/ Check-in [28413cf2]
Login

Many hyperlinks are disabled.
Use anonymous login to enable hyperlinks.

Overview
Comment:Cache and reuse virtual table index information in the optimizer. Improved diagnostics for virtual table index selection. (CVS 3300)
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1:28413cf2b3f0e6f294e1f3c59fcce135b65c294f
User & Date: drh 2006-06-27 01:54:26
Context
2006-06-27
02:33
Cleanup and refactor parts of the optimizer. (CVS 3301) check-in: 6609c25f user: drh tags: trunk
01:54
Cache and reuse virtual table index information in the optimizer. Improved diagnostics for virtual table index selection. (CVS 3300) check-in: 28413cf2 user: drh tags: trunk
00:14
Export the sqlite3_bind_value API to loadable extensions. (CVS 3299) check-in: 1ca385bb user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
....
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121













1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
....
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137






1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
....
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154

1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqliteInt.h,v 1.514 2006/06/26 21:35:45 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_

/*
** Extra interface definitions for those who need them
*/
................................................................................
#define JT_ERROR     0x0040    /* unknown or unsupported join type */

/*
** For each nested loop in a WHERE clause implementation, the WhereInfo
** structure contains a single instance of this structure.  This structure
** is intended to be private the the where.c module and should not be
** access or modified by other modules.













*/
struct WhereLevel {
  int iFrom;            /* Which entry in the FROM clause */
  int flags;            /* Flags associated with this level */
  int iMem;             /* First memory cell used by this level */
  int iLeftJoin;        /* Memory cell used to implement LEFT OUTER JOIN */
  Index *pIdx;          /* Index used.  NULL if no index */
................................................................................
  int brk;              /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int cont;             /* Jump here to continue with the next loop cycle */
  int top;              /* First instruction of interior of the loop */
  int op, p1, p2;       /* Opcode used to terminate the loop */
  int nEq;              /* Number of == or IN constraints on this loop */
  int nIn;              /* Number of IN operators constraining this loop */
  int *aInLoop;         /* Loop terminators for IN operators */






  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo;  /* Index information for virtual tables */
};

/*
** The WHERE clause processing routine has two halves.  The
** first part does the start of the WHERE loop and the second
** half does the tail of the WHERE loop.  An instance of
** this structure is returned by the first half and passed
................................................................................
struct WhereInfo {
  Parse *pParse;
  SrcList *pTabList;   /* List of tables in the join */
  int iTop;            /* The very beginning of the WHERE loop */
  int iContinue;       /* Jump here to continue with next record */
  int iBreak;          /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nLevel;          /* Number of nested loop */

  WhereLevel a[1];     /* Information about each nest loop in the WHERE */
};

/*
** A NameContext defines a context in which to resolve table and column
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may







|







 







>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







 







>
>
>
>
>
>
|







 







>







7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
....
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
....
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
....
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqliteInt.h,v 1.515 2006/06/27 01:54:26 drh Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_

/*
** Extra interface definitions for those who need them
*/
................................................................................
#define JT_ERROR     0x0040    /* unknown or unsupported join type */

/*
** For each nested loop in a WHERE clause implementation, the WhereInfo
** structure contains a single instance of this structure.  This structure
** is intended to be private the the where.c module and should not be
** access or modified by other modules.
**
** The pIdxInfo and pBestIdx fields are used to help pick the best
** index on a virtual table.  The pIdxInfo pointer contains indexing
** information for the i-th table in the FROM clause before reordering.
** All the pIdxInfo pointers are freed by whereInfoFree() in where.c.
** The pBestIdx pointer is a copy of pIdxInfo for the i-th table after
** FROM clause ordering.  This is a little confusing so I will repeat
** it in different words.  WhereInfo.a[i].pIdxInfo is index information 
** for WhereInfo.pTabList.a[i].  WhereInfo.a[i].pBestInfo is the
** index information for the i-th loop of the join.  pBestInfo is always
** either NULL or a copy of some pIdxInfo.  So for cleanup it is 
** sufficient to free all of the pIdxInfo pointers.
** 
*/
struct WhereLevel {
  int iFrom;            /* Which entry in the FROM clause */
  int flags;            /* Flags associated with this level */
  int iMem;             /* First memory cell used by this level */
  int iLeftJoin;        /* Memory cell used to implement LEFT OUTER JOIN */
  Index *pIdx;          /* Index used.  NULL if no index */
................................................................................
  int brk;              /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int cont;             /* Jump here to continue with the next loop cycle */
  int top;              /* First instruction of interior of the loop */
  int op, p1, p2;       /* Opcode used to terminate the loop */
  int nEq;              /* Number of == or IN constraints on this loop */
  int nIn;              /* Number of IN operators constraining this loop */
  int *aInLoop;         /* Loop terminators for IN operators */
  sqlite3_index_info *pBestIdx;  /* Index information for this level */

  /* The following field is really not part of the current level.  But
  ** we need a place to cache index information for each table in the
  ** FROM clause and the WhereLevel structure is a convenient place.
  */
  sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo;  /* Index info for n-th source table */
};

/*
** The WHERE clause processing routine has two halves.  The
** first part does the start of the WHERE loop and the second
** half does the tail of the WHERE loop.  An instance of
** this structure is returned by the first half and passed
................................................................................
struct WhereInfo {
  Parse *pParse;
  SrcList *pTabList;   /* List of tables in the join */
  int iTop;            /* The very beginning of the WHERE loop */
  int iContinue;       /* Jump here to continue with next record */
  int iBreak;          /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int nLevel;          /* Number of nested loop */
  sqlite3_index_info **apInfo;  /* Array of pointers to index info structures */
  WhereLevel a[1];     /* Information about each nest loop in the WHERE */
};

/*
** A NameContext defines a context in which to resolve table and column
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may

Changes to src/where.c.

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
...
945
946
947
948
949
950
951













































952
953
954
955
956
957
958
...
989
990
991
992
993
994
995

996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
....
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127


1128

1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
....
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
....
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811

1812

1813
1814
1815

1816

1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
....
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
....
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
....
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
....
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
** This module contains C code that generates VDBE code used to process
** the WHERE clause of SQL statements.  This module is reponsible for
** generating the code that loops through a table looking for applicable
** rows.  Indices are selected and used to speed the search when doing
** so is applicable.  Because this module is responsible for selecting
** indices, you might also think of this module as the "query optimizer".
**
** $Id: where.c,v 1.223 2006/06/24 11:51:35 danielk1977 Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"

/*
** The number of bits in a Bitmask.  "BMS" means "BitMask Size".
*/
#define BMS  (sizeof(Bitmask)*8)
................................................................................
  while( N>x ){
    logN += 1;
    x *= 10;
  }
  return logN;
}














































#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
/*
** Compute the best index for a virtual table.
**
** The best index is computed by the xBestIndex method of the virtual
** table module.  This routine is really just a wrapper that sets up
** the sqlite3_index_info structure that is used to communicate with
................................................................................
  ** allocated and initialized for this virtual table, then allocate
  ** and initialize it now
  */
  pIdxInfo = *ppIdxInfo;
  if( pIdxInfo==0 ){
    WhereTerm *pTerm;
    int nTerm;


    /* Count the number of possible WHERE clause constraints referring
    ** to this virtual table */
    for(i=nTerm=0, pTerm=pWC->a; i<pWC->nTerm; i++, pTerm++){
      if( pTerm->leftCursor != pSrc->iCursor ) continue;
      if( pTerm->eOperator==WO_IN ) continue;
      nTerm++;
................................................................................
  pIdxInfo->estimatedCost = SQLITE_BIG_DBL / 2.0;
  nOrderBy = pIdxInfo->nOrderBy;
  if( pIdxInfo->nOrderBy && !orderByUsable ){
    *(int*)&pIdxInfo->nOrderBy = 0;
  }

  sqlite3SafetyOff(pParse->db);


  rc = pTab->pVtab->pModule->xBestIndex(pTab->pVtab, pIdxInfo);

  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    if( rc==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
      sqlite3FailedMalloc();
    }else {
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%s", sqlite3ErrStr(rc));
    }
    sqlite3SafetyOn(pParse->db);
  }else{
    rc = sqlite3SafetyOn(pParse->db);
  }

  *(int*)&pIdxInfo->nOrderBy = nOrderBy;
  return pIdxInfo->estimatedCost;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */

/*
** Find the best index for accessing a particular table.  Return a pointer
................................................................................
    Index *pBest = 0;           /* The best index seen so far */
    int bestFlags = 0;          /* Flags associated with pBest */
    int bestNEq = 0;            /* nEq associated with pBest */
    double lowestCost;          /* Cost of the pBest */
    int bestJ = 0;              /* The value of j */
    Bitmask m;                  /* Bitmask value for j or bestJ */
    int once = 0;               /* True when first table is seen */
    sqlite3_index_info *pBestIndex = 0;
    sqlite3_index_info *pIndex = 0;

    lowestCost = SQLITE_BIG_DBL;
    for(j=iFrom, pTabItem=&pTabList->a[j]; j<pTabList->nSrc; j++, pTabItem++){
      int doNotReorder;  /* True if this table should not be reordered */

      doNotReorder =  (pTabItem->jointype & (JT_LEFT|JT_CROSS))!=0
                   || (j>0 && (pTabItem[-1].jointype & (JT_LEFT|JT_CROSS))!=0);
................................................................................
      m = getMask(&maskSet, pTabItem->iCursor);
      if( (m & notReady)==0 ){
        if( j==iFrom ) iFrom++;
        continue;
      }
      assert( pTabItem->pTab );
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE

      if( IsVirtual(pTabItem->pTab) ){

        cost = bestVirtualIndex(pParse, &wc, pTabItem, notReady,
                                ppOrderBy ? *ppOrderBy : 0, i==0,
                                &pIndex);

        flags = WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE;

        if( pIndex && pIndex->orderByConsumed ){
          flags = WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE | WHERE_ORDERBY;
        }
        pIdx = 0;
        nEq = 0;
      }else 
#endif
................................................................................
        once = 1;
        lowestCost = cost;
        pBest = pIdx;
        bestFlags = flags;
        bestNEq = nEq;
        bestJ = j;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
        sqliteFree(pBestIndex);
        pBestIndex = pIndex;
        pIndex = 0;
      }else{
        sqliteFree(pIndex);
        pIndex = 0;
#endif
      }
      if( doNotReorder ) break;
    }
    TRACE(("*** Optimizer choose table %d for loop %d\n", bestJ,
           pLevel-pWInfo->a));
    if( (bestFlags & WHERE_ORDERBY)!=0 ){
................................................................................
    }
    andFlags &= bestFlags;
    pLevel->flags = bestFlags;
    pLevel->pIdx = pBest;
    pLevel->nEq = bestNEq;
    pLevel->aInLoop = 0;
    pLevel->nIn = 0;
    pLevel->pIdxInfo = pBestIndex;
    if( pBest ){
      pLevel->iIdxCur = pParse->nTab++;
    }else{
      pLevel->iIdxCur = -1;
    }
    notReady &= ~getMask(&maskSet, pTabList->a[bestJ].iCursor);
    pLevel->iFrom = bestJ;
................................................................................
      }
      if( (pIx = pLevel->pIdx)!=0 ){
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z WITH INDEX %s", zMsg, pIx->zName);
      }else if( pLevel->flags & (WHERE_ROWID_EQ|WHERE_ROWID_RANGE) ){
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z USING PRIMARY KEY", zMsg);
      }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
      else if( pLevel->pIdxInfo ){
        sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo = pLevel->pIdxInfo;
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z VIRTUAL TABLE INDEX %d:%s", zMsg,
                    pIdxInfo->idxNum, pIdxInfo->idxStr);
      }
#endif
      if( pLevel->flags & WHERE_ORDERBY ){
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z ORDER BY", zMsg);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_Explain, i, pLevel->iFrom, zMsg, P3_DYNAMIC);
    }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN */
    pTabItem = &pTabList->a[pLevel->iFrom];
    pTab = pTabItem->pTab;
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(pParse->db, pTab->pSchema);
    if( pTab->isEphem || pTab->pSelect ) continue;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    if( pLevel->pIdxInfo ){
      int iCur = pTabItem->iCursor;
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_VOpen, iCur, 0, (const char*)pTab->pVtab, P3_VTAB);
    }else
#endif
    if( (pLevel->flags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)==0 ){
      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, pTabItem->iCursor, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
      if( pTab->nCol<(sizeof(Bitmask)*8) ){
................................................................................
      if( !pParse->nMem ) pParse->nMem++;
      pLevel->iLeftJoin = pParse->nMem++;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemInt, 0, pLevel->iLeftJoin);
      VdbeComment((v, "# init LEFT JOIN no-match flag"));
    }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    if( pLevel->pIdxInfo ){
      /* Case 0:  The table is a virtual-table.  Use the VFilter and VNext
      **          to access the data.
      */
      int ii;
      sqlite3_index_info *pIdxInfo = pLevel->pIdxInfo;
      int nConstraint = pIdxInfo->nConstraint;
      struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage *aUsage =
                                                  pIdxInfo->aConstraintUsage;
      const struct sqlite3_index_constraint *aConstraint =
                                                  pIdxInfo->aConstraint;

      for(ii=1; ii<=nConstraint; ii++){
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<nConstraint; j++){
          if( aUsage[j].argvIndex==ii ){
            int k = aConstraint[j].iTermOffset;
            sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, wc.a[k].pExpr->pRight);
            break;
          }
        }
        if( j==nConstraint ) break;
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Integer, ii-1, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Integer, pIdxInfo->idxNum, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_VFilter, iCur, brk, pIdxInfo->idxStr,
                      pIdxInfo->needToFreeIdxStr ? P3_MPRINTF : P3_STATIC);
      pIdxInfo->needToFreeIdxStr = 0;
      for(ii=0; ii<pIdxInfo->nConstraint; ii++){
        if( pIdxInfo->aConstraintUsage[ii].omit ){
          disableTerm(pLevel, &wc.a[ii]);
        }
      }
      pLevel->op = OP_VNext;
      pLevel->p1 = iCur;
      pLevel->p2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    }else







|







 







>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







 







>







 







>
>

>










<







 







<
|







 







>

>


<
>

>







 







<
|
<
<
<
<







 







<







 







|
|

|













|







 







|




|
|

|

|













|
|
|
|
|
|







12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
...
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
....
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
....
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187

1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
....
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842

1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
....
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863

1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
....
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886

1887




1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
....
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902

1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
....
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
....
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
** This module contains C code that generates VDBE code used to process
** the WHERE clause of SQL statements.  This module is reponsible for
** generating the code that loops through a table looking for applicable
** rows.  Indices are selected and used to speed the search when doing
** so is applicable.  Because this module is responsible for selecting
** indices, you might also think of this module as the "query optimizer".
**
** $Id: where.c,v 1.224 2006/06/27 01:54:26 drh Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"

/*
** The number of bits in a Bitmask.  "BMS" means "BitMask Size".
*/
#define BMS  (sizeof(Bitmask)*8)
................................................................................
  while( N>x ){
    logN += 1;
    x *= 10;
  }
  return logN;
}

/*
** Two routines for printing the content of an sqlite3_index_info
** structure.  Used for testing and debugging only.  If neither
** SQLITE_TEST or SQLITE_DEBUG are defined, then these routines
** are no-ops.
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && \
        (defined(SQLITE_TEST) || defined(SQLITE_DEBUG))
static void TRACE_IDX_INPUTS(sqlite3_index_info *p){
  int i;
  if( !sqlite3_where_trace ) return;
  for(i=0; i<p->nConstraint; i++){
    sqlite3DebugPrintf("  constraint[%d]: col=%d termid=%d op=%d usabled=%d\n",
       i,
       p->aConstraint[i].iColumn,
       p->aConstraint[i].iTermOffset,
       p->aConstraint[i].op,
       p->aConstraint[i].usable);
  }
  for(i=0; i<p->nOrderBy; i++){
    sqlite3DebugPrintf("  orderby[%d]: col=%d desc=%d\n",
       i,
       p->aOrderBy[i].iColumn,
       p->aOrderBy[i].desc);
  }
}
static void TRACE_IDX_OUTPUTS(sqlite3_index_info *p){
  int i;
  if( !sqlite3_where_trace ) return;
  for(i=0; i<p->nConstraint; i++){
    sqlite3DebugPrintf("  usage[%d]: argvIdx=%d omit=%d\n",
       i,
       p->aConstraintUsage[i].argvIndex,
       p->aConstraintUsage[i].omit);
  }
  sqlite3DebugPrintf("  idxNum=%d\n", p->idxNum);
  sqlite3DebugPrintf("  idxStr=%s\n", p->idxStr);
  sqlite3DebugPrintf("  orderByConsumed=%d\n", p->orderByConsumed);
  sqlite3DebugPrintf("  estimatedCost=%g\n", p->estimatedCost);
}
#else
#define TRACE_IDX_INPUTS(A)
#define TRACE_IDX_OUTPUTS(A)
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
/*
** Compute the best index for a virtual table.
**
** The best index is computed by the xBestIndex method of the virtual
** table module.  This routine is really just a wrapper that sets up
** the sqlite3_index_info structure that is used to communicate with
................................................................................
  ** allocated and initialized for this virtual table, then allocate
  ** and initialize it now
  */
  pIdxInfo = *ppIdxInfo;
  if( pIdxInfo==0 ){
    WhereTerm *pTerm;
    int nTerm;
    TRACE(("Recomputing index info for %s...\n", pTab->zName));

    /* Count the number of possible WHERE clause constraints referring
    ** to this virtual table */
    for(i=nTerm=0, pTerm=pWC->a; i<pWC->nTerm; i++, pTerm++){
      if( pTerm->leftCursor != pSrc->iCursor ) continue;
      if( pTerm->eOperator==WO_IN ) continue;
      nTerm++;
................................................................................
  pIdxInfo->estimatedCost = SQLITE_BIG_DBL / 2.0;
  nOrderBy = pIdxInfo->nOrderBy;
  if( pIdxInfo->nOrderBy && !orderByUsable ){
    *(int*)&pIdxInfo->nOrderBy = 0;
  }

  sqlite3SafetyOff(pParse->db);
  TRACE(("xBestIndex for %s\n", pTab->zName));
  TRACE_IDX_INPUTS(pIdxInfo);
  rc = pTab->pVtab->pModule->xBestIndex(pTab->pVtab, pIdxInfo);
  TRACE_IDX_OUTPUTS(pIdxInfo);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    if( rc==SQLITE_NOMEM ){
      sqlite3FailedMalloc();
    }else {
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%s", sqlite3ErrStr(rc));
    }
    sqlite3SafetyOn(pParse->db);
  }else{
    rc = sqlite3SafetyOn(pParse->db);
  }

  *(int*)&pIdxInfo->nOrderBy = nOrderBy;
  return pIdxInfo->estimatedCost;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */

/*
** Find the best index for accessing a particular table.  Return a pointer
................................................................................
    Index *pBest = 0;           /* The best index seen so far */
    int bestFlags = 0;          /* Flags associated with pBest */
    int bestNEq = 0;            /* nEq associated with pBest */
    double lowestCost;          /* Cost of the pBest */
    int bestJ = 0;              /* The value of j */
    Bitmask m;                  /* Bitmask value for j or bestJ */
    int once = 0;               /* True when first table is seen */

    sqlite3_index_info *pIndex; /* Current virtual index */

    lowestCost = SQLITE_BIG_DBL;
    for(j=iFrom, pTabItem=&pTabList->a[j]; j<pTabList->nSrc; j++, pTabItem++){
      int doNotReorder;  /* True if this table should not be reordered */

      doNotReorder =  (pTabItem->jointype & (JT_LEFT|JT_CROSS))!=0
                   || (j>0 && (pTabItem[-1].jointype & (JT_LEFT|JT_CROSS))!=0);
................................................................................
      m = getMask(&maskSet, pTabItem->iCursor);
      if( (m & notReady)==0 ){
        if( j==iFrom ) iFrom++;
        continue;
      }
      assert( pTabItem->pTab );
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
      pIndex = 0;
      if( IsVirtual(pTabItem->pTab) ){
        sqlite3_index_info **ppIdxInfo = &pWInfo->a[j].pIdxInfo;
        cost = bestVirtualIndex(pParse, &wc, pTabItem, notReady,
                                ppOrderBy ? *ppOrderBy : 0, i==0,

                                ppIdxInfo);
        flags = WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE;
        pIndex = *ppIdxInfo;
        if( pIndex && pIndex->orderByConsumed ){
          flags = WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE | WHERE_ORDERBY;
        }
        pIdx = 0;
        nEq = 0;
      }else 
#endif
................................................................................
        once = 1;
        lowestCost = cost;
        pBest = pIdx;
        bestFlags = flags;
        bestNEq = nEq;
        bestJ = j;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE

        pLevel->pBestIdx = pIndex;




#endif
      }
      if( doNotReorder ) break;
    }
    TRACE(("*** Optimizer choose table %d for loop %d\n", bestJ,
           pLevel-pWInfo->a));
    if( (bestFlags & WHERE_ORDERBY)!=0 ){
................................................................................
    }
    andFlags &= bestFlags;
    pLevel->flags = bestFlags;
    pLevel->pIdx = pBest;
    pLevel->nEq = bestNEq;
    pLevel->aInLoop = 0;
    pLevel->nIn = 0;

    if( pBest ){
      pLevel->iIdxCur = pParse->nTab++;
    }else{
      pLevel->iIdxCur = -1;
    }
    notReady &= ~getMask(&maskSet, pTabList->a[bestJ].iCursor);
    pLevel->iFrom = bestJ;
................................................................................
      }
      if( (pIx = pLevel->pIdx)!=0 ){
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z WITH INDEX %s", zMsg, pIx->zName);
      }else if( pLevel->flags & (WHERE_ROWID_EQ|WHERE_ROWID_RANGE) ){
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z USING PRIMARY KEY", zMsg);
      }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
      else if( pLevel->pBestIdx ){
        sqlite3_index_info *pBestIdx = pLevel->pBestIdx;
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z VIRTUAL TABLE INDEX %d:%s", zMsg,
                    pBestIdx->idxNum, pBestIdx->idxStr);
      }
#endif
      if( pLevel->flags & WHERE_ORDERBY ){
        zMsg = sqlite3MPrintf("%z ORDER BY", zMsg);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_Explain, i, pLevel->iFrom, zMsg, P3_DYNAMIC);
    }
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN */
    pTabItem = &pTabList->a[pLevel->iFrom];
    pTab = pTabItem->pTab;
    iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(pParse->db, pTab->pSchema);
    if( pTab->isEphem || pTab->pSelect ) continue;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    if( pLevel->pBestIdx ){
      int iCur = pTabItem->iCursor;
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_VOpen, iCur, 0, (const char*)pTab->pVtab, P3_VTAB);
    }else
#endif
    if( (pLevel->flags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)==0 ){
      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, pTabItem->iCursor, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
      if( pTab->nCol<(sizeof(Bitmask)*8) ){
................................................................................
      if( !pParse->nMem ) pParse->nMem++;
      pLevel->iLeftJoin = pParse->nMem++;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_MemInt, 0, pLevel->iLeftJoin);
      VdbeComment((v, "# init LEFT JOIN no-match flag"));
    }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    if( pLevel->pBestIdx ){
      /* Case 0:  The table is a virtual-table.  Use the VFilter and VNext
      **          to access the data.
      */
      int ii;
      sqlite3_index_info *pBestIdx = pLevel->pBestIdx;
      int nConstraint = pBestIdx->nConstraint;
      struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage *aUsage =
                                                  pBestIdx->aConstraintUsage;
      const struct sqlite3_index_constraint *aConstraint =
                                                  pBestIdx->aConstraint;

      for(ii=1; ii<=nConstraint; ii++){
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<nConstraint; j++){
          if( aUsage[j].argvIndex==ii ){
            int k = aConstraint[j].iTermOffset;
            sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, wc.a[k].pExpr->pRight);
            break;
          }
        }
        if( j==nConstraint ) break;
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Integer, ii-1, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp(v, OP_Integer, pBestIdx->idxNum, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeOp3(v, OP_VFilter, iCur, brk, pBestIdx->idxStr,
                      pBestIdx->needToFreeIdxStr ? P3_MPRINTF : P3_STATIC);
      pBestIdx->needToFreeIdxStr = 0;
      for(ii=0; ii<pBestIdx->nConstraint; ii++){
        if( pBestIdx->aConstraintUsage[ii].omit ){
          disableTerm(pLevel, &wc.a[ii]);
        }
      }
      pLevel->op = OP_VNext;
      pLevel->p1 = iCur;
      pLevel->p2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    }else