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Overview
Comment:In the parse tree, combine LIMIT and OFFSET into a single expression rooted on a TK_LIMIT node, for a small code size reduction and performance increase, and a reduction in code complexity.
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SHA3-256:3925facd942c9df663f9b29b1e6f94f6be14af8c2b99eb691bfc836b4c220826
User & Date: drh 2017-11-14 23:48:23
Context
2017-11-15
17:07
UI improvements on the .testctrl dot-command in the shell. check-in: 5d66219c user: drh tags: trunk
16:29
Merge all the latest changes from trunk. check-in: 1a1a73b8 user: drh tags: appendvfs
2017-11-14
23:48
In the parse tree, combine LIMIT and OFFSET into a single expression rooted on a TK_LIMIT node, for a small code size reduction and performance increase, and a reduction in code complexity. check-in: 3925facd user: drh tags: trunk
19:34
Add the ability to read from read-only WAL-mode database files as long as the -wal and -shm files are present on disk. check-in: 00ec95fc user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/attach.c.

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    }
    if( sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pSelect->pOrderBy) ){
      return 1;
    }
    if( sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pSelect->pLimit) ){
      return 1;
    }
    if( sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pSelect->pOffset) ){
      return 1;
    }
    pSelect = pSelect->pPrior;
  }
  return 0;
}
int sqlite3FixExpr(
  DbFixer *pFix,     /* Context of the fixation */
  Expr *pExpr        /* The expression to be fixed to one database */







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    }
    if( sqlite3FixExprList(pFix, pSelect->pOrderBy) ){
      return 1;
    }
    if( sqlite3FixExpr(pFix, pSelect->pLimit) ){
      return 1;
    }



    pSelect = pSelect->pPrior;
  }
  return 0;
}
int sqlite3FixExpr(
  DbFixer *pFix,     /* Context of the fixation */
  Expr *pExpr        /* The expression to be fixed to one database */

Changes to src/delete.c.

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*/
void sqlite3MaterializeView(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
  Table *pView,        /* View definition */
  Expr *pWhere,        /* Optional WHERE clause to be added */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,  /* Optional ORDER BY clause */
  Expr *pLimit,        /* Optional LIMIT clause */
  Expr *pOffset,       /* Optional OFFSET clause */
  int iCur             /* Cursor number for ephemeral table */
){
  SelectDest dest;
  Select *pSel;
  SrcList *pFrom;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  int iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pView->pSchema);
................................................................................
    assert( pFrom->nSrc==1 );
    pFrom->a[0].zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pView->zName);
    pFrom->a[0].zDatabase = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, db->aDb[iDb].zDbSName);
    assert( pFrom->a[0].pOn==0 );
    assert( pFrom->a[0].pUsing==0 );
  }
  pSel = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0, pFrom, pWhere, 0, 0, pOrderBy, 
                          SF_IncludeHidden, pLimit, pOffset);
  sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_EphemTab, iCur);
  sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest);
  sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pSel);
}
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER) */

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY)
................................................................................
*/
Expr *sqlite3LimitWhere(
  Parse *pParse,               /* The parser context */
  SrcList *pSrc,               /* the FROM clause -- which tables to scan */
  Expr *pWhere,                /* The WHERE clause.  May be null */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,          /* The ORDER BY clause.  May be null */
  Expr *pLimit,                /* The LIMIT clause.  May be null */
  Expr *pOffset,               /* The OFFSET clause.  May be null */
  char *zStmtType              /* Either DELETE or UPDATE.  For err msgs. */
){
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  Expr *pLhs = NULL;           /* LHS of IN(SELECT...) operator */
  Expr *pInClause = NULL;      /* WHERE rowid IN ( select ) */
  ExprList *pEList = NULL;     /* Expression list contaning only pSelectRowid */
  SrcList *pSelectSrc = NULL;  /* SELECT rowid FROM x ... (dup of pSrc) */
................................................................................

  /* Check that there isn't an ORDER BY without a LIMIT clause.
  */
  if( pOrderBy && pLimit==0 ) {
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "ORDER BY without LIMIT on %s", zStmtType);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pWhere);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pOrderBy);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pLimit);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pOffset);
    return 0;
  }

  /* We only need to generate a select expression if there
  ** is a limit/offset term to enforce.
  */
  if( pLimit == 0 ) {
    /* if pLimit is null, pOffset will always be null as well. */
    assert( pOffset == 0 );
    return pWhere;
  }

  /* Generate a select expression tree to enforce the limit/offset 
  ** term for the DELETE or UPDATE statement.  For example:
  **   DELETE FROM table_a WHERE col1=1 ORDER BY col2 LIMIT 1 OFFSET 1
  ** becomes:
................................................................................
  pSrc->a[0].pTab = 0;
  pSelectSrc = sqlite3SrcListDup(pParse->db, pSrc, 0);
  pSrc->a[0].pTab = pTab;
  pSrc->a[0].pIBIndex = 0;

  /* generate the SELECT expression tree. */
  pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, pEList, pSelectSrc, pWhere, 0 ,0, 
      pOrderBy,0,pLimit,pOffset
  );

  /* now generate the new WHERE rowid IN clause for the DELETE/UDPATE */
  pInClause = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, pLhs, 0);
  sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, pInClause, pSelect);
  return pInClause;
}
................................................................................
**                  pTabList              pWhere
*/
void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
  Parse *pParse,         /* The parser context */
  SrcList *pTabList,     /* The table from which we should delete things */
  Expr *pWhere,          /* The WHERE clause.  May be null */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,    /* ORDER BY clause. May be null */
  Expr *pLimit,          /* LIMIT clause. May be null */
  Expr *pOffset          /* OFFSET clause. May be null */
){
  Vdbe *v;               /* The virtual database engine */
  Table *pTab;           /* The table from which records will be deleted */
  int i;                 /* Loop counter */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;     /* Information about the WHERE clause */
  Index *pIdx;           /* For looping over indices of the table */
  int iTabCur;           /* Cursor number for the table */
................................................................................
# undef isView
# define isView 0
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
  if( !isView ){
    pWhere = sqlite3LimitWhere(
        pParse, pTabList, pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, pOffset, "DELETE"
    );
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = pOffset = 0;
  }
#endif

  /* If pTab is really a view, make sure it has been initialized.
  */
  if( sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(pParse, pTab) ){
    goto delete_from_cleanup;
................................................................................

  /* If we are trying to delete from a view, realize that view into
  ** an ephemeral table.
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  if( isView ){
    sqlite3MaterializeView(pParse, pTab, 
        pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, pOffset, iTabCur
    );
    iDataCur = iIdxCur = iTabCur;
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = pOffset = 0;
  }
#endif

  /* Resolve the column names in the WHERE clause.
  */
  memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
  sNC.pParse = pParse;
................................................................................
delete_from_cleanup:
  sqlite3AuthContextPop(&sContext);
  sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, pTabList);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) 
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrderBy);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLimit);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pOffset);
#endif
  sqlite3DbFree(db, aToOpen);
  return;
}
/* Make sure "isView" and other macros defined above are undefined. Otherwise
** they may interfere with compilation of other functions in this file
** (or in another file, if this file becomes part of the amalgamation).  */







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void sqlite3MaterializeView(
  Parse *pParse,       /* Parsing context */
  Table *pView,        /* View definition */
  Expr *pWhere,        /* Optional WHERE clause to be added */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,  /* Optional ORDER BY clause */
  Expr *pLimit,        /* Optional LIMIT clause */

  int iCur             /* Cursor number for ephemeral table */
){
  SelectDest dest;
  Select *pSel;
  SrcList *pFrom;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  int iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pView->pSchema);
................................................................................
    assert( pFrom->nSrc==1 );
    pFrom->a[0].zName = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, pView->zName);
    pFrom->a[0].zDatabase = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, db->aDb[iDb].zDbSName);
    assert( pFrom->a[0].pOn==0 );
    assert( pFrom->a[0].pUsing==0 );
  }
  pSel = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0, pFrom, pWhere, 0, 0, pOrderBy, 
                          SF_IncludeHidden, pLimit);
  sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_EphemTab, iCur);
  sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest);
  sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pSel);
}
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER) */

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY)
................................................................................
*/
Expr *sqlite3LimitWhere(
  Parse *pParse,               /* The parser context */
  SrcList *pSrc,               /* the FROM clause -- which tables to scan */
  Expr *pWhere,                /* The WHERE clause.  May be null */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,          /* The ORDER BY clause.  May be null */
  Expr *pLimit,                /* The LIMIT clause.  May be null */

  char *zStmtType              /* Either DELETE or UPDATE.  For err msgs. */
){
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  Expr *pLhs = NULL;           /* LHS of IN(SELECT...) operator */
  Expr *pInClause = NULL;      /* WHERE rowid IN ( select ) */
  ExprList *pEList = NULL;     /* Expression list contaning only pSelectRowid */
  SrcList *pSelectSrc = NULL;  /* SELECT rowid FROM x ... (dup of pSrc) */
................................................................................

  /* Check that there isn't an ORDER BY without a LIMIT clause.
  */
  if( pOrderBy && pLimit==0 ) {
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "ORDER BY without LIMIT on %s", zStmtType);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pWhere);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pOrderBy);


    return 0;
  }

  /* We only need to generate a select expression if there
  ** is a limit/offset term to enforce.
  */
  if( pLimit == 0 ) {


    return pWhere;
  }

  /* Generate a select expression tree to enforce the limit/offset 
  ** term for the DELETE or UPDATE statement.  For example:
  **   DELETE FROM table_a WHERE col1=1 ORDER BY col2 LIMIT 1 OFFSET 1
  ** becomes:
................................................................................
  pSrc->a[0].pTab = 0;
  pSelectSrc = sqlite3SrcListDup(pParse->db, pSrc, 0);
  pSrc->a[0].pTab = pTab;
  pSrc->a[0].pIBIndex = 0;

  /* generate the SELECT expression tree. */
  pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, pEList, pSelectSrc, pWhere, 0 ,0, 
      pOrderBy,0,pLimit
  );

  /* now generate the new WHERE rowid IN clause for the DELETE/UDPATE */
  pInClause = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, pLhs, 0);
  sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, pInClause, pSelect);
  return pInClause;
}
................................................................................
**                  pTabList              pWhere
*/
void sqlite3DeleteFrom(
  Parse *pParse,         /* The parser context */
  SrcList *pTabList,     /* The table from which we should delete things */
  Expr *pWhere,          /* The WHERE clause.  May be null */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,    /* ORDER BY clause. May be null */
  Expr *pLimit           /* LIMIT clause. May be null */

){
  Vdbe *v;               /* The virtual database engine */
  Table *pTab;           /* The table from which records will be deleted */
  int i;                 /* Loop counter */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;     /* Information about the WHERE clause */
  Index *pIdx;           /* For looping over indices of the table */
  int iTabCur;           /* Cursor number for the table */
................................................................................
# undef isView
# define isView 0
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
  if( !isView ){
    pWhere = sqlite3LimitWhere(
        pParse, pTabList, pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, "DELETE"
    );
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = 0;
  }
#endif

  /* If pTab is really a view, make sure it has been initialized.
  */
  if( sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(pParse, pTab) ){
    goto delete_from_cleanup;
................................................................................

  /* If we are trying to delete from a view, realize that view into
  ** an ephemeral table.
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  if( isView ){
    sqlite3MaterializeView(pParse, pTab, 
        pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, iTabCur
    );
    iDataCur = iIdxCur = iTabCur;
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = 0;
  }
#endif

  /* Resolve the column names in the WHERE clause.
  */
  memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
  sNC.pParse = pParse;
................................................................................
delete_from_cleanup:
  sqlite3AuthContextPop(&sContext);
  sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, pTabList);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) 
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrderBy);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLimit);

#endif
  sqlite3DbFree(db, aToOpen);
  return;
}
/* Make sure "isView" and other macros defined above are undefined. Otherwise
** they may interfere with compilation of other functions in this file
** (or in another file, if this file becomes part of the amalgamation).  */

Changes to src/expr.c.

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  }
}
static void heightOfSelect(Select *p, int *pnHeight){
  if( p ){
    heightOfExpr(p->pWhere, pnHeight);
    heightOfExpr(p->pHaving, pnHeight);
    heightOfExpr(p->pLimit, pnHeight);
    heightOfExpr(p->pOffset, pnHeight);
    heightOfExprList(p->pEList, pnHeight);
    heightOfExprList(p->pGroupBy, pnHeight);
    heightOfExprList(p->pOrderBy, pnHeight);
    heightOfSelect(p->pPrior, pnHeight);
  }
}

................................................................................
    pNew->pGroupBy = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->pGroupBy, flags);
    pNew->pHaving = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pHaving, flags);
    pNew->pOrderBy = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->pOrderBy, flags);
    pNew->op = p->op;
    pNew->pNext = pNext;
    pNew->pPrior = 0;
    pNew->pLimit = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pLimit, flags);
    pNew->pOffset = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pOffset, flags);
    pNew->iLimit = 0;
    pNew->iOffset = 0;
    pNew->selFlags = p->selFlags & ~SF_UsesEphemeral;
    pNew->addrOpenEphm[0] = -1;
    pNew->addrOpenEphm[1] = -1;
    pNew->nSelectRow = p->nSelectRow;
    pNew->pWith = withDup(db, p->pWith);
................................................................................
  if( p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate) ){
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Distinct );
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Aggregate );
    return 0; /* No DISTINCT keyword and no aggregate functions */
  }
  assert( p->pGroupBy==0 );              /* Has no GROUP BY clause */
  if( p->pLimit ) return 0;              /* Has no LIMIT clause */
  assert( p->pOffset==0 );               /* No LIMIT means no OFFSET */
  if( p->pWhere ) return 0;              /* Has no WHERE clause */
  pSrc = p->pSrc;
  assert( pSrc!=0 );
  if( pSrc->nSrc!=1 ) return 0;          /* Single term in FROM clause */
  if( pSrc->a[0].pSelect ) return 0;     /* FROM is not a subquery or view */
  pTab = pSrc->a[0].pTab;
  assert( pTab!=0 );
................................................................................
      **
      ** In both cases, the query is augmented with "LIMIT 1".  Any 
      ** preexisting limit is discarded in place of the new LIMIT 1.
      */
      Select *pSel;                         /* SELECT statement to encode */
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECT result */
      int nReg;                             /* Registers to allocate */


      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
................................................................................
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, dest.iSDParm, dest.iSDParm+nReg-1);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init subquery result"));
      }else{
        dest.eDest = SRT_Exists;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, dest.iSDParm);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init EXISTS result"));
      }


      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pSel->pLimit);


      pSel->pLimit = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER,
                                  &sqlite3IntTokens[1], 0);

      pSel->iLimit = 0;
      pSel->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
      if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest) ){
        return 0;
      }
      rReg = dest.iSDParm;
      ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);







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  }
}
static void heightOfSelect(Select *p, int *pnHeight){
  if( p ){
    heightOfExpr(p->pWhere, pnHeight);
    heightOfExpr(p->pHaving, pnHeight);
    heightOfExpr(p->pLimit, pnHeight);

    heightOfExprList(p->pEList, pnHeight);
    heightOfExprList(p->pGroupBy, pnHeight);
    heightOfExprList(p->pOrderBy, pnHeight);
    heightOfSelect(p->pPrior, pnHeight);
  }
}

................................................................................
    pNew->pGroupBy = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->pGroupBy, flags);
    pNew->pHaving = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pHaving, flags);
    pNew->pOrderBy = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, p->pOrderBy, flags);
    pNew->op = p->op;
    pNew->pNext = pNext;
    pNew->pPrior = 0;
    pNew->pLimit = sqlite3ExprDup(db, p->pLimit, flags);

    pNew->iLimit = 0;
    pNew->iOffset = 0;
    pNew->selFlags = p->selFlags & ~SF_UsesEphemeral;
    pNew->addrOpenEphm[0] = -1;
    pNew->addrOpenEphm[1] = -1;
    pNew->nSelectRow = p->nSelectRow;
    pNew->pWith = withDup(db, p->pWith);
................................................................................
  if( p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate) ){
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Distinct );
    testcase( (p->selFlags & (SF_Distinct|SF_Aggregate))==SF_Aggregate );
    return 0; /* No DISTINCT keyword and no aggregate functions */
  }
  assert( p->pGroupBy==0 );              /* Has no GROUP BY clause */
  if( p->pLimit ) return 0;              /* Has no LIMIT clause */

  if( p->pWhere ) return 0;              /* Has no WHERE clause */
  pSrc = p->pSrc;
  assert( pSrc!=0 );
  if( pSrc->nSrc!=1 ) return 0;          /* Single term in FROM clause */
  if( pSrc->a[0].pSelect ) return 0;     /* FROM is not a subquery or view */
  pTab = pSrc->a[0].pTab;
  assert( pTab!=0 );
................................................................................
      **
      ** In both cases, the query is augmented with "LIMIT 1".  Any 
      ** preexisting limit is discarded in place of the new LIMIT 1.
      */
      Select *pSel;                         /* SELECT statement to encode */
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECT result */
      int nReg;                             /* Registers to allocate */
      Expr *pLimit;                         /* New limit expression */

      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
................................................................................
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Null, 0, dest.iSDParm, dest.iSDParm+nReg-1);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init subquery result"));
      }else{
        dest.eDest = SRT_Exists;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, dest.iSDParm);
        VdbeComment((v, "Init EXISTS result"));
      }
      pLimit = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER,&sqlite3IntTokens[1], 0);
      if( pSel->pLimit ){
        sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, pSel->pLimit->pLeft);
        pSel->pLimit->pLeft = pLimit;
      }else{
        pSel->pLimit = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_LIMIT, pLimit, 0);

      }
      pSel->iLimit = 0;
      pSel->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
      if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest) ){
        return 0;
      }
      rReg = dest.iSDParm;
      ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);

Changes to src/fkey.c.

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      }
      if( !p ) return;
      iSkip = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_FkIfZero, 1, iSkip); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }

    pParse->disableTriggers = 1;
    sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse, sqlite3SrcListDup(db, pName, 0), 0, 0, 0, 0);
    pParse->disableTriggers = 0;

    /* If the DELETE has generated immediate foreign key constraint 
    ** violations, halt the VDBE and return an error at this point, before
    ** any modifications to the schema are made. This is because statement
    ** transactions are not able to rollback schema changes.  
    **
................................................................................
      if( pRaise ){
        pRaise->affinity = OE_Abort;
      }
      pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 
          sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, pRaise),
          sqlite3SrcListAppend(db, 0, &tFrom, 0),
          pWhere,
          0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
      );
      pWhere = 0;
    }

    /* Disable lookaside memory allocation */
    db->lookaside.bDisable++;








|







 







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      }
      if( !p ) return;
      iSkip = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_FkIfZero, 1, iSkip); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }

    pParse->disableTriggers = 1;
    sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse, sqlite3SrcListDup(db, pName, 0), 0, 0, 0);
    pParse->disableTriggers = 0;

    /* If the DELETE has generated immediate foreign key constraint 
    ** violations, halt the VDBE and return an error at this point, before
    ** any modifications to the schema are made. This is because statement
    ** transactions are not able to rollback schema changes.  
    **
................................................................................
      if( pRaise ){
        pRaise->affinity = OE_Abort;
      }
      pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 
          sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, pRaise),
          sqlite3SrcListAppend(db, 0, &tFrom, 0),
          pWhere,
          0, 0, 0, 0, 0
      );
      pWhere = 0;
    }

    /* Disable lookaside memory allocation */
    db->lookaside.bDisable++;

Changes to src/insert.c.

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  ** there is no ORDER BY, we will get an error. */
  if( pSelect->pGroupBy ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not have a GROUP BY clause */
  }
  if( pSelect->pLimit ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not have a LIMIT clause */
  }
  assert( pSelect->pOffset==0 );  /* Must be so if pLimit==0 */
  if( pSelect->pPrior ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not be a compound query */
  }
  if( pSelect->selFlags & SF_Distinct ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not be DISTINCT */
  }
  pEList = pSelect->pEList;







<







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  ** there is no ORDER BY, we will get an error. */
  if( pSelect->pGroupBy ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not have a GROUP BY clause */
  }
  if( pSelect->pLimit ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not have a LIMIT clause */
  }

  if( pSelect->pPrior ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not be a compound query */
  }
  if( pSelect->selFlags & SF_Distinct ){
    return 0;   /* SELECT may not be DISTINCT */
  }
  pEList = pSelect->pEList;

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/*
** Alternative datatype for the argument to the malloc() routine passed
** into sqlite3ParserAlloc().  The default is size_t.
*/
#define YYMALLOCARGTYPE  u64

/*
** An instance of this structure holds information about the
** LIMIT clause of a SELECT statement.
*/
struct LimitVal {
  Expr *pLimit;    /* The LIMIT expression.  NULL if there is no limit */
  Expr *pOffset;   /* The OFFSET expression.  NULL if there is none */
};

/*
** An instance of the following structure describes the event of a
** TRIGGER.  "a" is the event type, one of TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT,
** TK_DELETE, or TK_INSTEAD.  If the event is of the form
**
**      UPDATE ON (a,b,c)
**
................................................................................
  Select *pLhs = A;
  if( pRhs && pRhs->pPrior ){
    SrcList *pFrom;
    Token x;
    x.n = 0;
    parserDoubleLinkSelect(pParse, pRhs);
    pFrom = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,0,0,0,&x,pRhs,0,0);
    pRhs = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,pFrom,0,0,0,0,0,0,0);
  }
  if( pRhs ){
    pRhs->op = (u8)Y;
    pRhs->pPrior = pLhs;
    if( ALWAYS(pLhs) ) pLhs->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
    pRhs->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
    if( Y!=TK_ALL ) pParse->hasCompound = 1;
................................................................................
multiselect_op(A) ::= EXCEPT|INTERSECT(OP).  {A = @OP; /*A-overwrites-OP*/}
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
oneselect(A) ::= SELECT(S) distinct(D) selcollist(W) from(X) where_opt(Y)
                 groupby_opt(P) having_opt(Q) orderby_opt(Z) limit_opt(L). {
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  Token s = S; /*A-overwrites-S*/
#endif
  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,W,X,Y,P,Q,Z,D,L.pLimit,L.pOffset);
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  /* Populate the Select.zSelName[] string that is used to help with
  ** query planner debugging, to differentiate between multiple Select
  ** objects in a complex query.
  **
  ** If the SELECT keyword is immediately followed by a C-style comment
  ** then extract the first few alphanumeric characters from within that
................................................................................
#endif /* SELECTRACE_ENABLED */
}
oneselect(A) ::= values(A).

%type values {Select*}
%destructor values {sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
values(A) ::= VALUES LP nexprlist(X) RP. {
  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,X,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values,0,0);
}
values(A) ::= values(A) COMMA LP exprlist(Y) RP. {
  Select *pRight, *pLeft = A;
  pRight = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,Y,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values|SF_MultiValue,0,0);
  if( ALWAYS(pLeft) ) pLeft->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
  if( pRight ){
    pRight->op = TK_ALL;
    pRight->pPrior = pLeft;
    A = pRight;
  }else{
    A = pLeft;
................................................................................
        pOld->zName = pOld->zDatabase = 0;
        pOld->pSelect = 0;
      }
      sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, F);
    }else{
      Select *pSubquery;
      sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(F);
      pSubquery = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,F,0,0,0,0,SF_NestedFrom,0,0);
      A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,A,0,0,&Z,pSubquery,N,U);
    }
  }
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

%type dbnm {Token}
dbnm(A) ::= .          {A.z=0; A.n=0;}
................................................................................
groupby_opt(A) ::= GROUP BY nexprlist(X). {A = X;}

%type having_opt {Expr*}
%destructor having_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
having_opt(A) ::= .                {A = 0;}
having_opt(A) ::= HAVING expr(X).  {A = X.pExpr;}

%type limit_opt {struct LimitVal}

// The destructor for limit_opt will never fire in the current grammar.
// The limit_opt non-terminal only occurs at the end of a single production
// rule for SELECT statements.  As soon as the rule that create the 
// limit_opt non-terminal reduces, the SELECT statement rule will also
// reduce.  So there is never a limit_opt non-terminal on the stack 
// except as a transient.  So there is never anything to destroy.
//
//%destructor limit_opt {
//  sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$.pLimit);
//  sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$.pOffset);
//}
limit_opt(A) ::= .                    {A.pLimit = 0; A.pOffset = 0;}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X).       {A.pLimit = X.pExpr; A.pOffset = 0;}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) OFFSET expr(Y). 
                                      {A.pLimit = X.pExpr; A.pOffset = Y.pExpr;}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) COMMA expr(Y). 
                                      {A.pOffset = X.pExpr; A.pLimit = Y.pExpr;}

/////////////////////////// The DELETE statement /////////////////////////////
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) DELETE FROM fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) where_opt(W) 
        orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse,X,W,O,L.pLimit,L.pOffset); 
}
%endif
%ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) DELETE FROM fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) where_opt(W). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse,X,W,0,0,0);
}
%endif

%type where_opt {Expr*}
%destructor where_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

where_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
................................................................................
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) UPDATE orconf(R) fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) SET setlist(Y)
        where_opt(W) orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L).  {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse,Y,"set list"); 
  sqlite3Update(pParse,X,Y,W,R,O,L.pLimit,L.pOffset);
}
%endif
%ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) UPDATE orconf(R) fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) SET setlist(Y)
        where_opt(W).  {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse,Y,"set list"); 
  sqlite3Update(pParse,X,Y,W,R,0,0,0);
}
%endif

%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
................................................................................
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A.pExpr, Y);
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) nm(Y) dbnm(Z) paren_exprlist(E). [IN] {
    SrcList *pSrc = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db, 0,&Y,&Z);
    Select *pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0,pSrc,0,0,0,0,0,0,0);
    if( E )  sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(pParse, pSelect ? pSrc : 0, E);
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A.pExpr, pSelect);
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    A.zEnd = Z.z ? &Z.z[Z.n] : &Y.z[Y.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= EXISTS(B) LP select(Y) RP(E). {







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/*
** Alternative datatype for the argument to the malloc() routine passed
** into sqlite3ParserAlloc().  The default is size_t.
*/
#define YYMALLOCARGTYPE  u64










/*
** An instance of the following structure describes the event of a
** TRIGGER.  "a" is the event type, one of TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT,
** TK_DELETE, or TK_INSTEAD.  If the event is of the form
**
**      UPDATE ON (a,b,c)
**
................................................................................
  Select *pLhs = A;
  if( pRhs && pRhs->pPrior ){
    SrcList *pFrom;
    Token x;
    x.n = 0;
    parserDoubleLinkSelect(pParse, pRhs);
    pFrom = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,0,0,0,&x,pRhs,0,0);
    pRhs = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,pFrom,0,0,0,0,0,0);
  }
  if( pRhs ){
    pRhs->op = (u8)Y;
    pRhs->pPrior = pLhs;
    if( ALWAYS(pLhs) ) pLhs->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
    pRhs->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
    if( Y!=TK_ALL ) pParse->hasCompound = 1;
................................................................................
multiselect_op(A) ::= EXCEPT|INTERSECT(OP).  {A = @OP; /*A-overwrites-OP*/}
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
oneselect(A) ::= SELECT(S) distinct(D) selcollist(W) from(X) where_opt(Y)
                 groupby_opt(P) having_opt(Q) orderby_opt(Z) limit_opt(L). {
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  Token s = S; /*A-overwrites-S*/
#endif
  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,W,X,Y,P,Q,Z,D,L);
#if SELECTTRACE_ENABLED
  /* Populate the Select.zSelName[] string that is used to help with
  ** query planner debugging, to differentiate between multiple Select
  ** objects in a complex query.
  **
  ** If the SELECT keyword is immediately followed by a C-style comment
  ** then extract the first few alphanumeric characters from within that
................................................................................
#endif /* SELECTRACE_ENABLED */
}
oneselect(A) ::= values(A).

%type values {Select*}
%destructor values {sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
values(A) ::= VALUES LP nexprlist(X) RP. {
  A = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,X,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values,0);
}
values(A) ::= values(A) COMMA LP exprlist(Y) RP. {
  Select *pRight, *pLeft = A;
  pRight = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,Y,0,0,0,0,0,SF_Values|SF_MultiValue,0);
  if( ALWAYS(pLeft) ) pLeft->selFlags &= ~SF_MultiValue;
  if( pRight ){
    pRight->op = TK_ALL;
    pRight->pPrior = pLeft;
    A = pRight;
  }else{
    A = pLeft;
................................................................................
        pOld->zName = pOld->zDatabase = 0;
        pOld->pSelect = 0;
      }
      sqlite3SrcListDelete(pParse->db, F);
    }else{
      Select *pSubquery;
      sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(F);
      pSubquery = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse,0,F,0,0,0,0,SF_NestedFrom,0);
      A = sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(pParse,A,0,0,&Z,pSubquery,N,U);
    }
  }
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

%type dbnm {Token}
dbnm(A) ::= .          {A.z=0; A.n=0;}
................................................................................
groupby_opt(A) ::= GROUP BY nexprlist(X). {A = X;}

%type having_opt {Expr*}
%destructor having_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
having_opt(A) ::= .                {A = 0;}
having_opt(A) ::= HAVING expr(X).  {A = X.pExpr;}

%type limit_opt {Expr*}

// The destructor for limit_opt will never fire in the current grammar.
// The limit_opt non-terminal only occurs at the end of a single production
// rule for SELECT statements.  As soon as the rule that create the 
// limit_opt non-terminal reduces, the SELECT statement rule will also
// reduce.  So there is never a limit_opt non-terminal on the stack 
// except as a transient.  So there is never anything to destroy.
//
//%destructor limit_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
limit_opt(A) ::= .       {A = 0;}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X).
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,X.pExpr,0);}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) OFFSET expr(Y). 
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,X.pExpr,Y.pExpr);}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) COMMA expr(Y). 
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,Y.pExpr,X.pExpr);}



/////////////////////////// The DELETE statement /////////////////////////////
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) DELETE FROM fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) where_opt(W) 
        orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse,X,W,O,L);
}
%endif
%ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) DELETE FROM fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) where_opt(W). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse,X,W,0,0);
}
%endif

%type where_opt {Expr*}
%destructor where_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

where_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
................................................................................
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) UPDATE orconf(R) fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) SET setlist(Y)
        where_opt(W) orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L).  {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse,Y,"set list"); 
  sqlite3Update(pParse,X,Y,W,R,O,L);
}
%endif
%ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) UPDATE orconf(R) fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) SET setlist(Y)
        where_opt(W).  {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
  sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(pParse, X, &I);
  sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(pParse,Y,"set list"); 
  sqlite3Update(pParse,X,Y,W,R,0,0);
}
%endif

%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
................................................................................
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A.pExpr, Y);
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) nm(Y) dbnm(Z) paren_exprlist(E). [IN] {
    SrcList *pSrc = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db, 0,&Y,&Z);
    Select *pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0,pSrc,0,0,0,0,0,0);
    if( E )  sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(pParse, pSelect ? pSrc : 0, E);
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A.pExpr, pSelect);
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    A.zEnd = Z.z ? &Z.z[Z.n] : &Y.z[Y.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= EXISTS(B) LP select(Y) RP(E). {

Changes to src/resolve.c.

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    p->selFlags |= SF_Resolved;

    /* Resolve the expressions in the LIMIT and OFFSET clauses. These
    ** are not allowed to refer to any names, so pass an empty NameContext.
    */
    memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
    sNC.pParse = pParse;
    if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, p->pLimit) ||
        sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, p->pOffset) ){
      return WRC_Abort;
    }

    /* If the SF_Converted flags is set, then this Select object was
    ** was created by the convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() function.
    ** In this case the ORDER BY clause (p->pOrderBy) should be resolved
    ** as if it were part of the sub-query, not the parent. This block







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    p->selFlags |= SF_Resolved;

    /* Resolve the expressions in the LIMIT and OFFSET clauses. These
    ** are not allowed to refer to any names, so pass an empty NameContext.
    */
    memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
    sNC.pParse = pParse;
    if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, p->pLimit) ){

      return WRC_Abort;
    }

    /* If the SF_Converted flags is set, then this Select object was
    ** was created by the convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() function.
    ** In this case the ORDER BY clause (p->pOrderBy) should be resolved
    ** as if it were part of the sub-query, not the parent. This block

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    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pEList);
    sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, p->pSrc);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pWhere);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pGroupBy);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pHaving);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pOrderBy);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pOffset);
    if( OK_IF_ALWAYS_TRUE(p->pWith) ) sqlite3WithDelete(db, p->pWith);
    if( bFree ) sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, p);
    p = pPrior;
    bFree = 1;
  }
}

................................................................................
  ExprList *pEList,     /* which columns to include in the result */
  SrcList *pSrc,        /* the FROM clause -- which tables to scan */
  Expr *pWhere,         /* the WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy,   /* the GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving,        /* the HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,   /* the ORDER BY clause */
  u32 selFlags,         /* Flag parameters, such as SF_Distinct */
  Expr *pLimit,         /* LIMIT value.  NULL means not used */
  Expr *pOffset         /* OFFSET value.  NULL means no offset */
){
  Select *pNew;
  Select standin;
  pNew = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, sizeof(*pNew) );
  if( pNew==0 ){
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    pNew = &standin;
................................................................................
  pNew->pWhere = pWhere;
  pNew->pGroupBy = pGroupBy;
  pNew->pHaving = pHaving;
  pNew->pOrderBy = pOrderBy;
  pNew->pPrior = 0;
  pNew->pNext = 0;
  pNew->pLimit = pLimit;
  pNew->pOffset = pOffset;
  pNew->pWith = 0;
  assert( pOffset==0 || pLimit!=0 || pParse->nErr>0
                     || pParse->db->mallocFailed!=0 );
  if( pParse->db->mallocFailed ) {
    clearSelect(pParse->db, pNew, pNew!=&standin);
    pNew = 0;
  }else{
    assert( pNew->pSrc!=0 || pParse->nErr>0 );
  }
  assert( pNew!=&standin );
................................................................................
  }
  return sqlite3VdbeCreate(pParse);
}


/*
** Compute the iLimit and iOffset fields of the SELECT based on the
** pLimit and pOffset expressions.  pLimit and pOffset hold the expressions
** that appear in the original SQL statement after the LIMIT and OFFSET
** keywords.  Or NULL if those keywords are omitted. iLimit and iOffset 
** are the integer memory register numbers for counters used to compute 
** the limit and offset.  If there is no limit and/or offset, then 
** iLimit and iOffset are negative.
**
** This routine changes the values of iLimit and iOffset only if
** a limit or offset is defined by pLimit and pOffset.  iLimit and
** iOffset should have been preset to appropriate default values (zero)
** prior to calling this routine.
**
** The iOffset register (if it exists) is initialized to the value
** of the OFFSET.  The iLimit register is initialized to LIMIT.  Register
** iOffset+1 is initialized to LIMIT+OFFSET.
**
** Only if pLimit!=0 or pOffset!=0 do the limit registers get
** redefined.  The UNION ALL operator uses this property to force
** the reuse of the same limit and offset registers across multiple
** SELECT statements.
*/
static void computeLimitRegisters(Parse *pParse, Select *p, int iBreak){
  Vdbe *v = 0;
  int iLimit = 0;
  int iOffset;
  int n;


  if( p->iLimit ) return;

  /* 
  ** "LIMIT -1" always shows all rows.  There is some
  ** controversy about what the correct behavior should be.
  ** The current implementation interprets "LIMIT 0" to mean
  ** no rows.
  */
  sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
  assert( p->pOffset==0 || p->pLimit!=0 );
  if( p->pLimit ){

    p->iLimit = iLimit = ++pParse->nMem;
    v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
    assert( v!=0 );
    if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(p->pLimit, &n) ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, n, iLimit);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT counter"));
      if( n==0 ){
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, iBreak);
      }else if( n>=0 && p->nSelectRow>sqlite3LogEst((u64)n) ){
        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEst((u64)n);
        p->selFlags |= SF_FixedLimit;
      }
    }else{
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, p->pLimit, iLimit);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iLimit); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IfNot, iLimit, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }
    if( p->pOffset ){
      p->iOffset = iOffset = ++pParse->nMem;
      pParse->nMem++;   /* Allocate an extra register for limit+offset */
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, p->pOffset, iOffset);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iOffset); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "OFFSET counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OffsetLimit, iLimit, iOffset+1, iOffset);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT+OFFSET"));
    }
  }
}
................................................................................
  int iQueue;                   /* The Queue table */
  int iDistinct = 0;            /* To ensure unique results if UNION */
  int eDest = SRT_Fifo;         /* How to write to Queue */
  SelectDest destQueue;         /* SelectDest targetting the Queue table */
  int i;                        /* Loop counter */
  int rc;                       /* Result code */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;           /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Expr *pLimit, *pOffset;       /* Saved LIMIT and OFFSET */
  int regLimit, regOffset;      /* Registers used by LIMIT and OFFSET */

  /* Obtain authorization to do a recursive query */
  if( sqlite3AuthCheck(pParse, SQLITE_RECURSIVE, 0, 0, 0) ) return;

  /* Process the LIMIT and OFFSET clauses, if they exist */
  addrBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  p->nSelectRow = 320;  /* 4 billion rows */
  computeLimitRegisters(pParse, p, addrBreak);
  pLimit = p->pLimit;
  pOffset = p->pOffset;
  regLimit = p->iLimit;
  regOffset = p->iOffset;
  p->pLimit = p->pOffset = 0;
  p->iLimit = p->iOffset = 0;
  pOrderBy = p->pOrderBy;

  /* Locate the cursor number of the Current table */
  for(i=0; ALWAYS(i<pSrc->nSrc); i++){
    if( pSrc->a[i].fg.isRecursive ){
      iCurrent = pSrc->a[i].iCursor;
................................................................................
  sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, addrTop);
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrBreak);

end_of_recursive_query:
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, p->pOrderBy);
  p->pOrderBy = pOrderBy;
  p->pLimit = pLimit;
  p->pOffset = pOffset;
  return;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CTE */

/* Forward references */
static int multiSelectOrderBy(
  Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing context */
................................................................................
  int nRow = 1;
  int rc = 0;
  assert( p->selFlags & SF_MultiValue );
  do{
    assert( p->selFlags & SF_Values );
    assert( p->op==TK_ALL || (p->op==TK_SELECT && p->pPrior==0) );
    assert( p->pLimit==0 );
    assert( p->pOffset==0 );
    assert( p->pNext==0 || p->pEList->nExpr==p->pNext->pEList->nExpr );
    if( p->pPrior==0 ) break;
    assert( p->pPrior->pNext==p );
    p = p->pPrior;
    nRow++;
  }while(1);
  while( p ){
................................................................................
    case TK_ALL: {
      int addr = 0;
      int nLimit;
      assert( !pPrior->pLimit );
      pPrior->iLimit = p->iLimit;
      pPrior->iOffset = p->iOffset;
      pPrior->pLimit = p->pLimit;
      pPrior->pOffset = p->pOffset;
      explainSetInteger(iSub1, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &dest);
      p->pLimit = 0;
      p->pOffset = 0;
      if( rc ){
        goto multi_select_end;
      }
      p->pPrior = 0;
      p->iLimit = pPrior->iLimit;
      p->iOffset = pPrior->iOffset;
      if( p->iLimit ){
................................................................................
      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &dest);
      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
      pDelete = p->pPrior;
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
      p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
      if( pPrior->pLimit
       && sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pPrior->pLimit, &nLimit)
       && nLimit>0 && p->nSelectRow > sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit) 
      ){
        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit);
      }
      if( addr ){
        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr);
      }
................................................................................
      break;
    }
    case TK_EXCEPT:
    case TK_UNION: {
      int unionTab;    /* Cursor number of the temporary table holding result */
      u8 op = 0;       /* One of the SRT_ operations to apply to self */
      int priorOp;     /* The SRT_ operation to apply to prior selects */
      Expr *pLimit, *pOffset; /* Saved values of p->nLimit and p->nOffset */
      int addr;
      SelectDest uniondest;

      testcase( p->op==TK_EXCEPT );
      testcase( p->op==TK_UNION );
      priorOp = SRT_Union;
      if( dest.eDest==priorOp ){
        /* We can reuse a temporary table generated by a SELECT to our
        ** right.
        */
        assert( p->pLimit==0 );      /* Not allowed on leftward elements */
        assert( p->pOffset==0 );     /* Not allowed on leftward elements */
        unionTab = dest.iSDParm;
      }else{
        /* We will need to create our own temporary table to hold the
        ** intermediate results.
        */
        unionTab = pParse->nTab++;
        assert( p->pOrderBy==0 );
................................................................................
      }else{
        assert( p->op==TK_UNION );
        op = SRT_Union;
      }
      p->pPrior = 0;
      pLimit = p->pLimit;
      p->pLimit = 0;
      pOffset = p->pOffset;
      p->pOffset = 0;
      uniondest.eDest = op;
      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &uniondest);
      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
      /* Query flattening in sqlite3Select() might refill p->pOrderBy.
      ** Be sure to delete p->pOrderBy, therefore, to avoid a memory leak. */
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pOrderBy);
................................................................................
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
      p->pOrderBy = 0;
      if( p->op==TK_UNION ){
        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
      }
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
      p->pLimit = pLimit;
      p->pOffset = pOffset;
      p->iLimit = 0;
      p->iOffset = 0;

      /* Convert the data in the temporary table into whatever form
      ** it is that we currently need.
      */
      assert( unionTab==dest.iSDParm || dest.eDest!=priorOp );
................................................................................
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, unionTab, 0);
      }
      break;
    }
    default: assert( p->op==TK_INTERSECT ); {
      int tab1, tab2;
      int iCont, iBreak, iStart;
      Expr *pLimit, *pOffset;
      int addr;
      SelectDest intersectdest;
      int r1;

      /* INTERSECT is different from the others since it requires
      ** two temporary tables.  Hence it has its own case.  Begin
      ** by allocating the tables we will need.
................................................................................
      */
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, tab2, 0);
      assert( p->addrOpenEphm[1] == -1 );
      p->addrOpenEphm[1] = addr;
      p->pPrior = 0;
      pLimit = p->pLimit;
      p->pLimit = 0;
      pOffset = p->pOffset;
      p->pOffset = 0;
      intersectdest.iSDParm = tab2;
      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &intersectdest);
      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
      pDelete = p->pPrior;
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
      if( p->nSelectRow>pPrior->nSelectRow ) p->nSelectRow = pPrior->nSelectRow;
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
      p->pLimit = pLimit;
      p->pOffset = pOffset;

      /* Generate code to take the intersection of the two temporary
      ** tables.
      */
      assert( p->pEList );
      iBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      iCont = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
................................................................................
                                  regLimitA);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Copy, regLimitA, regLimitB);
  }else{
    regLimitA = regLimitB = 0;
  }
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
  p->pLimit = 0;
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pOffset);
  p->pOffset = 0;

  regAddrA = ++pParse->nMem;
  regAddrB = ++pParse->nMem;
  regOutA = ++pParse->nMem;
  regOutB = ++pParse->nMem;
  sqlite3SelectDestInit(&destA, SRT_Coroutine, regAddrA);
  sqlite3SelectDestInit(&destB, SRT_Coroutine, regAddrB);
................................................................................
  assert( pSubSrc );
  /* Prior to version 3.1.2, when LIMIT and OFFSET had to be simple constants,
  ** not arbitrary expressions, we allowed some combining of LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** because they could be computed at compile-time.  But when LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** became arbitrary expressions, we were forced to add restrictions (13)
  ** and (14). */
  if( pSub->pLimit && p->pLimit ) return 0;              /* Restriction (13) */
  if( pSub->pOffset ) return 0;                          /* Restriction (14) */
  if( (p->selFlags & SF_Compound)!=0 && pSub->pLimit ){
    return 0;                                            /* Restriction (15) */
  }
  if( pSubSrc->nSrc==0 ) return 0;                       /* Restriction (7)  */
  if( pSub->selFlags & SF_Distinct ) return 0;           /* Restriction (4)  */
  if( pSub->pLimit && (pSrc->nSrc>1 || isAgg) ){
     return 0;         /* Restrictions (8)(9) */
................................................................................
  **
  ** We call this the "compound-subquery flattening".
  */
  for(pSub=pSub->pPrior; pSub; pSub=pSub->pPrior){
    Select *pNew;
    ExprList *pOrderBy = p->pOrderBy;
    Expr *pLimit = p->pLimit;
    Expr *pOffset = p->pOffset;
    Select *pPrior = p->pPrior;
    p->pOrderBy = 0;
    p->pSrc = 0;
    p->pPrior = 0;
    p->pLimit = 0;
    p->pOffset = 0;
    pNew = sqlite3SelectDup(db, p, 0);
    sqlite3SelectSetName(pNew, pSub->zSelName);
    p->pOffset = pOffset;
    p->pLimit = pLimit;
    p->pOrderBy = pOrderBy;
    p->pSrc = pSrc;
    p->op = TK_ALL;
    if( pNew==0 ){
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
    }else{
................................................................................
  p->pWith = 0;
  p->selFlags &= ~SF_Compound;
  assert( (p->selFlags & SF_Converted)==0 );
  p->selFlags |= SF_Converted;
  assert( pNew->pPrior!=0 );
  pNew->pPrior->pNext = pNew;
  pNew->pLimit = 0;
  pNew->pOffset = 0;
  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** Check to see if the FROM clause term pFrom has table-valued function
** arguments.  If it does, leave an error message in pParse and return
** non-zero, since pFrom is not allowed to be a table-valued function.







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    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pEList);
    sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, p->pSrc);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pWhere);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pGroupBy);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pHaving);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pOrderBy);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);

    if( OK_IF_ALWAYS_TRUE(p->pWith) ) sqlite3WithDelete(db, p->pWith);
    if( bFree ) sqlite3DbFreeNN(db, p);
    p = pPrior;
    bFree = 1;
  }
}

................................................................................
  ExprList *pEList,     /* which columns to include in the result */
  SrcList *pSrc,        /* the FROM clause -- which tables to scan */
  Expr *pWhere,         /* the WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy,   /* the GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving,        /* the HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,   /* the ORDER BY clause */
  u32 selFlags,         /* Flag parameters, such as SF_Distinct */
  Expr *pLimit          /* LIMIT value.  NULL means not used */

){
  Select *pNew;
  Select standin;
  pNew = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, sizeof(*pNew) );
  if( pNew==0 ){
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    pNew = &standin;
................................................................................
  pNew->pWhere = pWhere;
  pNew->pGroupBy = pGroupBy;
  pNew->pHaving = pHaving;
  pNew->pOrderBy = pOrderBy;
  pNew->pPrior = 0;
  pNew->pNext = 0;
  pNew->pLimit = pLimit;

  pNew->pWith = 0;


  if( pParse->db->mallocFailed ) {
    clearSelect(pParse->db, pNew, pNew!=&standin);
    pNew = 0;
  }else{
    assert( pNew->pSrc!=0 || pParse->nErr>0 );
  }
  assert( pNew!=&standin );
................................................................................
  }
  return sqlite3VdbeCreate(pParse);
}


/*
** Compute the iLimit and iOffset fields of the SELECT based on the
** pLimit expressions.  pLimit->pLeft and pLimit->pRight hold the expressions
** that appear in the original SQL statement after the LIMIT and OFFSET
** keywords.  Or NULL if those keywords are omitted. iLimit and iOffset 
** are the integer memory register numbers for counters used to compute 
** the limit and offset.  If there is no limit and/or offset, then 
** iLimit and iOffset are negative.
**
** This routine changes the values of iLimit and iOffset only if
** a limit or offset is defined by pLimit->pLeft and pLimit->pRight.  iLimit
** and iOffset should have been preset to appropriate default values (zero)
** prior to calling this routine.
**
** The iOffset register (if it exists) is initialized to the value
** of the OFFSET.  The iLimit register is initialized to LIMIT.  Register
** iOffset+1 is initialized to LIMIT+OFFSET.
**
** Only if pLimit->pLeft!=0 do the limit registers get
** redefined.  The UNION ALL operator uses this property to force
** the reuse of the same limit and offset registers across multiple
** SELECT statements.
*/
static void computeLimitRegisters(Parse *pParse, Select *p, int iBreak){
  Vdbe *v = 0;
  int iLimit = 0;
  int iOffset;
  int n;
  Expr *pLimit = p->pLimit;

  if( p->iLimit ) return;

  /* 
  ** "LIMIT -1" always shows all rows.  There is some
  ** controversy about what the correct behavior should be.
  ** The current implementation interprets "LIMIT 0" to mean
  ** no rows.
  */
  sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
  if( pLimit ){
    assert( pLimit->op==TK_LIMIT );
    assert( pLimit->pLeft!=0 );
    p->iLimit = iLimit = ++pParse->nMem;
    v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
    assert( v!=0 );
    if( sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pLimit->pLeft, &n) ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, n, iLimit);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT counter"));
      if( n==0 ){
        sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, iBreak);
      }else if( n>=0 && p->nSelectRow>sqlite3LogEst((u64)n) ){
        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEst((u64)n);
        p->selFlags |= SF_FixedLimit;
      }
    }else{
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pLimit->pLeft, iLimit);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iLimit); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IfNot, iLimit, iBreak); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }
    if( pLimit->pRight ){
      p->iOffset = iOffset = ++pParse->nMem;
      pParse->nMem++;   /* Allocate an extra register for limit+offset */
      sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pLimit->pRight, iOffset);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, iOffset); VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeComment((v, "OFFSET counter"));
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OffsetLimit, iLimit, iOffset+1, iOffset);
      VdbeComment((v, "LIMIT+OFFSET"));
    }
  }
}
................................................................................
  int iQueue;                   /* The Queue table */
  int iDistinct = 0;            /* To ensure unique results if UNION */
  int eDest = SRT_Fifo;         /* How to write to Queue */
  SelectDest destQueue;         /* SelectDest targetting the Queue table */
  int i;                        /* Loop counter */
  int rc;                       /* Result code */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;           /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Expr *pLimit;                 /* Saved LIMIT and OFFSET */
  int regLimit, regOffset;      /* Registers used by LIMIT and OFFSET */

  /* Obtain authorization to do a recursive query */
  if( sqlite3AuthCheck(pParse, SQLITE_RECURSIVE, 0, 0, 0) ) return;

  /* Process the LIMIT and OFFSET clauses, if they exist */
  addrBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  p->nSelectRow = 320;  /* 4 billion rows */
  computeLimitRegisters(pParse, p, addrBreak);
  pLimit = p->pLimit;

  regLimit = p->iLimit;
  regOffset = p->iOffset;
  p->pLimit = 0;
  p->iLimit = p->iOffset = 0;
  pOrderBy = p->pOrderBy;

  /* Locate the cursor number of the Current table */
  for(i=0; ALWAYS(i<pSrc->nSrc); i++){
    if( pSrc->a[i].fg.isRecursive ){
      iCurrent = pSrc->a[i].iCursor;
................................................................................
  sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, addrTop);
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrBreak);

end_of_recursive_query:
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, p->pOrderBy);
  p->pOrderBy = pOrderBy;
  p->pLimit = pLimit;

  return;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CTE */

/* Forward references */
static int multiSelectOrderBy(
  Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing context */
................................................................................
  int nRow = 1;
  int rc = 0;
  assert( p->selFlags & SF_MultiValue );
  do{
    assert( p->selFlags & SF_Values );
    assert( p->op==TK_ALL || (p->op==TK_SELECT && p->pPrior==0) );
    assert( p->pLimit==0 );

    assert( p->pNext==0 || p->pEList->nExpr==p->pNext->pEList->nExpr );
    if( p->pPrior==0 ) break;
    assert( p->pPrior->pNext==p );
    p = p->pPrior;
    nRow++;
  }while(1);
  while( p ){
................................................................................
    case TK_ALL: {
      int addr = 0;
      int nLimit;
      assert( !pPrior->pLimit );
      pPrior->iLimit = p->iLimit;
      pPrior->iOffset = p->iOffset;
      pPrior->pLimit = p->pLimit;

      explainSetInteger(iSub1, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, pPrior, &dest);
      p->pLimit = 0;

      if( rc ){
        goto multi_select_end;
      }
      p->pPrior = 0;
      p->iLimit = pPrior->iLimit;
      p->iOffset = pPrior->iOffset;
      if( p->iLimit ){
................................................................................
      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &dest);
      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
      pDelete = p->pPrior;
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
      p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
      if( pPrior->pLimit
       && sqlite3ExprIsInteger(pPrior->pLimit->pLeft, &nLimit)
       && nLimit>0 && p->nSelectRow > sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit) 
      ){
        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEst((u64)nLimit);
      }
      if( addr ){
        sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr);
      }
................................................................................
      break;
    }
    case TK_EXCEPT:
    case TK_UNION: {
      int unionTab;    /* Cursor number of the temporary table holding result */
      u8 op = 0;       /* One of the SRT_ operations to apply to self */
      int priorOp;     /* The SRT_ operation to apply to prior selects */
      Expr *pLimit;    /* Saved values of p->nLimit  */
      int addr;
      SelectDest uniondest;

      testcase( p->op==TK_EXCEPT );
      testcase( p->op==TK_UNION );
      priorOp = SRT_Union;
      if( dest.eDest==priorOp ){
        /* We can reuse a temporary table generated by a SELECT to our
        ** right.
        */
        assert( p->pLimit==0 );      /* Not allowed on leftward elements */

        unionTab = dest.iSDParm;
      }else{
        /* We will need to create our own temporary table to hold the
        ** intermediate results.
        */
        unionTab = pParse->nTab++;
        assert( p->pOrderBy==0 );
................................................................................
      }else{
        assert( p->op==TK_UNION );
        op = SRT_Union;
      }
      p->pPrior = 0;
      pLimit = p->pLimit;
      p->pLimit = 0;


      uniondest.eDest = op;
      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &uniondest);
      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
      /* Query flattening in sqlite3Select() might refill p->pOrderBy.
      ** Be sure to delete p->pOrderBy, therefore, to avoid a memory leak. */
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, p->pOrderBy);
................................................................................
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
      p->pOrderBy = 0;
      if( p->op==TK_UNION ){
        p->nSelectRow = sqlite3LogEstAdd(p->nSelectRow, pPrior->nSelectRow);
      }
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
      p->pLimit = pLimit;

      p->iLimit = 0;
      p->iOffset = 0;

      /* Convert the data in the temporary table into whatever form
      ** it is that we currently need.
      */
      assert( unionTab==dest.iSDParm || dest.eDest!=priorOp );
................................................................................
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, unionTab, 0);
      }
      break;
    }
    default: assert( p->op==TK_INTERSECT ); {
      int tab1, tab2;
      int iCont, iBreak, iStart;
      Expr *pLimit;
      int addr;
      SelectDest intersectdest;
      int r1;

      /* INTERSECT is different from the others since it requires
      ** two temporary tables.  Hence it has its own case.  Begin
      ** by allocating the tables we will need.
................................................................................
      */
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, tab2, 0);
      assert( p->addrOpenEphm[1] == -1 );
      p->addrOpenEphm[1] = addr;
      p->pPrior = 0;
      pLimit = p->pLimit;
      p->pLimit = 0;


      intersectdest.iSDParm = tab2;
      explainSetInteger(iSub2, pParse->iNextSelectId);
      rc = sqlite3Select(pParse, p, &intersectdest);
      testcase( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
      pDelete = p->pPrior;
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
      if( p->nSelectRow>pPrior->nSelectRow ) p->nSelectRow = pPrior->nSelectRow;
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
      p->pLimit = pLimit;


      /* Generate code to take the intersection of the two temporary
      ** tables.
      */
      assert( p->pEList );
      iBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
      iCont = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
................................................................................
                                  regLimitA);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Copy, regLimitA, regLimitB);
  }else{
    regLimitA = regLimitB = 0;
  }
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, p->pLimit);
  p->pLimit = 0;



  regAddrA = ++pParse->nMem;
  regAddrB = ++pParse->nMem;
  regOutA = ++pParse->nMem;
  regOutB = ++pParse->nMem;
  sqlite3SelectDestInit(&destA, SRT_Coroutine, regAddrA);
  sqlite3SelectDestInit(&destB, SRT_Coroutine, regAddrB);
................................................................................
  assert( pSubSrc );
  /* Prior to version 3.1.2, when LIMIT and OFFSET had to be simple constants,
  ** not arbitrary expressions, we allowed some combining of LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** because they could be computed at compile-time.  But when LIMIT and OFFSET
  ** became arbitrary expressions, we were forced to add restrictions (13)
  ** and (14). */
  if( pSub->pLimit && p->pLimit ) return 0;              /* Restriction (13) */
  if( pSub->pLimit && pSub->pLimit->pRight ) return 0;   /* Restriction (14) */
  if( (p->selFlags & SF_Compound)!=0 && pSub->pLimit ){
    return 0;                                            /* Restriction (15) */
  }
  if( pSubSrc->nSrc==0 ) return 0;                       /* Restriction (7)  */
  if( pSub->selFlags & SF_Distinct ) return 0;           /* Restriction (4)  */
  if( pSub->pLimit && (pSrc->nSrc>1 || isAgg) ){
     return 0;         /* Restrictions (8)(9) */
................................................................................
  **
  ** We call this the "compound-subquery flattening".
  */
  for(pSub=pSub->pPrior; pSub; pSub=pSub->pPrior){
    Select *pNew;
    ExprList *pOrderBy = p->pOrderBy;
    Expr *pLimit = p->pLimit;

    Select *pPrior = p->pPrior;
    p->pOrderBy = 0;
    p->pSrc = 0;
    p->pPrior = 0;
    p->pLimit = 0;

    pNew = sqlite3SelectDup(db, p, 0);
    sqlite3SelectSetName(pNew, pSub->zSelName);

    p->pLimit = pLimit;
    p->pOrderBy = pOrderBy;
    p->pSrc = pSrc;
    p->op = TK_ALL;
    if( pNew==0 ){
      p->pPrior = pPrior;
    }else{
................................................................................
  p->pWith = 0;
  p->selFlags &= ~SF_Compound;
  assert( (p->selFlags & SF_Converted)==0 );
  p->selFlags |= SF_Converted;
  assert( pNew->pPrior!=0 );
  pNew->pPrior->pNext = pNew;
  pNew->pLimit = 0;

  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** Check to see if the FROM clause term pFrom has table-valued function
** arguments.  If it does, leave an error message in pParse and return
** non-zero, since pFrom is not allowed to be a table-valued function.

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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  Expr *pWhere;          /* The WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;    /* The GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving;         /* The HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;    /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Select *pPrior;        /* Prior select in a compound select statement */
  Select *pNext;         /* Next select to the left in a compound */
  Expr *pLimit;          /* LIMIT expression. NULL means not used. */
  Expr *pOffset;         /* OFFSET expression. NULL means not used. */
  With *pWith;           /* WITH clause attached to this select. Or NULL. */
};

/*
** Allowed values for Select.selFlags.  The "SF" prefix stands for
** "Select Flag".
**
................................................................................
void sqlite3SrcListDelete(sqlite3*, SrcList*);
Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(sqlite3*,i16,int,char**);
void sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                          Expr*, int, int, u8);
void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*);
Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
                         Expr*,ExprList*,u32,Expr*,Expr*);
void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);
Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY)
Expr *sqlite3LimitWhere(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,Expr*,Expr*,char*);
#endif
void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*, ExprList*, Expr*, Expr*);
void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*,Expr*,int,ExprList*,Expr*,Expr*);
WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,ExprList*,u16,int);
void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
LogEst sqlite3WhereOutputRowCount(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsDistinct(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsOrdered(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereOrderedInnerLoop(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsSorted(WhereInfo*);
................................................................................
void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(void);
void sqlite3RegisterPerConnectionBuiltinFunctions(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3SafetyCheckOk(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3SafetyCheckSickOrOk(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3ChangeCookie(Parse*, int);

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
void sqlite3MaterializeView(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, ExprList*,Expr*,Expr*,int);
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
  void sqlite3BeginTrigger(Parse*, Token*,Token*,int,int,IdList*,SrcList*,
                           Expr*,int, int);
  void sqlite3FinishTrigger(Parse*, TriggerStep*, Token*);
  void sqlite3DropTrigger(Parse*, SrcList*, int);







<







 







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  Expr *pWhere;          /* The WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;    /* The GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving;         /* The HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;    /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Select *pPrior;        /* Prior select in a compound select statement */
  Select *pNext;         /* Next select to the left in a compound */
  Expr *pLimit;          /* LIMIT expression. NULL means not used. */

  With *pWith;           /* WITH clause attached to this select. Or NULL. */
};

/*
** Allowed values for Select.selFlags.  The "SF" prefix stands for
** "Select Flag".
**
................................................................................
void sqlite3SrcListDelete(sqlite3*, SrcList*);
Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(sqlite3*,i16,int,char**);
void sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                          Expr*, int, int, u8);
void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*);
Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
                         Expr*,ExprList*,u32,Expr*);
void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);
Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY)
Expr *sqlite3LimitWhere(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,Expr*,char*);
#endif
void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*, ExprList*, Expr*);
void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*,Expr*,int,ExprList*,Expr*);
WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,ExprList*,u16,int);
void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
LogEst sqlite3WhereOutputRowCount(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsDistinct(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsOrdered(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereOrderedInnerLoop(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsSorted(WhereInfo*);
................................................................................
void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(void);
void sqlite3RegisterPerConnectionBuiltinFunctions(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3SafetyCheckOk(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3SafetyCheckSickOrOk(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3ChangeCookie(Parse*, int);

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
void sqlite3MaterializeView(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, ExprList*,Expr*,int);
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER
  void sqlite3BeginTrigger(Parse*, Token*,Token*,int,int,IdList*,SrcList*,
                           Expr*,int, int);
  void sqlite3FinishTrigger(Parse*, TriggerStep*, Token*);
  void sqlite3DropTrigger(Parse*, SrcList*, int);

Changes to src/treeview.c.

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      n = 0;
      if( p->pSrc && p->pSrc->nSrc ) n++;
      if( p->pWhere ) n++;
      if( p->pGroupBy ) n++;
      if( p->pHaving ) n++;
      if( p->pOrderBy ) n++;
      if( p->pLimit ) n++;
      if( p->pOffset ) n++;
    }
    sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pEList, (n--)>0, "result-set");
    if( p->pSrc && p->pSrc->nSrc ){
      int i;
      pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FROM");
      for(i=0; i<p->pSrc->nSrc; i++){
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    if( p->pOrderBy ){
      sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pOrderBy, (n--)>0, "ORDERBY");
    }
    if( p->pLimit ){
      sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "LIMIT", (n--)>0);



      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pLimit, 0);
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    if( p->pOffset ){
      sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "OFFSET", (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pOffset, 0);
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    if( p->pPrior ){
      const char *zOp = "UNION";
      switch( p->op ){
        case TK_ALL:         zOp = "UNION ALL";  break;
        case TK_INTERSECT:   zOp = "INTERSECT";  break;







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      n = 0;
      if( p->pSrc && p->pSrc->nSrc ) n++;
      if( p->pWhere ) n++;
      if( p->pGroupBy ) n++;
      if( p->pHaving ) n++;
      if( p->pOrderBy ) n++;
      if( p->pLimit ) n++;

    }
    sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pEList, (n--)>0, "result-set");
    if( p->pSrc && p->pSrc->nSrc ){
      int i;
      pView = sqlite3TreeViewPush(pView, (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewLine(pView, "FROM");
      for(i=0; i<p->pSrc->nSrc; i++){
................................................................................
      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    if( p->pOrderBy ){
      sqlite3TreeViewExprList(pView, p->pOrderBy, (n--)>0, "ORDERBY");
    }
    if( p->pLimit ){
      sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "LIMIT", (n--)>0);
      sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pLimit->pLeft, p->pLimit->pRight!=0);
      if( p->pLimit->pRight ){
        sqlite3TreeViewItem(pView, "OFFSET", (n--)>0);
        sqlite3TreeViewExpr(pView, p->pLimit->pRight, 0);
        sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
      }



      sqlite3TreeViewPop(pView);
    }
    if( p->pPrior ){
      const char *zOp = "UNION";
      switch( p->op ){
        case TK_ALL:         zOp = "UNION ALL";  break;
        case TK_INTERSECT:   zOp = "INTERSECT";  break;

Changes to src/trigger.c.

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    switch( pStep->op ){
      case TK_UPDATE: {
        sqlite3Update(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pStep->pExprList, 0), 
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 
          pParse->eOrconf, 0, 0, 0
        );
        break;
      }
      case TK_INSERT: {
        sqlite3Insert(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3SelectDup(db, pStep->pSelect, 0), 
................................................................................
          pParse->eOrconf
        );
        break;
      }
      case TK_DELETE: {
        sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 0, 0, 0
        );
        break;
      }
      default: assert( pStep->op==TK_SELECT ); {
        SelectDest sDest;
        Select *pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, pStep->pSelect, 0);
        sqlite3SelectDestInit(&sDest, SRT_Discard, 0);







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    switch( pStep->op ){
      case TK_UPDATE: {
        sqlite3Update(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pStep->pExprList, 0), 
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 
          pParse->eOrconf, 0, 0
        );
        break;
      }
      case TK_INSERT: {
        sqlite3Insert(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3SelectDup(db, pStep->pSelect, 0), 
................................................................................
          pParse->eOrconf
        );
        break;
      }
      case TK_DELETE: {
        sqlite3DeleteFrom(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 0, 0
        );
        break;
      }
      default: assert( pStep->op==TK_SELECT ); {
        SelectDest sDest;
        Select *pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, pStep->pSelect, 0);
        sqlite3SelectDestInit(&sDest, SRT_Discard, 0);

Changes to src/update.c.

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void sqlite3Update(
  Parse *pParse,         /* The parser context */
  SrcList *pTabList,     /* The table in which we should change things */
  ExprList *pChanges,    /* Things to be changed */
  Expr *pWhere,          /* The WHERE clause.  May be null */
  int onError,           /* How to handle constraint errors */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,    /* ORDER BY clause. May be null */
  Expr *pLimit,          /* LIMIT clause. May be null */
  Expr *pOffset          /* OFFSET clause. May be null */
){
  int i, j;              /* Loop counters */
  Table *pTab;           /* The table to be updated */
  int addrTop = 0;       /* VDBE instruction address of the start of the loop */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;     /* Information about the WHERE clause */
  Vdbe *v;               /* The virtual database engine */
  Index *pIdx;           /* For looping over indices */
................................................................................
# undef isView
# define isView 0
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
  if( !isView ){
    pWhere = sqlite3LimitWhere(
        pParse, pTabList, pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, pOffset, "UPDATE"
    );
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = pOffset = 0;
  }
#endif

  if( sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(pParse, pTab) ){
    goto update_cleanup;
  }
  if( sqlite3IsReadOnly(pParse, pTab, tmask) ){
................................................................................

  /* If we are trying to update a view, realize that view into
  ** an ephemeral table.
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  if( isView ){
    sqlite3MaterializeView(pParse, pTab, 
        pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, pOffset, iDataCur
    );
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = pOffset = 0;
  }
#endif

  /* Resolve the column names in all the expressions in the
  ** WHERE clause.
  */
  if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pWhere) ){
................................................................................
  sqlite3DbFree(db, aXRef); /* Also frees aRegIdx[] and aToOpen[] */
  sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, pTabList);
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pChanges);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) 
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrderBy);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLimit);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pOffset);
#endif
  return;
}
/* Make sure "isView" and other macros defined above are undefined. Otherwise
** they may interfere with compilation of other functions in this file
** (or in another file, if this file becomes part of the amalgamation).  */
#ifdef isView







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void sqlite3Update(
  Parse *pParse,         /* The parser context */
  SrcList *pTabList,     /* The table in which we should change things */
  ExprList *pChanges,    /* Things to be changed */
  Expr *pWhere,          /* The WHERE clause.  May be null */
  int onError,           /* How to handle constraint errors */
  ExprList *pOrderBy,    /* ORDER BY clause. May be null */
  Expr *pLimit           /* LIMIT clause. May be null */

){
  int i, j;              /* Loop counters */
  Table *pTab;           /* The table to be updated */
  int addrTop = 0;       /* VDBE instruction address of the start of the loop */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;     /* Information about the WHERE clause */
  Vdbe *v;               /* The virtual database engine */
  Index *pIdx;           /* For looping over indices */
................................................................................
# undef isView
# define isView 0
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
  if( !isView ){
    pWhere = sqlite3LimitWhere(
        pParse, pTabList, pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, "UPDATE"
    );
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = 0;
  }
#endif

  if( sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(pParse, pTab) ){
    goto update_cleanup;
  }
  if( sqlite3IsReadOnly(pParse, pTab, tmask) ){
................................................................................

  /* If we are trying to update a view, realize that view into
  ** an ephemeral table.
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  if( isView ){
    sqlite3MaterializeView(pParse, pTab, 
        pWhere, pOrderBy, pLimit, iDataCur
    );
    pOrderBy = 0;
    pLimit = 0;
  }
#endif

  /* Resolve the column names in all the expressions in the
  ** WHERE clause.
  */
  if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pWhere) ){
................................................................................
  sqlite3DbFree(db, aXRef); /* Also frees aRegIdx[] and aToOpen[] */
  sqlite3SrcListDelete(db, pTabList);
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pChanges);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT) 
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pOrderBy);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pLimit);

#endif
  return;
}
/* Make sure "isView" and other macros defined above are undefined. Otherwise
** they may interfere with compilation of other functions in this file
** (or in another file, if this file becomes part of the amalgamation).  */
#ifdef isView

Changes to src/walker.c.

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int sqlite3WalkSelectExpr(Walker *pWalker, Select *p){
  if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, p->pEList) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, p->pWhere) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, p->pGroupBy) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, p->pHaving) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, p->pOrderBy) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, p->pLimit) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, p->pOffset) ) return WRC_Abort;
  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** Walk the parse trees associated with all subqueries in the
** FROM clause of SELECT statement p.  Do not invoke the select
** callback on p, but do invoke it on each FROM clause subquery







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int sqlite3WalkSelectExpr(Walker *pWalker, Select *p){
  if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, p->pEList) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, p->pWhere) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, p->pGroupBy) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, p->pHaving) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExprList(pWalker, p->pOrderBy) ) return WRC_Abort;
  if( sqlite3WalkExpr(pWalker, p->pLimit) ) return WRC_Abort;

  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** Walk the parse trees associated with all subqueries in the
** FROM clause of SELECT statement p.  Do not invoke the select
** callback on p, but do invoke it on each FROM clause subquery