3Fts5Parser








<







30
31
32
33
34
35
36

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
%syntax_error {
  UNUSED_PARAM(yymajor); /* Silence a compiler warning */
  sqlite3Fts5ParseError(
    pParse, "fts5: syntax error near \"%.*s\"",TOKEN.n,TOKEN.p
  );
}
%stack_overflow {

  sqlite3Fts5ParseError(pParse, "fts5: parser stack overflow");
}

// The name of the generated procedure that implements the parser
// is as follows:
%name sqlite3Fts5Parser

Changes to src/parse.y.

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
...
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
...
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
...
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
...
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
...
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
...
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
...
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
...
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
...
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
...
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499



500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
...
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
...
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
...
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659

660
661
662
663
664

665

666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
...
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
...
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
...
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
...
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869

870
871
872
873
874
875

876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883

884
885
886
887
888
889

890
891
892
893

894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913

914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
...
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956

957
958
959
960

961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
....
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056

1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062

1063
1064

1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099

1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
....
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142

1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181


1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196

1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
....
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
....
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
....
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
....
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445

1446
1447
1448
1449

1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457

1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
....
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
//
%syntax_error {
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(yymajor);  /* Silence some compiler warnings */
  assert( TOKEN.z[0] );  /* The tokenizer always gives us a token */
  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "near \"%T\": syntax error", &TOKEN);
}
%stack_overflow {
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(yypMinor); /* Silence some compiler warnings */
  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "parser stack overflow");
}

// The name of the generated procedure that implements the parser
// is as follows:
%name sqlite3Parser

................................................................................

cmd ::= BEGIN transtype(Y) trans_opt.  {sqlite3BeginTransaction(pParse, Y);}
trans_opt ::= .
trans_opt ::= TRANSACTION.
trans_opt ::= TRANSACTION nm.
%type transtype {int}
transtype(A) ::= .             {A = TK_DEFERRED;}
transtype(A) ::= DEFERRED(X).  {A = @X;}
transtype(A) ::= IMMEDIATE(X). {A = @X;}
transtype(A) ::= EXCLUSIVE(X). {A = @X;}
cmd ::= COMMIT trans_opt.      {sqlite3CommitTransaction(pParse);}
cmd ::= END trans_opt.         {sqlite3CommitTransaction(pParse);}
cmd ::= ROLLBACK trans_opt.    {sqlite3RollbackTransaction(pParse);}

savepoint_opt ::= SAVEPOINT.
savepoint_opt ::= .
cmd ::= SAVEPOINT nm(X). {
................................................................................

///////////////////// The CREATE TABLE statement ////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= create_table create_table_args.
create_table ::= createkw temp(T) TABLE ifnotexists(E) nm(Y) dbnm(Z). {
   sqlite3StartTable(pParse,&Y,&Z,T,0,0,E);
}
createkw(A) ::= CREATE(X).  {
  disableLookaside(pParse);
  A = X;
}
%type ifnotexists {int}
ifnotexists(A) ::= .              {A = 0;}
ifnotexists(A) ::= IF NOT EXISTS. {A = 1;}
%type temp {int}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
temp(A) ::= TEMP.  {A = 1;}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
................................................................................
columnlist ::= column.

// A "column" is a complete description of a single column in a
// CREATE TABLE statement.  This includes the column name, its
// datatype, and other keywords such as PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, REFERENCES,
// NOT NULL and so forth.
//
column(A) ::= columnid(X) type carglist. {
  A.z = X.z;
  A.n = (int)(pParse->sLastToken.z-X.z) + pParse->sLastToken.n;
}
columnid(A) ::= nm(X). {
  sqlite3AddColumn(pParse,&X);
  A = X;
  pParse->constraintName.n = 0;
}


// An IDENTIFIER can be a generic identifier, or one of several
// keywords.  Any non-standard keyword can also be an identifier.
//
................................................................................
// And "ids" is an identifer-or-string.
//
%token_class ids  ID|STRING.

// The name of a column or table can be any of the following:
//
%type nm {Token}
nm(A) ::= id(X).         {A = X;}
nm(A) ::= STRING(X).     {A = X;}
nm(A) ::= JOIN_KW(X).    {A = X;}

// A typetoken is really one or more tokens that form a type name such
// as can be found after the column name in a CREATE TABLE statement.
// Multiple tokens are concatenated to form the value of the typetoken.
//
%type typetoken {Token}
type ::= .
type ::= typetoken(X).                   {sqlite3AddColumnType(pParse,&X);}
typetoken(A) ::= typename(X).   {A = X;}
typetoken(A) ::= typename(X) LP signed RP(Y). {
  A.z = X.z;
  A.n = (int)(&Y.z[Y.n] - X.z);
}
typetoken(A) ::= typename(X) LP signed COMMA signed RP(Y). {
  A.z = X.z;
  A.n = (int)(&Y.z[Y.n] - X.z);
}
%type typename {Token}
typename(A) ::= ids(X).             {A = X;}
typename(A) ::= typename(X) ids(Y). {A.z=X.z; A.n=Y.n+(int)(Y.z-X.z);}
signed ::= plus_num.
signed ::= minus_num.

// "carglist" is a list of additional constraints that come after the
// column name and column type in a CREATE TABLE statement.
//
carglist ::= carglist ccons.
................................................................................
  v.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_UMINUS, X.pExpr, 0, 0);
  v.zStart = A.z;
  v.zEnd = X.zEnd;
  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&v);
}
ccons ::= DEFAULT id(X).              {
  ExprSpan v;
  spanExpr(&v, pParse, TK_STRING, &X);
  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&v);
}

// In addition to the type name, we also care about the primary key and
// UNIQUE constraints.
//
ccons ::= NULL onconf.
................................................................................
// The next group of rules parses the arguments to a REFERENCES clause
// that determine if the referential integrity checking is deferred or
// or immediate and which determine what action to take if a ref-integ
// check fails.
//
%type refargs {int}
refargs(A) ::= .                  { A = OE_None*0x0101; /* EV: R-19803-45884 */}
refargs(A) ::= refargs(X) refarg(Y). { A = (X & ~Y.mask) | Y.value; }
%type refarg {struct {int value; int mask;}}
refarg(A) ::= MATCH nm.              { A.value = 0;     A.mask = 0x000000; }
refarg(A) ::= ON INSERT refact.      { A.value = 0;     A.mask = 0x000000; }
refarg(A) ::= ON DELETE refact(X).   { A.value = X;     A.mask = 0x0000ff; }
refarg(A) ::= ON UPDATE refact(X).   { A.value = X<<8;  A.mask = 0x00ff00; }
%type refact {int}
refact(A) ::= SET NULL.              { A = OE_SetNull;  /* EV: R-33326-45252 */}
................................................................................
defer_subclause(A) ::= DEFERRABLE init_deferred_pred_opt(X).      {A = X;}
%type init_deferred_pred_opt {int}
init_deferred_pred_opt(A) ::= .                       {A = 0;}
init_deferred_pred_opt(A) ::= INITIALLY DEFERRED.     {A = 1;}
init_deferred_pred_opt(A) ::= INITIALLY IMMEDIATE.    {A = 0;}

conslist_opt(A) ::= .                         {A.n = 0; A.z = 0;}
conslist_opt(A) ::= COMMA(X) conslist.        {A = X;}
conslist ::= conslist tconscomma tcons.
conslist ::= tcons.
tconscomma ::= COMMA.            {pParse->constraintName.n = 0;}
tconscomma ::= .
tcons ::= CONSTRAINT nm(X).      {pParse->constraintName = X;}
tcons ::= PRIMARY KEY LP sortlist(X) autoinc(I) RP onconf(R).
                                 {sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(pParse,X,R,I,0);}
................................................................................
tcons ::= FOREIGN KEY LP eidlist(FA) RP
          REFERENCES nm(T) eidlist_opt(TA) refargs(R) defer_subclause_opt(D). {
    sqlite3CreateForeignKey(pParse, FA, &T, TA, R);
    sqlite3DeferForeignKey(pParse, D);
}
%type defer_subclause_opt {int}
defer_subclause_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
defer_subclause_opt(A) ::= defer_subclause(X).  {A = X;}

// The following is a non-standard extension that allows us to declare the
// default behavior when there is a constraint conflict.
//
%type onconf {int}
%type orconf {int}
%type resolvetype {int}
onconf(A) ::= .                              {A = OE_Default;}
onconf(A) ::= ON CONFLICT resolvetype(X).    {A = X;}
orconf(A) ::= .                              {A = OE_Default;}
orconf(A) ::= OR resolvetype(X).             {A = X;}
resolvetype(A) ::= raisetype(X).             {A = X;}
resolvetype(A) ::= IGNORE.                   {A = OE_Ignore;}
resolvetype(A) ::= REPLACE.                  {A = OE_Replace;}

////////////////////////// The DROP TABLE /////////////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= DROP TABLE ifexists(E) fullname(X). {
  sqlite3DropTable(pParse, X, 0, E);
................................................................................
  Select *p = X;
  if( p ){
    p->pWith = W;
    parserDoubleLinkSelect(pParse, p);
  }else{
    sqlite3WithDelete(pParse->db, W);
  }
  A = p;
}

selectnowith(A) ::= oneselect(X).                      {A = X;}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
selectnowith(A) ::= selectnowith(X) multiselect_op(Y) oneselect(Z).  {
  Select *pRhs = Z;
  Select *pLhs = X;
  if( pRhs && pRhs->pPrior ){
    SrcList *pFrom;
    Token x;
    x.n = 0;
    parserDoubleLinkSelect(pParse, pRhs);
    pFrom = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,0,0,0,&x,pRhs,0,0);
    pRhs = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,pFrom,0,0,0,0,0,0,0);
................................................................................
    if( Y!=TK_ALL ) pParse->hasCompound = 1;
  }else{
    sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, pLhs);
  }
  A = pRhs;
}
%type multiselect_op {int}
multiselect_op(A) ::= UNION(OP).             {A = @OP;}
multiselect_op(A) ::= UNION ALL.             {A = TK_ALL;}
multiselect_op(A) ::= EXCEPT|INTERSECT(OP).  {A = @OP;}
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
oneselect(A) ::= SELECT(S) distinct(D) selcollist(W) from(X) where_opt(Y)
                 groupby_opt(P) having_opt(Q) orderby_opt(Z) limit_opt(L). {



  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,W,X,Y,P,Q,Z,D,L.pLimit,L.pOffset);
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  /* Populate the Select.zSelName[] string that is used to help with
  ** query planner debugging, to differentiate between multiple Select
  ** objects in a complex query.
  **
  ** If the SELECT keyword is immediately followed by a C-style comment
  ** then extract the first few alphanumeric characters from within that
  ** comment to be the zSelName value.  Otherwise, the label is #N where
  ** is an integer that is incremented with each SELECT statement seen.
  */
  if( A!=0 ){
    const char *z = S.z+6;
    int i;
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(A->zSelName), A->zSelName, "#%d",
                     ++pParse->nSelect);
    while( z[0]==' ' ) z++;
    if( z[0]=='/' && z[1]=='*' ){
      z += 2;
      while( z[0]==' ' ) z++;
      for(i=0; sqlite3Isalnum(z[i]); i++){}
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(A->zSelName), A->zSelName, "%.*s", i, z);
    }
  }
#endif /* SELECTRACE_ENABLED */
}
oneselect(A) ::= values(X).    {A = X;}

%type values {Select*}
%destructor values {sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
values(A) ::= VALUES LP nexprlist(X) RP. {
  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,X,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values,0,0);
}
values(A) ::= values(X) COMMA LP exprlist(Y) RP. {
  Select *pRight, *pLeft = X;
  pRight = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,Y,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values|SF_MultiValue,0,0);
  if( ALWAYS(pLeft) ) pLeft->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
  if( pRight ){
    pRight->op = TK_ALL;
    pLeft = X;
    pRight->pPrior = pLeft;
    A = pRight;
  }else{
    A = pLeft;
  }
}

................................................................................
// "SELECT * FROM ..." is encoded as a special expression with an
// opcode of TK_ASTERISK.
//
%type selcollist {ExprList*}
%destructor selcollist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type sclp {ExprList*}
%destructor sclp {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
sclp(A) ::= selcollist(X) COMMA.             {A = X;}
sclp(A) ::= .                                {A = 0;}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(P) expr(X) as(Y).     {
   A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, P, X.pExpr);
   if( Y.n>0 ) sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &Y, 1);
   sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(pParse,A,&X);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(P) STAR. {
  Expr *p = sqlite3Expr(pParse->db, TK_ASTERISK, 0);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, P, p);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(P) nm(X) DOT STAR(Y). {
  Expr *pRight = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ASTERISK, 0, 0, &Y);
  Expr *pLeft = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &X);
  Expr *pDot = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, pLeft, pRight, 0);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,P, pDot);
}

// An option "AS <id>" phrase that can follow one of the expressions that
// define the result set, or one of the tables in the FROM clause.
//
%type as {Token}
as(X) ::= AS nm(Y).    {X = Y;}
as(X) ::= ids(Y).      {X = Y;}
as(X) ::= .            {X.n = 0;}


%type seltablist {SrcList*}
%destructor seltablist {sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type stl_prefix {SrcList*}
%destructor stl_prefix {sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
................................................................................
  A = X;
  sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(A);
}

// "seltablist" is a "Select Table List" - the content of the FROM clause
// in a SELECT statement.  "stl_prefix" is a prefix of this list.
//
stl_prefix(A) ::= seltablist(X) joinop(Y).    {
   A = X;
   if( ALWAYS(A && A->nSrc>0) ) A->a[A->nSrc-1].fg.jointype = (u8)Y;
}
stl_prefix(A) ::= .                           {A = 0;}
seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(X) nm(Y) dbnm(D) as(Z) indexed_opt(I)
                  on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
  A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,X,&Y,&D,&Z,0,N,U);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, A, &I);
}
seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(X) nm(Y) dbnm(D) LP exprlist(E) RP as(Z)
                  on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
  A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,X,&Y,&D,&Z,0,N,U);
  sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(pParse, A, E);
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(X) LP select(S) RP
                    as(Z) on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
    A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,X,0,0,&Z,S,N,U);
  }
  seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(X) LP seltablist(F) RP
                    as(Z) on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
    if( X==0 && Z.n==0 && N==0 && U==0 ){
      A = F;
    }else if( F->nSrc==1 ){
      A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,X,0,0,&Z,0,N,U);
      if( A ){
        struct SrcList_item *pNew = &A->a[A->nSrc-1];
        struct SrcList_item *pOld = F->a;
        pNew->zName = pOld->zName;
        pNew->zDatabase = pOld->zDatabase;
        pNew->pSelect = pOld->pSelect;
        pOld->zName = pOld->zDatabase = 0;
................................................................................
        pOld->pSelect = 0;
      }
      sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, F);
    }else{
      Select *pSubquery;
      sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(F);
      pSubquery = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,F,0,0,0,0,SF_NestedFrom,0,0);
      A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,X,0,0,&Z,pSubquery,N,U);
    }
  }
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

%type dbnm {Token}
dbnm(A) ::= .          {A.z=0; A.n=0;}
dbnm(A) ::= DOT nm(X). {A = X;}

%type fullname {SrcList*}
%destructor fullname {sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

fullname(A) ::= nm(X) dbnm(Y).  {A = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db,0,&X,&Y);}

%type joinop {int}
joinop(X) ::= COMMA|JOIN.              { X = JT_INNER; }
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) JOIN.         { X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,0,0); }

joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) JOIN.   { X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,0); }

joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) nm(C) JOIN.
                                       { X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,&C); }

%type on_opt {Expr*}
%destructor on_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
on_opt(N) ::= ON expr(E).   {N = E.pExpr;}
on_opt(N) ::= .             {N = 0;}

// Note that this block abuses the Token type just a little. If there is
................................................................................
// sort order.
//
%type sortlist {ExprList*}
%destructor sortlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

orderby_opt(A) ::= .                          {A = 0;}
orderby_opt(A) ::= ORDER BY sortlist(X).      {A = X;}
sortlist(A) ::= sortlist(X) COMMA expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,X,Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}
sortlist(A) ::= expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}

%type sortorder {int}

sortorder(A) ::= ASC.           {A = SQLITE_SO_ASC;}
sortorder(A) ::= DESC.          {A = SQLITE_SO_DESC;}
................................................................................
  sqlite3Update(pParse,X,Y,W,R);
}
%endif

%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(Z) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, Z, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}

................................................................................
%type idlist_opt {IdList*}
%destructor idlist_opt {sqlite3IdListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type idlist {IdList*}
%destructor idlist {sqlite3IdListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

idlist_opt(A) ::= .                       {A = 0;}
idlist_opt(A) ::= LP idlist(X) RP.    {A = X;}
idlist(A) ::= idlist(X) COMMA nm(Y).
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,X,&Y);}
idlist(A) ::= nm(Y).
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,0,&Y);}

/////////////////////////// Expression Processing /////////////////////////////
//

%type expr {ExprSpan}
%destructor expr {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$.pExpr);}
%type term {ExprSpan}
................................................................................
    pOut->zEnd = &pEnd->z[pEnd->n];
  }

  /* Construct a new Expr object from a single identifier.  Use the
  ** new Expr to populate pOut.  Set the span of pOut to be the identifier
  ** that created the expression.
  */
  static void spanExpr(ExprSpan *pOut, Parse *pParse, int op, Token *pValue){
    pOut->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, 0, 0, pValue);
    pOut->zStart = pValue->z;
    pOut->zEnd = &pValue->z[pValue->n];
  }
}

expr(A) ::= term(X).             {A = X;}
expr(A) ::= LP(B) expr(X) RP(E). {A.pExpr = X.pExpr; spanSet(&A,&B,&E);}

term(A) ::= NULL(X).             {spanExpr(&A, pParse, @X, &X);}
expr(A) ::= id(X).               {spanExpr(&A, pParse, TK_ID, &X);}
expr(A) ::= JOIN_KW(X).          {spanExpr(&A, pParse, TK_ID, &X);}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &X);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &Y);

  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp2, 0);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y);
}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y) DOT nm(Z). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &X);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &Y);
  Expr *temp3 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &Z);
  Expr *temp4 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp2, temp3, 0);

  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp4, 0);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Z);
}
term(A) ::= INTEGER|FLOAT|BLOB(X).  {spanExpr(&A, pParse, @X, &X);}
term(A) ::= STRING(X).              {spanExpr(&A, pParse, @X, &X);}
expr(A) ::= VARIABLE(X).     {

  if( X.n>=2 && X.z[0]=='#' && sqlite3Isdigit(X.z[1]) ){
    /* When doing a nested parse, one can include terms in an expression
    ** that look like this:   #1 #2 ...  These terms refer to registers
    ** in the virtual machine.  #N is the N-th register. */

    if( pParse->nested==0 ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "near \"%T\": syntax error", &X);
      A.pExpr = 0;
    }else{
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_REGISTER, 0, 0, &X);
      if( A.pExpr ) sqlite3GetInt32(&X.z[1], &A.pExpr->iTable);
    }
  }else{
    spanExpr(&A, pParse, TK_VARIABLE, &X);
    sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(pParse, A.pExpr);
  }
  spanSet(&A, &X, &X);
}
expr(A) ::= expr(E) COLLATE ids(C). {
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, E.pExpr, &C, 1);
  A.zStart = E.zStart;
  A.zEnd = &C.z[C.n];
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= CAST(X) LP expr(E) AS typetoken(T) RP(Y). {

  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CAST, E.pExpr, 0, &T);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y);
}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= id(X) LP distinct(D) exprlist(Y) RP(E). {
  if( Y && Y->nExpr>pParse->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG] ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "too many arguments on function %T", &X);
  }
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, Y, &X);
................................................................................
}

%include {
  /* This routine constructs a binary expression node out of two ExprSpan
  ** objects and uses the result to populate a new ExprSpan object.
  */
  static void spanBinaryExpr(
    ExprSpan *pOut,     /* Write the result here */
    Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context.  Errors accumulate here */
    int op,             /* The binary operation */
    ExprSpan *pLeft,    /* The left operand */
    ExprSpan *pRight    /* The right operand */
  ){
    pOut->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pLeft->pExpr, pRight->pExpr, 0);
    pOut->zStart = pLeft->zStart;
    pOut->zEnd = pRight->zEnd;
  }

  /* If doNot is true, then add a TK_NOT Expr-node wrapper around the
  ** outside of *ppExpr.
  */
  static void exprNot(Parse *pParse, int doNot, Expr **ppExpr){

    if( doNot ) *ppExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, *ppExpr, 0, 0);
  }
}


expr(A) ::= expr(X) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) BITAND|BITOR|LSHIFT|RSHIFT(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) PLUS|MINUS(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) STAR|SLASH|REM(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) CONCAT(OP) expr(Y). {spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,@OP,&X,&Y);}
%type likeop {struct LikeOp}
likeop(A) ::= LIKE_KW|MATCH(X).     {A.eOperator = X; A.bNot = 0;}
likeop(A) ::= NOT LIKE_KW|MATCH(X). {A.eOperator = X; A.bNot = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) likeop(OP) expr(Y).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, X.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP.eOperator);
  exprNot(pParse, OP.bNot, &A.pExpr);
  A.zStart = X.zStart;
  A.zEnd = Y.zEnd;
  if( A.pExpr ) A.pExpr->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) likeop(OP) expr(Y) ESCAPE expr(E).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, X.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, E.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP.eOperator);
  exprNot(pParse, OP.bNot, &A.pExpr);
  A.zStart = X.zStart;
  A.zEnd = E.zEnd;
  if( A.pExpr ) A.pExpr->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}

%include {
  /* Construct an expression node for a unary postfix operator
  */
  static void spanUnaryPostfix(
    ExprSpan *pOut,        /* Write the new expression node here */
    Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing context to record errors */
    int op,                /* The operator */
    ExprSpan *pOperand,    /* The operand */
    Token *pPostOp         /* The operand token for setting the span */
  ){
    pOut->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pOperand->pExpr, 0, 0);
    pOut->zStart = pOperand->zStart;
    pOut->zEnd = &pPostOp->z[pPostOp->n];
  }                           
}

expr(A) ::= expr(X) ISNULL|NOTNULL(E).   {spanUnaryPostfix(&A,pParse,@E,&X,&E);}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) NOT NULL(E). {spanUnaryPostfix(&A,pParse,TK_NOTNULL,&X,&E);}

%include {
  /* A routine to convert a binary TK_IS or TK_ISNOT expression into a
  ** unary TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL expression. */
  static void binaryToUnaryIfNull(Parse *pParse, Expr *pY, Expr *pA, int op){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
    if( pA && pY && pY->op==TK_NULL ){
................................................................................

//    expr1 IS expr2
//    expr1 IS NOT expr2
//
// If expr2 is NULL then code as TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL.  If expr2
// is any other expression, code as TK_IS or TK_ISNOT.
// 
expr(A) ::= expr(X) IS expr(Y).     {
  spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,TK_IS,&X,&Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y.pExpr, A.pExpr, TK_ISNULL);
}
expr(A) ::= expr(X) IS NOT expr(Y). {
  spanBinaryExpr(&A,pParse,TK_ISNOT,&X,&Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y.pExpr, A.pExpr, TK_NOTNULL);
}

%include {
  /* Construct an expression node for a unary prefix operator
  */
  static void spanUnaryPrefix(
    ExprSpan *pOut,        /* Write the new expression node here */
    Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing context to record errors */
    int op,                /* The operator */
    ExprSpan *pOperand,    /* The operand */
    Token *pPreOp         /* The operand token for setting the span */
  ){
    pOut->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pOperand->pExpr, 0, 0);
    pOut->zStart = pPreOp->z;

    pOut->zEnd = pOperand->zEnd;
  }
}




expr(A) ::= NOT(B) expr(X).    {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,@B,&X,&B);}
expr(A) ::= BITNOT(B) expr(X). {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,@B,&X,&B);}

expr(A) ::= MINUS(B) expr(X). [BITNOT]
                               {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,TK_UMINUS,&X,&B);}
expr(A) ::= PLUS(B) expr(X). [BITNOT]
                               {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,TK_UPLUS,&X,&B);}

%type between_op {int}
between_op(A) ::= BETWEEN.     {A = 0;}
between_op(A) ::= NOT BETWEEN. {A = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(W) between_op(N) expr(X) AND expr(Y). [BETWEEN] {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, X.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, Y.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_BETWEEN, W.pExpr, 0, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = pList;
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  } 
  exprNot(pParse, N, &A.pExpr);
  A.zStart = W.zStart;
  A.zEnd = Y.zEnd;
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  %type in_op {int}
  in_op(A) ::= IN.      {A = 0;}
  in_op(A) ::= NOT IN.  {A = 1;}
  expr(A) ::= expr(X) in_op(N) LP exprlist(Y) RP(E). [IN] {
    if( Y==0 ){
      /* Expressions of the form
      **
      **      expr1 IN ()
      **      expr1 NOT IN ()
      **
      ** simplify to constants 0 (false) and 1 (true), respectively,
      ** regardless of the value of expr1.
      */

      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_INTEGER, 0, 0, &sqlite3IntTokens[N]);
      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, X.pExpr);
    }else if( Y->nExpr==1 ){
      /* Expressions of the form:
      **
      **      expr1 IN (?1)
      **      expr1 NOT IN (?2)
      **
      ** with exactly one value on the RHS can be simplified to something
................................................................................
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      /* pRHS cannot be NULL because a malloc error would have been detected
      ** before now and control would have never reached this point */
      if( ALWAYS(pRHS) ){
        pRHS->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
        pRHS->flags |= EP_Generic;
      }
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, N ? TK_NE : TK_EQ, X.pExpr, pRHS, 0);
    }else{
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, X.pExpr, 0, 0);
      if( A.pExpr ){
        A.pExpr->x.pList = Y;
        sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      }
      exprNot(pParse, N, &A.pExpr);
    }
    A.zStart = X.zStart;
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= LP(B) select(X) RP(E). {

    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_SELECT, 0, 0, 0);
    if( A.pExpr ){
      A.pExpr->x.pSelect = X;
      ExprSetProperty(A.pExpr, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
    }else{
      sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, X);
    }
    A.zStart = B.z;
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(X) in_op(N) LP select(Y) RP(E).  [IN] {
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, X.pExpr, 0, 0);
    if( A.pExpr ){
      A.pExpr->x.pSelect = Y;
      ExprSetProperty(A.pExpr, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
    }else{
      sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    }
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A.pExpr);
    A.zStart = X.zStart;
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(X) in_op(N) nm(Y) dbnm(Z). [IN] {
    SrcList *pSrc = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db, 0,&Y,&Z);
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, X.pExpr, 0, 0);
    if( A.pExpr ){
      A.pExpr->x.pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0,pSrc,0,0,0,0,0,0,0);
      ExprSetProperty(A.pExpr, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
    }else{
      sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, pSrc);
    }
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A.pExpr);
    A.zStart = X.zStart;
    A.zEnd = Z.z ? &Z.z[Z.n] : &Y.z[Y.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= EXISTS(B) LP select(Y) RP(E). {


    Expr *p = A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EXISTS, 0, 0, 0);
    if( p ){
      p->x.pSelect = Y;
      ExprSetProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, p);
    }else{
      sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    }
    A.zStart = B.z;
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

/* CASE expressions */
expr(A) ::= CASE(C) case_operand(X) case_exprlist(Y) case_else(Z) END(E). {

  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CASE, X, 0, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = Z ? sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,Y,Z) : Y;
    sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, Z);
  }
  A.zStart = C.z;
  A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
}
%type case_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor case_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_exprlist(A) ::= case_exprlist(X) WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,X, Y.pExpr);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z.pExpr);
}
case_exprlist(A) ::= WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z.pExpr);
}
%type case_else {Expr*}
%destructor case_else {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_else(A) ::=  ELSE expr(X).         {A = X.pExpr;}
case_else(A) ::=  .                     {A = 0;} 
%type case_operand {Expr*}
%destructor case_operand {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_operand(A) ::= expr(X).            {A = X.pExpr;} 
case_operand(A) ::= .                   {A = 0;} 

%type exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type nexprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor nexprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

exprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(X).                {A = X;}
exprlist(A) ::= .                            {A = 0;}
nexprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(X) COMMA expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,X,Y.pExpr);}
nexprlist(A) ::= expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y.pExpr);}


///////////////////////////// The CREATE INDEX command ///////////////////////
//
cmd ::= createkw(S) uniqueflag(U) INDEX ifnotexists(NE) nm(X) dbnm(D)
        ON nm(Y) LP sortlist(Z) RP where_opt(W). {
  sqlite3CreateIndex(pParse, &X, &D, 
................................................................................
    sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, p, pIdToken, 1);
    return p;
  }
} // end %include

eidlist_opt(A) ::= .                         {A = 0;}
eidlist_opt(A) ::= LP eidlist(X) RP.         {A = X;}
eidlist(A) ::= eidlist(X) COMMA nm(Y) collate(C) sortorder(Z).  {
  A = parserAddExprIdListTerm(pParse, X, &Y, C, Z);
}
eidlist(A) ::= nm(Y) collate(C) sortorder(Z). {
  A = parserAddExprIdListTerm(pParse, 0, &Y, C, Z);
}

%type collate {int}
collate(C) ::= .              {C = 0;}
collate(C) ::= COLLATE ids.   {C = 1;}


................................................................................
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) EQ nmnum(Y).    {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,0);}
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) LP nmnum(Y) RP. {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,0);}
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) EQ minus_num(Y). 
                                             {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,1);}
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) LP minus_num(Y) RP.
                                             {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,1);}

nmnum(A) ::= plus_num(X).             {A = X;}
nmnum(A) ::= nm(X).                   {A = X;}
nmnum(A) ::= ON(X).                   {A = X;}
nmnum(A) ::= DELETE(X).               {A = X;}
nmnum(A) ::= DEFAULT(X).              {A = X;}
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_PRAGMA
%token_class number INTEGER|FLOAT.
plus_num(A) ::= PLUS number(X).       {A = X;}
plus_num(A) ::= number(X).            {A = X;}
minus_num(A) ::= MINUS number(X).     {A = X;}
//////////////////////////// The CREATE TRIGGER command /////////////////////

%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

cmd ::= createkw trigger_decl(A) BEGIN trigger_cmd_list(S) END(Z). {
  Token all;
................................................................................
  sqlite3FinishTrigger(pParse, S, &all);
}

trigger_decl(A) ::= temp(T) TRIGGER ifnotexists(NOERR) nm(B) dbnm(Z) 
                    trigger_time(C) trigger_event(D)
                    ON fullname(E) foreach_clause when_clause(G). {
  sqlite3BeginTrigger(pParse, &B, &Z, C, D.a, D.b, E, G, T, NOERR);
  A = (Z.n==0?B:Z);
}

%type trigger_time {int}
trigger_time(A) ::= BEFORE.      { A = TK_BEFORE; }
trigger_time(A) ::= AFTER.       { A = TK_AFTER;  }
trigger_time(A) ::= INSTEAD OF.  { A = TK_INSTEAD;}
trigger_time(A) ::= .            { A = TK_BEFORE; }

%type trigger_event {struct TrigEvent}
%destructor trigger_event {sqlite3IdListDelete(pParse->db, $$.b);}
trigger_event(A) ::= DELETE|INSERT(OP).       {A.a = @OP; A.b = 0;}
trigger_event(A) ::= UPDATE(OP).              {A.a = @OP; A.b = 0;}
trigger_event(A) ::= UPDATE OF idlist(X). {A.a = TK_UPDATE; A.b = X;}

foreach_clause ::= .
foreach_clause ::= FOR EACH ROW.

%type when_clause {Expr*}
%destructor when_clause {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
when_clause(A) ::= .             { A = 0; }
when_clause(A) ::= WHEN expr(X). { A = X.pExpr; }

%type trigger_cmd_list {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd_list {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
trigger_cmd_list(A) ::= trigger_cmd_list(Y) trigger_cmd(X) SEMI. {
  assert( Y!=0 );
  Y->pLast->pNext = X;
  Y->pLast = X;
  A = Y;
}
trigger_cmd_list(A) ::= trigger_cmd(X) SEMI. { 
  assert( X!=0 );
  X->pLast = X;
  A = X;
}

// Disallow qualified table names on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements
// within a trigger.  The table to INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE is always in 
// the same database as the table that the trigger fires on.
//
%type trnm {Token}
trnm(A) ::= nm(X).   {A = X;}
trnm(A) ::= nm DOT nm(X). {
  A = X;
  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, 
        "qualified table names are not allowed on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE "
        "statements within triggers");
}

................................................................................


%type trigger_cmd {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
// UPDATE 
trigger_cmd(A) ::=
   UPDATE orconf(R) trnm(X) tridxby SET setlist(Y) where_opt(Z).  
   { A = sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(pParse->db, &X, Y, Z, R); }

// INSERT
trigger_cmd(A) ::= insert_cmd(R) INTO trnm(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S).
               {A = sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(pParse->db, &X, F, S, R);}

// DELETE
trigger_cmd(A) ::= DELETE FROM trnm(X) tridxby where_opt(Y).
               {A = sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(pParse->db, &X, Y);}

// SELECT

trigger_cmd(A) ::= select(X).  {A = sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(pParse->db, X); }

// The special RAISE expression that may occur in trigger programs
expr(A) ::= RAISE(X) LP IGNORE RP(Y).  {

  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_RAISE, 0, 0, 0); 
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->affinity = OE_Ignore;
  }
  A.zStart = X.z;
  A.zEnd = &Y.z[Y.n];
}
expr(A) ::= RAISE(X) LP raisetype(T) COMMA nm(Z) RP(Y).  {

  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_RAISE, 0, 0, &Z); 
  if( A.pExpr ) {
    A.pExpr->affinity = (char)T;
  }
  A.zStart = X.z;
  A.zEnd = &Y.z[Y.n];
}
%endif  !SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

%type raisetype {int}
raisetype(A) ::= ROLLBACK.  {A = OE_Rollback;}
raisetype(A) ::= ABORT.     {A = OE_Abort;}
raisetype(A) ::= FAIL.      {A = OE_Fail;}
................................................................................

with(A) ::= . {A = 0;}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CTE
with(A) ::= WITH wqlist(W).              { A = W; }
with(A) ::= WITH RECURSIVE wqlist(W).    { A = W; }

wqlist(A) ::= nm(X) eidlist_opt(Y) AS LP select(Z) RP. {
  A = sqlite3WithAdd(pParse, 0, &X, Y, Z);
}
wqlist(A) ::= wqlist(W) COMMA nm(X) eidlist_opt(Y) AS LP select(Z) RP. {
  A = sqlite3WithAdd(pParse, W, &X, Y, Z);
}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_CTE







<







 







|
|
|







 







<
|
<
|







 







|
<
|

|
|
<







 







|
|
|








|
|
<
|

|
<
|


|
|







 







|







 







|







 







|







 







|











|







 







|


|

|

|







 







|

|



>
>
>












|













|






|
|




<







 







|

|
|



|

|

|



|







|







 







|
<



|

|


|

|



|

|

|

|


|







 







|










>
|



|
>
|
>

|







 







|
|



|







 







|
|







 







|
|

|







 







|
|
|
|



|
|
>
|
|
|



>

<






>

<

|
|

>
|



>

|


|
|


|


<

|
|
<




>

<







 







<


|


|
<
|





|
>
|
|
|
|
>
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|

|


|

|
<



|


|


|
<








<


|


|
<
|



|
|







 







|
|


|
|













<

>






>
|
|
>

|

|




|


|





|
<






|









>

<







 







|

|






|

<



>








<
<

|
|







|
<


|

|







|
<



>
>
|







<
<





>








<
<



|
|












|







|

|
|

|







 







|
|


|







 







|
|
|
|
|



|







 







|










|
|
|











|
|
|
|
<

|
|
|
<







|







 







|



|



|


>
|



>




<
<


>




<
<







 







|

|
|


31
32
33
34
35
36
37

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
...
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
...
159
160
161
162
163
164
165

166

167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
...
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201

202
203
204
205

206
207
208
209
210
211
212
...
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275

276
277
278

279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
...
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
...
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
...
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
...
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
...
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
...
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534

535
536
537
538
539
540
541
...
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
...
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604

605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
...
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
...
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
...
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
...
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
...
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875

876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883

884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904

905
906
907

908
909
910
911
912
913

914
915
916
917
918
919
920
...
933
934
935
936
937
938
939

940
941
942
943
944
945

946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979

980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989

990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997

998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003

1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
....
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048

1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078

1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096

1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
....
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133

1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145


1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156

1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169

1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182


1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196


1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
....
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
....
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
....
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380

1381
1382
1383
1384

1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
....
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443


1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450


1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
....
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
//
%syntax_error {
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(yymajor);  /* Silence some compiler warnings */
  assert( TOKEN.z[0] );  /* The tokenizer always gives us a token */
  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "near \"%T\": syntax error", &TOKEN);
}
%stack_overflow {

  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "parser stack overflow");
}

// The name of the generated procedure that implements the parser
// is as follows:
%name sqlite3Parser

................................................................................

cmd ::= BEGIN transtype(Y) trans_opt.  {sqlite3BeginTransaction(pParse, Y);}
trans_opt ::= .
trans_opt ::= TRANSACTION.
trans_opt ::= TRANSACTION nm.
%type transtype {int}
transtype(A) ::= .             {A = TK_DEFERRED;}
transtype(A) ::= DEFERRED(X).  {A = @X; /*A-overwrites-X*/}
transtype(A) ::= IMMEDIATE(X). {A = @X; /*A-overwrites-X*/}
transtype(A) ::= EXCLUSIVE(X). {A = @X; /*A-overwrites-X*/}
cmd ::= COMMIT trans_opt.      {sqlite3CommitTransaction(pParse);}
cmd ::= END trans_opt.         {sqlite3CommitTransaction(pParse);}
cmd ::= ROLLBACK trans_opt.    {sqlite3RollbackTransaction(pParse);}

savepoint_opt ::= SAVEPOINT.
savepoint_opt ::= .
cmd ::= SAVEPOINT nm(X). {
................................................................................

///////////////////// The CREATE TABLE statement ////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= create_table create_table_args.
create_table ::= createkw temp(T) TABLE ifnotexists(E) nm(Y) dbnm(Z). {
   sqlite3StartTable(pParse,&Y,&Z,T,0,0,E);
}

createkw(A) ::= CREATE(A).  {disableLookaside(pParse);}


%type ifnotexists {int}
ifnotexists(A) ::= .              {A = 0;}
ifnotexists(A) ::= IF NOT EXISTS. {A = 1;}
%type temp {int}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
temp(A) ::= TEMP.  {A = 1;}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
................................................................................
columnlist ::= column.

// A "column" is a complete description of a single column in a
// CREATE TABLE statement.  This includes the column name, its
// datatype, and other keywords such as PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, REFERENCES,
// NOT NULL and so forth.
//
column(A) ::= columnid(A) type carglist. {

  A.n = (int)(pParse->sLastToken.z-A.z) + pParse->sLastToken.n;
}
columnid(A) ::= nm(A). {
  sqlite3AddColumn(pParse,&A);

  pParse->constraintName.n = 0;
}


// An IDENTIFIER can be a generic identifier, or one of several
// keywords.  Any non-standard keyword can also be an identifier.
//
................................................................................
// And "ids" is an identifer-or-string.
//
%token_class ids  ID|STRING.

// The name of a column or table can be any of the following:
//
%type nm {Token}
nm(A) ::= id(A).
nm(A) ::= STRING(A).
nm(A) ::= JOIN_KW(A).

// A typetoken is really one or more tokens that form a type name such
// as can be found after the column name in a CREATE TABLE statement.
// Multiple tokens are concatenated to form the value of the typetoken.
//
%type typetoken {Token}
type ::= .
type ::= typetoken(X).                   {sqlite3AddColumnType(pParse,&X);}
typetoken(A) ::= typename(A).
typetoken(A) ::= typename(A) LP signed RP(Y). {

  A.n = (int)(&Y.z[Y.n] - A.z);
}
typetoken(A) ::= typename(A) LP signed COMMA signed RP(Y). {

  A.n = (int)(&Y.z[Y.n] - A.z);
}
%type typename {Token}
typename(A) ::= ids(A).
typename(A) ::= typename(A) ids(Y). {A.n=Y.n+(int)(Y.z-A.z);}
signed ::= plus_num.
signed ::= minus_num.

// "carglist" is a list of additional constraints that come after the
// column name and column type in a CREATE TABLE statement.
//
carglist ::= carglist ccons.
................................................................................
  v.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_UMINUS, X.pExpr, 0, 0);
  v.zStart = A.z;
  v.zEnd = X.zEnd;
  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&v);
}
ccons ::= DEFAULT id(X).              {
  ExprSpan v;
  spanExpr(&v, pParse, TK_STRING, X);
  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&v);
}

// In addition to the type name, we also care about the primary key and
// UNIQUE constraints.
//
ccons ::= NULL onconf.
................................................................................
// The next group of rules parses the arguments to a REFERENCES clause
// that determine if the referential integrity checking is deferred or
// or immediate and which determine what action to take if a ref-integ
// check fails.
//
%type refargs {int}
refargs(A) ::= .                  { A = OE_None*0x0101; /* EV: R-19803-45884 */}
refargs(A) ::= refargs(A) refarg(Y). { A = (A & ~Y.mask) | Y.value; }
%type refarg {struct {int value; int mask;}}
refarg(A) ::= MATCH nm.              { A.value = 0;     A.mask = 0x000000; }
refarg(A) ::= ON INSERT refact.      { A.value = 0;     A.mask = 0x000000; }
refarg(A) ::= ON DELETE refact(X).   { A.value = X;     A.mask = 0x0000ff; }
refarg(A) ::= ON UPDATE refact(X).   { A.value = X<<8;  A.mask = 0x00ff00; }
%type refact {int}
refact(A) ::= SET NULL.              { A = OE_SetNull;  /* EV: R-33326-45252 */}
................................................................................
defer_subclause(A) ::= DEFERRABLE init_deferred_pred_opt(X).      {A = X;}
%type init_deferred_pred_opt {int}
init_deferred_pred_opt(A) ::= .                       {A = 0;}
init_deferred_pred_opt(A) ::= INITIALLY DEFERRED.     {A = 1;}
init_deferred_pred_opt(A) ::= INITIALLY IMMEDIATE.    {A = 0;}

conslist_opt(A) ::= .                         {A.n = 0; A.z = 0;}
conslist_opt(A) ::= COMMA(A) conslist.
conslist ::= conslist tconscomma tcons.
conslist ::= tcons.
tconscomma ::= COMMA.            {pParse->constraintName.n = 0;}
tconscomma ::= .
tcons ::= CONSTRAINT nm(X).      {pParse->constraintName = X;}
tcons ::= PRIMARY KEY LP sortlist(X) autoinc(I) RP onconf(R).
                                 {sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(pParse,X,R,I,0);}
................................................................................
tcons ::= FOREIGN KEY LP eidlist(FA) RP
          REFERENCES nm(T) eidlist_opt(TA) refargs(R) defer_subclause_opt(D). {
    sqlite3CreateForeignKey(pParse, FA, &T, TA, R);
    sqlite3DeferForeignKey(pParse, D);
}
%type defer_subclause_opt {int}
defer_subclause_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
defer_subclause_opt(A) ::= defer_subclause(A).

// The following is a non-standard extension that allows us to declare the
// default behavior when there is a constraint conflict.
//
%type onconf {int}
%type orconf {int}
%type resolvetype {int}
onconf(A) ::= .                              {A = OE_Default;}
onconf(A) ::= ON CONFLICT resolvetype(X).    {A = X;}
orconf(A) ::= .                              {A = OE_Default;}
orconf(A) ::= OR resolvetype(X).             {A = X;}
resolvetype(A) ::= raisetype(A).
resolvetype(A) ::= IGNORE.                   {A = OE_Ignore;}
resolvetype(A) ::= REPLACE.                  {A = OE_Replace;}

////////////////////////// The DROP TABLE /////////////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= DROP TABLE ifexists(E) fullname(X). {
  sqlite3DropTable(pParse, X, 0, E);
................................................................................
  Select *p = X;
  if( p ){
    p->pWith = W;
    parserDoubleLinkSelect(pParse, p);
  }else{
    sqlite3WithDelete(pParse->db, W);
  }
  A = p; /*A-overwrites-W*/
}

selectnowith(A) ::= oneselect(A).
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
selectnowith(A) ::= selectnowith(A) multiselect_op(Y) oneselect(Z).  {
  Select *pRhs = Z;
  Select *pLhs = A;
  if( pRhs && pRhs->pPrior ){
    SrcList *pFrom;
    Token x;
    x.n = 0;
    parserDoubleLinkSelect(pParse, pRhs);
    pFrom = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,0,0,0,&x,pRhs,0,0);
    pRhs = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,pFrom,0,0,0,0,0,0,0);
................................................................................
    if( Y!=TK_ALL ) pParse->hasCompound = 1;
  }else{
    sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, pLhs);
  }
  A = pRhs;
}
%type multiselect_op {int}
multiselect_op(A) ::= UNION(OP).             {A = @OP; /*A-overwrites-OP*/}
multiselect_op(A) ::= UNION ALL.             {A = TK_ALL;}
multiselect_op(A) ::= EXCEPT|INTERSECT(OP).  {A = @OP; /*A-overwrites-OP*/}
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
oneselect(A) ::= SELECT(S) distinct(D) selcollist(W) from(X) where_opt(Y)
                 groupby_opt(P) having_opt(Q) orderby_opt(Z) limit_opt(L). {
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  Token s = S; /*A-overwrites-S*/
#endif
  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,W,X,Y,P,Q,Z,D,L.pLimit,L.pOffset);
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  /* Populate the Select.zSelName[] string that is used to help with
  ** query planner debugging, to differentiate between multiple Select
  ** objects in a complex query.
  **
  ** If the SELECT keyword is immediately followed by a C-style comment
  ** then extract the first few alphanumeric characters from within that
  ** comment to be the zSelName value.  Otherwise, the label is #N where
  ** is an integer that is incremented with each SELECT statement seen.
  */
  if( A!=0 ){
    const char *z = s.z+6;
    int i;
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(A->zSelName), A->zSelName, "#%d",
                     ++pParse->nSelect);
    while( z[0]==' ' ) z++;
    if( z[0]=='/' && z[1]=='*' ){
      z += 2;
      while( z[0]==' ' ) z++;
      for(i=0; sqlite3Isalnum(z[i]); i++){}
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(A->zSelName), A->zSelName, "%.*s", i, z);
    }
  }
#endif /* SELECTRACE_ENABLED */
}
oneselect(A) ::= values(A).

%type values {Select*}
%destructor values {sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
values(A) ::= VALUES LP nexprlist(X) RP. {
  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,X,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values,0,0);
}
values(A) ::= values(A) COMMA LP exprlist(Y) RP. {
  Select *pRight, *pLeft = A;
  pRight = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,Y,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values|SF_MultiValue,0,0);
  if( ALWAYS(pLeft) ) pLeft->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
  if( pRight ){
    pRight->op = TK_ALL;

    pRight->pPrior = pLeft;
    A = pRight;
  }else{
    A = pLeft;
  }
}

................................................................................
// "SELECT * FROM ..." is encoded as a special expression with an
// opcode of TK_ASTERISK.
//
%type selcollist {ExprList*}
%destructor selcollist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type sclp {ExprList*}
%destructor sclp {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
sclp(A) ::= selcollist(A) COMMA.
sclp(A) ::= .                                {A = 0;}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) expr(X) as(Y).     {
   A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, X.pExpr);
   if( Y.n>0 ) sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &Y, 1);
   sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(pParse,A,&X);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) STAR. {
  Expr *p = sqlite3Expr(pParse->db, TK_ASTERISK, 0);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, p);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) nm(X) DOT STAR(Y). {
  Expr *pRight = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ASTERISK, 0, 0, &Y);
  Expr *pLeft = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &X);
  Expr *pDot = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, pLeft, pRight, 0);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, pDot);
}

// An option "AS <id>" phrase that can follow one of the expressions that
// define the result set, or one of the tables in the FROM clause.
//
%type as {Token}
as(X) ::= AS nm(Y).    {X = Y;}
as(X) ::= ids(X).
as(X) ::= .            {X.n = 0;}


%type seltablist {SrcList*}
%destructor seltablist {sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type stl_prefix {SrcList*}
%destructor stl_prefix {sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
................................................................................
  A = X;
  sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(A);
}

// "seltablist" is a "Select Table List" - the content of the FROM clause
// in a SELECT statement.  "stl_prefix" is a prefix of this list.
//
stl_prefix(A) ::= seltablist(A) joinop(Y).    {

   if( ALWAYS(A && A->nSrc>0) ) A->a[A->nSrc-1].fg.jointype = (u8)Y;
}
stl_prefix(A) ::= .                           {A = 0;}
seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(A) nm(Y) dbnm(D) as(Z) indexed_opt(I)
                  on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
  A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,A,&Y,&D,&Z,0,N,U);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, A, &I);
}
seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(A) nm(Y) dbnm(D) LP exprlist(E) RP as(Z)
                  on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
  A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,A,&Y,&D,&Z,0,N,U);
  sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(pParse, A, E);
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(A) LP select(S) RP
                    as(Z) on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
    A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,A,0,0,&Z,S,N,U);
  }
  seltablist(A) ::= stl_prefix(A) LP seltablist(F) RP
                    as(Z) on_opt(N) using_opt(U). {
    if( A==0 && Z.n==0 && N==0 && U==0 ){
      A = F;
    }else if( F->nSrc==1 ){
      A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,A,0,0,&Z,0,N,U);
      if( A ){
        struct SrcList_item *pNew = &A->a[A->nSrc-1];
        struct SrcList_item *pOld = F->a;
        pNew->zName = pOld->zName;
        pNew->zDatabase = pOld->zDatabase;
        pNew->pSelect = pOld->pSelect;
        pOld->zName = pOld->zDatabase = 0;
................................................................................
        pOld->pSelect = 0;
      }
      sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, F);
    }else{
      Select *pSubquery;
      sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(F);
      pSubquery = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,F,0,0,0,0,SF_NestedFrom,0,0);
      A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,A,0,0,&Z,pSubquery,N,U);
    }
  }
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

%type dbnm {Token}
dbnm(A) ::= .          {A.z=0; A.n=0;}
dbnm(A) ::= DOT nm(X). {A = X;}

%type fullname {SrcList*}
%destructor fullname {sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
fullname(A) ::= nm(X) dbnm(Y).  
   {A = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db,0,&X,&Y); /*A-overwrites-X*/}

%type joinop {int}
joinop(X) ::= COMMA|JOIN.              { X = JT_INNER; }
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) JOIN.
                  {X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,0,0);  /*X-overwrites-A*/}
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) JOIN.
                  {X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,0); /*X-overwrites-A*/}
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) nm(C) JOIN.
                  {X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,&C);/*X-overwrites-A*/}

%type on_opt {Expr*}
%destructor on_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
on_opt(N) ::= ON expr(E).   {N = E.pExpr;}
on_opt(N) ::= .             {N = 0;}

// Note that this block abuses the Token type just a little. If there is
................................................................................
// sort order.
//
%type sortlist {ExprList*}
%destructor sortlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

orderby_opt(A) ::= .                          {A = 0;}
orderby_opt(A) ::= ORDER BY sortlist(X).      {A = X;}
sortlist(A) ::= sortlist(A) COMMA expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A,Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}
sortlist(A) ::= expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y.pExpr); /*A-overwrites-Y*/
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}

%type sortorder {int}

sortorder(A) ::= ASC.           {A = SQLITE_SO_ASC;}
sortorder(A) ::= DESC.          {A = SQLITE_SO_DESC;}
................................................................................
  sqlite3Update(pParse,X,Y,W,R);
}
%endif

%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}

................................................................................
%type idlist_opt {IdList*}
%destructor idlist_opt {sqlite3IdListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type idlist {IdList*}
%destructor idlist {sqlite3IdListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

idlist_opt(A) ::= .                       {A = 0;}
idlist_opt(A) ::= LP idlist(X) RP.    {A = X;}
idlist(A) ::= idlist(A) COMMA nm(Y).
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,A,&Y);}
idlist(A) ::= nm(Y).
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,0,&Y); /*A-overwrites-Y*/}

/////////////////////////// Expression Processing /////////////////////////////
//

%type expr {ExprSpan}
%destructor expr {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$.pExpr);}
%type term {ExprSpan}
................................................................................
    pOut->zEnd = &pEnd->z[pEnd->n];
  }

  /* Construct a new Expr object from a single identifier.  Use the
  ** new Expr to populate pOut.  Set the span of pOut to be the identifier
  ** that created the expression.
  */
  static void spanExpr(ExprSpan *pOut, Parse *pParse, int op, Token t){
    pOut->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, 0, 0, &t);
    pOut->zStart = t.z;
    pOut->zEnd = &t.z[t.n];
  }
}

expr(A) ::= term(A).
expr(A) ::= LP(B) expr(X) RP(E).
            {spanSet(&A,&B,&E); /*A-overwrites-B*/  A.pExpr = X.pExpr;}
term(A) ::= NULL(X).        {spanExpr(&A,pParse,@X,X);/*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= id(X).          {spanExpr(&A,pParse,TK_ID,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= JOIN_KW(X).     {spanExpr(&A,pParse,TK_ID,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &X);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &Y);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y); /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp2, 0);

}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y) DOT nm(Z). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &X);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &Y);
  Expr *temp3 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ID, 0, 0, &Z);
  Expr *temp4 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp2, temp3, 0);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Z); /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp4, 0);

}
term(A) ::= INTEGER|FLOAT|BLOB(X). {spanExpr(&A,pParse,@X,X);/*A-overwrites-X*/}
term(A) ::= STRING(X).             {spanExpr(&A,pParse,@X,X);/*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= VARIABLE(X).     {
  Token t = X; /*A-overwrites-X*/
  if( t.n>=2 && t.z[0]=='#' && sqlite3Isdigit(t.z[1]) ){
    /* When doing a nested parse, one can include terms in an expression
    ** that look like this:   #1 #2 ...  These terms refer to registers
    ** in the virtual machine.  #N is the N-th register. */
    spanSet(&A, &t, &t);
    if( pParse->nested==0 ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "near \"%T\": syntax error", &t);
      A.pExpr = 0;
    }else{
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_REGISTER, 0, 0, &t);
      if( A.pExpr ) sqlite3GetInt32(&t.z[1], &A.pExpr->iTable);
    }
  }else{
    spanExpr(&A, pParse, TK_VARIABLE, t);
    sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(pParse, A.pExpr);
  }

}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) COLLATE ids(C). {
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, A.pExpr, &C, 1);

  A.zEnd = &C.z[C.n];
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= CAST(X) LP expr(E) AS typetoken(T) RP(Y). {
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y); /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CAST, E.pExpr, 0, &T);

}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= id(X) LP distinct(D) exprlist(Y) RP(E). {
  if( Y && Y->nExpr>pParse->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG] ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "too many arguments on function %T", &X);
  }
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, Y, &X);
................................................................................
}

%include {
  /* This routine constructs a binary expression node out of two ExprSpan
  ** objects and uses the result to populate a new ExprSpan object.
  */
  static void spanBinaryExpr(

    Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context.  Errors accumulate here */
    int op,             /* The binary operation */
    ExprSpan *pLeft,    /* The left operand, and output */
    ExprSpan *pRight    /* The right operand */
  ){
    pLeft->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pLeft->pExpr, pRight->pExpr, 0);

    pLeft->zEnd = pRight->zEnd;
  }

  /* If doNot is true, then add a TK_NOT Expr-node wrapper around the
  ** outside of *ppExpr.
  */
  static void exprNot(Parse *pParse, int doNot, ExprSpan *pSpan){
    if( doNot ){
      pSpan->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, pSpan->pExpr, 0, 0);
    }
  }
}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) BITAND|BITOR|LSHIFT|RSHIFT(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) PLUS|MINUS(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) STAR|SLASH|REM(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) CONCAT(OP) expr(Y). {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
%type likeop {struct LikeOp}
likeop(A) ::= LIKE_KW|MATCH(X). {A.eOperator = X; A.bNot = 0;/*A-overwrites-X*/}
likeop(A) ::= NOT LIKE_KW|MATCH(X). {A.eOperator = X; A.bNot = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) likeop(OP) expr(Y).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, A.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP.eOperator);
  exprNot(pParse, OP.bNot, &A);

  A.zEnd = Y.zEnd;
  if( A.pExpr ) A.pExpr->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) likeop(OP) expr(Y) ESCAPE expr(E).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, A.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, E.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP.eOperator);
  exprNot(pParse, OP.bNot, &A);

  A.zEnd = E.zEnd;
  if( A.pExpr ) A.pExpr->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}

%include {
  /* Construct an expression node for a unary postfix operator
  */
  static void spanUnaryPostfix(

    Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing context to record errors */
    int op,                /* The operator */
    ExprSpan *pOperand,    /* The operand, and output */
    Token *pPostOp         /* The operand token for setting the span */
  ){
    pOperand->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pOperand->pExpr, 0, 0);

    pOperand->zEnd = &pPostOp->z[pPostOp->n];
  }                           
}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) ISNULL|NOTNULL(E).   {spanUnaryPostfix(pParse,@E,&A,&E);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) NOT NULL(E). {spanUnaryPostfix(pParse,TK_NOTNULL,&A,&E);}

%include {
  /* A routine to convert a binary TK_IS or TK_ISNOT expression into a
  ** unary TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL expression. */
  static void binaryToUnaryIfNull(Parse *pParse, Expr *pY, Expr *pA, int op){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
    if( pA && pY && pY->op==TK_NULL ){
................................................................................

//    expr1 IS expr2
//    expr1 IS NOT expr2
//
// If expr2 is NULL then code as TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL.  If expr2
// is any other expression, code as TK_IS or TK_ISNOT.
// 
expr(A) ::= expr(A) IS expr(Y).     {
  spanBinaryExpr(pParse,TK_IS,&A,&Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y.pExpr, A.pExpr, TK_ISNULL);
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) IS NOT expr(Y). {
  spanBinaryExpr(pParse,TK_ISNOT,&A,&Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y.pExpr, A.pExpr, TK_NOTNULL);
}

%include {
  /* Construct an expression node for a unary prefix operator
  */
  static void spanUnaryPrefix(
    ExprSpan *pOut,        /* Write the new expression node here */
    Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing context to record errors */
    int op,                /* The operator */
    ExprSpan *pOperand,    /* The operand */
    Token *pPreOp         /* The operand token for setting the span */
  ){

    pOut->zStart = pPreOp->z;
    pOut->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pOperand->pExpr, 0, 0);
    pOut->zEnd = pOperand->zEnd;
  }
}



expr(A) ::= NOT(B) expr(X).  
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,@B,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}
expr(A) ::= BITNOT(B) expr(X).
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,@B,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}
expr(A) ::= MINUS(B) expr(X). [BITNOT]
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,TK_UMINUS,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}
expr(A) ::= PLUS(B) expr(X). [BITNOT]
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,TK_UPLUS,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}

%type between_op {int}
between_op(A) ::= BETWEEN.     {A = 0;}
between_op(A) ::= NOT BETWEEN. {A = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) between_op(N) expr(X) AND expr(Y). [BETWEEN] {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, X.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, Y.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_BETWEEN, A.pExpr, 0, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = pList;
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  } 
  exprNot(pParse, N, &A);

  A.zEnd = Y.zEnd;
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  %type in_op {int}
  in_op(A) ::= IN.      {A = 0;}
  in_op(A) ::= NOT IN.  {A = 1;}
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP exprlist(Y) RP(E). [IN] {
    if( Y==0 ){
      /* Expressions of the form
      **
      **      expr1 IN ()
      **      expr1 NOT IN ()
      **
      ** simplify to constants 0 (false) and 1 (true), respectively,
      ** regardless of the value of expr1.
      */
      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, A.pExpr);
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_INTEGER, 0, 0, &sqlite3IntTokens[N]);

    }else if( Y->nExpr==1 ){
      /* Expressions of the form:
      **
      **      expr1 IN (?1)
      **      expr1 NOT IN (?2)
      **
      ** with exactly one value on the RHS can be simplified to something
................................................................................
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      /* pRHS cannot be NULL because a malloc error would have been detected
      ** before now and control would have never reached this point */
      if( ALWAYS(pRHS) ){
        pRHS->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
        pRHS->flags |= EP_Generic;
      }
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, N ? TK_NE : TK_EQ, A.pExpr, pRHS, 0);
    }else{
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0, 0);
      if( A.pExpr ){
        A.pExpr->x.pList = Y;
        sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      }
      exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    }

    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= LP(B) select(X) RP(E). {
    spanSet(&A,&B,&E); /*A-overwrites-B*/
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_SELECT, 0, 0, 0);
    if( A.pExpr ){
      A.pExpr->x.pSelect = X;
      ExprSetProperty(A.pExpr, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
    }else{
      sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, X);
    }


  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP select(Y) RP(E).  [IN] {
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0, 0);
    if( A.pExpr ){
      A.pExpr->x.pSelect = Y;
      ExprSetProperty(A.pExpr, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
    }else{
      sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    }
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);

    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) nm(Y) dbnm(Z). [IN] {
    SrcList *pSrc = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db, 0,&Y,&Z);
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0, 0);
    if( A.pExpr ){
      A.pExpr->x.pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0,pSrc,0,0,0,0,0,0,0);
      ExprSetProperty(A.pExpr, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
    }else{
      sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, pSrc);
    }
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);

    A.zEnd = Z.z ? &Z.z[Z.n] : &Y.z[Y.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= EXISTS(B) LP select(Y) RP(E). {
    Expr *p;
    spanSet(&A,&B,&E); /*A-overwrites-B*/
    p = A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EXISTS, 0, 0, 0);
    if( p ){
      p->x.pSelect = Y;
      ExprSetProperty(p, EP_xIsSelect|EP_Subquery);
      sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, p);
    }else{
      sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    }


  }
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

/* CASE expressions */
expr(A) ::= CASE(C) case_operand(X) case_exprlist(Y) case_else(Z) END(E). {
  spanSet(&A,&C,&E);  /*A-overwrites-C*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CASE, X, 0, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = Z ? sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,Y,Z) : Y;
    sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, Z);
  }


}
%type case_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor case_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_exprlist(A) ::= case_exprlist(A) WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Y.pExpr);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z.pExpr);
}
case_exprlist(A) ::= WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z.pExpr);
}
%type case_else {Expr*}
%destructor case_else {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_else(A) ::=  ELSE expr(X).         {A = X.pExpr;}
case_else(A) ::=  .                     {A = 0;} 
%type case_operand {Expr*}
%destructor case_operand {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_operand(A) ::= expr(X).            {A = X.pExpr; /*A-overwrites-X*/} 
case_operand(A) ::= .                   {A = 0;} 

%type exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type nexprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor nexprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

exprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(A).
exprlist(A) ::= .                            {A = 0;}
nexprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(A) COMMA expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A,Y.pExpr);}
nexprlist(A) ::= expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y.pExpr); /*A-overwrites-Y*/}


///////////////////////////// The CREATE INDEX command ///////////////////////
//
cmd ::= createkw(S) uniqueflag(U) INDEX ifnotexists(NE) nm(X) dbnm(D)
        ON nm(Y) LP sortlist(Z) RP where_opt(W). {
  sqlite3CreateIndex(pParse, &X, &D, 
................................................................................
    sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, p, pIdToken, 1);
    return p;
  }
} // end %include

eidlist_opt(A) ::= .                         {A = 0;}
eidlist_opt(A) ::= LP eidlist(X) RP.         {A = X;}
eidlist(A) ::= eidlist(A) COMMA nm(Y) collate(C) sortorder(Z).  {
  A = parserAddExprIdListTerm(pParse, A, &Y, C, Z);
}
eidlist(A) ::= nm(Y) collate(C) sortorder(Z). {
  A = parserAddExprIdListTerm(pParse, 0, &Y, C, Z); /*A-overwrites-Y*/
}

%type collate {int}
collate(C) ::= .              {C = 0;}
collate(C) ::= COLLATE ids.   {C = 1;}


................................................................................
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) EQ nmnum(Y).    {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,0);}
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) LP nmnum(Y) RP. {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,0);}
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) EQ minus_num(Y). 
                                             {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,1);}
cmd ::= PRAGMA nm(X) dbnm(Z) LP minus_num(Y) RP.
                                             {sqlite3Pragma(pParse,&X,&Z,&Y,1);}

nmnum(A) ::= plus_num(A).
nmnum(A) ::= nm(A).
nmnum(A) ::= ON(A).
nmnum(A) ::= DELETE(A).
nmnum(A) ::= DEFAULT(A).
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_PRAGMA
%token_class number INTEGER|FLOAT.
plus_num(A) ::= PLUS number(X).       {A = X;}
plus_num(A) ::= number(A).
minus_num(A) ::= MINUS number(X).     {A = X;}
//////////////////////////// The CREATE TRIGGER command /////////////////////

%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

cmd ::= createkw trigger_decl(A) BEGIN trigger_cmd_list(S) END(Z). {
  Token all;
................................................................................
  sqlite3FinishTrigger(pParse, S, &all);
}

trigger_decl(A) ::= temp(T) TRIGGER ifnotexists(NOERR) nm(B) dbnm(Z) 
                    trigger_time(C) trigger_event(D)
                    ON fullname(E) foreach_clause when_clause(G). {
  sqlite3BeginTrigger(pParse, &B, &Z, C, D.a, D.b, E, G, T, NOERR);
  A = (Z.n==0?B:Z); /*A-overwrites-T*/
}

%type trigger_time {int}
trigger_time(A) ::= BEFORE.      { A = TK_BEFORE; }
trigger_time(A) ::= AFTER.       { A = TK_AFTER;  }
trigger_time(A) ::= INSTEAD OF.  { A = TK_INSTEAD;}
trigger_time(A) ::= .            { A = TK_BEFORE; }

%type trigger_event {struct TrigEvent}
%destructor trigger_event {sqlite3IdListDelete(pParse->db, $$.b);}
trigger_event(A) ::= DELETE|INSERT(X).   {A.a = @X; /*A-overwrites-X*/ A.b = 0;}
trigger_event(A) ::= UPDATE(X).          {A.a = @X; /*A-overwrites-X*/ A.b = 0;}
trigger_event(A) ::= UPDATE OF idlist(X).{A.a = TK_UPDATE; A.b = X;}

foreach_clause ::= .
foreach_clause ::= FOR EACH ROW.

%type when_clause {Expr*}
%destructor when_clause {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
when_clause(A) ::= .             { A = 0; }
when_clause(A) ::= WHEN expr(X). { A = X.pExpr; }

%type trigger_cmd_list {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd_list {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
trigger_cmd_list(A) ::= trigger_cmd_list(A) trigger_cmd(X) SEMI. {
  assert( A!=0 );
  A->pLast->pNext = X;
  A->pLast = X;

}
trigger_cmd_list(A) ::= trigger_cmd(A) SEMI. { 
  assert( A!=0 );
  A->pLast = A;

}

// Disallow qualified table names on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements
// within a trigger.  The table to INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE is always in 
// the same database as the table that the trigger fires on.
//
%type trnm {Token}
trnm(A) ::= nm(A).
trnm(A) ::= nm DOT nm(X). {
  A = X;
  sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, 
        "qualified table names are not allowed on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE "
        "statements within triggers");
}

................................................................................


%type trigger_cmd {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
// UPDATE 
trigger_cmd(A) ::=
   UPDATE orconf(R) trnm(X) tridxby SET setlist(Y) where_opt(Z).  
   {A = sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(pParse->db, &X, Y, Z, R);}

// INSERT
trigger_cmd(A) ::= insert_cmd(R) INTO trnm(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(pParse->db, &X, F, S, R);/*A-overwrites-R*/}

// DELETE
trigger_cmd(A) ::= DELETE FROM trnm(X) tridxby where_opt(Y).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(pParse->db, &X, Y);}

// SELECT
trigger_cmd(A) ::= select(X).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(pParse->db, X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}

// The special RAISE expression that may occur in trigger programs
expr(A) ::= RAISE(X) LP IGNORE RP(Y).  {
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y);  /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_RAISE, 0, 0, 0); 
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->affinity = OE_Ignore;
  }


}
expr(A) ::= RAISE(X) LP raisetype(T) COMMA nm(Z) RP(Y).  {
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y);  /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_RAISE, 0, 0, &Z); 
  if( A.pExpr ) {
    A.pExpr->affinity = (char)T;
  }


}
%endif  !SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

%type raisetype {int}
raisetype(A) ::= ROLLBACK.  {A = OE_Rollback;}
raisetype(A) ::= ABORT.     {A = OE_Abort;}
raisetype(A) ::= FAIL.      {A = OE_Fail;}
................................................................................

with(A) ::= . {A = 0;}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CTE
with(A) ::= WITH wqlist(W).              { A = W; }
with(A) ::= WITH RECURSIVE wqlist(W).    { A = W; }

wqlist(A) ::= nm(X) eidlist_opt(Y) AS LP select(Z) RP. {
  A = sqlite3WithAdd(pParse, 0, &X, Y, Z); /*A-overwrites-X*/
}
wqlist(A) ::= wqlist(A) COMMA nm(X) eidlist_opt(Y) AS LP select(Z) RP. {
  A = sqlite3WithAdd(pParse, A, &X, Y, Z);
}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_CTE

Changes to tool/lemon.c.

282
283
284
285
286
287
288


289
290
291
292
293
294
295
....
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432

3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
....
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468



3469
3470
3471
3472



3473

3474


3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484












3485



3486


































3487
3488






3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500





3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
....
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524





3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535

3536
3537



3538

















3539
3540
3541
3542

3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551









3552
3553
3554

3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567






3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583








3584


3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
....
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208

4209
4210



4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
  int lhsStart;            /* True if left-hand side is the start symbol */
  int ruleline;            /* Line number for the rule */
  int nrhs;                /* Number of RHS symbols */
  struct symbol **rhs;     /* The RHS symbols */
  const char **rhsalias;   /* An alias for each RHS symbol (NULL if none) */
  int line;                /* Line number at which code begins */
  const char *code;        /* The code executed when this rule is reduced */


  struct symbol *precsym;  /* Precedence symbol for this rule */
  int index;               /* An index number for this rule */
  Boolean canReduce;       /* True if this rule is ever reduced */
  struct rule *nextlhs;    /* Next rule with the same LHS */
  struct rule *next;       /* Next rule in the global list */
};

................................................................................
  static char empty[1] = { 0 };
  static char *z = 0;
  static int alloced = 0;
  static int used = 0;
  int c;
  char zInt[40];
  if( zText==0 ){

    used = 0;
    return z;
  }
  if( n<=0 ){
    if( n<0 ){
      used += n;
      assert( used>=0 );
................................................................................
  return z;
}

/*
** zCode is a string that is the action associated with a rule.  Expand
** the symbols in this string so that the refer to elements of the parser
** stack.



*/
PRIVATE void translate_code(struct lemon *lemp, struct rule *rp){
  char *cp, *xp;
  int i;



  char lhsused = 0;    /* True if the LHS element has been used */

  char used[MAXRHS];   /* True for each RHS element which is used */



  for(i=0; i<rp->nrhs; i++) used[i] = 0;
  lhsused = 0;

  if( rp->code==0 ){
    static char newlinestr[2] = { '\n', '\0' };
    rp->code = newlinestr;
    rp->line = rp->ruleline;
  }













  append_str(0,0,0,0);






































  /* This const cast is wrong but harmless, if we're careful. */
  for(cp=(char *)rp->code; *cp; cp++){






    if( ISALPHA(*cp) && (cp==rp->code || (!ISALNUM(cp[-1]) && cp[-1]!='_')) ){
      char saved;
      for(xp= &cp[1]; ISALNUM(*xp) || *xp=='_'; xp++);
      saved = *xp;
      *xp = 0;
      if( rp->lhsalias && strcmp(cp,rp->lhsalias)==0 ){
        append_str("yygotominor.yy%d",0,rp->lhs->dtnum,0);
        cp = xp;
        lhsused = 1;
      }else{
        for(i=0; i<rp->nrhs; i++){
          if( rp->rhsalias[i] && strcmp(cp,rp->rhsalias[i])==0 ){





            if( cp!=rp->code && cp[-1]=='@' ){
              /* If the argument is of the form @X then substituted
              ** the token number of X, not the value of X */
              append_str("yymsp[%d].major",-1,i-rp->nrhs+1,0);
            }else{
              struct symbol *sp = rp->rhs[i];
              int dtnum;
              if( sp->type==MULTITERMINAL ){
................................................................................
          }
        }
      }
      *xp = saved;
    }
    append_str(cp, 1, 0, 0);
  } /* End loop */






  /* Check to make sure the LHS has been used */
  if( rp->lhsalias && !lhsused ){
    ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,
      "Label \"%s\" for \"%s(%s)\" is never used.",
        rp->lhsalias,rp->lhs->name,rp->lhsalias);
    lemp->errorcnt++;
  }

  /* Generate destructor code for RHS symbols which are not used in the
  ** reduce code */

  for(i=0; i<rp->nrhs; i++){
    if( rp->rhsalias[i] && !used[i] ){



      ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,

















        "Label %s for \"%s(%s)\" is never used.",
        rp->rhsalias[i],rp->rhs[i]->name,rp->rhsalias[i]);
      lemp->errorcnt++;
    }else if( rp->rhsalias[i]==0 ){

      if( has_destructor(rp->rhs[i],lemp) ){
        append_str("  yy_destructor(yypParser,%d,&yymsp[%d].minor);\n", 0,
           rp->rhs[i]->index,i-rp->nrhs+1);
      }else{
        /* No destructor defined for this term */
      }
    }
  }
  if( rp->code ){









    cp = append_str(0,0,0,0);
    rp->code = Strsafe(cp?cp:"");
  }

}

/* 
** Generate code which executes when the rule "rp" is reduced.  Write
** the code to "out".  Make sure lineno stays up-to-date.
*/
PRIVATE void emit_code(
  FILE *out,
  struct rule *rp,
  struct lemon *lemp,
  int *lineno
){
 const char *cp;







 /* Generate code to do the reduce action */
 if( rp->code ){
   if( !lemp->nolinenosflag ){
     (*lineno)++;
     tplt_linedir(out,rp->line,lemp->filename);
   }
   fprintf(out,"{%s",rp->code);
   for(cp=rp->code; *cp; cp++){
     if( *cp=='\n' ) (*lineno)++;
   } /* End loop */
   fprintf(out,"}\n"); (*lineno)++;
   if( !lemp->nolinenosflag ){
     (*lineno)++;
     tplt_linedir(out,*lineno,lemp->outname);
   }








 } /* End if( rp->code ) */



 return;
}

/*
** Print the definition of the union used for the parser's data stack.
** This union contains fields for every possible data type for tokens
................................................................................
  */
  for(rp=lemp->rule; rp; rp=rp->next){
    fprintf(out,"  { %d, %d },\n",rp->lhs->index,rp->nrhs); lineno++;
  }
  tplt_xfer(lemp->name,in,out,&lineno);

  /* Generate code which execution during each REDUCE action */

  for(rp=lemp->rule; rp; rp=rp->next){
    translate_code(lemp, rp);



  }
  /* First output rules other than the default: rule */
  for(rp=lemp->rule; rp; rp=rp->next){
    struct rule *rp2;               /* Other rules with the same action */
    if( rp->code==0 ) continue;
    if( rp->code[0]=='\n' && rp->code[1]==0 ) continue; /* Will be default: */
    fprintf(out,"      case %d: /* ", rp->index);







>
>







 







>







 







>
>
>

|


>
>
>
|
>
|
>
>










>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
|
>
>
>
|
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>


>
>
>
>
>
>






|





>
>
>
>
>
|







 







>
>
>
>
>









|
|
>

|
>
>
>
|
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
|
|
|
<
>
|
|
|
<
<
|
|
|
<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
|
|
|
>













>
>
>
>
>
>








|
<
<





>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
|
>
>







 







>

|
>
>
>







282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
....
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
....
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
....
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639

3640
3641
3642
3643


3644
3645
3646

3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687


3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
....
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
  int lhsStart;            /* True if left-hand side is the start symbol */
  int ruleline;            /* Line number for the rule */
  int nrhs;                /* Number of RHS symbols */
  struct symbol **rhs;     /* The RHS symbols */
  const char **rhsalias;   /* An alias for each RHS symbol (NULL if none) */
  int line;                /* Line number at which code begins */
  const char *code;        /* The code executed when this rule is reduced */
  const char *codePrefix;  /* Setup code before code[] above */
  const char *codeSuffix;  /* Breakdown code after code[] above */
  struct symbol *precsym;  /* Precedence symbol for this rule */
  int index;               /* An index number for this rule */
  Boolean canReduce;       /* True if this rule is ever reduced */
  struct rule *nextlhs;    /* Next rule with the same LHS */
  struct rule *next;       /* Next rule in the global list */
};

................................................................................
  static char empty[1] = { 0 };
  static char *z = 0;
  static int alloced = 0;
  static int used = 0;
  int c;
  char zInt[40];
  if( zText==0 ){
    if( used==0 && z!=0 ) z[0] = 0;
    used = 0;
    return z;
  }
  if( n<=0 ){
    if( n<0 ){
      used += n;
      assert( used>=0 );
................................................................................
  return z;
}

/*
** zCode is a string that is the action associated with a rule.  Expand
** the symbols in this string so that the refer to elements of the parser
** stack.
**
** Return 1 if the expanded code requires that "yylhsminor" local variable
** to be defined.
*/
PRIVATE int translate_code(struct lemon *lemp, struct rule *rp){
  char *cp, *xp;
  int i;
  int rc = 0;            /* True if yylhsminor is used */
  int dontUseRhs0 = 0;   /* If true, use of left-most RHS label is illegal */
  const char *zSkip = 0; /* The zOvwrt comment within rp->code, or NULL */
  char lhsused = 0;      /* True if the LHS element has been used */
  char lhsdirect;        /* True if LHS writes directly into stack */
  char used[MAXRHS];     /* True for each RHS element which is used */
  char zLhs[50];         /* Convert the LHS symbol into this string */
  char zOvwrt[900];      /* Comment that to allow LHS to overwrite RHS */

  for(i=0; i<rp->nrhs; i++) used[i] = 0;
  lhsused = 0;

  if( rp->code==0 ){
    static char newlinestr[2] = { '\n', '\0' };
    rp->code = newlinestr;
    rp->line = rp->ruleline;
  }


  if( rp->lhsalias==0 ){
    /* There is no LHS value symbol. */
    lhsdirect = 1;
  }else if( rp->nrhs==0 ){
    /* If there are no RHS symbols, then writing directly to the LHS is ok */
    lhsdirect = 1;
  }else if( rp->rhsalias[0]==0 ){
    /* The left-most RHS symbol has not value.  LHS direct is ok.  But
    ** we have to call the distructor on the RHS symbol first. */
    lhsdirect = 1;
    if( has_destructor(rp->rhs[0],lemp) ){
      append_str(0,0,0,0);
      append_str("  yy_destructor(yypParser,%d,&yymsp[%d].minor);\n", 0,
                 rp->rhs[0]->index,1-rp->nrhs);
      rp->codePrefix = Strsafe(append_str(0,0,0,0));
    }
  }else if( strcmp(rp->lhsalias,rp->rhsalias[0])==0 ){
    /* The LHS symbol and the left-most RHS symbol are the same, so 
    ** direct writing is allowed */
    lhsdirect = 1;
    lhsused = 1;
    used[0] = 1;
    if( rp->lhs->dtnum!=rp->rhs[0]->dtnum ){
      ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,
        "%s(%s) and %s(%s) share the same label but have "
        "different datatypes.",
        rp->lhs->name, rp->lhsalias, rp->rhs[0]->name, rp->rhsalias[0]);
      lemp->errorcnt++;
    }    
  }else{
    lemon_sprintf(zOvwrt, "/*%s-overwrites-%s*/",
                  rp->lhsalias, rp->rhsalias[0]);
    zSkip = strstr(rp->code, zOvwrt);
    if( zSkip!=0 ){
      /* The code contains a special comment that indicates that it is safe
      ** for the LHS label to overwrite left-most RHS label. */
      lhsdirect = 1;
    }else{
      lhsdirect = 0;
    }
  }
  if( lhsdirect ){
    sprintf(zLhs, "yymsp[%d].minor.yy%d",1-rp->nrhs,rp->lhs->dtnum);
  }else{
    rc = 1;
    sprintf(zLhs, "yylhsminor.yy%d",rp->lhs->dtnum);
  }

  append_str(0,0,0,0);

  /* This const cast is wrong but harmless, if we're careful. */
  for(cp=(char *)rp->code; *cp; cp++){
    if( cp==zSkip ){
      append_str(zOvwrt,0,0,0);
      cp += lemonStrlen(zOvwrt)-1;
      dontUseRhs0 = 1;
      continue;
    }
    if( ISALPHA(*cp) && (cp==rp->code || (!ISALNUM(cp[-1]) && cp[-1]!='_')) ){
      char saved;
      for(xp= &cp[1]; ISALNUM(*xp) || *xp=='_'; xp++);
      saved = *xp;
      *xp = 0;
      if( rp->lhsalias && strcmp(cp,rp->lhsalias)==0 ){
        append_str(zLhs,0,0,0);
        cp = xp;
        lhsused = 1;
      }else{
        for(i=0; i<rp->nrhs; i++){
          if( rp->rhsalias[i] && strcmp(cp,rp->rhsalias[i])==0 ){
            if( i==0 && dontUseRhs0 ){
              ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,
                 "Label %s used after '%s'.",
                 rp->rhsalias[0], zOvwrt);
              lemp->errorcnt++;
            }else if( cp!=rp->code && cp[-1]=='@' ){
              /* If the argument is of the form @X then substituted
              ** the token number of X, not the value of X */
              append_str("yymsp[%d].major",-1,i-rp->nrhs+1,0);
            }else{
              struct symbol *sp = rp->rhs[i];
              int dtnum;
              if( sp->type==MULTITERMINAL ){
................................................................................
          }
        }
      }
      *xp = saved;
    }
    append_str(cp, 1, 0, 0);
  } /* End loop */

  /* Main code generation completed */
  cp = append_str(0,0,0,0);
  if( cp && cp[0] ) rp->code = Strsafe(cp);
  append_str(0,0,0,0);

  /* Check to make sure the LHS has been used */
  if( rp->lhsalias && !lhsused ){
    ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,
      "Label \"%s\" for \"%s(%s)\" is never used.",
        rp->lhsalias,rp->lhs->name,rp->lhsalias);
    lemp->errorcnt++;
  }

  /* Generate destructor code for RHS minor values which are not referenced.
  ** Generate error messages for unused labels and duplicate labels.
  */
  for(i=0; i<rp->nrhs; i++){
    if( rp->rhsalias[i] ){
      if( i>0 ){
        int j;
        if( rp->lhsalias && strcmp(rp->lhsalias,rp->rhsalias[i])==0 ){
          ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,
            "%s(%s) has the same label as the LHS but is not the left-most "
            "symbol on the RHS.",
            rp->rhs[i]->name, rp->rhsalias);
          lemp->errorcnt++;
        }
        for(j=0; j<i; j++){
          if( rp->rhsalias[j] && strcmp(rp->rhsalias[j],rp->rhsalias[i])==0 ){
            ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,
              "Label %s used for multiple symbols on the RHS of a rule.",
              rp->rhsalias[i]);
            lemp->errorcnt++;
            break;
          }
        }
      }
      if( !used[i] ){
        ErrorMsg(lemp->filename,rp->ruleline,
          "Label %s for \"%s(%s)\" is never used.",
          rp->rhsalias[i],rp->rhs[i]->name,rp->rhsalias[i]);
        lemp->errorcnt++;

      }
    }else if( i>0 && has_destructor(rp->rhs[i],lemp) ){
      append_str("  yy_destructor(yypParser,%d,&yymsp[%d].minor);\n", 0,
         rp->rhs[i]->index,i-rp->nrhs+1);


    }
  }


  /* If unable to write LHS values directly into the stack, write the
  ** saved LHS value now. */
  if( lhsdirect==0 ){
    append_str("  yymsp[%d].minor.yy%d = ", 0, 1-rp->nrhs, rp->lhs->dtnum);
    append_str(zLhs, 0, 0, 0);
    append_str(";\n", 0, 0, 0);
  }

  /* Suffix code generation complete */
  cp = append_str(0,0,0,0);
  if( cp ) rp->codeSuffix = Strsafe(cp);

  return rc;
}

/* 
** Generate code which executes when the rule "rp" is reduced.  Write
** the code to "out".  Make sure lineno stays up-to-date.
*/
PRIVATE void emit_code(
  FILE *out,
  struct rule *rp,
  struct lemon *lemp,
  int *lineno
){
 const char *cp;

 /* Setup code prior to the #line directive */
 if( rp->codePrefix && rp->codePrefix[0] ){
   fprintf(out, "{%s", rp->codePrefix);
   for(cp=rp->codePrefix; *cp; cp++){ if( *cp=='\n' ) (*lineno)++; }
 }

 /* Generate code to do the reduce action */
 if( rp->code ){
   if( !lemp->nolinenosflag ){
     (*lineno)++;
     tplt_linedir(out,rp->line,lemp->filename);
   }
   fprintf(out,"{%s",rp->code);
   for(cp=rp->code; *cp; cp++){ if( *cp=='\n' ) (*lineno)++; }


   fprintf(out,"}\n"); (*lineno)++;
   if( !lemp->nolinenosflag ){
     (*lineno)++;
     tplt_linedir(out,*lineno,lemp->outname);
   }
 }

 /* Generate breakdown code that occurs after the #line directive */
 if( rp->codeSuffix && rp->codeSuffix[0] ){
   fprintf(out, "%s", rp->codeSuffix);
   for(cp=rp->codeSuffix; *cp; cp++){ if( *cp=='\n' ) (*lineno)++; }
 }

 if( rp->codePrefix ){
   fprintf(out, "}\n"); (*lineno)++;
 }

 return;
}

/*
** Print the definition of the union used for the parser's data stack.
** This union contains fields for every possible data type for tokens
................................................................................
  */
  for(rp=lemp->rule; rp; rp=rp->next){
    fprintf(out,"  { %d, %d },\n",rp->lhs->index,rp->nrhs); lineno++;
  }
  tplt_xfer(lemp->name,in,out,&lineno);

  /* Generate code which execution during each REDUCE action */
  i = 0;
  for(rp=lemp->rule; rp; rp=rp->next){
    i += translate_code(lemp, rp);
  }
  if( i ){
    fprintf(out,"        YYMINORTYPE yylhsminor;\n"); lineno++;
  }
  /* First output rules other than the default: rule */
  for(rp=lemp->rule; rp; rp=rp->next){
    struct rule *rp2;               /* Other rules with the same action */
    if( rp->code==0 ) continue;
    if( rp->code[0]=='\n' && rp->code[1]==0 ) continue; /* Will be default: */
    fprintf(out,"      case %d: /* ", rp->index);

Changes to tool/lempar.c.

514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
...
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
...
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630

























631
632
633
634
635
636
637
...
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667

668
669
670
671
672
673
674
...
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
...
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
...
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
...
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815

816
817
818
819
820
821
822
...
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
...
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
#endif
  return yy_action[i];
}

/*
** The following routine is called if the stack overflows.
*/
static void yyStackOverflow(yyParser *yypParser, YYMINORTYPE *yypMinor){
   ParseARG_FETCH;
   yypParser->yyidx--;
#ifndef NDEBUG
   if( yyTraceFILE ){
     fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sStack Overflow!\n",yyTracePrompt);
   }
#endif
................................................................................
/*
** Perform a shift action.
*/
static void yy_shift(
  yyParser *yypParser,          /* The parser to be shifted */
  int yyNewState,               /* The new state to shift in */
  int yyMajor,                  /* The major token to shift in */
  YYMINORTYPE *yypMinor         /* Pointer to the minor token to shift in */
){
  yyStackEntry *yytos;
  yypParser->yyidx++;
#ifdef YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH
  if( yypParser->yyidx>yypParser->yyidxMax ){
    yypParser->yyidxMax = yypParser->yyidx;
  }
#endif
#if YYSTACKDEPTH>0 
  if( yypParser->yyidx>=YYSTACKDEPTH ){
    yyStackOverflow(yypParser, yypMinor);
    return;
  }
#else
  if( yypParser->yyidx>=yypParser->yystksz ){
    yyGrowStack(yypParser);
    if( yypParser->yyidx>=yypParser->yystksz ){
      yyStackOverflow(yypParser, yypMinor);
      return;
    }
  }
#endif
  yytos = &yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx];
  yytos->stateno = (YYACTIONTYPE)yyNewState;
  yytos->major = (YYCODETYPE)yyMajor;
  yytos->minor = *yypMinor;
  yyTraceShift(yypParser, yyNewState);
}

/* The following table contains information about every rule that
** is used during the reduce.
*/
static const struct {
................................................................................
*/
static void yy_reduce(
  yyParser *yypParser,         /* The parser */
  int yyruleno                 /* Number of the rule by which to reduce */
){
  int yygoto;                     /* The next state */
  int yyact;                      /* The next action */
  YYMINORTYPE yygotominor;        /* The LHS of the rule reduced */
  yyStackEntry *yymsp;            /* The top of the parser's stack */
  int yysize;                     /* Amount to pop the stack */
  ParseARG_FETCH;
  yymsp = &yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx];
#ifndef NDEBUG
  if( yyTraceFILE && yyruleno>=0 
        && yyruleno<(int)(sizeof(yyRuleName)/sizeof(yyRuleName[0])) ){
    yysize = yyRuleInfo[yyruleno].nrhs;
    fprintf(yyTraceFILE, "%sReduce [%s], go to state %d.\n", yyTracePrompt,
      yyRuleName[yyruleno], yymsp[-yysize].stateno);
  }
#endif /* NDEBUG */
  yygotominor = yyzerominor;


























  switch( yyruleno ){
  /* Beginning here are the reduction cases.  A typical example
  ** follows:
  **   case 0:
  **  #line <lineno> <grammarfile>
  **     { ... }           // User supplied code
................................................................................
/********** Begin reduce actions **********************************************/
%%
/********** End reduce actions ************************************************/
  };
  assert( yyruleno>=0 && yyruleno<sizeof(yyRuleInfo)/sizeof(yyRuleInfo[0]) );
  yygoto = yyRuleInfo[yyruleno].lhs;
  yysize = yyRuleInfo[yyruleno].nrhs;
  yypParser->yyidx -= yysize;
  yyact = yy_find_reduce_action(yymsp[-yysize].stateno,(YYCODETYPE)yygoto);
  if( yyact <= YY_MAX_SHIFTREDUCE ){
    if( yyact>YY_MAX_SHIFT ) yyact += YY_MIN_REDUCE - YY_MIN_SHIFTREDUCE;
    /* If the reduce action popped at least
    ** one element off the stack, then we can push the new element back
    ** onto the stack here, and skip the stack overflow test in yy_shift().
    ** That gives a significant speed improvement. */
    if( yysize ){
      yypParser->yyidx++;
      yymsp -= yysize-1;
      yymsp->stateno = (YYACTIONTYPE)yyact;
      yymsp->major = (YYCODETYPE)yygoto;
      yymsp->minor = yygotominor;
      yyTraceShift(yypParser, yyact);
    }else{
      yy_shift(yypParser,yyact,yygoto,&yygotominor);
    }
  }else{
    assert( yyact == YY_ACCEPT_ACTION );

    yy_accept(yypParser);
  }
}

/*
** The following code executes when the parse fails
*/
................................................................................

/*
** The following code executes when a syntax error first occurs.
*/
static void yy_syntax_error(
  yyParser *yypParser,           /* The parser */
  int yymajor,                   /* The major type of the error token */
  YYMINORTYPE yyminor            /* The minor type of the error token */
){
  ParseARG_FETCH;
#define TOKEN (yyminor.yy0)
/************ Begin %syntax_error code ****************************************/
%%
/************ End %syntax_error code ******************************************/
  ParseARG_STORE; /* Suppress warning about unused %extra_argument variable */
}

/*
................................................................................
  yyParser *yypParser;  /* The parser */

  /* (re)initialize the parser, if necessary */
  yypParser = (yyParser*)yyp;
  if( yypParser->yyidx<0 ){
#if YYSTACKDEPTH<=0
    if( yypParser->yystksz <=0 ){
      /*memset(&yyminorunion, 0, sizeof(yyminorunion));*/
      yyminorunion = yyzerominor;
      yyStackOverflow(yypParser, &yyminorunion);
      return;
    }
#endif
    yypParser->yyidx = 0;
#ifndef YYNOERRORRECOVERY
    yypParser->yyerrcnt = -1;
#endif
................................................................................
#ifndef NDEBUG
    if( yyTraceFILE ){
      fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sInitialize. Empty stack. State 0\n",
              yyTracePrompt);
    }
#endif
  }
  yyminorunion.yy0 = yyminor;
#if !defined(YYERRORSYMBOL) && !defined(YYNOERRORRECOVERY)
  yyendofinput = (yymajor==0);
#endif
  ParseARG_STORE;

#ifndef NDEBUG
  if( yyTraceFILE ){
................................................................................
  }
#endif

  do{
    yyact = yy_find_shift_action(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor);
    if( yyact <= YY_MAX_SHIFTREDUCE ){
      if( yyact > YY_MAX_SHIFT ) yyact += YY_MIN_REDUCE - YY_MIN_SHIFTREDUCE;
      yy_shift(yypParser,yyact,yymajor,&yyminorunion);
#ifndef YYNOERRORRECOVERY
      yypParser->yyerrcnt--;
#endif
      yymajor = YYNOCODE;
    }else if( yyact <= YY_MAX_REDUCE ){
      yy_reduce(yypParser,yyact-YY_MIN_REDUCE);
    }else{
      assert( yyact == YY_ERROR_ACTION );

#ifdef YYERRORSYMBOL
      int yymx;
#endif
#ifndef NDEBUG
      if( yyTraceFILE ){
        fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sSyntax Error!\n",yyTracePrompt);
      }
................................................................................
      **
      **  * Begin accepting and shifting new tokens.  No new error
      **    processing will occur until three tokens have been
      **    shifted successfully.
      **
      */
      if( yypParser->yyerrcnt<0 ){
        yy_syntax_error(yypParser,yymajor,yyminorunion);
      }
      yymx = yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx].major;
      if( yymx==YYERRORSYMBOL || yyerrorhit ){
#ifndef NDEBUG
        if( yyTraceFILE ){
          fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sDiscard input token %s\n",
             yyTracePrompt,yyTokenName[yymajor]);
        }
#endif
        yy_destructor(yypParser, (YYCODETYPE)yymajor,&yyminorunion);
        yymajor = YYNOCODE;
      }else{
         while(
          yypParser->yyidx >= 0 &&
          yymx != YYERRORSYMBOL &&
          (yyact = yy_find_reduce_action(
                        yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx].stateno,
                        YYERRORSYMBOL)) >= YY_MIN_REDUCE
        ){
          yy_pop_parser_stack(yypParser);
        }
        if( yypParser->yyidx < 0 || yymajor==0 ){
          yy_destructor(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor,&yyminorunion);
          yy_parse_failed(yypParser);
          yymajor = YYNOCODE;
        }else if( yymx!=YYERRORSYMBOL ){
          YYMINORTYPE u2;
          u2.YYERRSYMDT = 0;
          yy_shift(yypParser,yyact,YYERRORSYMBOL,&u2);
        }
      }
      yypParser->yyerrcnt = 3;
      yyerrorhit = 1;
#elif defined(YYNOERRORRECOVERY)
      /* If the YYNOERRORRECOVERY macro is defined, then do not attempt to
      ** do any kind of error recovery.  Instead, simply invoke the syntax
      ** error routine and continue going as if nothing had happened.
      **
      ** Applications can set this macro (for example inside %include) if
      ** they intend to abandon the parse upon the first syntax error seen.
      */
      yy_syntax_error(yypParser,yymajor,yyminorunion);
      yy_destructor(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor,&yyminorunion);
      yymajor = YYNOCODE;
      
#else  /* YYERRORSYMBOL is not defined */
      /* This is what we do if the grammar does not define ERROR:
      **
      **  * Report an error message, and throw away the input token.
................................................................................
      **
      **  * If the input token is $, then fail the parse.
      **
      ** As before, subsequent error messages are suppressed until
      ** three input tokens have been successfully shifted.
      */
      if( yypParser->yyerrcnt<=0 ){
        yy_syntax_error(yypParser,yymajor,yyminorunion);
      }
      yypParser->yyerrcnt = 3;
      yy_destructor(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor,&yyminorunion);
      if( yyendofinput ){
        yy_parse_failed(yypParser);
      }
      yymajor = YYNOCODE;







|







 







|










|






|







|







 







<












<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







 







<



<
<
<
<
<
|
|
|
|
<
|
|
<
<
<

>







 







|


|







 







<
<
|







 







<







 







|








>







 







|









|


|













<
<
|












|







 







|







514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
...
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
...
610
611
612
613
614
615
616

617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628

629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
...
664
665
666
667
668
669
670

671
672
673





674
675
676
677

678
679



680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
...
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
...
779
780
781
782
783
784
785


786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
...
796
797
798
799
800
801
802

803
804
805
806
807
808
809
...
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
...
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883


884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
...
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
#endif
  return yy_action[i];
}

/*
** The following routine is called if the stack overflows.
*/
static void yyStackOverflow(yyParser *yypParser){
   ParseARG_FETCH;
   yypParser->yyidx--;
#ifndef NDEBUG
   if( yyTraceFILE ){
     fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sStack Overflow!\n",yyTracePrompt);
   }
#endif
................................................................................
/*
** Perform a shift action.
*/
static void yy_shift(
  yyParser *yypParser,          /* The parser to be shifted */
  int yyNewState,               /* The new state to shift in */
  int yyMajor,                  /* The major token to shift in */
  ParseTOKENTYPE yyMinor        /* The minor token to shift in */
){
  yyStackEntry *yytos;
  yypParser->yyidx++;
#ifdef YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH
  if( yypParser->yyidx>yypParser->yyidxMax ){
    yypParser->yyidxMax = yypParser->yyidx;
  }
#endif
#if YYSTACKDEPTH>0 
  if( yypParser->yyidx>=YYSTACKDEPTH ){
    yyStackOverflow(yypParser);
    return;
  }
#else
  if( yypParser->yyidx>=yypParser->yystksz ){
    yyGrowStack(yypParser);
    if( yypParser->yyidx>=yypParser->yystksz ){
      yyStackOverflow(yypParser);
      return;
    }
  }
#endif
  yytos = &yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx];
  yytos->stateno = (YYACTIONTYPE)yyNewState;
  yytos->major = (YYCODETYPE)yyMajor;
  yytos->minor.yy0 = yyMinor;
  yyTraceShift(yypParser, yyNewState);
}

/* The following table contains information about every rule that
** is used during the reduce.
*/
static const struct {
................................................................................
*/
static void yy_reduce(
  yyParser *yypParser,         /* The parser */
  int yyruleno                 /* Number of the rule by which to reduce */
){
  int yygoto;                     /* The next state */
  int yyact;                      /* The next action */

  yyStackEntry *yymsp;            /* The top of the parser's stack */
  int yysize;                     /* Amount to pop the stack */
  ParseARG_FETCH;
  yymsp = &yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx];
#ifndef NDEBUG
  if( yyTraceFILE && yyruleno>=0 
        && yyruleno<(int)(sizeof(yyRuleName)/sizeof(yyRuleName[0])) ){
    yysize = yyRuleInfo[yyruleno].nrhs;
    fprintf(yyTraceFILE, "%sReduce [%s], go to state %d.\n", yyTracePrompt,
      yyRuleName[yyruleno], yymsp[-yysize].stateno);
  }
#endif /* NDEBUG */


  /* Check that the stack is large enough to grow by a single entry
  ** if the RHS of the rule is empty.  This ensures that there is room
  ** enough on the stack to push the LHS value */
  if( yyRuleInfo[yyruleno].nrhs==0 ){
#ifdef YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH
    if( yypParser->yyidx>yypParser->yyidxMax ){
      yypParser->yyidxMax = yypParser->yyidx;
    }
#endif
#if YYSTACKDEPTH>0 
    if( yypParser->yyidx>=YYSTACKDEPTH-1 ){
      yyStackOverflow(yypParser);
      return;
    }
#else
    if( yypParser->yyidx>=yypParser->yystksz-1 ){
      yyGrowStack(yypParser);
      if( yypParser->yyidx>=yypParser->yystksz-1 ){
        yyStackOverflow(yypParser);
        return;
      }
    }
#endif
  }

  switch( yyruleno ){
  /* Beginning here are the reduction cases.  A typical example
  ** follows:
  **   case 0:
  **  #line <lineno> <grammarfile>
  **     { ... }           // User supplied code
................................................................................
/********** Begin reduce actions **********************************************/
%%
/********** End reduce actions ************************************************/
  };
  assert( yyruleno>=0 && yyruleno<sizeof(yyRuleInfo)/sizeof(yyRuleInfo[0]) );
  yygoto = yyRuleInfo[yyruleno].lhs;
  yysize = yyRuleInfo[yyruleno].nrhs;

  yyact = yy_find_reduce_action(yymsp[-yysize].stateno,(YYCODETYPE)yygoto);
  if( yyact <= YY_MAX_SHIFTREDUCE ){
    if( yyact>YY_MAX_SHIFT ) yyact += YY_MIN_REDUCE - YY_MIN_SHIFTREDUCE;





    yypParser->yyidx -= yysize - 1;
    yymsp -= yysize-1;
    yymsp->stateno = (YYACTIONTYPE)yyact;
    yymsp->major = (YYCODETYPE)yygoto;

    yyTraceShift(yypParser, yyact);
  }else{



    assert( yyact == YY_ACCEPT_ACTION );
    yypParser->yyidx -= yysize;
    yy_accept(yypParser);
  }
}

/*
** The following code executes when the parse fails
*/
................................................................................

/*
** The following code executes when a syntax error first occurs.
*/
static void yy_syntax_error(
  yyParser *yypParser,           /* The parser */
  int yymajor,                   /* The major type of the error token */
  ParseTOKENTYPE yyminor         /* The minor type of the error token */
){
  ParseARG_FETCH;
#define TOKEN yyminor
/************ Begin %syntax_error code ****************************************/
%%
/************ End %syntax_error code ******************************************/
  ParseARG_STORE; /* Suppress warning about unused %extra_argument variable */
}

/*
................................................................................
  yyParser *yypParser;  /* The parser */

  /* (re)initialize the parser, if necessary */
  yypParser = (yyParser*)yyp;
  if( yypParser->yyidx<0 ){
#if YYSTACKDEPTH<=0
    if( yypParser->yystksz <=0 ){


      yyStackOverflow(yypParser);
      return;
    }
#endif
    yypParser->yyidx = 0;
#ifndef YYNOERRORRECOVERY
    yypParser->yyerrcnt = -1;
#endif
................................................................................
#ifndef NDEBUG
    if( yyTraceFILE ){
      fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sInitialize. Empty stack. State 0\n",
              yyTracePrompt);
    }
#endif
  }

#if !defined(YYERRORSYMBOL) && !defined(YYNOERRORRECOVERY)
  yyendofinput = (yymajor==0);
#endif
  ParseARG_STORE;

#ifndef NDEBUG
  if( yyTraceFILE ){
................................................................................
  }
#endif

  do{
    yyact = yy_find_shift_action(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor);
    if( yyact <= YY_MAX_SHIFTREDUCE ){
      if( yyact > YY_MAX_SHIFT ) yyact += YY_MIN_REDUCE - YY_MIN_SHIFTREDUCE;
      yy_shift(yypParser,yyact,yymajor,yyminor);
#ifndef YYNOERRORRECOVERY
      yypParser->yyerrcnt--;
#endif
      yymajor = YYNOCODE;
    }else if( yyact <= YY_MAX_REDUCE ){
      yy_reduce(yypParser,yyact-YY_MIN_REDUCE);
    }else{
      assert( yyact == YY_ERROR_ACTION );
      yyminorunion.yy0 = yyminor;
#ifdef YYERRORSYMBOL
      int yymx;
#endif
#ifndef NDEBUG
      if( yyTraceFILE ){
        fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sSyntax Error!\n",yyTracePrompt);
      }
................................................................................
      **
      **  * Begin accepting and shifting new tokens.  No new error
      **    processing will occur until three tokens have been
      **    shifted successfully.
      **
      */
      if( yypParser->yyerrcnt<0 ){
        yy_syntax_error(yypParser,yymajor,yyminor);
      }
      yymx = yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx].major;
      if( yymx==YYERRORSYMBOL || yyerrorhit ){
#ifndef NDEBUG
        if( yyTraceFILE ){
          fprintf(yyTraceFILE,"%sDiscard input token %s\n",
             yyTracePrompt,yyTokenName[yymajor]);
        }
#endif
        yy_destructor(yypParser, (YYCODETYPE)yymajor, &yyminorunion);
        yymajor = YYNOCODE;
      }else{
        while(
          yypParser->yyidx >= 0 &&
          yymx != YYERRORSYMBOL &&
          (yyact = yy_find_reduce_action(
                        yypParser->yystack[yypParser->yyidx].stateno,
                        YYERRORSYMBOL)) >= YY_MIN_REDUCE
        ){
          yy_pop_parser_stack(yypParser);
        }
        if( yypParser->yyidx < 0 || yymajor==0 ){
          yy_destructor(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor,&yyminorunion);
          yy_parse_failed(yypParser);
          yymajor = YYNOCODE;
        }else if( yymx!=YYERRORSYMBOL ){


          yy_shift(yypParser,yyact,YYERRORSYMBOL,yyminor);
        }
      }
      yypParser->yyerrcnt = 3;
      yyerrorhit = 1;
#elif defined(YYNOERRORRECOVERY)
      /* If the YYNOERRORRECOVERY macro is defined, then do not attempt to
      ** do any kind of error recovery.  Instead, simply invoke the syntax
      ** error routine and continue going as if nothing had happened.
      **
      ** Applications can set this macro (for example inside %include) if
      ** they intend to abandon the parse upon the first syntax error seen.
      */
      yy_syntax_error(yypParser,yymajor, yyminor);
      yy_destructor(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor,&yyminorunion);
      yymajor = YYNOCODE;
      
#else  /* YYERRORSYMBOL is not defined */
      /* This is what we do if the grammar does not define ERROR:
      **
      **  * Report an error message, and throw away the input token.
................................................................................
      **
      **  * If the input token is $, then fail the parse.
      **
      ** As before, subsequent error messages are suppressed until
      ** three input tokens have been successfully shifted.
      */
      if( yypParser->yyerrcnt<=0 ){
        yy_syntax_error(yypParser,yymajor, yyminor);
      }
      yypParser->yyerrcnt = 3;
      yy_destructor(yypParser,(YYCODETYPE)yymajor,&yyminorunion);
      if( yyendofinput ){
        yy_parse_failed(yypParser);
      }
      yymajor = YYNOCODE;