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/*
** 2016-06-07
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This is a utility program that computes an SHA1 hash on the content
** of an SQLite database.
**
** The hash is computed over just the content of the database.  Free
** space inside of the database file, and alternative on-disk representations
** of the same content (ex: UTF8 vs UTF16) do not affect the hash.  So,
** for example, the database file page size, encoding, and auto_vacuum setting
** can all be changed without changing the hash.
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include "sqlite3.h"

/* Context for the SHA1 hash */
typedef struct SHA1Context SHA1Context;
struct SHA1Context {
  unsigned int state[5];
  unsigned int count[2];
  unsigned char buffer[64];
};

/*
** All global variables are gathered into the "g" singleton.
*/
struct GlobalVars {
  const char *zArgv0;       /* Name of program */
  unsigned fDebug;          /* Debug flags */
  sqlite3 *db;              /* The database connection */
  SHA1Context cx;           /* SHA1 hash context */
} g;

/*
** Debugging flags
*/
#define DEBUG_FULLTRACE   0x00000001   /* Trace hash to stderr */

/******************************************************************************
** The Hash Engine
**
** Modify these routines (and appropriate state fields in global variable 'g')
** in order to compute a different (better?) hash of the database.
*/
/*
 * blk0() and blk() perform the initial expand.
 * I got the idea of expanding during the round function from SSLeay
 *
 * blk0le() for little-endian and blk0be() for big-endian.
 */
#if __GNUC__ && (defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__))
/*
 * GCC by itself only generates left rotates.  Use right rotates if
 * possible to be kinder to dinky implementations with iterative rotate
 * instructions.
 */
#define SHA_ROT(op, x, k) \
        ({ unsigned int y; asm(op " %1,%0" : "=r" (y) : "I" (k), "0" (x)); y; })
#define rol(x,k) SHA_ROT("roll", x, k)
#define ror(x,k) SHA_ROT("rorl", x, k)

#else
/* Generic C equivalent */
#define SHA_ROT(x,l,r) ((x) << (l) | (x) >> (r))
#define rol(x,k) SHA_ROT(x,k,32-(k))
#define ror(x,k) SHA_ROT(x,32-(k),k)
#endif


#define blk0le(i) (block[i] = (ror(block[i],8)&0xFF00FF00) \
    |(rol(block[i],8)&0x00FF00FF))
#define blk0be(i) block[i]
#define blk(i) (block[i&15] = rol(block[(i+13)&15]^block[(i+8)&15] \
    ^block[(i+2)&15]^block[i&15],1))

/*
 * (R0+R1), R2, R3, R4 are the different operations (rounds) used in SHA1
 *
 * Rl0() for little-endian and Rb0() for big-endian.  Endianness is
 * determined at run-time.
 */
#define Rl0(v,w,x,y,z,i) \
    z+=((w&(x^y))^y)+blk0le(i)+0x5A827999+rol(v,5);w=ror(w,2);
#define Rb0(v,w,x,y,z,i) \
    z+=((w&(x^y))^y)+blk0be(i)+0x5A827999+rol(v,5);w=ror(w,2);
#define R1(v,w,x,y,z,i) \
    z+=((w&(x^y))^y)+blk(i)+0x5A827999+rol(v,5);w=ror(w,2);
#define R2(v,w,x,y,z,i) \
    z+=(w^x^y)+blk(i)+0x6ED9EBA1+rol(v,5);w=ror(w,2);
#define R3(v,w,x,y,z,i) \
    z+=(((w|x)&y)|(w&x))+blk(i)+0x8F1BBCDC+rol(v,5);w=ror(w,2);
#define R4(v,w,x,y,z,i) \
    z+=(w^x^y)+blk(i)+0xCA62C1D6+rol(v,5);w=ror(w,2);

/*
 * Hash a single 512-bit block. This is the core of the algorithm.
 */
#define a qq[0]
#define b qq[1]
#define c qq[2]
#define d qq[3]
#define e qq[4]

void SHA1Transform(unsigned int state[5], const unsigned char buffer[64]){
  unsigned int qq[5]; /* a, b, c, d, e; */
  static int one = 1;
  unsigned int block[16];
  memcpy(block, buffer, 64);
  memcpy(qq,state,5*sizeof(unsigned int));

  /* Copy g.cx.state[] to working vars */
  /*
  a = state[0];
  b = state[1];
  c = state[2];
  d = state[3];
  e = state[4];
  */

  /* 4 rounds of 20 operations each. Loop unrolled. */
  if( 1 == *(unsigned char*)&one ){
    Rl0(a,b,c,d,e, 0); Rl0(e,a,b,c,d, 1); Rl0(d,e,a,b,c, 2); Rl0(c,d,e,a,b, 3);
    Rl0(b,c,d,e,a, 4); Rl0(a,b,c,d,e, 5); Rl0(e,a,b,c,d, 6); Rl0(d,e,a,b,c, 7);
    Rl0(c,d,e,a,b, 8); Rl0(b,c,d,e,a, 9); Rl0(a,b,c,d,e,10); Rl0(e,a,b,c,d,11);
    Rl0(d,e,a,b,c,12); Rl0(c,d,e,a,b,13); Rl0(b,c,d,e,a,14); Rl0(a,b,c,d,e,15);
  }else{
    Rb0(a,b,c,d,e, 0); Rb0(e,a,b,c,d, 1); Rb0(d,e,a,b,c, 2); Rb0(c,d,e,a,b, 3);
    Rb0(b,c,d,e,a, 4); Rb0(a,b,c,d,e, 5); Rb0(e,a,b,c,d, 6); Rb0(d,e,a,b,c, 7);
    Rb0(c,d,e,a,b, 8); Rb0(b,c,d,e,a, 9); Rb0(a,b,c,d,e,10); Rb0(e,a,b,c,d,11);
    Rb0(d,e,a,b,c,12); Rb0(c,d,e,a,b,13); Rb0(b,c,d,e,a,14); Rb0(a,b,c,d,e,15);
  }
  R1(e,a,b,c,d,16); R1(d,e,a,b,c,17); R1(c,d,e,a,b,18); R1(b,c,d,e,a,19);
  R2(a,b,c,d,e,20); R2(e,a,b,c,d,21); R2(d,e,a,b,c,22); R2(c,d,e,a,b,23);
  R2(b,c,d,e,a,24); R2(a,b,c,d,e,25); R2(e,a,b,c,d,26); R2(d,e,a,b,c,27);
  R2(c,d,e,a,b,28); R2(b,c,d,e,a,29); R2(a,b,c,d,e,30); R2(e,a,b,c,d,31);
  R2(d,e,a,b,c,32); R2(c,d,e,a,b,33); R2(b,c,d,e,a,34); R2(a,b,c,d,e,35);
  R2(e,a,b,c,d,36); R2(d,e,a,b,c,37); R2(c,d,e,a,b,38); R2(b,c,d,e,a,39);
  R3(a,b,c,d,e,40); R3(e,a,b,c,d,41); R3(d,e,a,b,c,42); R3(c,d,e,a,b,43);
  R3(b,c,d,e,a,44); R3(a,b,c,d,e,45); R3(e,a,b,c,d,46); R3(d,e,a,b,c,47);
  R3(c,d,e,a,b,48); R3(b,c,d,e,a,49); R3(a,b,c,d,e,50); R3(e,a,b,c,d,51);
  R3(d,e,a,b,c,52); R3(c,d,e,a,b,53); R3(b,c,d,e,a,54); R3(a,b,c,d,e,55);
  R3(e,a,b,c,d,56); R3(d,e,a,b,c,57); R3(c,d,e,a,b,58); R3(b,c,d,e,a,59);
  R4(a,b,c,d,e,60); R4(e,a,b,c,d,61); R4(d,e,a,b,c,62); R4(c,d,e,a,b,63);
  R4(b,c,d,e,a,64); R4(a,b,c,d,e,65); R4(e,a,b,c,d,66); R4(d,e,a,b,c,67);
  R4(c,d,e,a,b,68); R4(b,c,d,e,a,69); R4(a,b,c,d,e,70); R4(e,a,b,c,d,71);
  R4(d,e,a,b,c,72); R4(c,d,e,a,b,73); R4(b,c,d,e,a,74); R4(a,b,c,d,e,75);
  R4(e,a,b,c,d,76); R4(d,e,a,b,c,77); R4(c,d,e,a,b,78); R4(b,c,d,e,a,79);

  /* Add the working vars back into context.state[] */
  state[0] += a;
  state[1] += b;
  state[2] += c;
  state[3] += d;
  state[4] += e;
}


/* Initialize the SHA1 hash */
static void hash_init(void){
  /* SHA1 initialization constants */
  g.cx.state[0] = 0x67452301;
  g.cx.state[1] = 0xEFCDAB89;
  g.cx.state[2] = 0x98BADCFE;
  g.cx.state[3] = 0x10325476;
  g.cx.state[4] = 0xC3D2E1F0;
  g.cx.count[0] = g.cx.count[1] = 0;
}

/* Add new content to the SHA1 hash */
static void hash_step(const unsigned char *data,  unsigned int len){
  unsigned int i, j;

  j = g.cx.count[0];
  if( (g.cx.count[0] += len << 3) < j ){
    g.cx.count[1] += (len>>29)+1;
  }
  j = (j >> 3) & 63;
  if( (j + len) > 63 ){
    (void)memcpy(&g.cx.buffer[j], data, (i = 64-j));
    SHA1Transform(g.cx.state, g.cx.buffer);
    for(; i + 63 < len; i += 64){
      SHA1Transform(g.cx.state, &data[i]);
    }
    j = 0;
  }else{
    i = 0;
  }
  (void)memcpy(&g.cx.buffer[j], &data[i], len - i);
}


/* Add padding and compute and output the message digest. */
static void hash_finish(const char *zName){
  unsigned int i;
  unsigned char finalcount[8];
  unsigned char digest[20];
  static const char zEncode[] = "0123456789abcdef";
  char zOut[41];

  for (i = 0; i < 8; i++){
    finalcount[i] = (unsigned char)((g.cx.count[(i >= 4 ? 0 : 1)]
       >> ((3-(i & 3)) * 8) ) & 255); /* Endian independent */
  }
  hash_step((const unsigned char *)"\200", 1);
  while ((g.cx.count[0] & 504) != 448){
    hash_step((const unsigned char *)"\0", 1);
  }
  hash_step(finalcount, 8);  /* Should cause a SHA1Transform() */
  for (i = 0; i < 20; i++){
    digest[i] = (unsigned char)((g.cx.state[i>>2] >> ((3-(i & 3)) * 8) ) & 255);
  }
  for(i=0; i<20; i++){
    zOut[i*2] = zEncode[(digest[i]>>4)&0xf];
    zOut[i*2+1] = zEncode[digest[i] & 0xf];
  }
  zOut[i*2]= 0;
  printf("%s %s\n", zOut, zName);
}
/* End of the hashing logic
*******************************************************************************/
  
/*
** Print an error resulting from faulting command-line arguments and
** abort the program.
*/
static void cmdlineError(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", g.zArgv0);
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  vfprintf(stderr, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  fprintf(stderr, "\n\"%s --help\" for more help\n", g.zArgv0);
  exit(1);
}

/*
** Print an error message for an error that occurs at runtime, then
** abort the program.
*/
static void runtimeError(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", g.zArgv0);
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  vfprintf(stderr, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  fprintf(stderr, "\n");
  exit(1);
}

/*
** Prepare a new SQL statement.  Print an error and abort if anything
** goes wrong.
*/
static sqlite3_stmt *db_vprepare(const char *zFormat, va_list ap){
  char *zSql;
  int rc;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;

  zSql = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFormat, ap);
  if( zSql==0 ) runtimeError("out of memory");
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(g.db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ){
    runtimeError("SQL statement error: %s\n\"%s\"", sqlite3_errmsg(g.db),
                 zSql);
  }
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  return pStmt;
}
static sqlite3_stmt *db_prepare(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  pStmt = db_vprepare(zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  return pStmt;
}

/*
** Compute the hash for all rows of the query formed from the printf-style
** zFormat and its argument.
*/
static void hash_one_query(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;        /* The query defined by zFormat and "..." */
  int nCol;                   /* Number of columns in the result set */
  int i;                      /* Loop counter */

  /* Prepare the query defined by zFormat and "..." */
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  pStmt = db_vprepare(zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  nCol = sqlite3_column_count(pStmt);

  /* Compute a hash over the result of the query */
  while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
    for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
      switch( sqlite3_column_type(pStmt,i) ){
        case SQLITE_NULL: {
          hash_step((const unsigned char*)"0",1);
          if( g.fDebug & DEBUG_FULLTRACE ) fprintf(stderr, "NULL\n");
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_INTEGER: {
          sqlite3_uint64 u;
          int j;
          unsigned char x[8];
          sqlite3_int64 v = sqlite3_column_int64(pStmt,i);
          memcpy(&u, &v, 8);
          for(j=7; j>=0; j--){
            x[j] = u & 0xff;
            u >>= 8;
          }
          hash_step((const unsigned char*)"1",1);
          hash_step(x,8);
          if( g.fDebug & DEBUG_FULLTRACE ){
            fprintf(stderr, "INT %s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,i));
          }
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_FLOAT: {
          sqlite3_uint64 u;
          int j;
          unsigned char x[8];
          double r = sqlite3_column_double(pStmt,i);
          memcpy(&u, &r, 8);
          for(j=7; j>=0; j--){
            x[j] = u & 0xff;
            u >>= 8;
          }
          hash_step((const unsigned char*)"2",1);
          hash_step(x,8);
          if( g.fDebug & DEBUG_FULLTRACE ){
            fprintf(stderr, "FLOAT %s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,i));
          }
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_TEXT: {
          int n = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, i);
          const unsigned char *z = sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, i);
          hash_step((const unsigned char*)"3", 1);
          hash_step(z, n);
          if( g.fDebug & DEBUG_FULLTRACE ){
            fprintf(stderr, "TEXT '%s'\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,i));
          }
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_BLOB: {
          int n = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, i);
          const unsigned char *z = sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, i);
          hash_step((const unsigned char*)"4", 1);
          hash_step(z, n);
          if( g.fDebug & DEBUG_FULLTRACE ){
            fprintf(stderr, "BLOB (%d bytes)\n", n);
          }
          break;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
}


/*
** Print sketchy documentation for this utility program
*/
static void showHelp(void){
  printf("Usage: %s [options] FILE ...\n", g.zArgv0);
  printf(
"Compute a SHA1 hash on the content of database FILE.  System tables such as\n"
"sqlite_stat1, sqlite_stat4, and sqlite_sequence are omitted from the hash.\n"
"Options:\n"
"   --debug N           Set debugging flags to N (experts only)\n"
"   --like PATTERN      Only hash tables whose name is LIKE the pattern\n"
"   --schema-only       Only hash the schema - omit table content\n"
"   --without-schema    Only hash table content - omit the schema\n"
  );
}

int main(int argc, char **argv){
  const char *zDb = 0;         /* Name of the database currently being hashed */
  int i;                       /* Loop counter */
  int rc;                      /* Subroutine return code */
  char *zErrMsg;               /* Error message when opening database */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;         /* An SQLite query */
  const char *zLike = 0;       /* LIKE pattern of tables to hash */
  int omitSchema = 0;          /* True to compute hash on content only */
  int omitContent = 0;         /* True to compute hash on schema only */
  int nFile = 0;               /* Number of input filenames seen */

  g.zArgv0 = argv[0];
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_SINGLETHREAD);
  for(i=1; i<argc; i++){
    const char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]=='-' ){
      z++;
      if( z[0]=='-' ) z++;
      if( strcmp(z,"debug")==0 ){
        if( i==argc-1 ) cmdlineError("missing argument to %s", argv[i]);
        g.fDebug = strtol(argv[++i], 0, 0);
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"help")==0 ){
        showHelp();
        return 0;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"like")==0 ){
        if( i==argc-1 ) cmdlineError("missing argument to %s", argv[i]);
        if( zLike!=0 ) cmdlineError("only one --like allowed");
        zLike = argv[++i];
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"schema-only")==0 ){
        omitContent = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"without-schema")==0 ){
        omitSchema = 1;
      }else
      {
        cmdlineError("unknown option: %s", argv[i]);
      }
    }else{
      nFile++;
      if( nFile<i ) argv[nFile] = argv[i];
    }
  }
  if( nFile==0 ){
    cmdlineError("no input files specified - nothing to do");
  }
  if( omitSchema && omitContent ){
    cmdlineError("only one of --without-schema and --omit-schema allowed");
  }
  if( zLike==0 ) zLike = "%";

  for(i=1; i<=nFile; i++){
    static const int openFlags = 
       SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE |     /* Read/write so hot journals can recover */
       SQLITE_OPEN_URI
    ;
    zDb = argv[i];
    rc = sqlite3_open_v2(zDb, &g.db, openFlags, 0);
    if( rc ){
      fprintf(stderr, "cannot open database file '%s'\n", zDb);
      continue;
    }
    rc = sqlite3_exec(g.db, "SELECT * FROM sqlite_master", 0, 0, &zErrMsg);
    if( rc || zErrMsg ){
      sqlite3_close(g.db);
      g.db = 0;
      fprintf(stderr, "'%s' is not a valid SQLite database\n", zDb);
      continue;
    }

    /* Start the hash */
    hash_init();
  
    /* Hash table content */
    if( !omitContent ){
      pStmt = db_prepare(
        "SELECT name FROM sqlite_master\n"
        " WHERE type='table' AND sql NOT LIKE 'CREATE VIRTUAL%%'\n"
        "   AND name NOT LIKE 'sqlite_%%'\n"
        "   AND name LIKE '%q'\n"
        " ORDER BY name COLLATE nocase;\n",
        zLike
      );
      while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
        /* We want rows of the table to be hashed in PRIMARY KEY order.
        ** Technically, an ORDER BY clause is required to guarantee that
        ** order.  However, though not guaranteed by the documentation, every
        ** historical version of SQLite has always output rows in PRIMARY KEY
        ** order when there is no WHERE or GROUP BY clause, so the ORDER BY
        ** can be safely omitted. */
        hash_one_query("SELECT * FROM \"%w\"", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,0));
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }
  
    /* Hash the database schema */
    if( !omitSchema ){
      hash_one_query(
         "SELECT type, name, tbl_name, sql FROM sqlite_master\n"
         " WHERE tbl_name LIKE '%q'\n"
         " ORDER BY name COLLATE nocase;\n",
         zLike
      );
    }
  
    /* Finish and output the hash and close the database connection. */
    hash_finish(zDb);
    sqlite3_close(g.db);
  }
  return 0;
}