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Overview
Comment:Refactoring some variable names in wal.c.
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SHA1: 1d201ff51f7c5ecdf71a91ed25204b7130894282
User & Date: drh 2010-05-19 17:49:50
Context
2010-05-19
18:08
Revise the checksumming algorithm in wal.c. More variable refactoring. check-in: 542b90eb user: drh tags: trunk
17:49
Refactoring some variable names in wal.c. check-in: 1d201ff5 user: drh tags: trunk
01:53
Add a large comment to wal.c describing the WAL and wal-index file formats. check-in: a71a22b5 user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
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Changes to src/wal.c.

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** The following object stores a copy of the wal-index header.
**
** Member variables iCheck1 and iCheck2 contain the checksum for the
** last frame written to the wal, or 2 and 3 respectively if the log 
** is currently empty.
*/
struct WalIndexHdr {
  u32 iChange;                    /* Counter incremented each transaction */
  u32 pgsz;                       /* Database page size in bytes */
  u32 mxFrame;                    /* Index of last valid frame in the WAL */
  u32 nPage;                      /* Size of database in pages */
  u32 iCheck1;                    /* Checkpoint value 1 */
  u32 iCheck2;                    /* Checkpoint value 2 */
};

/* Size of serialized WalIndexHdr object. */
#define WALINDEX_HDR_NFIELD (sizeof(WalIndexHdr) / sizeof(u32))

/* A block of 16 bytes beginning at WALINDEX_LOCK_OFFSET is reserved
** for locks. Since some systems only feature mandatory file-locks, we
................................................................................
#define WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE 16

/* Size of write ahead log header */
#define WAL_HDRSIZE 12

/*
** Return the offset of frame iFrame in the write-ahead log file, 
** assuming a database page size of pgsz bytes. The offset returned
** is to the start of the write-ahead log frame-header.
*/
#define walFrameOffset(iFrame, pgsz) (                               \
  WAL_HDRSIZE + ((iFrame)-1)*((pgsz)+WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE)        \
)

/*
** An open write-ahead log file is represented by an instance of the
** following object.
*/
struct Wal {
................................................................................
  if( nSize>WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE ){
    u8 aBuf[WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE];   /* Buffer to load first frame header into */
    u8 *aFrame = 0;               /* Malloc'd buffer to load entire frame */
    int nFrame;                   /* Number of bytes at aFrame */
    u8 *aData;                    /* Pointer to data part of aFrame buffer */
    int iFrame;                   /* Index of last frame read */
    i64 iOffset;                  /* Next offset to read from log file */
    int nPgsz;                    /* Page size according to the log */
    u32 aCksum[2];                /* Running checksum */

    /* Read in the first frame header in the file (to determine the 
    ** database page size).
    */
    rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, aBuf, WAL_HDRSIZE, 0);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }

    /* If the database page size is not a power of two, or is greater than
    ** SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE, conclude that the log file contains no valid data.
    */
    nPgsz = sqlite3Get4byte(&aBuf[0]);
    if( nPgsz&(nPgsz-1) || nPgsz>SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE || nPgsz<512 ){
      goto finished;
    }
    aCksum[0] = sqlite3Get4byte(&aBuf[4]);
    aCksum[1] = sqlite3Get4byte(&aBuf[8]);

    /* Malloc a buffer to read frames into. */
    nFrame = nPgsz + WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE;
    aFrame = (u8 *)sqlite3_malloc(nFrame);
    if( !aFrame ){
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
    aData = &aFrame[WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE];

    /* Read all frames from the log file. */
................................................................................
      u32 pgno;                   /* Database page number for frame */
      u32 nTruncate;              /* dbsize field from frame header */
      int isValid;                /* True if this frame is valid */

      /* Read and decode the next log frame. */
      rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, nFrame, iOffset);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;
      isValid = walDecodeFrame(aCksum, &pgno, &nTruncate, nPgsz, aData, aFrame);
      if( !isValid ) break;
      rc = walIndexAppend(pWal, ++iFrame, pgno);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;

      /* If nTruncate is non-zero, this is a commit record. */
      if( nTruncate ){
        hdr.iCheck1 = aCksum[0];
        hdr.iCheck2 = aCksum[1];
        hdr.mxFrame = iFrame;
        hdr.nPage = nTruncate;
        hdr.pgsz = nPgsz;
      }
    }

    sqlite3_free(aFrame);
  }else{
    hdr.iCheck1 = 2;
    hdr.iCheck2 = 3;
................................................................................
static int walCheckpoint(
  Wal *pWal,                      /* Wal connection */
  int sync_flags,                 /* Flags for OsSync() (or 0) */
  int nBuf,                       /* Size of zBuf in bytes */
  u8 *zBuf                        /* Temporary buffer to use */
){
  int rc;                         /* Return code */
  int pgsz = pWal->hdr.pgsz;      /* Database page-size */
  WalIterator *pIter = 0;         /* Wal iterator context */
  u32 iDbpage = 0;                /* Next database page to write */
  u32 iFrame = 0;                 /* Wal frame containing data for iDbpage */

  /* Allocate the iterator */
  rc = walIteratorInit(pWal, &pIter);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK || pWal->hdr.mxFrame==0 ){
    goto out;
  }

  if( pWal->hdr.pgsz!=nBuf ){
    rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
    goto out;
  }

  /* Sync the log file to disk */
  if( sync_flags ){
    rc = sqlite3OsSync(pWal->pWalFd, sync_flags);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
  }

  /* Iterate through the contents of the log, copying data to the db file. */
  while( 0==walIteratorNext(pIter, &iDbpage, &iFrame) ){
    rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, zBuf, pgsz, 
        walFrameOffset(iFrame, pgsz) + WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE
    );
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pDbFd, zBuf, pgsz, (iDbpage-1)*pgsz);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
  }

  /* Truncate the database file */
  rc = sqlite3OsTruncate(pWal->pDbFd, ((i64)pWal->hdr.nPage*(i64)pgsz));
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;

  /* Sync the database file. If successful, update the wal-index. */
  if( sync_flags ){
    rc = sqlite3OsSync(pWal->pDbFd, sync_flags);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
  }
................................................................................

  /* Search the hash table or tables for an entry matching page number
  ** pgno. Each iteration of the following for() loop searches one
  ** hash table (each hash table indexes up to HASHTABLE_NPAGE frames).
  **
  ** This code may run concurrently to the code in walIndexAppend()
  ** that adds entries to the wal-index (and possibly to this hash 
  ** table). This means the non-zero value just read from the hash 
  ** slot (aHash[iKey]) may have been added before or after the 
  ** current read transaction was opened. Values added after the
  ** read transaction was opened may have been written incorrectly -
  ** i.e. these slots may contain garbage data. However, we assume
  ** that any slots written before the current read transaction was
  ** opened remain unmodified.
  **
................................................................................
  **     This condition filters out entries that were added to the hash
  **     table after the current read-transaction had started.
  **
  **   (iFrame>iRead): 
  **     This filters out a dangerous class of garbage data. The 
  **     garbage hash slot may refer to a frame with the correct page 
  **     number, but not the most recent version of the frame. For
  **     example, if at the start of the read-transaction the log 
  **     contains three copies of the desired page in frames 2, 3 and 4,
  **     the hash table may contain the following:
  **
  **       { ..., 2, 3, 4, 0, 0, ..... }
  **
  **     The correct answer is to read data from frame 4. But a 
  **     dirty-read may potentially cause the hash-table to appear as 
  **     follows to the reader:
  **
  **       { ..., 2, 3, 4, 3, 0, ..... }
  **
  **     Without this part of the if(...) clause, the reader might
  **     incorrectly read data from frame 3 instead of 4. This would be
  **     an error.
  **
  ** It is not actually clear to the developers that such a dirty-read
  ** can occur. But if it does, it should not cause any problems.
................................................................................
#endif

  /* If iRead is non-zero, then it is the log frame number that contains the
  ** required page. Read and return data from the log file.
  */
  walIndexUnmap(pWal);
  if( iRead ){
    i64 iOffset = walFrameOffset(iRead, pWal->hdr.pgsz) + WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE;
    *pInWal = 1;
    return sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, pOut, nOut, iOffset);
  }

  *pInWal = 0;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
................................................................................
int sqlite3WalSavepointUndo(Wal *pWal, u32 iFrame){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  u8 aCksum[8];
  assert( pWal->lockState==SQLITE_SHM_WRITE );

  pWal->hdr.mxFrame = iFrame;
  if( iFrame>0 ){
    i64 iOffset = walFrameOffset(iFrame, pWal->hdr.pgsz) + sizeof(u32)*2;
    rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, aCksum, sizeof(aCksum), iOffset);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck1 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aCksum[0]);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck2 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aCksum[4]);
  }

  return rc;
}
................................................................................

/* 
** Write a set of frames to the log. The caller must hold the write-lock
** on the log file (obtained using sqlite3WalWriteLock()).
*/
int sqlite3WalFrames(
  Wal *pWal,                      /* Wal handle to write to */
  int nPgsz,                      /* Database page-size in bytes */
  PgHdr *pList,                   /* List of dirty pages to write */
  Pgno nTruncate,                 /* Database size after this commit */
  int isCommit,                   /* True if this is a commit */
  int sync_flags                  /* Flags to pass to OsSync() (or 0) */
){
  int rc;                         /* Used to catch return codes */
  u32 iFrame;                     /* Next frame address */
................................................................................
  /* If this is the first frame written into the log, write the WAL
  ** header to the start of the WAL file. See comments at the top of
  ** this source file for a description of the WAL header format.
  */
  assert( WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE>=WAL_HDRSIZE );
  iFrame = pWal->hdr.mxFrame;
  if( iFrame==0 ){
    sqlite3Put4byte(aFrame, nPgsz);
    sqlite3_randomness(8, &aFrame[4]);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck1 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aFrame[4]);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck2 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aFrame[8]);
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, WAL_HDRSIZE, 0);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }
................................................................................
  aCksum[1] = pWal->hdr.iCheck2;

  /* Write the log file. */
  for(p=pList; p; p=p->pDirty){
    u32 nDbsize;                  /* Db-size field for frame header */
    i64 iOffset;                  /* Write offset in log file */

    iOffset = walFrameOffset(++iFrame, nPgsz);
    
    /* Populate and write the frame header */
    nDbsize = (isCommit && p->pDirty==0) ? nTruncate : 0;
    walEncodeFrame(aCksum, p->pgno, nDbsize, nPgsz, p->pData, aFrame);
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, sizeof(aFrame), iOffset);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }

    /* Write the page data */
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, p->pData, nPgsz, iOffset+sizeof(aFrame));
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }
    pLast = p;
  }

  /* Sync the log file if the 'isSync' flag was specified. */
  if( sync_flags ){
    i64 iSegment = sqlite3OsSectorSize(pWal->pWalFd);
    i64 iOffset = walFrameOffset(iFrame+1, nPgsz);

    assert( isCommit );
    assert( iSegment>0 );

    iSegment = (((iOffset+iSegment-1)/iSegment) * iSegment);
    while( iOffset<iSegment ){
      walEncodeFrame(aCksum,pLast->pgno,nTruncate,nPgsz,pLast->pData,aFrame);
      rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, sizeof(aFrame), iOffset);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        return rc;
      }

      iOffset += WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE;
      rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, pLast->pData, nPgsz, iOffset); 
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        return rc;
      }
      nLast++;
      iOffset += nPgsz;
    }

    rc = sqlite3OsSync(pWal->pWalFd, sync_flags);
  }
  assert( pWal->pWiData==0 );

  /* Append data to the wal-index. It is not necessary to lock the 
................................................................................
    iFrame++;
    nLast--;
    rc = walIndexAppend(pWal, iFrame, pLast->pgno);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    /* Update the private copy of the header. */
    pWal->hdr.pgsz = nPgsz;
    pWal->hdr.mxFrame = iFrame;
    if( isCommit ){
      pWal->hdr.iChange++;
      pWal->hdr.nPage = nTruncate;
    }
    pWal->hdr.iCheck1 = aCksum[0];
    pWal->hdr.iCheck2 = aCksum[1];







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** The following object stores a copy of the wal-index header.
**
** Member variables iCheck1 and iCheck2 contain the checksum for the
** last frame written to the wal, or 2 and 3 respectively if the log 
** is currently empty.
*/
struct WalIndexHdr {
  u32 iChange;          /* Counter incremented each transaction */
  u32 szPage;           /* Database page size in bytes */
  u32 mxFrame;          /* Index of last valid frame in the WAL */
  u32 nPage;            /* Size of database in pages */
  u32 iCheck1;          /* Checksum value 1 */
  u32 iCheck2;          /* Checksum value 2 */
};

/* Size of serialized WalIndexHdr object. */
#define WALINDEX_HDR_NFIELD (sizeof(WalIndexHdr) / sizeof(u32))

/* A block of 16 bytes beginning at WALINDEX_LOCK_OFFSET is reserved
** for locks. Since some systems only feature mandatory file-locks, we
................................................................................
#define WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE 16

/* Size of write ahead log header */
#define WAL_HDRSIZE 12

/*
** Return the offset of frame iFrame in the write-ahead log file, 
** assuming a database page size of szPage bytes. The offset returned
** is to the start of the write-ahead log frame-header.
*/
#define walFrameOffset(iFrame, szPage) (                               \
  WAL_HDRSIZE + ((iFrame)-1)*((szPage)+WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE)        \
)

/*
** An open write-ahead log file is represented by an instance of the
** following object.
*/
struct Wal {
................................................................................
  if( nSize>WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE ){
    u8 aBuf[WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE];   /* Buffer to load first frame header into */
    u8 *aFrame = 0;               /* Malloc'd buffer to load entire frame */
    int nFrame;                   /* Number of bytes at aFrame */
    u8 *aData;                    /* Pointer to data part of aFrame buffer */
    int iFrame;                   /* Index of last frame read */
    i64 iOffset;                  /* Next offset to read from log file */
    int szPage;                   /* Page size according to the log */
    u32 aCksum[2];                /* Running checksum */

    /* Read in the first frame header in the file (to determine the 
    ** database page size).
    */
    rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, aBuf, WAL_HDRSIZE, 0);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }

    /* If the database page size is not a power of two, or is greater than
    ** SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE, conclude that the WAL file contains no valid data.
    */
    szPage = sqlite3Get4byte(&aBuf[0]);
    if( szPage&(szPage-1) || szPage>SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE || szPage<512 ){
      goto finished;
    }
    aCksum[0] = sqlite3Get4byte(&aBuf[4]);
    aCksum[1] = sqlite3Get4byte(&aBuf[8]);

    /* Malloc a buffer to read frames into. */
    nFrame = szPage + WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE;
    aFrame = (u8 *)sqlite3_malloc(nFrame);
    if( !aFrame ){
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
    aData = &aFrame[WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE];

    /* Read all frames from the log file. */
................................................................................
      u32 pgno;                   /* Database page number for frame */
      u32 nTruncate;              /* dbsize field from frame header */
      int isValid;                /* True if this frame is valid */

      /* Read and decode the next log frame. */
      rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, nFrame, iOffset);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;
      isValid = walDecodeFrame(aCksum, &pgno, &nTruncate, szPage, aData, aFrame);
      if( !isValid ) break;
      rc = walIndexAppend(pWal, ++iFrame, pgno);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;

      /* If nTruncate is non-zero, this is a commit record. */
      if( nTruncate ){
        hdr.iCheck1 = aCksum[0];
        hdr.iCheck2 = aCksum[1];
        hdr.mxFrame = iFrame;
        hdr.nPage = nTruncate;
        hdr.szPage = szPage;
      }
    }

    sqlite3_free(aFrame);
  }else{
    hdr.iCheck1 = 2;
    hdr.iCheck2 = 3;
................................................................................
static int walCheckpoint(
  Wal *pWal,                      /* Wal connection */
  int sync_flags,                 /* Flags for OsSync() (or 0) */
  int nBuf,                       /* Size of zBuf in bytes */
  u8 *zBuf                        /* Temporary buffer to use */
){
  int rc;                         /* Return code */
  int szPage = pWal->hdr.szPage;  /* Database page-size */
  WalIterator *pIter = 0;         /* Wal iterator context */
  u32 iDbpage = 0;                /* Next database page to write */
  u32 iFrame = 0;                 /* Wal frame containing data for iDbpage */

  /* Allocate the iterator */
  rc = walIteratorInit(pWal, &pIter);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK || pWal->hdr.mxFrame==0 ){
    goto out;
  }

  if( pWal->hdr.szPage!=nBuf ){
    rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT;
    goto out;
  }

  /* Sync the log file to disk */
  if( sync_flags ){
    rc = sqlite3OsSync(pWal->pWalFd, sync_flags);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
  }

  /* Iterate through the contents of the log, copying data to the db file. */
  while( 0==walIteratorNext(pIter, &iDbpage, &iFrame) ){
    rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, zBuf, szPage, 
        walFrameOffset(iFrame, szPage) + WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE
    );
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pDbFd, zBuf, szPage, (iDbpage-1)*szPage);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
  }

  /* Truncate the database file */
  rc = sqlite3OsTruncate(pWal->pDbFd, ((i64)pWal->hdr.nPage*(i64)szPage));
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;

  /* Sync the database file. If successful, update the wal-index. */
  if( sync_flags ){
    rc = sqlite3OsSync(pWal->pDbFd, sync_flags);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto out;
  }
................................................................................

  /* Search the hash table or tables for an entry matching page number
  ** pgno. Each iteration of the following for() loop searches one
  ** hash table (each hash table indexes up to HASHTABLE_NPAGE frames).
  **
  ** This code may run concurrently to the code in walIndexAppend()
  ** that adds entries to the wal-index (and possibly to this hash 
  ** table). This means the value just read from the hash 
  ** slot (aHash[iKey]) may have been added before or after the 
  ** current read transaction was opened. Values added after the
  ** read transaction was opened may have been written incorrectly -
  ** i.e. these slots may contain garbage data. However, we assume
  ** that any slots written before the current read transaction was
  ** opened remain unmodified.
  **
................................................................................
  **     This condition filters out entries that were added to the hash
  **     table after the current read-transaction had started.
  **
  **   (iFrame>iRead): 
  **     This filters out a dangerous class of garbage data. The 
  **     garbage hash slot may refer to a frame with the correct page 
  **     number, but not the most recent version of the frame. For
  **     example, if at the start of the read-transaction the WAL
  **     contains three copies of the desired page in frames 2, 3 and 4,
  **     the hash table may contain the following:
  **
  **       { ..., 2, 3, 4, 99, 99, ..... }
  **
  **     The correct answer is to read data from frame 4. But a 
  **     dirty-read may potentially cause the hash-table to appear as 
  **     follows to the reader:
  **
  **       { ..., 2, 3, 4, 3, 99, ..... }
  **
  **     Without this part of the if(...) clause, the reader might
  **     incorrectly read data from frame 3 instead of 4. This would be
  **     an error.
  **
  ** It is not actually clear to the developers that such a dirty-read
  ** can occur. But if it does, it should not cause any problems.
................................................................................
#endif

  /* If iRead is non-zero, then it is the log frame number that contains the
  ** required page. Read and return data from the log file.
  */
  walIndexUnmap(pWal);
  if( iRead ){
    i64 iOffset = walFrameOffset(iRead, pWal->hdr.szPage) + WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE;
    *pInWal = 1;
    return sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, pOut, nOut, iOffset);
  }

  *pInWal = 0;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
................................................................................
int sqlite3WalSavepointUndo(Wal *pWal, u32 iFrame){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  u8 aCksum[8];
  assert( pWal->lockState==SQLITE_SHM_WRITE );

  pWal->hdr.mxFrame = iFrame;
  if( iFrame>0 ){
    i64 iOffset = walFrameOffset(iFrame, pWal->hdr.szPage) + sizeof(u32)*2;
    rc = sqlite3OsRead(pWal->pWalFd, aCksum, sizeof(aCksum), iOffset);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck1 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aCksum[0]);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck2 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aCksum[4]);
  }

  return rc;
}
................................................................................

/* 
** Write a set of frames to the log. The caller must hold the write-lock
** on the log file (obtained using sqlite3WalWriteLock()).
*/
int sqlite3WalFrames(
  Wal *pWal,                      /* Wal handle to write to */
  int szPage,                     /* Database page-size in bytes */
  PgHdr *pList,                   /* List of dirty pages to write */
  Pgno nTruncate,                 /* Database size after this commit */
  int isCommit,                   /* True if this is a commit */
  int sync_flags                  /* Flags to pass to OsSync() (or 0) */
){
  int rc;                         /* Used to catch return codes */
  u32 iFrame;                     /* Next frame address */
................................................................................
  /* If this is the first frame written into the log, write the WAL
  ** header to the start of the WAL file. See comments at the top of
  ** this source file for a description of the WAL header format.
  */
  assert( WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE>=WAL_HDRSIZE );
  iFrame = pWal->hdr.mxFrame;
  if( iFrame==0 ){
    sqlite3Put4byte(aFrame, szPage);
    sqlite3_randomness(8, &aFrame[4]);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck1 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aFrame[4]);
    pWal->hdr.iCheck2 = sqlite3Get4byte(&aFrame[8]);
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, WAL_HDRSIZE, 0);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }
................................................................................
  aCksum[1] = pWal->hdr.iCheck2;

  /* Write the log file. */
  for(p=pList; p; p=p->pDirty){
    u32 nDbsize;                  /* Db-size field for frame header */
    i64 iOffset;                  /* Write offset in log file */

    iOffset = walFrameOffset(++iFrame, szPage);
    
    /* Populate and write the frame header */
    nDbsize = (isCommit && p->pDirty==0) ? nTruncate : 0;
    walEncodeFrame(aCksum, p->pgno, nDbsize, szPage, p->pData, aFrame);
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, sizeof(aFrame), iOffset);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }

    /* Write the page data */
    rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, p->pData, szPage, iOffset+sizeof(aFrame));
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      return rc;
    }
    pLast = p;
  }

  /* Sync the log file if the 'isSync' flag was specified. */
  if( sync_flags ){
    i64 iSegment = sqlite3OsSectorSize(pWal->pWalFd);
    i64 iOffset = walFrameOffset(iFrame+1, szPage);

    assert( isCommit );
    assert( iSegment>0 );

    iSegment = (((iOffset+iSegment-1)/iSegment) * iSegment);
    while( iOffset<iSegment ){
      walEncodeFrame(aCksum,pLast->pgno,nTruncate,szPage,pLast->pData,aFrame);
      rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, aFrame, sizeof(aFrame), iOffset);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        return rc;
      }

      iOffset += WAL_FRAME_HDRSIZE;
      rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pWal->pWalFd, pLast->pData, szPage, iOffset); 
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        return rc;
      }
      nLast++;
      iOffset += szPage;
    }

    rc = sqlite3OsSync(pWal->pWalFd, sync_flags);
  }
  assert( pWal->pWiData==0 );

  /* Append data to the wal-index. It is not necessary to lock the 
................................................................................
    iFrame++;
    nLast--;
    rc = walIndexAppend(pWal, iFrame, pLast->pgno);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    /* Update the private copy of the header. */
    pWal->hdr.szPage = szPage;
    pWal->hdr.mxFrame = iFrame;
    if( isCommit ){
      pWal->hdr.iChange++;
      pWal->hdr.nPage = nTruncate;
    }
    pWal->hdr.iCheck1 = aCksum[0];
    pWal->hdr.iCheck2 = aCksum[1];