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Overview
Comment:Merge the unix-excl VFS into the trunk. This merge also adds the -vfs option to the command-line shell.
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SHA1:3934b004e93852c89b937ec20431de96a2e99440
User & Date: drh 2011-03-14 13:54:01
Context
2011-03-15
02:55
Fix cut-and-paste typo in debugging print statement in winMutexTry(). check-in: def98fd2 user: shaneh tags: trunk
2011-03-14
13:54
Merge the unix-excl VFS into the trunk. This merge also adds the -vfs option to the command-line shell. check-in: 3934b004 user: drh tags: trunk
2011-03-12
18:10
In the "unix-excl" VFS, use the heap for shared memory, since only a single process is able to read or write the database. Closed-Leaf check-in: a05a6d40 user: drh tags: unix-excl
04:58
More tests for SQLITE_OMIT_UNIQUE_ENFORCEMENT and minor change to implementation. check-in: b8699943 user: shaneh tags: trunk
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typedef struct unixFile unixFile;
struct unixFile {
  sqlite3_io_methods const *pMethod;  /* Always the first entry */
  unixInodeInfo *pInode;              /* Info about locks on this inode */
  int h;                              /* The file descriptor */
  int dirfd;                          /* File descriptor for the directory */
  unsigned char eFileLock;            /* The type of lock held on this fd */

  int lastErrno;                      /* The unix errno from last I/O error */
  void *lockingContext;               /* Locking style specific state */
  UnixUnusedFd *pUnused;              /* Pre-allocated UnixUnusedFd */
  const char *zPath;                  /* Name of the file */
  unixShm *pShm;                      /* Shared memory segment information */
  int szChunk;                        /* Configured by FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE */
#if SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE
................................................................................
  /* In test mode, increase the size of this structure a bit so that 
  ** it is larger than the struct CrashFile defined in test6.c.
  */
  char aPadding[32];
#endif
};






/*
** Include code that is common to all os_*.c files
*/
#include "os_common.h"

/*
** Define various macros that are missing from some systems.
................................................................................
** A single inode can have multiple file descriptors, so each unixFile
** structure contains a pointer to an instance of this object and this
** object keeps a count of the number of unixFile pointing to it.
*/
struct unixInodeInfo {
  struct unixFileId fileId;       /* The lookup key */
  int nShared;                    /* Number of SHARED locks held */
  int eFileLock;                  /* One of SHARED_LOCK, RESERVED_LOCK etc. */

  int nRef;                       /* Number of pointers to this structure */
  unixShmNode *pShmNode;          /* Shared memory associated with this inode */
  int nLock;                      /* Number of outstanding file locks */
  UnixUnusedFd *pUnused;          /* Unused file descriptors to close */
  unixInodeInfo *pNext;           /* List of all unixInodeInfo objects */
  unixInodeInfo *pPrev;           /*    .... doubly linked */
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE)
................................................................................
  if( pFile->pInode->eFileLock>SHARED_LOCK ){
    reserved = 1;
  }

  /* Otherwise see if some other process holds it.
  */
#ifndef __DJGPP__
  if( !reserved ){
    struct flock lock;
    lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
    lock.l_start = RESERVED_BYTE;
    lock.l_len = 1;
    lock.l_type = F_WRLCK;
    if (-1 == osFcntl(pFile->h, F_GETLK, &lock)) {
      int tErrno = errno;
................................................................................
  
  unixLeaveMutex();
  OSTRACE(("TEST WR-LOCK %d %d %d (unix)\n", pFile->h, rc, reserved));

  *pResOut = reserved;
  return rc;
}







































/*
** Lock the file with the lock specified by parameter eFileLock - one
** of the following:
**
**     (1) SHARED_LOCK
**     (2) RESERVED_LOCK
................................................................................
  lock.l_len = 1L;
  lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
  if( eFileLock==SHARED_LOCK 
      || (eFileLock==EXCLUSIVE_LOCK && pFile->eFileLock<PENDING_LOCK)
  ){
    lock.l_type = (eFileLock==SHARED_LOCK?F_RDLCK:F_WRLCK);
    lock.l_start = PENDING_BYTE;
    s = osFcntl(pFile->h, F_SETLK, &lock);
    if( s==(-1) ){
      tErrno = errno;
      rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_LOCK);
      if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
        pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
      }
      goto end_lock;
................................................................................
  if( eFileLock==SHARED_LOCK ){
    assert( pInode->nShared==0 );
    assert( pInode->eFileLock==0 );

    /* Now get the read-lock */
    lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
    lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE;
    if( (s = osFcntl(pFile->h, F_SETLK, &lock))==(-1) ){
      tErrno = errno;
    }
    /* Drop the temporary PENDING lock */
    lock.l_start = PENDING_BYTE;
    lock.l_len = 1L;
    lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
    if( osFcntl(pFile->h, F_SETLK, &lock)!=0 ){
      if( s != -1 ){
        /* This could happen with a network mount */
        tErrno = errno; 
        rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK); 
        if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
          pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
        }
................................................................................
      case EXCLUSIVE_LOCK:
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE;
        break;
      default:
        assert(0);
    }
    s = osFcntl(pFile->h, F_SETLK, &lock);
    if( s==(-1) ){
      tErrno = errno;
      rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_LOCK);
      if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
        pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
      }
    }
................................................................................
** 
** If handleNFSUnlock is true, then on downgrading an EXCLUSIVE_LOCK to SHARED
** the byte range is divided into 2 parts and the first part is unlocked then
** set to a read lock, then the other part is simply unlocked.  This works 
** around a bug in BSD NFS lockd (also seen on MacOSX 10.3+) that fails to 
** remove the write lock on a region when a read lock is set.
*/
static int _posixUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int eFileLock, int handleNFSUnlock){
  unixFile *pFile = (unixFile*)id;
  unixInodeInfo *pInode;
  struct flock lock;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int h;
  int tErrno;                      /* Error code from system call errors */

................................................................................
      if( handleNFSUnlock ){
        off_t divSize = SHARED_SIZE - 1;
        
        lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = divSize;
        if( osFcntl(h, F_SETLK, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
        lock.l_type = F_RDLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = divSize;
        if( osFcntl(h, F_SETLK, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
        lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST+divSize;
        lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE-divSize;
        if( osFcntl(h, F_SETLK, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
................................................................................
      }else
#endif /* defined(__APPLE__) && SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE */
      {
        lock.l_type = F_RDLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE;
        if( osFcntl(h, F_SETLK, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
      }
    }
    lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
    lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
    lock.l_start = PENDING_BYTE;
    lock.l_len = 2L;  assert( PENDING_BYTE+1==RESERVED_BYTE );
    if( osFcntl(h, F_SETLK, &lock)!=(-1) ){
      pInode->eFileLock = SHARED_LOCK;
    }else{
      tErrno = errno;
      rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
      if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
        pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
      }
................................................................................
    if( pInode->nShared==0 ){
      lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
      lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
      lock.l_start = lock.l_len = 0L;
      SimulateIOErrorBenign(1);
      SimulateIOError( h=(-1) )
      SimulateIOErrorBenign(0);
      if( osFcntl(h, F_SETLK, &lock)!=(-1) ){
        pInode->eFileLock = NO_LOCK;
      }else{
        tErrno = errno;
        rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
        if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
          pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
        }
................................................................................
** Lower the locking level on file descriptor pFile to eFileLock.  eFileLock
** must be either NO_LOCK or SHARED_LOCK.
**
** If the locking level of the file descriptor is already at or below
** the requested locking level, this routine is a no-op.
*/
static int unixUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int eFileLock){
  return _posixUnlock(id, eFileLock, 0);
}

/*
** This function performs the parts of the "close file" operation 
** common to all locking schemes. It closes the directory and file
** handles, if they are valid, and sets all fields of the unixFile
** structure to 0.
................................................................................
*/
static int unixClose(sqlite3_file *id){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  if( id ){
    unixFile *pFile = (unixFile *)id;
    unixUnlock(id, NO_LOCK);
    unixEnterMutex();


    if( pFile->pInode && pFile->pInode->nLock ){
      /* If there are outstanding locks, do not actually close the file just
      ** yet because that would clear those locks.  Instead, add the file
      ** descriptor to pInode->pUnused list.  It will be automatically closed 
      ** when the last lock is cleared.
      */
      setPendingFd(pFile);
................................................................................
 ** Lower the locking level on file descriptor pFile to eFileLock.  eFileLock
 ** must be either NO_LOCK or SHARED_LOCK.
 **
 ** If the locking level of the file descriptor is already at or below
 ** the requested locking level, this routine is a no-op.
 */
static int nfsUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int eFileLock){
  return _posixUnlock(id, eFileLock, 1);
}

#endif /* defined(__APPLE__) && SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE */
/*
** The code above is the NFS lock implementation.  The code is specific
** to MacOSX and does not work on other unix platforms.  No alternative
** is available.  
................................................................................

  /* Shared locks never span more than one byte */
  assert( n==1 || lockType!=F_RDLCK );

  /* Locks are within range */
  assert( n>=1 && n<SQLITE_SHM_NLOCK );


  /* Initialize the locking parameters */
  memset(&f, 0, sizeof(f));
  f.l_type = lockType;
  f.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
  f.l_start = ofst;
  f.l_len = n;

  rc = osFcntl(pShmNode->h, F_SETLK, &f);
  rc = (rc!=(-1)) ? SQLITE_OK : SQLITE_BUSY;


  /* Update the global lock state and do debug tracing */
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  { u16 mask;
  OSTRACE(("SHM-LOCK "));
  mask = (1<<(ofst+n)) - (1<<ofst);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
................................................................................
  unixShmNode *p = pFd->pInode->pShmNode;
  assert( unixMutexHeld() );
  if( p && p->nRef==0 ){
    int i;
    assert( p->pInode==pFd->pInode );
    if( p->mutex ) sqlite3_mutex_free(p->mutex);
    for(i=0; i<p->nRegion; i++){

      munmap(p->apRegion[i], p->szRegion);



    }
    sqlite3_free(p->apRegion);
    if( p->h>=0 ){
      robust_close(pFd, p->h, __LINE__);
      p->h = -1;
    }
    p->pInode->pShmNode = 0;
................................................................................
** same database file at the same time, database corruption will likely
** result. The SQLITE_SHM_DIRECTORY compile-time option is considered
** "unsupported" and may go away in a future SQLite release.
**
** When opening a new shared-memory file, if no other instances of that
** file are currently open, in this process or in other processes, then
** the file must be truncated to zero length or have its header cleared.






*/
static int unixOpenSharedMemory(unixFile *pDbFd){
  struct unixShm *p = 0;          /* The connection to be opened */
  struct unixShmNode *pShmNode;   /* The underlying mmapped file */
  int rc;                         /* Result code */
  unixInodeInfo *pInode;          /* The inode of fd */
  char *zShmFilename;             /* Name of the file used for SHM */
................................................................................
    struct stat sStat;                 /* fstat() info for database file */

    /* Call fstat() to figure out the permissions on the database file. If
    ** a new *-shm file is created, an attempt will be made to create it
    ** with the same permissions. The actual permissions the file is created
    ** with are subject to the current umask setting.
    */
    if( osFstat(pDbFd->h, &sStat) ){
      rc = SQLITE_IOERR_FSTAT;
      goto shm_open_err;
    }

#ifdef SQLITE_SHM_DIRECTORY
    nShmFilename = sizeof(SQLITE_SHM_DIRECTORY) + 30;
#else
................................................................................
    pShmNode->pInode = pDbFd->pInode;
    pShmNode->mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST);
    if( pShmNode->mutex==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
      goto shm_open_err;
    }


    pShmNode->h = robust_open(zShmFilename, O_RDWR|O_CREAT,
                             (sStat.st_mode & 0777));
    if( pShmNode->h<0 ){
      rc = unixLogError(SQLITE_CANTOPEN_BKPT, "open", zShmFilename);
      goto shm_open_err;
    }

    /* Check to see if another process is holding the dead-man switch.
    ** If not, truncate the file to zero length. 
    */
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
    if( unixShmSystemLock(pShmNode, F_WRLCK, UNIX_SHM_DMS, 1)==SQLITE_OK ){
      if( robust_ftruncate(pShmNode->h, 0) ){
        rc = unixLogError(SQLITE_IOERR_SHMOPEN, "ftruncate", zShmFilename);
      }
    }
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = unixShmSystemLock(pShmNode, F_RDLCK, UNIX_SHM_DMS, 1);
    }
    if( rc ) goto shm_open_err;

  }

  /* Make the new connection a child of the unixShmNode */
  p->pShmNode = pShmNode;
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  p->id = pShmNode->nextShmId++;
#endif
................................................................................
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  }

  p = pDbFd->pShm;
  pShmNode = p->pShmNode;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(pShmNode->mutex);
  assert( szRegion==pShmNode->szRegion || pShmNode->nRegion==0 );




  if( pShmNode->nRegion<=iRegion ){
    char **apNew;                      /* New apRegion[] array */
    int nByte = (iRegion+1)*szRegion;  /* Minimum required file size */
    struct stat sStat;                 /* Used by fstat() */

    pShmNode->szRegion = szRegion;


    /* The requested region is not mapped into this processes address space.
    ** Check to see if it has been allocated (i.e. if the wal-index file is
    ** large enough to contain the requested region).
    */
    if( osFstat(pShmNode->h, &sStat) ){
      rc = SQLITE_IOERR_SHMSIZE;
      goto shmpage_out;
    }

    if( sStat.st_size<nByte ){
      /* The requested memory region does not exist. If bExtend is set to
      ** false, exit early. *pp will be set to NULL and SQLITE_OK returned.
      **
      ** Alternatively, if bExtend is true, use ftruncate() to allocate
      ** the requested memory region.
      */
      if( !bExtend ) goto shmpage_out;
      if( robust_ftruncate(pShmNode->h, nByte) ){
        rc = unixLogError(SQLITE_IOERR_SHMSIZE,"ftruncate",pShmNode->zFilename);

        goto shmpage_out;
      }

    }

    /* Map the requested memory region into this processes address space. */
    apNew = (char **)sqlite3_realloc(
        pShmNode->apRegion, (iRegion+1)*sizeof(char *)
    );
    if( !apNew ){
      rc = SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM;
      goto shmpage_out;
    }
    pShmNode->apRegion = apNew;
    while(pShmNode->nRegion<=iRegion){


      void *pMem = mmap(0, szRegion, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, 
          MAP_SHARED, pShmNode->h, pShmNode->nRegion*szRegion
      );
      if( pMem==MAP_FAILED ){
        rc = SQLITE_IOERR;
        goto shmpage_out;








      }
      pShmNode->apRegion[pShmNode->nRegion] = pMem;
      pShmNode->nRegion++;
    }
  }

shmpage_out:
................................................................................
  assert( ofst>=0 && ofst+n<=SQLITE_SHM_NLOCK );
  assert( n>=1 );
  assert( flags==(SQLITE_SHM_LOCK | SQLITE_SHM_SHARED)
       || flags==(SQLITE_SHM_LOCK | SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE)
       || flags==(SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK | SQLITE_SHM_SHARED)
       || flags==(SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK | SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE) );
  assert( n==1 || (flags & SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE)!=0 );



  mask = (1<<(ofst+n)) - (1<<ofst);
  assert( n>1 || mask==(1<<ofst) );
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(pShmNode->mutex);
  if( flags & SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK ){
    u16 allMask = 0; /* Mask of locks held by siblings */

................................................................................

  /* If pShmNode->nRef has reached 0, then close the underlying
  ** shared-memory file, too */
  unixEnterMutex();
  assert( pShmNode->nRef>0 );
  pShmNode->nRef--;
  if( pShmNode->nRef==0 ){
    if( deleteFlag ) unlink(pShmNode->zFilename);
    unixShmPurge(pDbFd);
  }
  unixLeaveMutex();

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

................................................................................
  assert( zFilename==0 || zFilename[0]=='/' );
#endif

  OSTRACE(("OPEN    %-3d %s\n", h, zFilename));
  pNew->h = h;
  pNew->dirfd = dirfd;
  pNew->zPath = zFilename;






#if OS_VXWORKS
  pNew->pId = vxworksFindFileId(zFilename);
  if( pNew->pId==0 ){
    noLock = 1;
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
................................................................................
#if SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE && (OS_VXWORKS || defined(__APPLE__))
    UNIXVFS("unix",          autolockIoFinder ),
#else
    UNIXVFS("unix",          posixIoFinder ),
#endif
    UNIXVFS("unix-none",     nolockIoFinder ),
    UNIXVFS("unix-dotfile",  dotlockIoFinder ),

#if OS_VXWORKS
    UNIXVFS("unix-namedsem", semIoFinder ),
#endif
#if SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE
    UNIXVFS("unix-posix",    posixIoFinder ),
#if !OS_VXWORKS
    UNIXVFS("unix-flock",    flockIoFinder ),







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typedef struct unixFile unixFile;
struct unixFile {
  sqlite3_io_methods const *pMethod;  /* Always the first entry */
  unixInodeInfo *pInode;              /* Info about locks on this inode */
  int h;                              /* The file descriptor */
  int dirfd;                          /* File descriptor for the directory */
  unsigned char eFileLock;            /* The type of lock held on this fd */
  unsigned char ctrlFlags;            /* Behavioral bits.  UNIXFILE_* flags */
  int lastErrno;                      /* The unix errno from last I/O error */
  void *lockingContext;               /* Locking style specific state */
  UnixUnusedFd *pUnused;              /* Pre-allocated UnixUnusedFd */
  const char *zPath;                  /* Name of the file */
  unixShm *pShm;                      /* Shared memory segment information */
  int szChunk;                        /* Configured by FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE */
#if SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE
................................................................................
  /* In test mode, increase the size of this structure a bit so that 
  ** it is larger than the struct CrashFile defined in test6.c.
  */
  char aPadding[32];
#endif
};

/*
** Allowed values for the unixFile.ctrlFlags bitmask:
*/
#define UNIXFILE_EXCL   0x01     /* Connections from one process only */

/*
** Include code that is common to all os_*.c files
*/
#include "os_common.h"

/*
** Define various macros that are missing from some systems.
................................................................................
** A single inode can have multiple file descriptors, so each unixFile
** structure contains a pointer to an instance of this object and this
** object keeps a count of the number of unixFile pointing to it.
*/
struct unixInodeInfo {
  struct unixFileId fileId;       /* The lookup key */
  int nShared;                    /* Number of SHARED locks held */
  unsigned char eFileLock;        /* One of SHARED_LOCK, RESERVED_LOCK etc. */
  unsigned char bProcessLock;     /* An exclusive process lock is held */
  int nRef;                       /* Number of pointers to this structure */
  unixShmNode *pShmNode;          /* Shared memory associated with this inode */
  int nLock;                      /* Number of outstanding file locks */
  UnixUnusedFd *pUnused;          /* Unused file descriptors to close */
  unixInodeInfo *pNext;           /* List of all unixInodeInfo objects */
  unixInodeInfo *pPrev;           /*    .... doubly linked */
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE)
................................................................................
  if( pFile->pInode->eFileLock>SHARED_LOCK ){
    reserved = 1;
  }

  /* Otherwise see if some other process holds it.
  */
#ifndef __DJGPP__
  if( !reserved && !pFile->pInode->bProcessLock ){
    struct flock lock;
    lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
    lock.l_start = RESERVED_BYTE;
    lock.l_len = 1;
    lock.l_type = F_WRLCK;
    if (-1 == osFcntl(pFile->h, F_GETLK, &lock)) {
      int tErrno = errno;
................................................................................
  
  unixLeaveMutex();
  OSTRACE(("TEST WR-LOCK %d %d %d (unix)\n", pFile->h, rc, reserved));

  *pResOut = reserved;
  return rc;
}

/*
** Attempt to set a system-lock on the file pFile.  The lock is 
** described by pLock.
**
** If the pFile was opened from unix-excl, then the only lock ever
** obtained is an exclusive lock, and it is obtained exactly once
** the first time any lock is attempted.  All subsequent system locking
** operations become no-ops.  Locking operations still happen internally,
** in order to coordinate access between separate database connections
** within this process, but all of that is handled in memory and the
** operating system does not participate.
*/
static int unixFileLock(unixFile *pFile, struct flock *pLock){
  int rc;
  unixInodeInfo *pInode = pFile->pInode;
  assert( unixMutexHeld() );
  assert( pInode!=0 );
  if( (pFile->ctrlFlags & UNIXFILE_EXCL)!=0 || pInode->bProcessLock ){
    if( pInode->bProcessLock==0 ){
      struct flock lock;
      assert( pInode->nLock==0 );
      lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
      lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
      lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE;
      lock.l_type = F_WRLCK;
      rc = osFcntl(pFile->h, F_SETLK, &lock);
      if( rc<0 ) return rc;
      pInode->bProcessLock = 1;
      pInode->nLock++;
    }else{
      rc = 0;
    }
  }else{
    rc = osFcntl(pFile->h, F_SETLK, pLock);
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Lock the file with the lock specified by parameter eFileLock - one
** of the following:
**
**     (1) SHARED_LOCK
**     (2) RESERVED_LOCK
................................................................................
  lock.l_len = 1L;
  lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
  if( eFileLock==SHARED_LOCK 
      || (eFileLock==EXCLUSIVE_LOCK && pFile->eFileLock<PENDING_LOCK)
  ){
    lock.l_type = (eFileLock==SHARED_LOCK?F_RDLCK:F_WRLCK);
    lock.l_start = PENDING_BYTE;
    s = unixFileLock(pFile, &lock);
    if( s==(-1) ){
      tErrno = errno;
      rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_LOCK);
      if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
        pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
      }
      goto end_lock;
................................................................................
  if( eFileLock==SHARED_LOCK ){
    assert( pInode->nShared==0 );
    assert( pInode->eFileLock==0 );

    /* Now get the read-lock */
    lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
    lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE;
    if( (s = unixFileLock(pFile, &lock))==(-1) ){
      tErrno = errno;
    }
    /* Drop the temporary PENDING lock */
    lock.l_start = PENDING_BYTE;
    lock.l_len = 1L;
    lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
    if( unixFileLock(pFile, &lock)!=0 ){
      if( s != -1 ){
        /* This could happen with a network mount */
        tErrno = errno; 
        rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK); 
        if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
          pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
        }
................................................................................
      case EXCLUSIVE_LOCK:
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE;
        break;
      default:
        assert(0);
    }
    s = unixFileLock(pFile, &lock);
    if( s==(-1) ){
      tErrno = errno;
      rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_LOCK);
      if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
        pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
      }
    }
................................................................................
** 
** If handleNFSUnlock is true, then on downgrading an EXCLUSIVE_LOCK to SHARED
** the byte range is divided into 2 parts and the first part is unlocked then
** set to a read lock, then the other part is simply unlocked.  This works 
** around a bug in BSD NFS lockd (also seen on MacOSX 10.3+) that fails to 
** remove the write lock on a region when a read lock is set.
*/
static int posixUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int eFileLock, int handleNFSUnlock){
  unixFile *pFile = (unixFile*)id;
  unixInodeInfo *pInode;
  struct flock lock;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int h;
  int tErrno;                      /* Error code from system call errors */

................................................................................
      if( handleNFSUnlock ){
        off_t divSize = SHARED_SIZE - 1;
        
        lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = divSize;
        if( unixFileLock(pFile,, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
        lock.l_type = F_RDLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = divSize;
        if( unixFileLock(pFile, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
        lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST+divSize;
        lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE-divSize;
        if( unixFileLock(pFile, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
................................................................................
      }else
#endif /* defined(__APPLE__) && SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE */
      {
        lock.l_type = F_RDLCK;
        lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
        lock.l_start = SHARED_FIRST;
        lock.l_len = SHARED_SIZE;
        if( unixFileLock(pFile, &lock)==(-1) ){
          tErrno = errno;
          rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_RDLOCK);
          if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
            pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
          }
          goto end_unlock;
        }
      }
    }
    lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
    lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
    lock.l_start = PENDING_BYTE;
    lock.l_len = 2L;  assert( PENDING_BYTE+1==RESERVED_BYTE );
    if( unixFileLock(pFile, &lock)!=(-1) ){
      pInode->eFileLock = SHARED_LOCK;
    }else{
      tErrno = errno;
      rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
      if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
        pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
      }
................................................................................
    if( pInode->nShared==0 ){
      lock.l_type = F_UNLCK;
      lock.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
      lock.l_start = lock.l_len = 0L;
      SimulateIOErrorBenign(1);
      SimulateIOError( h=(-1) )
      SimulateIOErrorBenign(0);
      if( unixFileLock(pFile, &lock)!=(-1) ){
        pInode->eFileLock = NO_LOCK;
      }else{
        tErrno = errno;
        rc = sqliteErrorFromPosixError(tErrno, SQLITE_IOERR_UNLOCK);
        if( IS_LOCK_ERROR(rc) ){
          pFile->lastErrno = tErrno;
        }
................................................................................
** Lower the locking level on file descriptor pFile to eFileLock.  eFileLock
** must be either NO_LOCK or SHARED_LOCK.
**
** If the locking level of the file descriptor is already at or below
** the requested locking level, this routine is a no-op.
*/
static int unixUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int eFileLock){
  return posixUnlock(id, eFileLock, 0);
}

/*
** This function performs the parts of the "close file" operation 
** common to all locking schemes. It closes the directory and file
** handles, if they are valid, and sets all fields of the unixFile
** structure to 0.
................................................................................
*/
static int unixClose(sqlite3_file *id){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  if( id ){
    unixFile *pFile = (unixFile *)id;
    unixUnlock(id, NO_LOCK);
    unixEnterMutex();
    assert( pFile->pInode==0 || pFile->pInode->nLock>0
            || pFile->pInode->bProcessLock==0 );
    if( pFile->pInode && pFile->pInode->nLock ){
      /* If there are outstanding locks, do not actually close the file just
      ** yet because that would clear those locks.  Instead, add the file
      ** descriptor to pInode->pUnused list.  It will be automatically closed 
      ** when the last lock is cleared.
      */
      setPendingFd(pFile);
................................................................................
 ** Lower the locking level on file descriptor pFile to eFileLock.  eFileLock
 ** must be either NO_LOCK or SHARED_LOCK.
 **
 ** If the locking level of the file descriptor is already at or below
 ** the requested locking level, this routine is a no-op.
 */
static int nfsUnlock(sqlite3_file *id, int eFileLock){
  return posixUnlock(id, eFileLock, 1);
}

#endif /* defined(__APPLE__) && SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE */
/*
** The code above is the NFS lock implementation.  The code is specific
** to MacOSX and does not work on other unix platforms.  No alternative
** is available.  
................................................................................

  /* Shared locks never span more than one byte */
  assert( n==1 || lockType!=F_RDLCK );

  /* Locks are within range */
  assert( n>=1 && n<SQLITE_SHM_NLOCK );

  if( pShmNode->h>=0 ){
    /* Initialize the locking parameters */
    memset(&f, 0, sizeof(f));
    f.l_type = lockType;
    f.l_whence = SEEK_SET;
    f.l_start = ofst;
    f.l_len = n;

    rc = osFcntl(pShmNode->h, F_SETLK, &f);
    rc = (rc!=(-1)) ? SQLITE_OK : SQLITE_BUSY;
  }

  /* Update the global lock state and do debug tracing */
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  { u16 mask;
  OSTRACE(("SHM-LOCK "));
  mask = (1<<(ofst+n)) - (1<<ofst);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
................................................................................
  unixShmNode *p = pFd->pInode->pShmNode;
  assert( unixMutexHeld() );
  if( p && p->nRef==0 ){
    int i;
    assert( p->pInode==pFd->pInode );
    if( p->mutex ) sqlite3_mutex_free(p->mutex);
    for(i=0; i<p->nRegion; i++){
      if( p->h>=0 ){
        munmap(p->apRegion[i], p->szRegion);
      }else{
        sqlite3_free(p->apRegion[i]);
      }
    }
    sqlite3_free(p->apRegion);
    if( p->h>=0 ){
      robust_close(pFd, p->h, __LINE__);
      p->h = -1;
    }
    p->pInode->pShmNode = 0;
................................................................................
** same database file at the same time, database corruption will likely
** result. The SQLITE_SHM_DIRECTORY compile-time option is considered
** "unsupported" and may go away in a future SQLite release.
**
** When opening a new shared-memory file, if no other instances of that
** file are currently open, in this process or in other processes, then
** the file must be truncated to zero length or have its header cleared.
**
** If the original database file (pDbFd) is using the "unix-excl" VFS
** that means that an exclusive lock is held on the database file and
** that no other processes are able to read or write the database.  In
** that case, we do not really need shared memory.  No shared memory
** file is created.  The shared memory will be simulated with heap memory.
*/
static int unixOpenSharedMemory(unixFile *pDbFd){
  struct unixShm *p = 0;          /* The connection to be opened */
  struct unixShmNode *pShmNode;   /* The underlying mmapped file */
  int rc;                         /* Result code */
  unixInodeInfo *pInode;          /* The inode of fd */
  char *zShmFilename;             /* Name of the file used for SHM */
................................................................................
    struct stat sStat;                 /* fstat() info for database file */

    /* Call fstat() to figure out the permissions on the database file. If
    ** a new *-shm file is created, an attempt will be made to create it
    ** with the same permissions. The actual permissions the file is created
    ** with are subject to the current umask setting.
    */
    if( osFstat(pDbFd->h, &sStat) && pInode->bProcessLock==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_IOERR_FSTAT;
      goto shm_open_err;
    }

#ifdef SQLITE_SHM_DIRECTORY
    nShmFilename = sizeof(SQLITE_SHM_DIRECTORY) + 30;
#else
................................................................................
    pShmNode->pInode = pDbFd->pInode;
    pShmNode->mutex = sqlite3_mutex_alloc(SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST);
    if( pShmNode->mutex==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
      goto shm_open_err;
    }

    if( pInode->bProcessLock==0 ){
      pShmNode->h = robust_open(zShmFilename, O_RDWR|O_CREAT,
                               (sStat.st_mode & 0777));
      if( pShmNode->h<0 ){
        rc = unixLogError(SQLITE_CANTOPEN_BKPT, "open", zShmFilename);
        goto shm_open_err;
      }
  
      /* Check to see if another process is holding the dead-man switch.
      ** If not, truncate the file to zero length. 
      */
      rc = SQLITE_OK;
      if( unixShmSystemLock(pShmNode, F_WRLCK, UNIX_SHM_DMS, 1)==SQLITE_OK ){
        if( robust_ftruncate(pShmNode->h, 0) ){
          rc = unixLogError(SQLITE_IOERR_SHMOPEN, "ftruncate", zShmFilename);
        }
      }
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        rc = unixShmSystemLock(pShmNode, F_RDLCK, UNIX_SHM_DMS, 1);
      }
      if( rc ) goto shm_open_err;
    }
  }

  /* Make the new connection a child of the unixShmNode */
  p->pShmNode = pShmNode;
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  p->id = pShmNode->nextShmId++;
#endif
................................................................................
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  }

  p = pDbFd->pShm;
  pShmNode = p->pShmNode;
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(pShmNode->mutex);
  assert( szRegion==pShmNode->szRegion || pShmNode->nRegion==0 );
  assert( pShmNode->pInode==pDbFd->pInode );
  assert( pShmNode->h>=0 || pDbFd->pInode->bProcessLock==1 );
  assert( pShmNode->h<0 || pDbFd->pInode->bProcessLock==0 );

  if( pShmNode->nRegion<=iRegion ){
    char **apNew;                      /* New apRegion[] array */
    int nByte = (iRegion+1)*szRegion;  /* Minimum required file size */
    struct stat sStat;                 /* Used by fstat() */

    pShmNode->szRegion = szRegion;

    if( pShmNode->h>=0 ){
      /* The requested region is not mapped into this processes address space.
      ** Check to see if it has been allocated (i.e. if the wal-index file is
      ** large enough to contain the requested region).
      */
      if( osFstat(pShmNode->h, &sStat) ){
        rc = SQLITE_IOERR_SHMSIZE;
        goto shmpage_out;
      }
  
      if( sStat.st_size<nByte ){
        /* The requested memory region does not exist. If bExtend is set to
        ** false, exit early. *pp will be set to NULL and SQLITE_OK returned.
        **
        ** Alternatively, if bExtend is true, use ftruncate() to allocate
        ** the requested memory region.
        */
        if( !bExtend ) goto shmpage_out;
        if( robust_ftruncate(pShmNode->h, nByte) ){
          rc = unixLogError(SQLITE_IOERR_SHMSIZE, "ftruncate",
                            pShmNode->zFilename);
          goto shmpage_out;
        }
      }
    }

    /* Map the requested memory region into this processes address space. */
    apNew = (char **)sqlite3_realloc(
        pShmNode->apRegion, (iRegion+1)*sizeof(char *)
    );
    if( !apNew ){
      rc = SQLITE_IOERR_NOMEM;
      goto shmpage_out;
    }
    pShmNode->apRegion = apNew;
    while(pShmNode->nRegion<=iRegion){
      void *pMem;
      if( pShmNode->h>=0 ){
        pMem = mmap(0, szRegion, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, 
            MAP_SHARED, pShmNode->h, pShmNode->nRegion*szRegion
        );
        if( pMem==MAP_FAILED ){
          rc = SQLITE_IOERR;
          goto shmpage_out;
        }
      }else{
        pMem = sqlite3_malloc(szRegion);
        if( pMem==0 ){
          rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
          goto shmpage_out;
        }
        memset(pMem, 0, szRegion);
      }
      pShmNode->apRegion[pShmNode->nRegion] = pMem;
      pShmNode->nRegion++;
    }
  }

shmpage_out:
................................................................................
  assert( ofst>=0 && ofst+n<=SQLITE_SHM_NLOCK );
  assert( n>=1 );
  assert( flags==(SQLITE_SHM_LOCK | SQLITE_SHM_SHARED)
       || flags==(SQLITE_SHM_LOCK | SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE)
       || flags==(SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK | SQLITE_SHM_SHARED)
       || flags==(SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK | SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE) );
  assert( n==1 || (flags & SQLITE_SHM_EXCLUSIVE)!=0 );
  assert( pShmNode->h>=0 || pDbFd->pInode->bProcessLock==1 );
  assert( pShmNode->h<0 || pDbFd->pInode->bProcessLock==0 );

  mask = (1<<(ofst+n)) - (1<<ofst);
  assert( n>1 || mask==(1<<ofst) );
  sqlite3_mutex_enter(pShmNode->mutex);
  if( flags & SQLITE_SHM_UNLOCK ){
    u16 allMask = 0; /* Mask of locks held by siblings */

................................................................................

  /* If pShmNode->nRef has reached 0, then close the underlying
  ** shared-memory file, too */
  unixEnterMutex();
  assert( pShmNode->nRef>0 );
  pShmNode->nRef--;
  if( pShmNode->nRef==0 ){
    if( deleteFlag && pShmNode->h>=0 ) unlink(pShmNode->zFilename);
    unixShmPurge(pDbFd);
  }
  unixLeaveMutex();

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

................................................................................
  assert( zFilename==0 || zFilename[0]=='/' );
#endif

  OSTRACE(("OPEN    %-3d %s\n", h, zFilename));
  pNew->h = h;
  pNew->dirfd = dirfd;
  pNew->zPath = zFilename;
  if( memcmp(pVfs->zName,"unix-excl",10)==0 ){
    pNew->ctrlFlags = UNIXFILE_EXCL;
  }else{
    pNew->ctrlFlags = 0;
  }

#if OS_VXWORKS
  pNew->pId = vxworksFindFileId(zFilename);
  if( pNew->pId==0 ){
    noLock = 1;
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
................................................................................
#if SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE && (OS_VXWORKS || defined(__APPLE__))
    UNIXVFS("unix",          autolockIoFinder ),
#else
    UNIXVFS("unix",          posixIoFinder ),
#endif
    UNIXVFS("unix-none",     nolockIoFinder ),
    UNIXVFS("unix-dotfile",  dotlockIoFinder ),
    UNIXVFS("unix-excl",     posixIoFinder ),
#if OS_VXWORKS
    UNIXVFS("unix-namedsem", semIoFinder ),
#endif
#if SQLITE_ENABLE_LOCKING_STYLE
    UNIXVFS("unix-posix",    posixIoFinder ),
#if !OS_VXWORKS
    UNIXVFS("unix-flock",    flockIoFinder ),

Changes to src/shell.c.

415
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419
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421

422
423
424
425
426
427
428
....
2596
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2598
2599
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....
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2794
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  char nullvalue[20];    /* The text to print when a NULL comes back from
                         ** the database */
  struct previous_mode_data explainPrev;
                         /* Holds the mode information just before
                         ** .explain ON */
  char outfile[FILENAME_MAX]; /* Filename for *out */
  const char *zDbFilename;    /* name of the database file */

  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;   /* Current statement if any. */
  FILE *pLog;            /* Write log output here */
};

/*
** These are the allowed modes.
*/
................................................................................
  "   -html                set output mode to HTML\n"
  "   -line                set output mode to 'line'\n"
  "   -list                set output mode to 'list'\n"
  "   -separator 'x'       set output field separator (|)\n"
  "   -stats               print memory stats before each finalize\n"
  "   -nullvalue 'text'    set text string for NULL values\n"
  "   -version             show SQLite version\n"

;
static void usage(int showDetail){
  fprintf(stderr,
      "Usage: %s [OPTIONS] FILENAME [SQL]\n"  
      "FILENAME is the name of an SQLite database. A new database is created\n"
      "if the file does not previously exist.\n", Argv0);
  if( showDetail ){
................................................................................
        if( c=='K' ){ szHeap *= 1000; break; }
        if( c=='G' ){ szHeap *= 1000000000; break; }
      }
      if( szHeap>0x7fff0000 ) szHeap = 0x7fff0000;
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3) || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5)
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP, malloc((int)szHeap), (int)szHeap, 64);
#endif









    }
  }
  if( i<argc ){
#if defined(SQLITE_OS_OS2) && SQLITE_OS_OS2
    data.zDbFilename = (const char *)convertCpPathToUtf8( argv[i++] );
#else
    data.zDbFilename = argv[i++];
................................................................................
      printf("%s\n", sqlite3_libversion());
      return 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-interactive")==0 ){
      stdin_is_interactive = 1;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-batch")==0 ){
      stdin_is_interactive = 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-heap")==0 ){


      i++;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-help")==0 || strcmp(z, "--help")==0 ){
      usage(1);
    }else{
      fprintf(stderr,"%s: Error: unknown option: %s\n", Argv0, z);
      fprintf(stderr,"Use -help for a list of options.\n");
      return 1;







>







 







>







 







>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







 







>
>







415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
....
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
....
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
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2702
2703
2704
....
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
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2812
2813
  char nullvalue[20];    /* The text to print when a NULL comes back from
                         ** the database */
  struct previous_mode_data explainPrev;
                         /* Holds the mode information just before
                         ** .explain ON */
  char outfile[FILENAME_MAX]; /* Filename for *out */
  const char *zDbFilename;    /* name of the database file */
  const char *zVfs;           /* Name of VFS to use */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;   /* Current statement if any. */
  FILE *pLog;            /* Write log output here */
};

/*
** These are the allowed modes.
*/
................................................................................
  "   -html                set output mode to HTML\n"
  "   -line                set output mode to 'line'\n"
  "   -list                set output mode to 'list'\n"
  "   -separator 'x'       set output field separator (|)\n"
  "   -stats               print memory stats before each finalize\n"
  "   -nullvalue 'text'    set text string for NULL values\n"
  "   -version             show SQLite version\n"
  "   -vfs NAME            use NAME as the default VFS\n"
;
static void usage(int showDetail){
  fprintf(stderr,
      "Usage: %s [OPTIONS] FILENAME [SQL]\n"  
      "FILENAME is the name of an SQLite database. A new database is created\n"
      "if the file does not previously exist.\n", Argv0);
  if( showDetail ){
................................................................................
        if( c=='K' ){ szHeap *= 1000; break; }
        if( c=='G' ){ szHeap *= 1000000000; break; }
      }
      if( szHeap>0x7fff0000 ) szHeap = 0x7fff0000;
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3) || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5)
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP, malloc((int)szHeap), (int)szHeap, 64);
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(argv[i],"-vfs")==0 ){
      i++;
      sqlite3_vfs *pVfs = sqlite3_vfs_find(argv[i]);
      if( pVfs ){
        sqlite3_vfs_register(pVfs, 1);
      }else{
        fprintf(stderr, "no such VFS: \"%s\"\n", argv[i]);
        exit(1);
      }
    }
  }
  if( i<argc ){
#if defined(SQLITE_OS_OS2) && SQLITE_OS_OS2
    data.zDbFilename = (const char *)convertCpPathToUtf8( argv[i++] );
#else
    data.zDbFilename = argv[i++];
................................................................................
      printf("%s\n", sqlite3_libversion());
      return 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-interactive")==0 ){
      stdin_is_interactive = 1;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-batch")==0 ){
      stdin_is_interactive = 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-heap")==0 ){
      i++;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-vfs")==0 ){
      i++;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-help")==0 || strcmp(z, "--help")==0 ){
      usage(1);
    }else{
      fprintf(stderr,"%s: Error: unknown option: %s\n", Argv0, z);
      fprintf(stderr,"Use -help for a list of options.\n");
      return 1;