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Overview
Comment:Add the TK_IF_NULL_ROW opcode to deal with non-NULL result columns in the result set of a view or subquery on the RHS of a LEFT JOIN that gets flattened.
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Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | left-join-view
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SHA3-256: 3a5860d86fadcf924316707918bf283d26c53b1473e5e67f5cff59d18c2a7742
User & Date: drh 2017-04-14 19:03:10
Context
2017-04-18
11:20
Improved optimizations of views as the right operand of a LEFT JOIN. check-in: 41c27bc0 user: drh tags: trunk
2017-04-14
19:03
Add the TK_IF_NULL_ROW opcode to deal with non-NULL result columns in the result set of a view or subquery on the RHS of a LEFT JOIN that gets flattened. Closed-Leaf check-in: 3a5860d8 user: drh tags: left-join-view
17:18
An initial attempt to optimize VIEWs that occur as the right operand of a LEFT JOIN. This particular check-in does not work correctly because it does not deal with the case of columns in the VIEW that return non-NULL even when all columns in the table of the VIEW are NULL because of the LEFT JOIN. check-in: 1838a59c user: drh tags: left-join-view
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/expr.c.

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      break;
    }

    case TK_VECTOR: {
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
      break;
    }












    /*
    ** Form A:
    **   CASE x WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END
    **
    ** Form B:
    **   CASE WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END







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      break;
    }

    case TK_VECTOR: {
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
      break;
    }

    case TK_IF_NULL_ROW: {
      int addrINR;
      addrINR = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IfNullRow, pExpr->iTable);
      sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);
      inReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, target);
      sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);
      sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addrINR);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(v, addrINR, inReg);
      break;
    }

    /*
    ** Form A:
    **   CASE x WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END
    **
    ** Form B:
    **   CASE WHEN e1 THEN r1 WHEN e2 THEN r2 ... WHEN eN THEN rN ELSE y END

Changes to src/parse.y.

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    A = 0;
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "unknown table option: %.*s", X.n, X.z);
  }
}
columnlist ::= columnlist COMMA columnname carglist.
columnlist ::= columnname carglist.
columnname(A) ::= nm(A) typetoken(Y). {sqlite3AddColumn(pParse,&A,&Y);}


















// Define operator precedence early so that this is the first occurrence
// of the operator tokens in the grammer.  Keeping the operators together
// causes them to be assigned integer values that are close together,
// which keeps parser tables smaller.
//
// The token values assigned to these symbols is determined by the order
................................................................................
%right BITNOT.

// An IDENTIFIER can be a generic identifier, or one of several
// keywords.  Any non-standard keyword can also be an identifier.
//
%token_class id  ID|INDEXED.

// The following directive causes tokens ABORT, AFTER, ASC, etc. to
// fallback to ID if they will not parse as their original value.
// This obviates the need for the "id" nonterminal.
//
%fallback ID
  ABORT ACTION AFTER ANALYZE ASC ATTACH BEFORE BEGIN BY CASCADE CAST COLUMNKW
  CONFLICT DATABASE DEFERRED DESC DETACH EACH END EXCLUSIVE EXPLAIN FAIL FOR
  IGNORE IMMEDIATE INITIALLY INSTEAD LIKE_KW MATCH NO PLAN
  QUERY KEY OF OFFSET PRAGMA RAISE RECURSIVE RELEASE REPLACE RESTRICT ROW
  ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT TEMP TRIGGER VACUUM VIEW VIRTUAL WITH WITHOUT
%ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  EXCEPT INTERSECT UNION
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  REINDEX RENAME CTIME_KW IF
  .
%wildcard ANY.


// And "ids" is an identifer-or-string.
//
%token_class ids  ID|STRING.

// The name of a column or table can be any of the following:
//







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    A = 0;
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "unknown table option: %.*s", X.n, X.z);
  }
}
columnlist ::= columnlist COMMA columnname carglist.
columnlist ::= columnname carglist.
columnname(A) ::= nm(A) typetoken(Y). {sqlite3AddColumn(pParse,&A,&Y);}

// The following directive causes tokens ABORT, AFTER, ASC, etc. to
// fallback to ID if they will not parse as their original value.
// This obviates the need for the "id" nonterminal.
//
%fallback ID
  ABORT ACTION AFTER ANALYZE ASC ATTACH BEFORE BEGIN BY CASCADE CAST COLUMNKW
  CONFLICT DATABASE DEFERRED DESC DETACH EACH END EXCLUSIVE EXPLAIN FAIL FOR
  IGNORE IMMEDIATE INITIALLY INSTEAD LIKE_KW MATCH NO PLAN
  QUERY KEY OF OFFSET PRAGMA RAISE RECURSIVE RELEASE REPLACE RESTRICT ROW
  ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT TEMP TRIGGER VACUUM VIEW VIRTUAL WITH WITHOUT
%ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  EXCEPT INTERSECT UNION
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  REINDEX RENAME CTIME_KW IF
  .
%wildcard ANY.

// Define operator precedence early so that this is the first occurrence
// of the operator tokens in the grammer.  Keeping the operators together
// causes them to be assigned integer values that are close together,
// which keeps parser tables smaller.
//
// The token values assigned to these symbols is determined by the order
................................................................................
%right BITNOT.

// An IDENTIFIER can be a generic identifier, or one of several
// keywords.  Any non-standard keyword can also be an identifier.
//
%token_class id  ID|INDEXED.



















// And "ids" is an identifer-or-string.
//
%token_class ids  ID|STRING.

// The name of a column or table can be any of the following:
//

Changes to src/select.c.

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**
** All references to columns in table iTable are to be replaced by corresponding
** expressions in pEList.
*/
typedef struct SubstContext {
  Parse *pParse;            /* The parsing context */
  int iTable;               /* Replace references to this table */
  int iNewTable;            /* New table number, or -1 */

  ExprList *pEList;         /* Replacement expressions */
} SubstContext;

/* Forward Declarations */
static void substExprList(SubstContext*, ExprList*);
static void substSelect(SubstContext*, Select*, int);

................................................................................
  }
  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN && pExpr->iTable==pSubst->iTable ){
    if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
      pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
    }else{
      Expr *pNew;
      Expr *pCopy = pSubst->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr;

      assert( pSubst->pEList!=0 && pExpr->iColumn<pSubst->pEList->nExpr );
      assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 && pExpr->pRight==0 );
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pCopy) ){
        sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(pSubst->pParse, pCopy);
      }else{
        sqlite3 *db = pSubst->pParse->db;







        pNew = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pCopy, 0);
        if( pNew && (pExpr->flags & EP_FromJoin) ){
          pNew->iRightJoinTable = pExpr->iRightJoinTable;
          pNew->flags |= EP_FromJoin;
        }
        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
        pExpr = pNew;
................................................................................
**   (1)  The subquery and the outer query do not both use aggregates.
**
**   (2)  The subquery is not an aggregate or (2a) the outer query is not a join
**        and (2b) the outer query does not use subqueries other than the one
**        FROM-clause subquery that is a candidate for flattening.  (2b is
**        due to ticket [2f7170d73bf9abf80] from 2015-02-09.)
**
**   (3)  The subquery is not the right operand of a left outer join
**        or (3b) the subquery is not a join and (3c) does not contain any
**        result-set columns that could be non-NULL even if columns of the
**        subquery table are NULL.
**        to be more restrictive - disallowing subquery if it was the
**        right operand of a left join.  See tickets #306 and #3300. Relaxed
**        to allow simple subqueries as the right operand of a left join
**        on 2017-04-14.)
**
**   (4)  The subquery is not DISTINCT.
**
**  (**)  At one point restrictions (4) and (5) defined a subset of DISTINCT
**        sub-queries that were excluded from this optimization. Restriction 
**        (4) has since been expanded to exclude all DISTINCT subqueries.
**
**   (6)  The subquery does not use aggregates or the outer query is not
**        DISTINCT.
**
**   (7)  The subquery has a FROM clause.  TODO:  For subqueries without
**        A FROM clause, consider adding a FROM close with the special
**        table sqlite_once that consists of a single row containing a
**        single NULL.
**
**   (8)  The subquery does not use LIMIT or the outer query is not a join.
**
**   (9)  The subquery does not use LIMIT or the outer query does not use
**        aggregates.
................................................................................
  **
  ** If we flatten the above, we would get
  **
  **         (t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN t2) JOIN t3
  **
  ** which is not at all the same thing.
  **
  ** See also tickets #306 and #3300.
  */
  if( (pSubitem->fg.jointype & JT_OUTER)!=0 ){
    isLeftJoin = 1;
    if( pSubSrc->nSrc>1 ){
      return 0; /* Restriction (3b) */
    }
    /* TBD: Deal with the case of result-set expressions that are non-NULL even
    ** when the RHS table of a LEFT JOIN is NULL. */
  }

  /* Restriction 17: If the sub-query is a compound SELECT, then it must
  ** use only the UNION ALL operator. And none of the simple select queries
  ** that make up the compound SELECT are allowed to be aggregate or distinct
  ** queries.
  */
................................................................................
      pParent->pWhere = sqlite3ExprAnd(db, pWhere, pParent->pWhere);
    }
    if( db->mallocFailed==0 ){
      SubstContext x;
      x.pParse = pParse;
      x.iTable = iParent;
      x.iNewTable = iNewParent;

      x.pEList = pSub->pEList;
      substSelect(&x, pParent, 0);
    }
  
    /* The flattened query is distinct if either the inner or the
    ** outer query is distinct. 
    */
................................................................................
    nChng++;
    while( pSubq ){
      SubstContext x;
      pNew = sqlite3ExprDup(pParse->db, pWhere, 0);
      x.pParse = pParse;
      x.iTable = iCursor;
      x.iNewTable = iCursor;

      x.pEList = pSubq->pEList;
      pNew = substExpr(&x, pNew);
      pSubq->pWhere = sqlite3ExprAnd(pParse->db, pSubq->pWhere, pNew);
      pSubq = pSubq->pPrior;
    }
  }
  return nChng;







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**
** All references to columns in table iTable are to be replaced by corresponding
** expressions in pEList.
*/
typedef struct SubstContext {
  Parse *pParse;            /* The parsing context */
  int iTable;               /* Replace references to this table */
  int iNewTable;            /* New table number */
  int isLeftJoin;           /* Add TK_IF_NULL_ROW opcodes on each replacement */
  ExprList *pEList;         /* Replacement expressions */
} SubstContext;

/* Forward Declarations */
static void substExprList(SubstContext*, ExprList*);
static void substSelect(SubstContext*, Select*, int);

................................................................................
  }
  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN && pExpr->iTable==pSubst->iTable ){
    if( pExpr->iColumn<0 ){
      pExpr->op = TK_NULL;
    }else{
      Expr *pNew;
      Expr *pCopy = pSubst->pEList->a[pExpr->iColumn].pExpr;
      Expr ifNullRow;
      assert( pSubst->pEList!=0 && pExpr->iColumn<pSubst->pEList->nExpr );
      assert( pExpr->pLeft==0 && pExpr->pRight==0 );
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pCopy) ){
        sqlite3VectorErrorMsg(pSubst->pParse, pCopy);
      }else{
        sqlite3 *db = pSubst->pParse->db;
        if( pSubst->isLeftJoin && pCopy->op!=TK_COLUMN ){
          memset(&ifNullRow, 0, sizeof(ifNullRow));
          ifNullRow.op = TK_IF_NULL_ROW;
          ifNullRow.pLeft = pCopy;
          ifNullRow.iTable = pSubst->iNewTable;
          pCopy = &ifNullRow;
        }
        pNew = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pCopy, 0);
        if( pNew && (pExpr->flags & EP_FromJoin) ){
          pNew->iRightJoinTable = pExpr->iRightJoinTable;
          pNew->flags |= EP_FromJoin;
        }
        sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
        pExpr = pNew;
................................................................................
**   (1)  The subquery and the outer query do not both use aggregates.
**
**   (2)  The subquery is not an aggregate or (2a) the outer query is not a join
**        and (2b) the outer query does not use subqueries other than the one
**        FROM-clause subquery that is a candidate for flattening.  (2b is
**        due to ticket [2f7170d73bf9abf80] from 2015-02-09.)
**
**   (3)  The subquery is not the right operand of a LEFT JOIN
**        or the subquery is not itself a join.






**
**   (4)  The subquery is not DISTINCT.
**
**  (**)  At one point restrictions (4) and (5) defined a subset of DISTINCT
**        sub-queries that were excluded from this optimization. Restriction 
**        (4) has since been expanded to exclude all DISTINCT subqueries.
**
**   (6)  The subquery does not use aggregates or the outer query is not
**        DISTINCT.
**
**   (7)  The subquery has a FROM clause.  TODO:  For subqueries without
**        A FROM clause, consider adding a FROM clause with the special
**        table sqlite_once that consists of a single row containing a
**        single NULL.
**
**   (8)  The subquery does not use LIMIT or the outer query is not a join.
**
**   (9)  The subquery does not use LIMIT or the outer query does not use
**        aggregates.
................................................................................
  **
  ** If we flatten the above, we would get
  **
  **         (t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN t2) JOIN t3
  **
  ** which is not at all the same thing.
  **
  ** See also tickets #306, #350, and #3300.
  */
  if( (pSubitem->fg.jointype & JT_OUTER)!=0 ){
    isLeftJoin = 1;
    if( pSubSrc->nSrc>1 ){
      return 0; /* Restriction (3) */
    }


  }

  /* Restriction 17: If the sub-query is a compound SELECT, then it must
  ** use only the UNION ALL operator. And none of the simple select queries
  ** that make up the compound SELECT are allowed to be aggregate or distinct
  ** queries.
  */
................................................................................
      pParent->pWhere = sqlite3ExprAnd(db, pWhere, pParent->pWhere);
    }
    if( db->mallocFailed==0 ){
      SubstContext x;
      x.pParse = pParse;
      x.iTable = iParent;
      x.iNewTable = iNewParent;
      x.isLeftJoin = isLeftJoin;
      x.pEList = pSub->pEList;
      substSelect(&x, pParent, 0);
    }
  
    /* The flattened query is distinct if either the inner or the
    ** outer query is distinct. 
    */
................................................................................
    nChng++;
    while( pSubq ){
      SubstContext x;
      pNew = sqlite3ExprDup(pParse->db, pWhere, 0);
      x.pParse = pParse;
      x.iTable = iCursor;
      x.iNewTable = iCursor;
      x.isLeftJoin = 0;
      x.pEList = pSubq->pEList;
      pNew = substExpr(&x, pNew);
      pSubq->pWhere = sqlite3ExprAnd(pParse->db, pSubq->pWhere, pNew);
      pSubq = pSubq->pPrior;
    }
  }
  return nChng;

Changes to src/treeview.c.

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      sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, "VECTOR");
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "SELECT-COLUMN %d", pExpr->iColumn);
      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pExpr->pLeft->x.pSelect, 0);
      break;





    }
    default: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "op=%d", pExpr->op);
      break;
    }
  }
  if( zBinOp ){







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      sqlite3TreeViewBareExprList(pView, pExpr->x.pList, "VECTOR");
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "SELECT-COLUMN %d", pExpr->iColumn);
      sqlite3TreeViewSelect(pView, pExpr->pLeft->x.pSelect, 0);
      break;
    }
    case TK_IF_NULL_ROW: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "IF-NULL-ROW %d", pExpr->iTable);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, pExpr->pLeft, 0);
      break;
    }
    default: {
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "op=%d", pExpr->op);
      break;
    }
  }
  if( zBinOp ){

Changes to src/vdbe.c.

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  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  VdbeBranchTaken( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0, 2);
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }
  break;
}


















/* Opcode: Column P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: r[P3]=PX
**
** Interpret the data that cursor P1 points to as a structure built using
** the MakeRecord instruction.  (See the MakeRecord opcode for additional
** information about the format of the data.)  Extract the P2-th column







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  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  VdbeBranchTaken( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0, 2);
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IfNullRow P1 P2 P3 * *
** Synopsis: if P1.nullRow then r[P3]=NULL, goto P2
**
** Check the cursor P1 to see if it is currently pointing at a NULL row.
** If it is, then set register P3 to NULL and jump immediately to P2.
** If P1 is not on a NULL row, then fall through without making any
** changes.
*/
case OP_IfNullRow: {         /* jump */
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  if( p->apCsr[pOp->p1]->nullRow ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(aMem + pOp->p3);
    goto jump_to_p2;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Column P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
** Synopsis: r[P3]=PX
**
** Interpret the data that cursor P1 points to as a structure built using
** the MakeRecord instruction.  (See the MakeRecord opcode for additional
** information about the format of the data.)  Extract the P2-th column

Changes to src/where.c.

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4976
4977
4978


4979
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
            pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
          }
          assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)==0 || x>=0 
              || pWInfo->eOnePass );
        }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_Rowid ){
          pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
          pOp->opcode = OP_IdxRowid;


        }
      }
    }
  }

  /* Final cleanup
  */
  pParse->nQueryLoop = pWInfo->savedNQueryLoop;
  whereInfoFree(db, pWInfo);
  return;
}







>
>











4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
            pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
          }
          assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)==0 || x>=0 
              || pWInfo->eOnePass );
        }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_Rowid ){
          pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
          pOp->opcode = OP_IdxRowid;
        }else if( pOp->opcode==OP_IfNullRow ){
          pOp->p1 = pLevel->iIdxCur;
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /* Final cleanup
  */
  pParse->nQueryLoop = pWInfo->savedNQueryLoop;
  whereInfoFree(db, pWInfo);
  return;
}

Changes to tool/addopcodes.tcl.

35
36
37
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39
40
41

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
  AGG_FUNCTION
  AGG_COLUMN
  UMINUS
  UPLUS
  REGISTER
  VECTOR
  SELECT_COLUMN

  ASTERISK
  SPAN
  SPACE
  ILLEGAL
}
if {[lrange $extras end-1 end]!="SPACE ILLEGAL"} {
  error "SPACE and ILLEGAL must be the last two token codes and they\







>







35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
  AGG_FUNCTION
  AGG_COLUMN
  UMINUS
  UPLUS
  REGISTER
  VECTOR
  SELECT_COLUMN
  IF_NULL_ROW
  ASTERISK
  SPAN
  SPACE
  ILLEGAL
}
if {[lrange $extras end-1 end]!="SPACE ILLEGAL"} {
  error "SPACE and ILLEGAL must be the last two token codes and they\