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Overview
Comment:Revise compiler checks for the rand_s() function.
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SHA1:287f508dd6abc1b9ffdbec6a685ebe79eeac992b
User & Date: mistachkin 2016-02-15 22:01:24
Context
2016-02-15
22:28
Fix comment. No changes to code. check-in: 2e1f2eff user: mistachkin tags: trunk
22:01
Revise compiler checks for the rand_s() function. check-in: 287f508d user: mistachkin tags: trunk
21:31
On windows systems when rand_s() is available, use it to obtain additional seed material in winRandomness(). check-in: 139081be user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
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Changes to src/msvc.h.

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**
** This file contains code that is specific to MSVC.
*/
#ifndef _MSVC_H_
#define _MSVC_H_

#if defined(_MSC_VER)
#define _CRT_RAND_S  /* Make rand_s() available on windows systems */
#pragma warning(disable : 4054)
#pragma warning(disable : 4055)
#pragma warning(disable : 4100)
#pragma warning(disable : 4127)
#pragma warning(disable : 4130)
#pragma warning(disable : 4152)
#pragma warning(disable : 4189)







<







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**
** This file contains code that is specific to MSVC.
*/
#ifndef _MSVC_H_
#define _MSVC_H_

#if defined(_MSC_VER)

#pragma warning(disable : 4054)
#pragma warning(disable : 4055)
#pragma warning(disable : 4100)
#pragma warning(disable : 4127)
#pragma warning(disable : 4130)
#pragma warning(disable : 4152)
#pragma warning(disable : 4189)

Changes to src/os_win.c.

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  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVfs);
  memset(zBuf, 0, nBuf);
  return nBuf;
#else
  EntropyGatherer e;
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVfs);
  memset(zBuf, 0, nBuf);
#ifdef _MSC_VER
  rand_s((int*)zBuf);  /* rand_s() is not available with MinGW */
#endif
  e.a = (unsigned char*)zBuf;
  e.na = nBuf;
  e.nXor = 0;
  e.i = 0;
  {
    SYSTEMTIME x;







|
|







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  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVfs);
  memset(zBuf, 0, nBuf);
  return nBuf;
#else
  EntropyGatherer e;
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVfs);
  memset(zBuf, 0, nBuf);
#if defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1400
  rand_s((int*)zBuf); /* rand_s() is not available with MinGW */
#endif
  e.a = (unsigned char*)zBuf;
  e.na = nBuf;
  e.nXor = 0;
  e.i = 0;
  {
    SYSTEMTIME x;

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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*************************************************************************
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
**
*/
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_









/*
** Include the header file used to customize the compiler options for MSVC.
** This should be done first so that it can successfully prevent spurious
** compiler warnings due to subsequent content in this file and other files
** that are included by this file.
*/
#include "msvc.h"
................................................................................

/*
** The following macros are used to cast pointers to integers and
** integers to pointers.  The way you do this varies from one compiler
** to the next, so we have developed the following set of #if statements
** to generate appropriate macros for a wide range of compilers.
**
** The correct "ANSI" way to do this is to use the intptr_t type. 
** Unfortunately, that typedef is not available on all compilers, or
** if it is available, it requires an #include of specific headers
** that vary from one machine to the next.
**
** Ticket #3860:  The llvm-gcc-4.2 compiler from Apple chokes on
** the ((void*)&((char*)0)[X]) construct.  But MSVC chokes on ((void*)(X)).
** So we have to define the macros in different ways depending on the
................................................................................
**
** Setting NDEBUG makes the code smaller and faster by disabling the
** assert() statements in the code.  So we want the default action
** to be for NDEBUG to be set and NDEBUG to be undefined only if SQLITE_DEBUG
** is set.  Thus NDEBUG becomes an opt-in rather than an opt-out
** feature.
*/
#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) 
# define NDEBUG 1
#endif
#if defined(NDEBUG) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
# undef NDEBUG
#endif

/*
................................................................................
** Enable SQLITE_ENABLE_EXPLAIN_COMMENTS if SQLITE_DEBUG is turned on.
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_EXPLAIN_COMMENTS) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
# define SQLITE_ENABLE_EXPLAIN_COMMENTS 1
#endif

/*
** The testcase() macro is used to aid in coverage testing.  When 
** doing coverage testing, the condition inside the argument to
** testcase() must be evaluated both true and false in order to
** get full branch coverage.  The testcase() macro is inserted
** to help ensure adequate test coverage in places where simple
** condition/decision coverage is inadequate.  For example, testcase()
** can be used to make sure boundary values are tested.  For
** bitmask tests, testcase() can be used to make sure each bit
................................................................................
#ifndef NDEBUG
# define VVA_ONLY(X)  X
#else
# define VVA_ONLY(X)
#endif

/*
** The ALWAYS and NEVER macros surround boolean expressions which 
** are intended to always be true or false, respectively.  Such
** expressions could be omitted from the code completely.  But they
** are included in a few cases in order to enhance the resilience
** of SQLite to unexpected behavior - to make the code "self-healing"
** or "ductile" rather than being "brittle" and crashing at the first
** hint of unplanned behavior.
**
................................................................................
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_BIG_DBL
# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (1e99)
#endif

/*
** OMIT_TEMPDB is set to 1 if SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB is defined, or 0
** afterward. Having this macro allows us to cause the C compiler 
** to omit code used by TEMP tables without messy #ifndef statements.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 1
#else
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 0
#endif
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_TEMP_STORE
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE 1
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE_xc 1  /* Exclude from ctime.c */
#endif

/*
** If no value has been provided for SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS, or if
** SQLITE_TEMP_STORE is set to 3 (never use temporary files), set it 
** to zero.
*/
#if SQLITE_TEMP_STORE==3 || SQLITE_THREADSAFE==0
# undef SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS
# define SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS 0
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS
................................................................................
** Examples:
**      1 -> 0              20 -> 43          10000 -> 132
**      2 -> 10             25 -> 46          25000 -> 146
**      3 -> 16            100 -> 66        1000000 -> 199
**      4 -> 20           1000 -> 99        1048576 -> 200
**     10 -> 33           1024 -> 100    4294967296 -> 320
**
** The LogEst can be negative to indicate fractional values. 
** Examples:
**
**    0.5 -> -10           0.1 -> -33        0.0625 -> -40
*/
typedef INT16_TYPE LogEst;

/*
................................................................................
** Constants for the largest and smallest possible 64-bit signed integers.
** These macros are designed to work correctly on both 32-bit and 64-bit
** compilers.
*/
#define LARGEST_INT64  (0xffffffff|(((i64)0x7fffffff)<<32))
#define SMALLEST_INT64 (((i64)-1) - LARGEST_INT64)

/* 
** Round up a number to the next larger multiple of 8.  This is used
** to force 8-byte alignment on 64-bit architectures.
*/
#define ROUND8(x)     (((x)+7)&~7)

/*
** Round down to the nearest multiple of 8
................................................................................
# define SELECTTRACE_ENABLED 1
#else
# define SELECTTRACE_ENABLED 0
#endif

/*
** An instance of the following structure is used to store the busy-handler
** callback for a given sqlite handle. 
**
** The sqlite.busyHandler member of the sqlite struct contains the busy
** callback for the database handle. Each pager opened via the sqlite
** handle is passed a pointer to sqlite.busyHandler. The busy-handler
** callback is currently invoked only from within pager.c.
*/
typedef struct BusyHandler BusyHandler;
................................................................................
/*
** Determine if the argument is a power of two
*/
#define IsPowerOfTwo(X) (((X)&((X)-1))==0)

/*
** The following value as a destructor means to use sqlite3DbFree().
** The sqlite3DbFree() routine requires two parameters instead of the 
** one parameter that destructors normally want.  So we have to introduce 
** this magic value that the code knows to handle differently.  Any 
** pointer will work here as long as it is distinct from SQLITE_STATIC
** and SQLITE_TRANSIENT.
*/
#define SQLITE_DYNAMIC   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)sqlite3MallocSize)

/*
** When SQLITE_OMIT_WSD is defined, it means that the target platform does
................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_WSD
  #define SQLITE_WSD const
  #define GLOBAL(t,v) (*(t*)sqlite3_wsd_find((void*)&(v), sizeof(v)))
  #define sqlite3GlobalConfig GLOBAL(struct Sqlite3Config, sqlite3Config)
  int sqlite3_wsd_init(int N, int J);
  void *sqlite3_wsd_find(void *K, int L);
#else
  #define SQLITE_WSD 
  #define GLOBAL(t,v) v
  #define sqlite3GlobalConfig sqlite3Config
#endif

/*
** The following macros are used to suppress compiler warnings and to
** make it clear to human readers when a function parameter is deliberately 
** left unused within the body of a function. This usually happens when
** a function is called via a function pointer. For example the 
** implementation of an SQL aggregate step callback may not use the
** parameter indicating the number of arguments passed to the aggregate,
** if it knows that this is enforced elsewhere.
**
** When a function parameter is not used at all within the body of a function,
** it is generally named "NotUsed" or "NotUsed2" to make things even clearer.
** However, these macros may also be used to suppress warnings related to
................................................................................
typedef struct VTable VTable;
typedef struct VtabCtx VtabCtx;
typedef struct Walker Walker;
typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
typedef struct With With;

/*
** Defer sourcing vdbe.h and btree.h until after the "u8" and 
** "BusyHandler" typedefs. vdbe.h also requires a few of the opaque
** pointer types (i.e. FuncDef) defined above.
*/
#include "btree.h"
#include "vdbe.h"
#include "pager.h"
#include "pcache.h"
................................................................................
/*
** An instance of the following structure stores a database schema.
**
** Most Schema objects are associated with a Btree.  The exception is
** the Schema for the TEMP databaes (sqlite3.aDb[1]) which is free-standing.
** In shared cache mode, a single Schema object can be shared by multiple
** Btrees that refer to the same underlying BtShared object.
** 
** Schema objects are automatically deallocated when the last Btree that
** references them is destroyed.   The TEMP Schema is manually freed by
** sqlite3_close().
*
** A thread must be holding a mutex on the corresponding Btree in order
** to access Schema content.  This implies that the thread must also be
** holding a mutex on the sqlite3 connection pointer that owns the Btree.
................................................................................
  u8 file_format;      /* Schema format version for this file */
  u8 enc;              /* Text encoding used by this database */
  u16 schemaFlags;     /* Flags associated with this schema */
  int cache_size;      /* Number of pages to use in the cache */
};

/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Db.pSchema->flags field.
*/
#define DbHasProperty(D,I,P)     (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))==(P))
#define DbHasAnyProperty(D,I,P)  (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))!=0)
#define DbSetProperty(D,I,P)     (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags|=(P)
#define DbClearProperty(D,I,P)   (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&=~(P)

................................................................................
  int nVDestroy;                /* Number of active OP_VDestroy operations */
  int nExtension;               /* Number of loaded extensions */
  void **aExtension;            /* Array of shared library handles */
  void (*xTrace)(void*,const char*);        /* Trace function */
  void *pTraceArg;                          /* Argument to the trace function */
  void (*xProfile)(void*,const char*,u64);  /* Profiling function */
  void *pProfileArg;                        /* Argument to profile function */
  void *pCommitArg;                 /* Argument to xCommitCallback() */   
  int (*xCommitCallback)(void*);    /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pRollbackArg;               /* Argument to xRollbackCallback() */   
  void (*xRollbackCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pUpdateArg;
  void (*xUpdateCallback)(void*,int, const char*,const char*,sqlite_int64);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL
  int (*xWalCallback)(void *, sqlite3 *, const char *, int);
  void *pWalArg;
#endif
................................................................................
  int busyTimeout;              /* Busy handler timeout, in msec */
  int nSavepoint;               /* Number of non-transaction savepoints */
  int nStatement;               /* Number of nested statement-transactions  */
  i64 nDeferredCons;            /* Net deferred constraints this transaction. */
  i64 nDeferredImmCons;         /* Net deferred immediate constraints */
  int *pnBytesFreed;            /* If not NULL, increment this in DbFree() */
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UNLOCK_NOTIFY
  /* The following variables are all protected by the STATIC_MASTER 
  ** mutex, not by sqlite3.mutex. They are used by code in notify.c. 
  **
  ** When X.pUnlockConnection==Y, that means that X is waiting for Y to
  ** unlock so that it can proceed.
  **
  ** When X.pBlockingConnection==Y, that means that something that X tried
  ** tried to do recently failed with an SQLITE_LOCKED error due to locks
  ** held by Y.
................................................................................
  } u;
};

/*
** This structure encapsulates a user-function destructor callback (as
** configured using create_function_v2()) and a reference counter. When
** create_function_v2() is called to create a function with a destructor,
** a single object of this type is allocated. FuncDestructor.nRef is set to 
** the number of FuncDef objects created (either 1 or 3, depending on whether
** or not the specified encoding is SQLITE_ANY). The FuncDef.pDestructor
** member of each of the new FuncDef objects is set to point to the allocated
** FuncDestructor.
**
** Thereafter, when one of the FuncDef objects is deleted, the reference
** count on this object is decremented. When it reaches 0, the destructor
................................................................................
                                    ** single query - might change over time */

/*
** The following three macros, FUNCTION(), LIKEFUNC() and AGGREGATE() are
** used to create the initializers for the FuncDef structures.
**
**   FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName 
**     implemented by C function xFunc that accepts nArg arguments. The
**     value passed as iArg is cast to a (void*) and made available
**     as the user-data (sqlite3_user_data()) for the function. If 
**     argument bNC is true, then the SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL flag is set.
**
**   VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag.
**
**   DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag and
................................................................................
**   AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xStep, xFinal)
**     Used to create an aggregate function definition implemented by
**     the C functions xStep and xFinal. The first four parameters
**     are interpreted in the same way as the first 4 parameters to
**     FUNCTION().
**
**   LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, pArg, flags)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName 
**     that accepts nArg arguments and is implemented by a call to C 
**     function likeFunc. Argument pArg is cast to a (void *) and made
**     available as the function user-data (sqlite3_user_data()). The
**     FuncDef.flags variable is set to the value passed as the flags
**     parameter.
*/
#define FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
  {nArg, SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT|SQLITE_UTF8|(bNC*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL), \
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED -1 /* No sort order specified */

/*
** Column affinity types.
**
** These used to have mnemonic name like 'i' for SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER and
** 't' for SQLITE_AFF_TEXT.  But we can save a little space and improve
** the speed a little by numbering the values consecutively.  
**
** But rather than start with 0 or 1, we begin with 'A'.  That way,
** when multiple affinity types are concatenated into a string and
** used as the P4 operand, they will be more readable.
**
** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
** for a numeric type is a single comparison.  And the BLOB type is first.
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER  'D'
#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     'E'

#define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X)  ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)

/*
** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK values masks off the significant bits of an
** affinity value. 
*/
#define SQLITE_AFF_MASK     0x47

/*
** Additional bit values that can be ORed with an affinity without
** changing the affinity.
**
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL   0x10  /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
#define SQLITE_STOREP2      0x20  /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */
#define SQLITE_NULLEQ       0x80  /* NULL=NULL */
#define SQLITE_NOTNULL      0x90  /* Assert that operands are never NULL */

/*
** An object of this type is created for each virtual table present in
** the database schema. 
**
** If the database schema is shared, then there is one instance of this
** structure for each database connection (sqlite3*) that uses the shared
** schema. This is because each database connection requires its own unique
** instance of the sqlite3_vtab* handle used to access the virtual table 
** implementation. sqlite3_vtab* handles can not be shared between 
** database connections, even when the rest of the in-memory database 
** schema is shared, as the implementation often stores the database
** connection handle passed to it via the xConnect() or xCreate() method
** during initialization internally. This database connection handle may
** then be used by the virtual table implementation to access real tables 
** within the database. So that they appear as part of the callers 
** transaction, these accesses need to be made via the same database 
** connection as that used to execute SQL operations on the virtual table.
**
** All VTable objects that correspond to a single table in a shared
** database schema are initially stored in a linked-list pointed to by
** the Table.pVTable member variable of the corresponding Table object.
** When an sqlite3_prepare() operation is required to access the virtual
** table, it searches the list for the VTable that corresponds to the
** database connection doing the preparing so as to use the correct
** sqlite3_vtab* handle in the compiled query.
**
** When an in-memory Table object is deleted (for example when the
** schema is being reloaded for some reason), the VTable objects are not 
** deleted and the sqlite3_vtab* handles are not xDisconnect()ed 
** immediately. Instead, they are moved from the Table.pVTable list to
** another linked list headed by the sqlite3.pDisconnect member of the
** corresponding sqlite3 structure. They are then deleted/xDisconnected 
** next time a statement is prepared using said sqlite3*. This is done
** to avoid deadlock issues involving multiple sqlite3.mutex mutexes.
** Refer to comments above function sqlite3VtabUnlockList() for an
** explanation as to why it is safe to add an entry to an sqlite3.pDisconnect
** list without holding the corresponding sqlite3.mutex mutex.
**
** The memory for objects of this type is always allocated by 
** sqlite3DbMalloc(), using the connection handle stored in VTable.db as 
** the first argument.
*/
struct VTable {
  sqlite3 *db;              /* Database connection associated with this table */
  Module *pMod;             /* Pointer to module implementation */
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Pointer to vtab instance */
  int nRef;                 /* Number of pointers to this structure */
................................................................................
**
** RESTRICT, SETNULL, and CASCADE actions apply only to foreign keys.
** RESTRICT is the same as ABORT for IMMEDIATE foreign keys and the
** same as ROLLBACK for DEFERRED keys.  SETNULL means that the foreign
** key is set to NULL.  CASCADE means that a DELETE or UPDATE of the
** referenced table row is propagated into the row that holds the
** foreign key.
** 
** The following symbolic values are used to record which type
** of action to take.
*/
#define OE_None     0   /* There is no constraint to check */
#define OE_Rollback 1   /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
#define OE_Abort    2   /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
#define OE_Fail     3   /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
................................................................................
#define OE_Cascade  9   /* Cascade the changes */

#define OE_Default  10  /* Do whatever the default action is */


/*
** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the 
** comparison of the two index keys.
**
** Note that aSortOrder[] and aColl[] have nField+1 slots.  There
** are nField slots for the columns of an index then one extra slot
** for the rowid at the end.
*/
struct KeyInfo {
................................................................................
** or greater than a key in the btree, respectively.  These are normally
** -1 and +1 respectively, but might be inverted to +1 and -1 if the b-tree
** is in DESC order.
**
** The key comparison functions actually return default_rc when they find
** an equals comparison.  default_rc can be -1, 0, or +1.  If there are
** multiple entries in the b-tree with the same key (when only looking
** at the first pKeyInfo->nFields,) then default_rc can be set to -1 to 
** cause the search to find the last match, or +1 to cause the search to
** find the first match.
**
** The key comparison functions will set eqSeen to true if they ever
** get and equal results when comparing this structure to a b-tree record.
** When default_rc!=0, the search might end up on the record immediately
** before the first match or immediately after the last match.  The
................................................................................
**
**     CREATE TABLE Ex1(c1 int, c2 int, c3 text);
**     CREATE INDEX Ex2 ON Ex1(c3,c1);
**
** In the Table structure describing Ex1, nCol==3 because there are
** three columns in the table.  In the Index structure describing
** Ex2, nColumn==2 since 2 of the 3 columns of Ex1 are indexed.
** The value of aiColumn is {2, 0}.  aiColumn[0]==2 because the 
** first column to be indexed (c3) has an index of 2 in Ex1.aCol[].
** The second column to be indexed (c1) has an index of 0 in
** Ex1.aCol[], hence Ex2.aiColumn[1]==0.
**
** The Index.onError field determines whether or not the indexed columns
** must be unique and what to do if they are not.  When Index.onError=OE_None,
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
**
** While parsing a CREATE TABLE or CREATE INDEX statement in order to
** generate VDBE code (as opposed to parsing one read from an sqlite_master
** table as part of parsing an existing database schema), transient instances
** of this structure may be created. In this case the Index.tnum variable is
................................................................................
/* The Index.aiColumn[] values are normally positive integer.  But
** there are some negative values that have special meaning:
*/
#define XN_ROWID     (-1)     /* Indexed column is the rowid */
#define XN_EXPR      (-2)     /* Indexed column is an expression */

/*
** Each sample stored in the sqlite_stat3 table is represented in memory 
** using a structure of this type.  See documentation at the top of the
** analyze.c source file for additional information.
*/
struct IndexSample {
  void *p;          /* Pointer to sampled record */
  int n;            /* Size of record in bytes */
  tRowcnt *anEq;    /* Est. number of rows where the key equals this sample */
................................................................................
**
** Expr.op is the opcode. The integer parser token codes are reused
** as opcodes here. For example, the parser defines TK_GE to be an integer
** code representing the ">=" operator. This same integer code is reused
** to represent the greater-than-or-equal-to operator in the expression
** tree.
**
** If the expression is an SQL literal (TK_INTEGER, TK_FLOAT, TK_BLOB, 
** or TK_STRING), then Expr.token contains the text of the SQL literal. If
** the expression is a variable (TK_VARIABLE), then Expr.token contains the 
** variable name. Finally, if the expression is an SQL function (TK_FUNCTION),
** then Expr.token contains the name of the function.
**
** Expr.pRight and Expr.pLeft are the left and right subexpressions of a
** binary operator. Either or both may be NULL.
**
** Expr.x.pList is a list of arguments if the expression is an SQL function,
** a CASE expression or an IN expression of the form "<lhs> IN (<y>, <z>...)".
** Expr.x.pSelect is used if the expression is a sub-select or an expression of
** the form "<lhs> IN (SELECT ...)". If the EP_xIsSelect bit is set in the
** Expr.flags mask, then Expr.x.pSelect is valid. Otherwise, Expr.x.pList is 
** valid.
**
** An expression of the form ID or ID.ID refers to a column in a table.
** For such expressions, Expr.op is set to TK_COLUMN and Expr.iTable is
** the integer cursor number of a VDBE cursor pointing to that table and
** Expr.iColumn is the column number for the specific column.  If the
** expression is used as a result in an aggregate SELECT, then the
** value is also stored in the Expr.iAgg column in the aggregate so that
** it can be accessed after all aggregates are computed.
**
** If the expression is an unbound variable marker (a question mark 
** character '?' in the original SQL) then the Expr.iTable holds the index 
** number for that variable.
**
** If the expression is a subquery then Expr.iColumn holds an integer
** register number containing the result of the subquery.  If the
** subquery gives a constant result, then iTable is -1.  If the subquery
** gives a different answer at different times during statement processing
** then iTable is the address of a subroutine that computes the subquery.
................................................................................
  union {
    char *zToken;          /* Token value. Zero terminated and dequoted */
    int iValue;            /* Non-negative integer value if EP_IntValue */
  } u;

  /* If the EP_TokenOnly flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction. 
  *********************************************************************/

  Expr *pLeft;           /* Left subnode */
  Expr *pRight;          /* Right subnode */
  union {
    ExprList *pList;     /* op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT, CASE, FUNCTION, BETWEEN */
    Select *pSelect;     /* EP_xIsSelect and op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT */
................................................................................

/*
** Combinations of two or more EP_* flags
*/
#define EP_Propagate (EP_Collate|EP_Subquery) /* Propagate these bits up tree */

/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Expr.flags field.
*/
#define ExprHasProperty(E,P)     (((E)->flags&(P))!=0)
#define ExprHasAllProperty(E,P)  (((E)->flags&(P))==(P))
#define ExprSetProperty(E,P)     (E)->flags|=(P)
#define ExprClearProperty(E,P)   (E)->flags&=~(P)

................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P)  (E)->flags|=(P)
#else
# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P)
#endif

/*
** Macros to determine the number of bytes required by a normal Expr 
** struct, an Expr struct with the EP_Reduced flag set in Expr.flags 
** and an Expr struct with the EP_TokenOnly flag set.
*/
#define EXPR_FULLSIZE           sizeof(Expr)           /* Full size */
#define EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE        offsetof(Expr,iTable)  /* Common features */
#define EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE      offsetof(Expr,pLeft)   /* Fewer features */

/*
** Flags passed to the sqlite3ExprDup() function. See the header comment 
** above sqlite3ExprDup() for details.
*/
#define EXPRDUP_REDUCE         0x0001  /* Used reduced-size Expr nodes */

/*
** A list of expressions.  Each expression may optionally have a
** name.  An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
................................................................................
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may
** be NULL.  The pSrc corresponds to the FROM clause of a SELECT or
** to the table being operated on by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.  The
** pEList corresponds to the result set of a SELECT and is NULL for
** other statements.
**
** NameContexts can be nested.  When resolving names, the inner-most 
** context is searched first.  If no match is found, the next outer
** context is checked.  If there is still no match, the next context
** is checked.  This process continues until either a match is found
** or all contexts are check.  When a match is found, the nRef member of
** the context containing the match is incremented. 
**
** Each subquery gets a new NameContext.  The pNext field points to the
** NameContext in the parent query.  Thus the process of scanning the
** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
** subqueries looking for a match.
*/
struct NameContext {
................................................................................
};

/*
** Allowed values for the NameContext, ncFlags field.
**
** Note:  NC_MinMaxAgg must have the same value as SF_MinMaxAgg and
** SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX.
** 
*/
#define NC_AllowAgg  0x0001  /* Aggregate functions are allowed here */
#define NC_HasAgg    0x0002  /* One or more aggregate functions seen */
#define NC_IsCheck   0x0004  /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
#define NC_InAggFunc 0x0008  /* True if analyzing arguments to an agg func */
#define NC_PartIdx   0x0010  /* True if resolving a partial index WHERE */
#define NC_IdxExpr   0x0020  /* True if resolving columns of CREATE INDEX */
................................................................................


/*
** The results of a SELECT can be distributed in several ways, as defined
** by one of the following macros.  The "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result
** Type".
**
**     SRT_Union       Store results as a key in a temporary index 
**                     identified by pDest->iSDParm.
**
**     SRT_Except      Remove results from the temporary index pDest->iSDParm.
**
**     SRT_Exists      Store a 1 in memory cell pDest->iSDParm if the result
**                     set is not empty.
**
................................................................................
**
**     SRT_Mem         Only valid if the result is a single column.
**                     Store the first column of the first result row
**                     in register pDest->iSDParm then abandon the rest
**                     of the query.  This destination implies "LIMIT 1".
**
**     SRT_Set         The result must be a single column.  Store each
**                     row of result as the key in table pDest->iSDParm. 
**                     Apply the affinity pDest->affSdst before storing
**                     results.  Used to implement "IN (SELECT ...)".
**
**     SRT_EphemTab    Create an temporary table pDest->iSDParm and store
**                     the result there. The cursor is left open after
**                     returning.  This is like SRT_Table except that
**                     this destination uses OP_OpenEphemeral to create
................................................................................
  int iSDParm;         /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
  int iSdst;           /* Base register where results are written */
  int nSdst;           /* Number of registers allocated */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;  /* Key columns for SRT_Queue and SRT_DistQueue */
};

/*
** During code generation of statements that do inserts into AUTOINCREMENT 
** tables, the following information is attached to the Table.u.autoInc.p
** pointer of each autoincrement table to record some side information that
** the code generator needs.  We have to keep per-table autoincrement
** information in case inserts are done within triggers.  Triggers do not
** normally coordinate their activities, but we do need to coordinate the
** loading and saving of autoincrement information.
*/
................................................................................
** Size of the column cache
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_N_COLCACHE
# define SQLITE_N_COLCACHE 10
#endif

/*
** At least one instance of the following structure is created for each 
** trigger that may be fired while parsing an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
** statement. All such objects are stored in the linked list headed at
** Parse.pTriggerPrg and deleted once statement compilation has been
** completed.
**
** A Vdbe sub-program that implements the body and WHEN clause of trigger
** TriggerPrg.pTrigger, assuming a default ON CONFLICT clause of
** TriggerPrg.orconf, is stored in the TriggerPrg.pProgram variable.
** The Parse.pTriggerPrg list never contains two entries with the same
** values for both pTrigger and orconf.
**
** The TriggerPrg.aColmask[0] variable is set to a mask of old.* columns
** accessed (or set to 0 for triggers fired as a result of INSERT 
** statements). Similarly, the TriggerPrg.aColmask[1] variable is set to
** a mask of new.* columns used by the program.
*/
struct TriggerPrg {
  Trigger *pTrigger;      /* Trigger this program was coded from */
  TriggerPrg *pNext;      /* Next entry in Parse.pTriggerPrg list */
  SubProgram *pProgram;   /* Program implementing pTrigger/orconf */
................................................................................
** carry around information that is global to the entire parse.
**
** The structure is divided into two parts.  When the parser and code
** generate call themselves recursively, the first part of the structure
** is constant but the second part is reset at the beginning and end of
** each recursion.
**
** The nTableLock and aTableLock variables are only used if the shared-cache 
** feature is enabled (if sqlite3Tsd()->useSharedData is true). They are
** used to store the set of table-locks required by the statement being
** compiled. Function sqlite3TableLock() is used to add entries to the
** list.
*/
struct Parse {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* The main database structure */
................................................................................
#define OPFLAG_P2ISREG       0x10    /* P2 to OP_Open** is a register number */
#define OPFLAG_PERMUTE       0x01    /* OP_Compare: use the permutation */
#define OPFLAG_SAVEPOSITION  0x02    /* OP_Delete: keep cursor position */
#define OPFLAG_AUXDELETE     0x04    /* OP_Delete: index in a DELETE op */

/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 
 *    database). This allows Trigger structures to be retrieved by name.
 * 2. All triggers associated with a single table form a linked list, using the
 *    pNext member of struct Trigger. A pointer to the first element of the
 *    linked list is stored as the "pTrigger" member of the associated
 *    struct Table.
 *
 * The "step_list" member points to the first element of a linked list
................................................................................
  Schema *pTabSchema;     /* Schema containing the table */
  TriggerStep *step_list; /* Link list of trigger program steps             */
  Trigger *pNext;         /* Next trigger associated with the table */
};

/*
** A trigger is either a BEFORE or an AFTER trigger.  The following constants
** determine which. 
**
** If there are multiple triggers, you might of some BEFORE and some AFTER.
** In that cases, the constants below can be ORed together.
*/
#define TRIGGER_BEFORE  1
#define TRIGGER_AFTER   2

/*
 * An instance of struct TriggerStep is used to store a single SQL statement
 * that is a part of a trigger-program. 
 *
 * Instances of struct TriggerStep are stored in a singly linked list (linked
 * using the "pNext" member) referenced by the "step_list" member of the 
 * associated struct Trigger instance. The first element of the linked list is
 * the first step of the trigger-program.
 * 
 * The "op" member indicates whether this is a "DELETE", "INSERT", "UPDATE" or
 * "SELECT" statement. The meanings of the other members is determined by the 
 * value of "op" as follows:
 *
 * (op == TK_INSERT)
 * orconf    -> stores the ON CONFLICT algorithm
 * pSelect   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... SELECT ... statement, then
 *              this stores a pointer to the SELECT statement. Otherwise NULL.
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to insert into.
 * pExprList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... VALUES ... statement, then
 *              this stores values to be inserted. Otherwise NULL.
 * pIdList   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... (<column-names>) VALUES ... 
 *              statement, then this stores the column-names to be
 *              inserted into.
 *
 * (op == TK_DELETE)
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to delete from.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the DELETE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * 
 * (op == TK_UPDATE)
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to update.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * pExprList -> A list of the columns to update and the expressions to update
 *              them to. See sqlite3Update() documentation of "pChanges"
 *              argument.
 * 
 */
struct TriggerStep {
  u8 op;               /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT, TK_SELECT */
  u8 orconf;           /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */
  Select *pSelect;     /* SELECT statement or RHS of INSERT INTO SELECT ... */
  char *zTarget;       /* Target table for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT */
................................................................................
  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
};

/*
** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
** explicit.  
*/
typedef struct DbFixer DbFixer;
struct DbFixer {
  Parse *pParse;      /* The parsing context.  Error messages written here */
  Schema *pSchema;    /* Fix items to this schema */
  int bVarOnly;       /* Check for variable references only */
  const char *zDb;    /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
................................................................................
**
** The alloca() routine never returns NULL.  This will cause code paths
** that deal with sqlite3StackAlloc() failures to be unreachable.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_USE_ALLOCA
# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N)   alloca(N)
# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N)  memset(alloca(N), 0, N)
# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P)       
#else
# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N)   sqlite3DbMallocRaw(D,N)
# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N)  sqlite3DbMallocZero(D,N)
# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P)       sqlite3DbFree(D,P)
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3
................................................................................
#else
# define sqlite3FileSuffix3(X,Y)
#endif
u8 sqlite3GetBoolean(const char *z,u8);

const void *sqlite3ValueText(sqlite3_value*, u8);
int sqlite3ValueBytes(sqlite3_value*, u8);
void sqlite3ValueSetStr(sqlite3_value*, int, const void *,u8, 
                        void(*)(void*));
void sqlite3ValueSetNull(sqlite3_value*);
void sqlite3ValueFree(sqlite3_value*);
sqlite3_value *sqlite3ValueNew(sqlite3 *);
char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *, const void*, int, u8);
int sqlite3ValueFromExpr(sqlite3 *, Expr *, u8, u8, sqlite3_value **);
void sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(sqlite3_value *, u8, u8);
................................................................................
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(sqlite3*,int,int);
void sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(KeyInfo*);
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoRef(KeyInfo*);
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoOfIndex(Parse*, Index*);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
int sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(KeyInfo*);
#endif
int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *, 
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*),
  FuncDestructor *pDestructor
);
void sqlite3OomFault(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3OomClear(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
................................................................................

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
#  define sqlite3VtabClear(Y)
#  define sqlite3VtabSync(X,Y) SQLITE_OK
#  define sqlite3VtabRollback(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabCommit(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) 0
#  define sqlite3VtabLock(X) 
#  define sqlite3VtabUnlock(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabUnlockList(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabSavepoint(X, Y, Z) SQLITE_OK
#  define sqlite3GetVTable(X,Y)  ((VTable*)0)
#else
   void sqlite3VtabClear(sqlite3 *db, Table*);
   void sqlite3VtabDisconnect(sqlite3 *db, Table *p);
................................................................................
#define sqlite3WithDelete(x,y)
#endif

/* Declarations for functions in fkey.c. All of these are replaced by
** no-op macros if OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is defined. In this case no foreign
** key functionality is available. If OMIT_TRIGGER is defined but
** OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is not, only some of the functions are no-oped. In
** this case foreign keys are parsed, but no other functionality is 
** provided (enforcement of FK constraints requires the triggers sub-system).
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  void sqlite3FkCheck(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int);
  void sqlite3FkDropTable(Parse*, SrcList *, Table*);
  void sqlite3FkActions(Parse*, Table*, ExprList*, int, int*, int);
  int sqlite3FkRequired(Parse*, Table*, int*, int);
................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  void sqlite3ParserTrace(FILE*, char *);
#endif

/*
** If the SQLITE_ENABLE IOTRACE exists then the global variable
** sqlite3IoTrace is a pointer to a printf-like routine used to
** print I/O tracing messages. 
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
# define IOTRACE(A)  if( sqlite3IoTrace ){ sqlite3IoTrace A; }
  void sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXTERN void (SQLITE_CDECL *sqlite3IoTrace)(const char*,...);
#else
# define IOTRACE(A)
................................................................................
** Perhaps the most important point is the difference between MEMTYPE_HEAP
** and MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE.  If an allocation is MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE, that means
** it might have been allocated by lookaside, except the allocation was
** too large or lookaside was already full.  It is important to verify
** that allocations that might have been satisfied by lookaside are not
** passed back to non-lookaside free() routines.  Asserts such as the
** example above are placed on the non-lookaside free() routines to verify
** this constraint. 
**
** All of this is no-op for a production build.  It only comes into
** play when the SQLITE_MEMDEBUG compile-time option is used.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_MEMDEBUG
  void sqlite3MemdebugSetType(void*,u8);
  int sqlite3MemdebugHasType(void*,u8);







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*************************************************************************
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
**
*/
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_

/*
** Make sure that rand_s() is available on Windows systems with MSVC 2005
** or higher.
*/
#if defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1400
#  define _CRT_RAND_S
#endif

/*
** Include the header file used to customize the compiler options for MSVC.
** This should be done first so that it can successfully prevent spurious
** compiler warnings due to subsequent content in this file and other files
** that are included by this file.
*/
#include "msvc.h"
................................................................................

/*
** The following macros are used to cast pointers to integers and
** integers to pointers.  The way you do this varies from one compiler
** to the next, so we have developed the following set of #if statements
** to generate appropriate macros for a wide range of compilers.
**
** The correct "ANSI" way to do this is to use the intptr_t type.
** Unfortunately, that typedef is not available on all compilers, or
** if it is available, it requires an #include of specific headers
** that vary from one machine to the next.
**
** Ticket #3860:  The llvm-gcc-4.2 compiler from Apple chokes on
** the ((void*)&((char*)0)[X]) construct.  But MSVC chokes on ((void*)(X)).
** So we have to define the macros in different ways depending on the
................................................................................
**
** Setting NDEBUG makes the code smaller and faster by disabling the
** assert() statements in the code.  So we want the default action
** to be for NDEBUG to be set and NDEBUG to be undefined only if SQLITE_DEBUG
** is set.  Thus NDEBUG becomes an opt-in rather than an opt-out
** feature.
*/
#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
# define NDEBUG 1
#endif
#if defined(NDEBUG) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
# undef NDEBUG
#endif

/*
................................................................................
** Enable SQLITE_ENABLE_EXPLAIN_COMMENTS if SQLITE_DEBUG is turned on.
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_EXPLAIN_COMMENTS) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
# define SQLITE_ENABLE_EXPLAIN_COMMENTS 1
#endif

/*
** The testcase() macro is used to aid in coverage testing.  When
** doing coverage testing, the condition inside the argument to
** testcase() must be evaluated both true and false in order to
** get full branch coverage.  The testcase() macro is inserted
** to help ensure adequate test coverage in places where simple
** condition/decision coverage is inadequate.  For example, testcase()
** can be used to make sure boundary values are tested.  For
** bitmask tests, testcase() can be used to make sure each bit
................................................................................
#ifndef NDEBUG
# define VVA_ONLY(X)  X
#else
# define VVA_ONLY(X)
#endif

/*
** The ALWAYS and NEVER macros surround boolean expressions which
** are intended to always be true or false, respectively.  Such
** expressions could be omitted from the code completely.  But they
** are included in a few cases in order to enhance the resilience
** of SQLite to unexpected behavior - to make the code "self-healing"
** or "ductile" rather than being "brittle" and crashing at the first
** hint of unplanned behavior.
**
................................................................................
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_BIG_DBL
# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (1e99)
#endif

/*
** OMIT_TEMPDB is set to 1 if SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB is defined, or 0
** afterward. Having this macro allows us to cause the C compiler
** to omit code used by TEMP tables without messy #ifndef statements.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 1
#else
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 0
#endif
................................................................................
#ifndef SQLITE_TEMP_STORE
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE 1
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE_xc 1  /* Exclude from ctime.c */
#endif

/*
** If no value has been provided for SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS, or if
** SQLITE_TEMP_STORE is set to 3 (never use temporary files), set it
** to zero.
*/
#if SQLITE_TEMP_STORE==3 || SQLITE_THREADSAFE==0
# undef SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS
# define SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS 0
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS
................................................................................
** Examples:
**      1 -> 0              20 -> 43          10000 -> 132
**      2 -> 10             25 -> 46          25000 -> 146
**      3 -> 16            100 -> 66        1000000 -> 199
**      4 -> 20           1000 -> 99        1048576 -> 200
**     10 -> 33           1024 -> 100    4294967296 -> 320
**
** The LogEst can be negative to indicate fractional values.
** Examples:
**
**    0.5 -> -10           0.1 -> -33        0.0625 -> -40
*/
typedef INT16_TYPE LogEst;

/*
................................................................................
** Constants for the largest and smallest possible 64-bit signed integers.
** These macros are designed to work correctly on both 32-bit and 64-bit
** compilers.
*/
#define LARGEST_INT64  (0xffffffff|(((i64)0x7fffffff)<<32))
#define SMALLEST_INT64 (((i64)-1) - LARGEST_INT64)

/*
** Round up a number to the next larger multiple of 8.  This is used
** to force 8-byte alignment on 64-bit architectures.
*/
#define ROUND8(x)     (((x)+7)&~7)

/*
** Round down to the nearest multiple of 8
................................................................................
# define SELECTTRACE_ENABLED 1
#else
# define SELECTTRACE_ENABLED 0
#endif

/*
** An instance of the following structure is used to store the busy-handler
** callback for a given sqlite handle.
**
** The sqlite.busyHandler member of the sqlite struct contains the busy
** callback for the database handle. Each pager opened via the sqlite
** handle is passed a pointer to sqlite.busyHandler. The busy-handler
** callback is currently invoked only from within pager.c.
*/
typedef struct BusyHandler BusyHandler;
................................................................................
/*
** Determine if the argument is a power of two
*/
#define IsPowerOfTwo(X) (((X)&((X)-1))==0)

/*
** The following value as a destructor means to use sqlite3DbFree().
** The sqlite3DbFree() routine requires two parameters instead of the
** one parameter that destructors normally want.  So we have to introduce
** this magic value that the code knows to handle differently.  Any
** pointer will work here as long as it is distinct from SQLITE_STATIC
** and SQLITE_TRANSIENT.
*/
#define SQLITE_DYNAMIC   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)sqlite3MallocSize)

/*
** When SQLITE_OMIT_WSD is defined, it means that the target platform does
................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_WSD
  #define SQLITE_WSD const
  #define GLOBAL(t,v) (*(t*)sqlite3_wsd_find((void*)&(v), sizeof(v)))
  #define sqlite3GlobalConfig GLOBAL(struct Sqlite3Config, sqlite3Config)
  int sqlite3_wsd_init(int N, int J);
  void *sqlite3_wsd_find(void *K, int L);
#else
  #define SQLITE_WSD
  #define GLOBAL(t,v) v
  #define sqlite3GlobalConfig sqlite3Config
#endif

/*
** The following macros are used to suppress compiler warnings and to
** make it clear to human readers when a function parameter is deliberately
** left unused within the body of a function. This usually happens when
** a function is called via a function pointer. For example the
** implementation of an SQL aggregate step callback may not use the
** parameter indicating the number of arguments passed to the aggregate,
** if it knows that this is enforced elsewhere.
**
** When a function parameter is not used at all within the body of a function,
** it is generally named "NotUsed" or "NotUsed2" to make things even clearer.
** However, these macros may also be used to suppress warnings related to
................................................................................
typedef struct VTable VTable;
typedef struct VtabCtx VtabCtx;
typedef struct Walker Walker;
typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
typedef struct With With;

/*
** Defer sourcing vdbe.h and btree.h until after the "u8" and
** "BusyHandler" typedefs. vdbe.h also requires a few of the opaque
** pointer types (i.e. FuncDef) defined above.
*/
#include "btree.h"
#include "vdbe.h"
#include "pager.h"
#include "pcache.h"
................................................................................
/*
** An instance of the following structure stores a database schema.
**
** Most Schema objects are associated with a Btree.  The exception is
** the Schema for the TEMP databaes (sqlite3.aDb[1]) which is free-standing.
** In shared cache mode, a single Schema object can be shared by multiple
** Btrees that refer to the same underlying BtShared object.
**
** Schema objects are automatically deallocated when the last Btree that
** references them is destroyed.   The TEMP Schema is manually freed by
** sqlite3_close().
*
** A thread must be holding a mutex on the corresponding Btree in order
** to access Schema content.  This implies that the thread must also be
** holding a mutex on the sqlite3 connection pointer that owns the Btree.
................................................................................
  u8 file_format;      /* Schema format version for this file */
  u8 enc;              /* Text encoding used by this database */
  u16 schemaFlags;     /* Flags associated with this schema */
  int cache_size;      /* Number of pages to use in the cache */
};

/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the
** Db.pSchema->flags field.
*/
#define DbHasProperty(D,I,P)     (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))==(P))
#define DbHasAnyProperty(D,I,P)  (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))!=0)
#define DbSetProperty(D,I,P)     (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags|=(P)
#define DbClearProperty(D,I,P)   (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&=~(P)

................................................................................
  int nVDestroy;                /* Number of active OP_VDestroy operations */
  int nExtension;               /* Number of loaded extensions */
  void **aExtension;            /* Array of shared library handles */
  void (*xTrace)(void*,const char*);        /* Trace function */
  void *pTraceArg;                          /* Argument to the trace function */
  void (*xProfile)(void*,const char*,u64);  /* Profiling function */
  void *pProfileArg;                        /* Argument to profile function */
  void *pCommitArg;                 /* Argument to xCommitCallback() */
  int (*xCommitCallback)(void*);    /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pRollbackArg;               /* Argument to xRollbackCallback() */
  void (*xRollbackCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pUpdateArg;
  void (*xUpdateCallback)(void*,int, const char*,const char*,sqlite_int64);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_WAL
  int (*xWalCallback)(void *, sqlite3 *, const char *, int);
  void *pWalArg;
#endif
................................................................................
  int busyTimeout;              /* Busy handler timeout, in msec */
  int nSavepoint;               /* Number of non-transaction savepoints */
  int nStatement;               /* Number of nested statement-transactions  */
  i64 nDeferredCons;            /* Net deferred constraints this transaction. */
  i64 nDeferredImmCons;         /* Net deferred immediate constraints */
  int *pnBytesFreed;            /* If not NULL, increment this in DbFree() */
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UNLOCK_NOTIFY
  /* The following variables are all protected by the STATIC_MASTER
  ** mutex, not by sqlite3.mutex. They are used by code in notify.c.
  **
  ** When X.pUnlockConnection==Y, that means that X is waiting for Y to
  ** unlock so that it can proceed.
  **
  ** When X.pBlockingConnection==Y, that means that something that X tried
  ** tried to do recently failed with an SQLITE_LOCKED error due to locks
  ** held by Y.
................................................................................
  } u;
};

/*
** This structure encapsulates a user-function destructor callback (as
** configured using create_function_v2()) and a reference counter. When
** create_function_v2() is called to create a function with a destructor,
** a single object of this type is allocated. FuncDestructor.nRef is set to
** the number of FuncDef objects created (either 1 or 3, depending on whether
** or not the specified encoding is SQLITE_ANY). The FuncDef.pDestructor
** member of each of the new FuncDef objects is set to point to the allocated
** FuncDestructor.
**
** Thereafter, when one of the FuncDef objects is deleted, the reference
** count on this object is decremented. When it reaches 0, the destructor
................................................................................
                                    ** single query - might change over time */

/*
** The following three macros, FUNCTION(), LIKEFUNC() and AGGREGATE() are
** used to create the initializers for the FuncDef structures.
**
**   FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName
**     implemented by C function xFunc that accepts nArg arguments. The
**     value passed as iArg is cast to a (void*) and made available
**     as the user-data (sqlite3_user_data()) for the function. If
**     argument bNC is true, then the SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL flag is set.
**
**   VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag.
**
**   DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag and
................................................................................
**   AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xStep, xFinal)
**     Used to create an aggregate function definition implemented by
**     the C functions xStep and xFinal. The first four parameters
**     are interpreted in the same way as the first 4 parameters to
**     FUNCTION().
**
**   LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, pArg, flags)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName
**     that accepts nArg arguments and is implemented by a call to C
**     function likeFunc. Argument pArg is cast to a (void *) and made
**     available as the function user-data (sqlite3_user_data()). The
**     FuncDef.flags variable is set to the value passed as the flags
**     parameter.
*/
#define FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
  {nArg, SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT|SQLITE_UTF8|(bNC*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL), \
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED -1 /* No sort order specified */

/*
** Column affinity types.
**
** These used to have mnemonic name like 'i' for SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER and
** 't' for SQLITE_AFF_TEXT.  But we can save a little space and improve
** the speed a little by numbering the values consecutively.
**
** But rather than start with 0 or 1, we begin with 'A'.  That way,
** when multiple affinity types are concatenated into a string and
** used as the P4 operand, they will be more readable.
**
** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
** for a numeric type is a single comparison.  And the BLOB type is first.
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER  'D'
#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     'E'

#define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X)  ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)

/*
** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK values masks off the significant bits of an
** affinity value.
*/
#define SQLITE_AFF_MASK     0x47

/*
** Additional bit values that can be ORed with an affinity without
** changing the affinity.
**
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL   0x10  /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
#define SQLITE_STOREP2      0x20  /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */
#define SQLITE_NULLEQ       0x80  /* NULL=NULL */
#define SQLITE_NOTNULL      0x90  /* Assert that operands are never NULL */

/*
** An object of this type is created for each virtual table present in
** the database schema.
**
** If the database schema is shared, then there is one instance of this
** structure for each database connection (sqlite3*) that uses the shared
** schema. This is because each database connection requires its own unique
** instance of the sqlite3_vtab* handle used to access the virtual table
** implementation. sqlite3_vtab* handles can not be shared between
** database connections, even when the rest of the in-memory database
** schema is shared, as the implementation often stores the database
** connection handle passed to it via the xConnect() or xCreate() method
** during initialization internally. This database connection handle may
** then be used by the virtual table implementation to access real tables
** within the database. So that they appear as part of the callers
** transaction, these accesses need to be made via the same database
** connection as that used to execute SQL operations on the virtual table.
**
** All VTable objects that correspond to a single table in a shared
** database schema are initially stored in a linked-list pointed to by
** the Table.pVTable member variable of the corresponding Table object.
** When an sqlite3_prepare() operation is required to access the virtual
** table, it searches the list for the VTable that corresponds to the
** database connection doing the preparing so as to use the correct
** sqlite3_vtab* handle in the compiled query.
**
** When an in-memory Table object is deleted (for example when the
** schema is being reloaded for some reason), the VTable objects are not
** deleted and the sqlite3_vtab* handles are not xDisconnect()ed
** immediately. Instead, they are moved from the Table.pVTable list to
** another linked list headed by the sqlite3.pDisconnect member of the
** corresponding sqlite3 structure. They are then deleted/xDisconnected
** next time a statement is prepared using said sqlite3*. This is done
** to avoid deadlock issues involving multiple sqlite3.mutex mutexes.
** Refer to comments above function sqlite3VtabUnlockList() for an
** explanation as to why it is safe to add an entry to an sqlite3.pDisconnect
** list without holding the corresponding sqlite3.mutex mutex.
**
** The memory for objects of this type is always allocated by
** sqlite3DbMalloc(), using the connection handle stored in VTable.db as
** the first argument.
*/
struct VTable {
  sqlite3 *db;              /* Database connection associated with this table */
  Module *pMod;             /* Pointer to module implementation */
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Pointer to vtab instance */
  int nRef;                 /* Number of pointers to this structure */
................................................................................
**
** RESTRICT, SETNULL, and CASCADE actions apply only to foreign keys.
** RESTRICT is the same as ABORT for IMMEDIATE foreign keys and the
** same as ROLLBACK for DEFERRED keys.  SETNULL means that the foreign
** key is set to NULL.  CASCADE means that a DELETE or UPDATE of the
** referenced table row is propagated into the row that holds the
** foreign key.
**
** The following symbolic values are used to record which type
** of action to take.
*/
#define OE_None     0   /* There is no constraint to check */
#define OE_Rollback 1   /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
#define OE_Abort    2   /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
#define OE_Fail     3   /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
................................................................................
#define OE_Cascade  9   /* Cascade the changes */

#define OE_Default  10  /* Do whatever the default action is */


/*
** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the
** comparison of the two index keys.
**
** Note that aSortOrder[] and aColl[] have nField+1 slots.  There
** are nField slots for the columns of an index then one extra slot
** for the rowid at the end.
*/
struct KeyInfo {
................................................................................
** or greater than a key in the btree, respectively.  These are normally
** -1 and +1 respectively, but might be inverted to +1 and -1 if the b-tree
** is in DESC order.
**
** The key comparison functions actually return default_rc when they find
** an equals comparison.  default_rc can be -1, 0, or +1.  If there are
** multiple entries in the b-tree with the same key (when only looking
** at the first pKeyInfo->nFields,) then default_rc can be set to -1 to
** cause the search to find the last match, or +1 to cause the search to
** find the first match.
**
** The key comparison functions will set eqSeen to true if they ever
** get and equal results when comparing this structure to a b-tree record.
** When default_rc!=0, the search might end up on the record immediately
** before the first match or immediately after the last match.  The
................................................................................
**
**     CREATE TABLE Ex1(c1 int, c2 int, c3 text);
**     CREATE INDEX Ex2 ON Ex1(c3,c1);
**
** In the Table structure describing Ex1, nCol==3 because there are
** three columns in the table.  In the Index structure describing
** Ex2, nColumn==2 since 2 of the 3 columns of Ex1 are indexed.
** The value of aiColumn is {2, 0}.  aiColumn[0]==2 because the
** first column to be indexed (c3) has an index of 2 in Ex1.aCol[].
** The second column to be indexed (c1) has an index of 0 in
** Ex1.aCol[], hence Ex2.aiColumn[1]==0.
**
** The Index.onError field determines whether or not the indexed columns
** must be unique and what to do if they are not.  When Index.onError=OE_None,
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
**
** While parsing a CREATE TABLE or CREATE INDEX statement in order to
** generate VDBE code (as opposed to parsing one read from an sqlite_master
** table as part of parsing an existing database schema), transient instances
** of this structure may be created. In this case the Index.tnum variable is
................................................................................
/* The Index.aiColumn[] values are normally positive integer.  But
** there are some negative values that have special meaning:
*/
#define XN_ROWID     (-1)     /* Indexed column is the rowid */
#define XN_EXPR      (-2)     /* Indexed column is an expression */

/*
** Each sample stored in the sqlite_stat3 table is represented in memory
** using a structure of this type.  See documentation at the top of the
** analyze.c source file for additional information.
*/
struct IndexSample {
  void *p;          /* Pointer to sampled record */
  int n;            /* Size of record in bytes */
  tRowcnt *anEq;    /* Est. number of rows where the key equals this sample */
................................................................................
**
** Expr.op is the opcode. The integer parser token codes are reused
** as opcodes here. For example, the parser defines TK_GE to be an integer
** code representing the ">=" operator. This same integer code is reused
** to represent the greater-than-or-equal-to operator in the expression
** tree.
**
** If the expression is an SQL literal (TK_INTEGER, TK_FLOAT, TK_BLOB,
** or TK_STRING), then Expr.token contains the text of the SQL literal. If
** the expression is a variable (TK_VARIABLE), then Expr.token contains the
** variable name. Finally, if the expression is an SQL function (TK_FUNCTION),
** then Expr.token contains the name of the function.
**
** Expr.pRight and Expr.pLeft are the left and right subexpressions of a
** binary operator. Either or both may be NULL.
**
** Expr.x.pList is a list of arguments if the expression is an SQL function,
** a CASE expression or an IN expression of the form "<lhs> IN (<y>, <z>...)".
** Expr.x.pSelect is used if the expression is a sub-select or an expression of
** the form "<lhs> IN (SELECT ...)". If the EP_xIsSelect bit is set in the
** Expr.flags mask, then Expr.x.pSelect is valid. Otherwise, Expr.x.pList is
** valid.
**
** An expression of the form ID or ID.ID refers to a column in a table.
** For such expressions, Expr.op is set to TK_COLUMN and Expr.iTable is
** the integer cursor number of a VDBE cursor pointing to that table and
** Expr.iColumn is the column number for the specific column.  If the
** expression is used as a result in an aggregate SELECT, then the
** value is also stored in the Expr.iAgg column in the aggregate so that
** it can be accessed after all aggregates are computed.
**
** If the expression is an unbound variable marker (a question mark
** character '?' in the original SQL) then the Expr.iTable holds the index
** number for that variable.
**
** If the expression is a subquery then Expr.iColumn holds an integer
** register number containing the result of the subquery.  If the
** subquery gives a constant result, then iTable is -1.  If the subquery
** gives a different answer at different times during statement processing
** then iTable is the address of a subroutine that computes the subquery.
................................................................................
  union {
    char *zToken;          /* Token value. Zero terminated and dequoted */
    int iValue;            /* Non-negative integer value if EP_IntValue */
  } u;

  /* If the EP_TokenOnly flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
  *********************************************************************/

  Expr *pLeft;           /* Left subnode */
  Expr *pRight;          /* Right subnode */
  union {
    ExprList *pList;     /* op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT, CASE, FUNCTION, BETWEEN */
    Select *pSelect;     /* EP_xIsSelect and op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT */
................................................................................

/*
** Combinations of two or more EP_* flags
*/
#define EP_Propagate (EP_Collate|EP_Subquery) /* Propagate these bits up tree */

/*
** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the
** Expr.flags field.
*/
#define ExprHasProperty(E,P)     (((E)->flags&(P))!=0)
#define ExprHasAllProperty(E,P)  (((E)->flags&(P))==(P))
#define ExprSetProperty(E,P)     (E)->flags|=(P)
#define ExprClearProperty(E,P)   (E)->flags&=~(P)

................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P)  (E)->flags|=(P)
#else
# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P)
#endif

/*
** Macros to determine the number of bytes required by a normal Expr
** struct, an Expr struct with the EP_Reduced flag set in Expr.flags
** and an Expr struct with the EP_TokenOnly flag set.
*/
#define EXPR_FULLSIZE           sizeof(Expr)           /* Full size */
#define EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE        offsetof(Expr,iTable)  /* Common features */
#define EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE      offsetof(Expr,pLeft)   /* Fewer features */

/*
** Flags passed to the sqlite3ExprDup() function. See the header comment
** above sqlite3ExprDup() for details.
*/
#define EXPRDUP_REDUCE         0x0001  /* Used reduced-size Expr nodes */

/*
** A list of expressions.  Each expression may optionally have a
** name.  An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
................................................................................
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may
** be NULL.  The pSrc corresponds to the FROM clause of a SELECT or
** to the table being operated on by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.  The
** pEList corresponds to the result set of a SELECT and is NULL for
** other statements.
**
** NameContexts can be nested.  When resolving names, the inner-most
** context is searched first.  If no match is found, the next outer
** context is checked.  If there is still no match, the next context
** is checked.  This process continues until either a match is found
** or all contexts are check.  When a match is found, the nRef member of
** the context containing the match is incremented.
**
** Each subquery gets a new NameContext.  The pNext field points to the
** NameContext in the parent query.  Thus the process of scanning the
** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
** subqueries looking for a match.
*/
struct NameContext {
................................................................................
};

/*
** Allowed values for the NameContext, ncFlags field.
**
** Note:  NC_MinMaxAgg must have the same value as SF_MinMaxAgg and
** SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX.
**
*/
#define NC_AllowAgg  0x0001  /* Aggregate functions are allowed here */
#define NC_HasAgg    0x0002  /* One or more aggregate functions seen */
#define NC_IsCheck   0x0004  /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
#define NC_InAggFunc 0x0008  /* True if analyzing arguments to an agg func */
#define NC_PartIdx   0x0010  /* True if resolving a partial index WHERE */
#define NC_IdxExpr   0x0020  /* True if resolving columns of CREATE INDEX */
................................................................................


/*
** The results of a SELECT can be distributed in several ways, as defined
** by one of the following macros.  The "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result
** Type".
**
**     SRT_Union       Store results as a key in a temporary index
**                     identified by pDest->iSDParm.
**
**     SRT_Except      Remove results from the temporary index pDest->iSDParm.
**
**     SRT_Exists      Store a 1 in memory cell pDest->iSDParm if the result
**                     set is not empty.
**
................................................................................
**
**     SRT_Mem         Only valid if the result is a single column.
**                     Store the first column of the first result row
**                     in register pDest->iSDParm then abandon the rest
**                     of the query.  This destination implies "LIMIT 1".
**
**     SRT_Set         The result must be a single column.  Store each
**                     row of result as the key in table pDest->iSDParm.
**                     Apply the affinity pDest->affSdst before storing
**                     results.  Used to implement "IN (SELECT ...)".
**
**     SRT_EphemTab    Create an temporary table pDest->iSDParm and store
**                     the result there. The cursor is left open after
**                     returning.  This is like SRT_Table except that
**                     this destination uses OP_OpenEphemeral to create
................................................................................
  int iSDParm;         /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
  int iSdst;           /* Base register where results are written */
  int nSdst;           /* Number of registers allocated */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;  /* Key columns for SRT_Queue and SRT_DistQueue */
};

/*
** During code generation of statements that do inserts into AUTOINCREMENT
** tables, the following information is attached to the Table.u.autoInc.p
** pointer of each autoincrement table to record some side information that
** the code generator needs.  We have to keep per-table autoincrement
** information in case inserts are done within triggers.  Triggers do not
** normally coordinate their activities, but we do need to coordinate the
** loading and saving of autoincrement information.
*/
................................................................................
** Size of the column cache
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_N_COLCACHE
# define SQLITE_N_COLCACHE 10
#endif

/*
** At least one instance of the following structure is created for each
** trigger that may be fired while parsing an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
** statement. All such objects are stored in the linked list headed at
** Parse.pTriggerPrg and deleted once statement compilation has been
** completed.
**
** A Vdbe sub-program that implements the body and WHEN clause of trigger
** TriggerPrg.pTrigger, assuming a default ON CONFLICT clause of
** TriggerPrg.orconf, is stored in the TriggerPrg.pProgram variable.
** The Parse.pTriggerPrg list never contains two entries with the same
** values for both pTrigger and orconf.
**
** The TriggerPrg.aColmask[0] variable is set to a mask of old.* columns
** accessed (or set to 0 for triggers fired as a result of INSERT
** statements). Similarly, the TriggerPrg.aColmask[1] variable is set to
** a mask of new.* columns used by the program.
*/
struct TriggerPrg {
  Trigger *pTrigger;      /* Trigger this program was coded from */
  TriggerPrg *pNext;      /* Next entry in Parse.pTriggerPrg list */
  SubProgram *pProgram;   /* Program implementing pTrigger/orconf */
................................................................................
** carry around information that is global to the entire parse.
**
** The structure is divided into two parts.  When the parser and code
** generate call themselves recursively, the first part of the structure
** is constant but the second part is reset at the beginning and end of
** each recursion.
**
** The nTableLock and aTableLock variables are only used if the shared-cache
** feature is enabled (if sqlite3Tsd()->useSharedData is true). They are
** used to store the set of table-locks required by the statement being
** compiled. Function sqlite3TableLock() is used to add entries to the
** list.
*/
struct Parse {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* The main database structure */
................................................................................
#define OPFLAG_P2ISREG       0x10    /* P2 to OP_Open** is a register number */
#define OPFLAG_PERMUTE       0x01    /* OP_Compare: use the permutation */
#define OPFLAG_SAVEPOSITION  0x02    /* OP_Delete: keep cursor position */
#define OPFLAG_AUXDELETE     0x04    /* OP_Delete: index in a DELETE op */

/*
 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger.
 *
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the
 *    database). This allows Trigger structures to be retrieved by name.
 * 2. All triggers associated with a single table form a linked list, using the
 *    pNext member of struct Trigger. A pointer to the first element of the
 *    linked list is stored as the "pTrigger" member of the associated
 *    struct Table.
 *
 * The "step_list" member points to the first element of a linked list
................................................................................
  Schema *pTabSchema;     /* Schema containing the table */
  TriggerStep *step_list; /* Link list of trigger program steps             */
  Trigger *pNext;         /* Next trigger associated with the table */
};

/*
** A trigger is either a BEFORE or an AFTER trigger.  The following constants
** determine which.
**
** If there are multiple triggers, you might of some BEFORE and some AFTER.
** In that cases, the constants below can be ORed together.
*/
#define TRIGGER_BEFORE  1
#define TRIGGER_AFTER   2

/*
 * An instance of struct TriggerStep is used to store a single SQL statement
 * that is a part of a trigger-program.
 *
 * Instances of struct TriggerStep are stored in a singly linked list (linked
 * using the "pNext" member) referenced by the "step_list" member of the
 * associated struct Trigger instance. The first element of the linked list is
 * the first step of the trigger-program.
 *
 * The "op" member indicates whether this is a "DELETE", "INSERT", "UPDATE" or
 * "SELECT" statement. The meanings of the other members is determined by the
 * value of "op" as follows:
 *
 * (op == TK_INSERT)
 * orconf    -> stores the ON CONFLICT algorithm
 * pSelect   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... SELECT ... statement, then
 *              this stores a pointer to the SELECT statement. Otherwise NULL.
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to insert into.
 * pExprList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... VALUES ... statement, then
 *              this stores values to be inserted. Otherwise NULL.
 * pIdList   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... (<column-names>) VALUES ...
 *              statement, then this stores the column-names to be
 *              inserted into.
 *
 * (op == TK_DELETE)
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to delete from.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the DELETE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 *
 * (op == TK_UPDATE)
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to update.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * pExprList -> A list of the columns to update and the expressions to update
 *              them to. See sqlite3Update() documentation of "pChanges"
 *              argument.
 *
 */
struct TriggerStep {
  u8 op;               /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT, TK_SELECT */
  u8 orconf;           /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */
  Select *pSelect;     /* SELECT statement or RHS of INSERT INTO SELECT ... */
  char *zTarget;       /* Target table for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT */
................................................................................
  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
};

/*
** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
** explicit.
*/
typedef struct DbFixer DbFixer;
struct DbFixer {
  Parse *pParse;      /* The parsing context.  Error messages written here */
  Schema *pSchema;    /* Fix items to this schema */
  int bVarOnly;       /* Check for variable references only */
  const char *zDb;    /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
................................................................................
**
** The alloca() routine never returns NULL.  This will cause code paths
** that deal with sqlite3StackAlloc() failures to be unreachable.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_USE_ALLOCA
# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N)   alloca(N)
# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N)  memset(alloca(N), 0, N)
# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P)
#else
# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N)   sqlite3DbMallocRaw(D,N)
# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N)  sqlite3DbMallocZero(D,N)
# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P)       sqlite3DbFree(D,P)
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3
................................................................................
#else
# define sqlite3FileSuffix3(X,Y)
#endif
u8 sqlite3GetBoolean(const char *z,u8);

const void *sqlite3ValueText(sqlite3_value*, u8);
int sqlite3ValueBytes(sqlite3_value*, u8);
void sqlite3ValueSetStr(sqlite3_value*, int, const void *,u8,
                        void(*)(void*));
void sqlite3ValueSetNull(sqlite3_value*);
void sqlite3ValueFree(sqlite3_value*);
sqlite3_value *sqlite3ValueNew(sqlite3 *);
char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *, const void*, int, u8);
int sqlite3ValueFromExpr(sqlite3 *, Expr *, u8, u8, sqlite3_value **);
void sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(sqlite3_value *, u8, u8);
................................................................................
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(sqlite3*,int,int);
void sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(KeyInfo*);
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoRef(KeyInfo*);
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoOfIndex(Parse*, Index*);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
int sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(KeyInfo*);
#endif
int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *,
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*),
  FuncDestructor *pDestructor
);
void sqlite3OomFault(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3OomClear(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
................................................................................

#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
#  define sqlite3VtabClear(Y)
#  define sqlite3VtabSync(X,Y) SQLITE_OK
#  define sqlite3VtabRollback(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabCommit(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) 0
#  define sqlite3VtabLock(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabUnlock(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabUnlockList(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabSavepoint(X, Y, Z) SQLITE_OK
#  define sqlite3GetVTable(X,Y)  ((VTable*)0)
#else
   void sqlite3VtabClear(sqlite3 *db, Table*);
   void sqlite3VtabDisconnect(sqlite3 *db, Table *p);
................................................................................
#define sqlite3WithDelete(x,y)
#endif

/* Declarations for functions in fkey.c. All of these are replaced by
** no-op macros if OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is defined. In this case no foreign
** key functionality is available. If OMIT_TRIGGER is defined but
** OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is not, only some of the functions are no-oped. In
** this case foreign keys are parsed, but no other functionality is
** provided (enforcement of FK constraints requires the triggers sub-system).
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  void sqlite3FkCheck(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int);
  void sqlite3FkDropTable(Parse*, SrcList *, Table*);
  void sqlite3FkActions(Parse*, Table*, ExprList*, int, int*, int);
  int sqlite3FkRequired(Parse*, Table*, int*, int);
................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  void sqlite3ParserTrace(FILE*, char *);
#endif

/*
** If the SQLITE_ENABLE IOTRACE exists then the global variable
** sqlite3IoTrace is a pointer to a printf-like routine used to
** print I/O tracing messages.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
# define IOTRACE(A)  if( sqlite3IoTrace ){ sqlite3IoTrace A; }
  void sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXTERN void (SQLITE_CDECL *sqlite3IoTrace)(const char*,...);
#else
# define IOTRACE(A)
................................................................................
** Perhaps the most important point is the difference between MEMTYPE_HEAP
** and MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE.  If an allocation is MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE, that means
** it might have been allocated by lookaside, except the allocation was
** too large or lookaside was already full.  It is important to verify
** that allocations that might have been satisfied by lookaside are not
** passed back to non-lookaside free() routines.  Asserts such as the
** example above are placed on the non-lookaside free() routines to verify
** this constraint.
**
** All of this is no-op for a production build.  It only comes into
** play when the SQLITE_MEMDEBUG compile-time option is used.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_MEMDEBUG
  void sqlite3MemdebugSetType(void*,u8);
  int sqlite3MemdebugHasType(void*,u8);