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/*
** 2006 Oct 10
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
******************************************************************************
**
** This is an SQLite module implementing full-text search.
*/

/*
** The code in this file is only compiled if:
**
**     * The FTS3 module is being built as an extension
**       (in which case SQLITE_CORE is not defined), or
**
**     * The FTS3 module is being built into the core of
**       SQLite (in which case SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3 is defined).
*/

/* The full-text index is stored in a series of b+tree (-like)
** structures called segments which map terms to doclists.  The
** structures are like b+trees in layout, but are constructed from the
** bottom up in optimal fashion and are not updatable.  Since trees
** are built from the bottom up, things will be described from the
** bottom up.
**
**
**** Varints ****
** The basic unit of encoding is a variable-length integer called a
** varint.  We encode variable-length integers in little-endian order
** using seven bits * per byte as follows:
**
** KEY:
**         A = 0xxxxxxx    7 bits of data and one flag bit
**         B = 1xxxxxxx    7 bits of data and one flag bit
**
**  7 bits - A
** 14 bits - BA
** 21 bits - BBA
** and so on.
**
** This is similar in concept to how sqlite encodes "varints" but
** the encoding is not the same.  SQLite varints are big-endian
** are are limited to 9 bytes in length whereas FTS3 varints are
** little-endian and can be up to 10 bytes in length (in theory).
**
** Example encodings:
**
**     1:    0x01
**   127:    0x7f
**   128:    0x81 0x00
**
**
**** Document lists ****
** A doclist (document list) holds a docid-sorted list of hits for a
** given term.  Doclists hold docids and associated token positions.
** A docid is the unique integer identifier for a single document.
** A position is the index of a word within the document.  The first 
** word of the document has a position of 0.
**
** FTS3 used to optionally store character offsets using a compile-time
** option.  But that functionality is no longer supported.
**
** A doclist is stored like this:
**
** array {
**   varint docid;
**   array {                (position list for column 0)
**     varint position;     (2 more than the delta from previous position)
**   }
**   array {
**     varint POS_COLUMN;   (marks start of position list for new column)
**     varint column;       (index of new column)
**     array {
**       varint position;   (2 more than the delta from previous position)
**     }
**   }
**   varint POS_END;        (marks end of positions for this document.
** }
**
** Here, array { X } means zero or more occurrences of X, adjacent in
** memory.  A "position" is an index of a token in the token stream
** generated by the tokenizer. Note that POS_END and POS_COLUMN occur 
** in the same logical place as the position element, and act as sentinals
** ending a position list array.  POS_END is 0.  POS_COLUMN is 1.
** The positions numbers are not stored literally but rather as two more
** than the difference from the prior position, or the just the position plus
** 2 for the first position.  Example:
**
**   label:       A B C D E  F  G H   I  J K
**   value:     123 5 9 1 1 14 35 0 234 72 0
**
** The 123 value is the first docid.  For column zero in this document
** there are two matches at positions 3 and 10 (5-2 and 9-2+3).  The 1
** at D signals the start of a new column; the 1 at E indicates that the
** new column is column number 1.  There are two positions at 12 and 45
** (14-2 and 35-2+12).  The 0 at H indicate the end-of-document.  The
** 234 at I is the next docid.  It has one position 72 (72-2) and then
** terminates with the 0 at K.
**
** A "position-list" is the list of positions for multiple columns for
** a single docid.  A "column-list" is the set of positions for a single
** column.  Hence, a position-list consists of one or more column-lists,
** a document record consists of a docid followed by a position-list and
** a doclist consists of one or more document records.
**
** A bare doclist omits the position information, becoming an 
** array of varint-encoded docids.
**
**** Segment leaf nodes ****
** Segment leaf nodes store terms and doclists, ordered by term.  Leaf
** nodes are written using LeafWriter, and read using LeafReader (to
** iterate through a single leaf node's data) and LeavesReader (to
** iterate through a segment's entire leaf layer).  Leaf nodes have
** the format:
**
** varint iHeight;             (height from leaf level, always 0)
** varint nTerm;               (length of first term)
** char pTerm[nTerm];          (content of first term)
** varint nDoclist;            (length of term's associated doclist)
** char pDoclist[nDoclist];    (content of doclist)
** array {
**                             (further terms are delta-encoded)
**   varint nPrefix;           (length of prefix shared with previous term)
**   varint nSuffix;           (length of unshared suffix)
**   char pTermSuffix[nSuffix];(unshared suffix of next term)
**   varint nDoclist;          (length of term's associated doclist)
**   char pDoclist[nDoclist];  (content of doclist)
** }
**
** Here, array { X } means zero or more occurrences of X, adjacent in
** memory.
**
** Leaf nodes are broken into blocks which are stored contiguously in
** the %_segments table in sorted order.  This means that when the end
** of a node is reached, the next term is in the node with the next
** greater node id.
**
** New data is spilled to a new leaf node when the current node
** exceeds LEAF_MAX bytes (default 2048).  New data which itself is
** larger than STANDALONE_MIN (default 1024) is placed in a standalone
** node (a leaf node with a single term and doclist).  The goal of
** these settings is to pack together groups of small doclists while
** making it efficient to directly access large doclists.  The
** assumption is that large doclists represent terms which are more
** likely to be query targets.
**
** TODO(shess) It may be useful for blocking decisions to be more
** dynamic.  For instance, it may make more sense to have a 2.5k leaf
** node rather than splitting into 2k and .5k nodes.  My intuition is
** that this might extend through 2x or 4x the pagesize.
**
**
**** Segment interior nodes ****
** Segment interior nodes store blockids for subtree nodes and terms
** to describe what data is stored by the each subtree.  Interior
** nodes are written using InteriorWriter, and read using
** InteriorReader.  InteriorWriters are created as needed when
** SegmentWriter creates new leaf nodes, or when an interior node
** itself grows too big and must be split.  The format of interior
** nodes:
**
** varint iHeight;           (height from leaf level, always >0)
** varint iBlockid;          (block id of node's leftmost subtree)
** optional {
**   varint nTerm;           (length of first term)
**   char pTerm[nTerm];      (content of first term)
**   array {
**                                (further terms are delta-encoded)
**     varint nPrefix;            (length of shared prefix with previous term)
**     varint nSuffix;            (length of unshared suffix)
**     char pTermSuffix[nSuffix]; (unshared suffix of next term)
**   }
** }
**
** Here, optional { X } means an optional element, while array { X }
** means zero or more occurrences of X, adjacent in memory.
**
** An interior node encodes n terms separating n+1 subtrees.  The
** subtree blocks are contiguous, so only the first subtree's blockid
** is encoded.  The subtree at iBlockid will contain all terms less
** than the first term encoded (or all terms if no term is encoded).
** Otherwise, for terms greater than or equal to pTerm[i] but less
** than pTerm[i+1], the subtree for that term will be rooted at
** iBlockid+i.  Interior nodes only store enough term data to
** distinguish adjacent children (if the rightmost term of the left
** child is "something", and the leftmost term of the right child is
** "wicked", only "w" is stored).
**
** New data is spilled to a new interior node at the same height when
** the current node exceeds INTERIOR_MAX bytes (default 2048).
** INTERIOR_MIN_TERMS (default 7) keeps large terms from monopolizing
** interior nodes and making the tree too skinny.  The interior nodes
** at a given height are naturally tracked by interior nodes at
** height+1, and so on.
**
**
**** Segment directory ****
** The segment directory in table %_segdir stores meta-information for
** merging and deleting segments, and also the root node of the
** segment's tree.
**
** The root node is the top node of the segment's tree after encoding
** the entire segment, restricted to ROOT_MAX bytes (default 1024).
** This could be either a leaf node or an interior node.  If the top
** node requires more than ROOT_MAX bytes, it is flushed to %_segments
** and a new root interior node is generated (which should always fit
** within ROOT_MAX because it only needs space for 2 varints, the
** height and the blockid of the previous root).
**
** The meta-information in the segment directory is:
**   level               - segment level (see below)
**   idx                 - index within level
**                       - (level,idx uniquely identify a segment)
**   start_block         - first leaf node
**   leaves_end_block    - last leaf node
**   end_block           - last block (including interior nodes)
**   root                - contents of root node
**
** If the root node is a leaf node, then start_block,
** leaves_end_block, and end_block are all 0.
**
**
**** Segment merging ****
** To amortize update costs, segments are grouped into levels and
** merged in batches.  Each increase in level represents exponentially
** more documents.
**
** New documents (actually, document updates) are tokenized and
** written individually (using LeafWriter) to a level 0 segment, with
** incrementing idx.  When idx reaches MERGE_COUNT (default 16), all
** level 0 segments are merged into a single level 1 segment.  Level 1
** is populated like level 0, and eventually MERGE_COUNT level 1
** segments are merged to a single level 2 segment (representing
** MERGE_COUNT^2 updates), and so on.
**
** A segment merge traverses all segments at a given level in
** parallel, performing a straightforward sorted merge.  Since segment
** leaf nodes are written in to the %_segments table in order, this
** merge traverses the underlying sqlite disk structures efficiently.
** After the merge, all segment blocks from the merged level are
** deleted.
**
** MERGE_COUNT controls how often we merge segments.  16 seems to be
** somewhat of a sweet spot for insertion performance.  32 and 64 show
** very similar performance numbers to 16 on insertion, though they're
** a tiny bit slower (perhaps due to more overhead in merge-time
** sorting).  8 is about 20% slower than 16, 4 about 50% slower than
** 16, 2 about 66% slower than 16.
**
** At query time, high MERGE_COUNT increases the number of segments
** which need to be scanned and merged.  For instance, with 100k docs
** inserted:
**
**    MERGE_COUNT   segments
**       16           25
**        8           12
**        4           10
**        2            6
**
** This appears to have only a moderate impact on queries for very
** frequent terms (which are somewhat dominated by segment merge
** costs), and infrequent and non-existent terms still seem to be fast
** even with many segments.
**
** TODO(shess) That said, it would be nice to have a better query-side
** argument for MERGE_COUNT of 16.  Also, it is possible/likely that
** optimizations to things like doclist merging will swing the sweet
** spot around.
**
**
**
**** Handling of deletions and updates ****
** Since we're using a segmented structure, with no docid-oriented
** index into the term index, we clearly cannot simply update the term
** index when a document is deleted or updated.  For deletions, we
** write an empty doclist (varint(docid) varint(POS_END)), for updates
** we simply write the new doclist.  Segment merges overwrite older
** data for a particular docid with newer data, so deletes or updates
** will eventually overtake the earlier data and knock it out.  The
** query logic likewise merges doclists so that newer data knocks out
** older data.
**
** TODO(shess) Provide a VACUUM type operation to clear out all
** deletions and duplications.  This would basically be a forced merge
** into a single segment.
*/

#include "fts3Int.h"
#if !defined(SQLITE_CORE) || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3)

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3) && !defined(SQLITE_CORE)
# define SQLITE_CORE 1
#endif

#include <assert.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdarg.h>

#include "fts3.h"
#ifndef SQLITE_CORE 
# include "sqlite3ext.h"
  SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT1
#endif

static int fts3EvalNext(Fts3Cursor *pCsr);
static int fts3EvalStart(Fts3Cursor *pCsr);
static int fts3TermSegReaderCursor(
    Fts3Cursor *, const char *, int, int, Fts3MultiSegReader **);

/* 
** Write a 64-bit variable-length integer to memory starting at p[0].
** The length of data written will be between 1 and FTS3_VARINT_MAX bytes.
** The number of bytes written is returned.
*/
int sqlite3Fts3PutVarint(char *p, sqlite_int64 v){
  unsigned char *q = (unsigned char *) p;
  sqlite_uint64 vu = v;
  do{
    *q++ = (unsigned char) ((vu & 0x7f) | 0x80);
    vu >>= 7;
  }while( vu!=0 );
  q[-1] &= 0x7f;  /* turn off high bit in final byte */
  assert( q - (unsigned char *)p <= FTS3_VARINT_MAX );
  return (int) (q - (unsigned char *)p);
}

/* 
** Read a 64-bit variable-length integer from memory starting at p[0].
** Return the number of bytes read, or 0 on error.
** The value is stored in *v.
*/
int sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(const char *p, sqlite_int64 *v){
  const unsigned char *q = (const unsigned char *) p;
  sqlite_uint64 x = 0, y = 1;
  while( (*q&0x80)==0x80 && q-(unsigned char *)p<FTS3_VARINT_MAX ){
    x += y * (*q++ & 0x7f);
    y <<= 7;
  }
  x += y * (*q++);
  *v = (sqlite_int64) x;
  return (int) (q - (unsigned char *)p);
}

/*
** Similar to sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(), except that the output is truncated to a
** 32-bit integer before it is returned.
*/
int sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(const char *p, int *pi){
 sqlite_int64 i;
 int ret = sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(p, &i);
 *pi = (int) i;
 return ret;
}

/*
** Return the number of bytes required to encode v as a varint
*/
int sqlite3Fts3VarintLen(sqlite3_uint64 v){
  int i = 0;
  do{
    i++;
    v >>= 7;
  }while( v!=0 );
  return i;
}

/*
** Convert an SQL-style quoted string into a normal string by removing
** the quote characters.  The conversion is done in-place.  If the
** input does not begin with a quote character, then this routine
** is a no-op.
**
** Examples:
**
**     "abc"   becomes   abc
**     'xyz'   becomes   xyz
**     [pqr]   becomes   pqr
**     `mno`   becomes   mno
**
*/
void sqlite3Fts3Dequote(char *z){
  char quote;                     /* Quote character (if any ) */

  quote = z[0];
  if( quote=='[' || quote=='\'' || quote=='"' || quote=='`' ){
    int iIn = 1;                  /* Index of next byte to read from input */
    int iOut = 0;                 /* Index of next byte to write to output */

    /* If the first byte was a '[', then the close-quote character is a ']' */
    if( quote=='[' ) quote = ']';  

    while( ALWAYS(z[iIn]) ){
      if( z[iIn]==quote ){
        if( z[iIn+1]!=quote ) break;
        z[iOut++] = quote;
        iIn += 2;
      }else{
        z[iOut++] = z[iIn++];
      }
    }
    z[iOut] = '\0';
  }
}

/*
** Read a single varint from the doclist at *pp and advance *pp to point
** to the first byte past the end of the varint.  Add the value of the varint
** to *pVal.
*/
static void fts3GetDeltaVarint(char **pp, sqlite3_int64 *pVal){
  sqlite3_int64 iVal;
  *pp += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(*pp, &iVal);
  *pVal += iVal;
}

/*
** When this function is called, *pp points to the first byte following a
** varint that is part of a doclist (or position-list, or any other list
** of varints). This function moves *pp to point to the start of that varint,
** and sets *pVal by the varint value.
**
** Argument pStart points to the first byte of the doclist that the
** varint is part of.
*/
static void fts3GetReverseVarint(
  char **pp, 
  char *pStart, 
  sqlite3_int64 *pVal
){
  sqlite3_int64 iVal;
  char *p = *pp;

  /* Pointer p now points at the first byte past the varint we are 
  ** interested in. So, unless the doclist is corrupt, the 0x80 bit is
  ** clear on character p[-1]. */
  for(p = (*pp)-2; p>=pStart && *p&0x80; p--);
  p++;
  *pp = p;

  sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(p, &iVal);
  *pVal = iVal;
}

/*
** The xDisconnect() virtual table method.
*/
static int fts3DisconnectMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab){
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table *)pVtab;
  int i;

  assert( p->nPendingData==0 );
  assert( p->pSegments==0 );

  /* Free any prepared statements held */
  for(i=0; i<SizeofArray(p->aStmt); i++){
    sqlite3_finalize(p->aStmt[i]);
  }
  sqlite3_free(p->zSegmentsTbl);
  sqlite3_free(p->zReadExprlist);
  sqlite3_free(p->zWriteExprlist);

  /* Invoke the tokenizer destructor to free the tokenizer. */
  p->pTokenizer->pModule->xDestroy(p->pTokenizer);

  sqlite3_free(p);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Construct one or more SQL statements from the format string given
** and then evaluate those statements. The success code is written
** into *pRc.
**
** If *pRc is initially non-zero then this routine is a no-op.
*/
static void fts3DbExec(
  int *pRc,              /* Success code */
  sqlite3 *db,           /* Database in which to run SQL */
  const char *zFormat,   /* Format string for SQL */
  ...                    /* Arguments to the format string */
){
  va_list ap;
  char *zSql;
  if( *pRc ) return;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  zSql = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  if( zSql==0 ){
    *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }else{
    *pRc = sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
  }
}

/*
** The xDestroy() virtual table method.
*/
static int fts3DestroyMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;              /* Return code */
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table *)pVtab;
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;

  /* Drop the shadow tables */
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS %Q.'%q_content'", p->zDb, p->zName);
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS %Q.'%q_segments'", p->zDb,p->zName);
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS %Q.'%q_segdir'", p->zDb, p->zName);
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS %Q.'%q_docsize'", p->zDb, p->zName);
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS %Q.'%q_stat'", p->zDb, p->zName);

  /* If everything has worked, invoke fts3DisconnectMethod() to free the
  ** memory associated with the Fts3Table structure and return SQLITE_OK.
  ** Otherwise, return an SQLite error code.
  */
  return (rc==SQLITE_OK ? fts3DisconnectMethod(pVtab) : rc);
}


/*
** Invoke sqlite3_declare_vtab() to declare the schema for the FTS3 table
** passed as the first argument. This is done as part of the xConnect()
** and xCreate() methods.
**
** If *pRc is non-zero when this function is called, it is a no-op. 
** Otherwise, if an error occurs, an SQLite error code is stored in *pRc
** before returning.
*/
static void fts3DeclareVtab(int *pRc, Fts3Table *p){
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int i;                        /* Iterator variable */
    int rc;                       /* Return code */
    char *zSql;                   /* SQL statement passed to declare_vtab() */
    char *zCols;                  /* List of user defined columns */

    sqlite3_vtab_config(p->db, SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT, 1);

    /* Create a list of user columns for the virtual table */
    zCols = sqlite3_mprintf("%Q, ", p->azColumn[0]);
    for(i=1; zCols && i<p->nColumn; i++){
      zCols = sqlite3_mprintf("%z%Q, ", zCols, p->azColumn[i]);
    }

    /* Create the whole "CREATE TABLE" statement to pass to SQLite */
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
        "CREATE TABLE x(%s %Q HIDDEN, docid HIDDEN)", zCols, p->zName
    );
    if( !zCols || !zSql ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3_declare_vtab(p->db, zSql);
    }

    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    sqlite3_free(zCols);
    *pRc = rc;
  }
}

/*
** Create the backing store tables (%_content, %_segments and %_segdir)
** required by the FTS3 table passed as the only argument. This is done
** as part of the vtab xCreate() method.
**
** If the p->bHasDocsize boolean is true (indicating that this is an
** FTS4 table, not an FTS3 table) then also create the %_docsize and
** %_stat tables required by FTS4.
*/
static int fts3CreateTables(Fts3Table *p){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  int i;                          /* Iterator variable */
  char *zContentCols;             /* Columns of %_content table */
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;            /* The database connection */

  /* Create a list of user columns for the content table */
  zContentCols = sqlite3_mprintf("docid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY");
  for(i=0; zContentCols && i<p->nColumn; i++){
    char *z = p->azColumn[i];
    zContentCols = sqlite3_mprintf("%z, 'c%d%q'", zContentCols, i, z);
  }
  if( zContentCols==0 ) rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;

  /* Create the content table */
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, 
     "CREATE TABLE %Q.'%q_content'(%s)",
     p->zDb, p->zName, zContentCols
  );
  sqlite3_free(zContentCols);
  /* Create other tables */
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, 
      "CREATE TABLE %Q.'%q_segments'(blockid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, block BLOB);",
      p->zDb, p->zName
  );
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db, 
      "CREATE TABLE %Q.'%q_segdir'("
        "level INTEGER,"
        "idx INTEGER,"
        "start_block INTEGER,"
        "leaves_end_block INTEGER,"
        "end_block INTEGER,"
        "root BLOB,"
        "PRIMARY KEY(level, idx)"
      ");",
      p->zDb, p->zName
  );
  if( p->bHasDocsize ){
    fts3DbExec(&rc, db, 
        "CREATE TABLE %Q.'%q_docsize'(docid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, size BLOB);",
        p->zDb, p->zName
    );
  }
  if( p->bHasStat ){
    fts3DbExec(&rc, db, 
        "CREATE TABLE %Q.'%q_stat'(id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, value BLOB);",
        p->zDb, p->zName
    );
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Store the current database page-size in bytes in p->nPgsz.
**
** If *pRc is non-zero when this function is called, it is a no-op. 
** Otherwise, if an error occurs, an SQLite error code is stored in *pRc
** before returning.
*/
static void fts3DatabasePageSize(int *pRc, Fts3Table *p){
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int rc;                       /* Return code */
    char *zSql;                   /* SQL text "PRAGMA %Q.page_size" */
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;          /* Compiled "PRAGMA %Q.page_size" statement */
  
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA %Q.page_size", p->zDb);
    if( !zSql ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3_prepare(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        sqlite3_step(pStmt);
        p->nPgsz = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
        rc = sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      }else if( rc==SQLITE_AUTH ){
        p->nPgsz = 1024;
        rc = SQLITE_OK;
      }
    }
    assert( p->nPgsz>0 || rc!=SQLITE_OK );
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    *pRc = rc;
  }
}

/*
** "Special" FTS4 arguments are column specifications of the following form:
**
**   <key> = <value>
**
** There may not be whitespace surrounding the "=" character. The <value> 
** term may be quoted, but the <key> may not.
*/
static int fts3IsSpecialColumn(
  const char *z, 
  int *pnKey,
  char **pzValue
){
  char *zValue;
  const char *zCsr = z;

  while( *zCsr!='=' ){
    if( *zCsr=='\0' ) return 0;
    zCsr++;
  }

  *pnKey = (int)(zCsr-z);
  zValue = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", &zCsr[1]);
  if( zValue ){
    sqlite3Fts3Dequote(zValue);
  }
  *pzValue = zValue;
  return 1;
}

/*
** Append the output of a printf() style formatting to an existing string.
*/
static void fts3Appendf(
  int *pRc,                       /* IN/OUT: Error code */
  char **pz,                      /* IN/OUT: Pointer to string buffer */
  const char *zFormat,            /* Printf format string to append */
  ...                             /* Arguments for printf format string */
){
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    va_list ap;
    char *z;
    va_start(ap, zFormat);
    z = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFormat, ap);
    if( z && *pz ){
      char *z2 = sqlite3_mprintf("%s%s", *pz, z);
      sqlite3_free(z);
      z = z2;
    }
    if( z==0 ) *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    sqlite3_free(*pz);
    *pz = z;
  }
}

/*
** Return a copy of input string zInput enclosed in double-quotes (") and
** with all double quote characters escaped. For example:
**
**     fts3QuoteId("un \"zip\"")   ->    "un \"\"zip\"\""
**
** The pointer returned points to memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc(). It
** is the callers responsibility to call sqlite3_free() to release this
** memory.
*/
static char *fts3QuoteId(char const *zInput){
  int nRet;
  char *zRet;
  nRet = 2 + strlen(zInput)*2 + 1;
  zRet = sqlite3_malloc(nRet);
  if( zRet ){
    int i;
    char *z = zRet;
    *(z++) = '"';
    for(i=0; zInput[i]; i++){
      if( zInput[i]=='"' ) *(z++) = '"';
      *(z++) = zInput[i];
    }
    *(z++) = '"';
    *(z++) = '\0';
  }
  return zRet;
}

/*
** Return a list of comma separated SQL expressions that could be used
** in a SELECT statement such as the following:
**
**     SELECT <list of expressions> FROM %_content AS x ...
**
** to return the docid, followed by each column of text data in order
** from left to write. If parameter zFunc is not NULL, then instead of
** being returned directly each column of text data is passed to an SQL
** function named zFunc first. For example, if zFunc is "unzip" and the
** table has the three user-defined columns "a", "b", and "c", the following
** string is returned:
**
**     "docid, unzip(x.'a'), unzip(x.'b'), unzip(x.'c')"
**
** The pointer returned points to a buffer allocated by sqlite3_malloc(). It
** is the responsibility of the caller to eventually free it.
**
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op (and
** a NULL pointer is returned). Otherwise, if an OOM error is encountered
** by this function, NULL is returned and *pRc is set to SQLITE_NOMEM. If
** no error occurs, *pRc is left unmodified.
*/
static char *fts3ReadExprList(Fts3Table *p, const char *zFunc, int *pRc){
  char *zRet = 0;
  char *zFree = 0;
  char *zFunction;
  int i;

  if( !zFunc ){
    zFunction = "";
  }else{
    zFree = zFunction = fts3QuoteId(zFunc);
  }
  fts3Appendf(pRc, &zRet, "docid");
  for(i=0; i<p->nColumn; i++){
    fts3Appendf(pRc, &zRet, ",%s(x.'c%d%q')", zFunction, i, p->azColumn[i]);
  }
  sqlite3_free(zFree);
  return zRet;
}

/*
** Return a list of N comma separated question marks, where N is the number
** of columns in the %_content table (one for the docid plus one for each
** user-defined text column).
**
** If argument zFunc is not NULL, then all but the first question mark
** is preceded by zFunc and an open bracket, and followed by a closed
** bracket. For example, if zFunc is "zip" and the FTS3 table has three 
** user-defined text columns, the following string is returned:
**
**     "?, zip(?), zip(?), zip(?)"
**
** The pointer returned points to a buffer allocated by sqlite3_malloc(). It
** is the responsibility of the caller to eventually free it.
**
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op (and
** a NULL pointer is returned). Otherwise, if an OOM error is encountered
** by this function, NULL is returned and *pRc is set to SQLITE_NOMEM. If
** no error occurs, *pRc is left unmodified.
*/
static char *fts3WriteExprList(Fts3Table *p, const char *zFunc, int *pRc){
  char *zRet = 0;
  char *zFree = 0;
  char *zFunction;
  int i;

  if( !zFunc ){
    zFunction = "";
  }else{
    zFree = zFunction = fts3QuoteId(zFunc);
  }
  fts3Appendf(pRc, &zRet, "?");
  for(i=0; i<p->nColumn; i++){
    fts3Appendf(pRc, &zRet, ",%s(?)", zFunction);
  }
  sqlite3_free(zFree);
  return zRet;
}

/*
** This function interprets the string at (*pp) as a non-negative integer
** value. It reads the integer and sets *pnOut to the value read, then 
** sets *pp to point to the byte immediately following the last byte of
** the integer value.
**
** Only decimal digits ('0'..'9') may be part of an integer value. 
**
** If *pp does not being with a decimal digit SQLITE_ERROR is returned and
** the output value undefined. Otherwise SQLITE_OK is returned.
**
** This function is used when parsing the "prefix=" FTS4 parameter.
*/
static int fts3GobbleInt(const char **pp, int *pnOut){
  const char *p = *pp;            /* Iterator pointer */
  int nInt = 0;                   /* Output value */

  for(p=*pp; p[0]>='0' && p[0]<='9'; p++){
    nInt = nInt * 10 + (p[0] - '0');
  }
  if( p==*pp ) return SQLITE_ERROR;
  *pnOut = nInt;
  *pp = p;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This function is called to allocate an array of Fts3Index structures
** representing the indexes maintained by the current FTS table. FTS tables
** always maintain the main "terms" index, but may also maintain one or
** more "prefix" indexes, depending on the value of the "prefix=" parameter
** (if any) specified as part of the CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement.
**
** Argument zParam is passed the value of the "prefix=" option if one was
** specified, or NULL otherwise.
**
** If no error occurs, SQLITE_OK is returned and *apIndex set to point to
** the allocated array. *pnIndex is set to the number of elements in the
** array. If an error does occur, an SQLite error code is returned.
**
** Regardless of whether or not an error is returned, it is the responsibility
** of the caller to call sqlite3_free() on the output array to free it.
*/
static int fts3PrefixParameter(
  const char *zParam,             /* ABC in prefix=ABC parameter to parse */
  int *pnIndex,                   /* OUT: size of *apIndex[] array */
  struct Fts3Index **apIndex      /* OUT: Array of indexes for this table */
){
  struct Fts3Index *aIndex;       /* Allocated array */
  int nIndex = 1;                 /* Number of entries in array */

  if( zParam && zParam[0] ){
    const char *p;
    nIndex++;
    for(p=zParam; *p; p++){
      if( *p==',' ) nIndex++;
    }
  }

  aIndex = sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(struct Fts3Index) * nIndex);
  *apIndex = aIndex;
  *pnIndex = nIndex;
  if( !aIndex ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }

  memset(aIndex, 0, sizeof(struct Fts3Index) * nIndex);
  if( zParam ){
    const char *p = zParam;
    int i;
    for(i=1; i<nIndex; i++){
      int nPrefix;
      if( fts3GobbleInt(&p, &nPrefix) ) return SQLITE_ERROR;
      aIndex[i].nPrefix = nPrefix;
      p++;
    }
  }

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This function is the implementation of both the xConnect and xCreate
** methods of the FTS3 virtual table.
**
** The argv[] array contains the following:
**
**   argv[0]   -> module name  ("fts3" or "fts4")
**   argv[1]   -> database name
**   argv[2]   -> table name
**   argv[...] -> "column name" and other module argument fields.
*/
static int fts3InitVtab(
  int isCreate,                   /* True for xCreate, false for xConnect */
  sqlite3 *db,                    /* The SQLite database connection */
  void *pAux,                     /* Hash table containing tokenizers */
  int argc,                       /* Number of elements in argv array */
  const char * const *argv,       /* xCreate/xConnect argument array */
  sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab,          /* Write the resulting vtab structure here */
  char **pzErr                    /* Write any error message here */
){
  Fts3Hash *pHash = (Fts3Hash *)pAux;
  Fts3Table *p = 0;               /* Pointer to allocated vtab */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  int i;                          /* Iterator variable */
  int nByte;                      /* Size of allocation used for *p */
  int iCol;                       /* Column index */
  int nString = 0;                /* Bytes required to hold all column names */
  int nCol = 0;                   /* Number of columns in the FTS table */
  char *zCsr;                     /* Space for holding column names */
  int nDb;                        /* Bytes required to hold database name */
  int nName;                      /* Bytes required to hold table name */
  int isFts4 = (argv[0][3]=='4'); /* True for FTS4, false for FTS3 */
  const char **aCol;              /* Array of column names */
  sqlite3_tokenizer *pTokenizer = 0;        /* Tokenizer for this table */

  int nIndex;                     /* Size of aIndex[] array */
  struct Fts3Index *aIndex = 0;   /* Array of indexes for this table */

  /* The results of parsing supported FTS4 key=value options: */
  int bNoDocsize = 0;             /* True to omit %_docsize table */
  int bDescIdx = 0;               /* True to store descending indexes */
  char *zPrefix = 0;              /* Prefix parameter value (or NULL) */
  char *zCompress = 0;            /* compress=? parameter (or NULL) */
  char *zUncompress = 0;          /* uncompress=? parameter (or NULL) */

  assert( strlen(argv[0])==4 );
  assert( (sqlite3_strnicmp(argv[0], "fts4", 4)==0 && isFts4)
       || (sqlite3_strnicmp(argv[0], "fts3", 4)==0 && !isFts4)
  );

  nDb = (int)strlen(argv[1]) + 1;
  nName = (int)strlen(argv[2]) + 1;

  aCol = (const char **)sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(const char *) * (argc-2) );
  if( !aCol ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  memset((void *)aCol, 0, sizeof(const char *) * (argc-2));

  /* Loop through all of the arguments passed by the user to the FTS3/4
  ** module (i.e. all the column names and special arguments). This loop
  ** does the following:
  **
  **   + Figures out the number of columns the FTSX table will have, and
  **     the number of bytes of space that must be allocated to store copies
  **     of the column names.
  **
  **   + If there is a tokenizer specification included in the arguments,
  **     initializes the tokenizer pTokenizer.
  */
  for(i=3; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<argc; i++){
    char const *z = argv[i];
    int nKey;
    char *zVal;

    /* Check if this is a tokenizer specification */
    if( !pTokenizer 
     && strlen(z)>8
     && 0==sqlite3_strnicmp(z, "tokenize", 8) 
     && 0==sqlite3Fts3IsIdChar(z[8])
    ){
      rc = sqlite3Fts3InitTokenizer(pHash, &z[9], &pTokenizer, pzErr);
    }

    /* Check if it is an FTS4 special argument. */
    else if( isFts4 && fts3IsSpecialColumn(z, &nKey, &zVal) ){
      struct Fts4Option {
        const char *zOpt;
        int nOpt;
        char **pzVar;
      } aFts4Opt[] = {
        { "matchinfo",   9, 0 },            /* 0 -> MATCHINFO */
        { "prefix",      6, 0 },            /* 1 -> PREFIX */
        { "compress",    8, 0 },            /* 2 -> COMPRESS */
        { "uncompress", 10, 0 },            /* 3 -> UNCOMPRESS */
        { "order",       5, 0 }             /* 4 -> ORDER */
      };

      int iOpt;
      if( !zVal ){
        rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
      }else{
        for(iOpt=0; iOpt<SizeofArray(aFts4Opt); iOpt++){
          struct Fts4Option *pOp = &aFts4Opt[iOpt];
          if( nKey==pOp->nOpt && !sqlite3_strnicmp(z, pOp->zOpt, pOp->nOpt) ){
            break;
          }
        }
        if( iOpt==SizeofArray(aFts4Opt) ){
          *pzErr = sqlite3_mprintf("unrecognized parameter: %s", z);
          rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
        }else{
          switch( iOpt ){
            case 0:               /* MATCHINFO */
              if( strlen(zVal)!=4 || sqlite3_strnicmp(zVal, "fts3", 4) ){
                *pzErr = sqlite3_mprintf("unrecognized matchinfo: %s", zVal);
                rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
              }
              bNoDocsize = 1;
              break;

            case 1:               /* PREFIX */
              sqlite3_free(zPrefix);
              zPrefix = zVal;
              zVal = 0;
              break;

            case 2:               /* COMPRESS */
              sqlite3_free(zCompress);
              zCompress = zVal;
              zVal = 0;
              break;

            case 3:               /* UNCOMPRESS */
              sqlite3_free(zUncompress);
              zUncompress = zVal;
              zVal = 0;
              break;

            case 4:               /* ORDER */
              if( (strlen(zVal)!=3 || sqlite3_strnicmp(zVal, "asc", 3)) 
               && (strlen(zVal)!=4 || sqlite3_strnicmp(zVal, "desc", 3)) 
              ){
                *pzErr = sqlite3_mprintf("unrecognized order: %s", zVal);
                rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
              }
              bDescIdx = (zVal[0]=='d' || zVal[0]=='D');
              break;
          }
        }
        sqlite3_free(zVal);
      }
    }

    /* Otherwise, the argument is a column name. */
    else {
      nString += (int)(strlen(z) + 1);
      aCol[nCol++] = z;
    }
  }
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto fts3_init_out;

  if( nCol==0 ){
    assert( nString==0 );
    aCol[0] = "content";
    nString = 8;
    nCol = 1;
  }

  if( pTokenizer==0 ){
    rc = sqlite3Fts3InitTokenizer(pHash, "simple", &pTokenizer, pzErr);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto fts3_init_out;
  }
  assert( pTokenizer );

  rc = fts3PrefixParameter(zPrefix, &nIndex, &aIndex);
  if( rc==SQLITE_ERROR ){
    assert( zPrefix );
    *pzErr = sqlite3_mprintf("error parsing prefix parameter: %s", zPrefix);
  }
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto fts3_init_out;

  /* Allocate and populate the Fts3Table structure. */
  nByte = sizeof(Fts3Table) +                  /* Fts3Table */
          nCol * sizeof(char *) +              /* azColumn */
          nIndex * sizeof(struct Fts3Index) +  /* aIndex */
          nName +                              /* zName */
          nDb +                                /* zDb */
          nString;                             /* Space for azColumn strings */
  p = (Fts3Table*)sqlite3_malloc(nByte);
  if( p==0 ){
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    goto fts3_init_out;
  }
  memset(p, 0, nByte);
  p->db = db;
  p->nColumn = nCol;
  p->nPendingData = 0;
  p->azColumn = (char **)&p[1];
  p->pTokenizer = pTokenizer;
  p->nMaxPendingData = FTS3_MAX_PENDING_DATA;
  p->bHasDocsize = (isFts4 && bNoDocsize==0);
  p->bHasStat = isFts4;
  p->bDescIdx = bDescIdx;
  TESTONLY( p->inTransaction = -1 );
  TESTONLY( p->mxSavepoint = -1 );

  p->aIndex = (struct Fts3Index *)&p->azColumn[nCol];
  memcpy(p->aIndex, aIndex, sizeof(struct Fts3Index) * nIndex);
  p->nIndex = nIndex;
  for(i=0; i<nIndex; i++){
    fts3HashInit(&p->aIndex[i].hPending, FTS3_HASH_STRING, 1);
  }

  /* Fill in the zName and zDb fields of the vtab structure. */
  zCsr = (char *)&p->aIndex[nIndex];
  p->zName = zCsr;
  memcpy(zCsr, argv[2], nName);
  zCsr += nName;
  p->zDb = zCsr;
  memcpy(zCsr, argv[1], nDb);
  zCsr += nDb;

  /* Fill in the azColumn array */
  for(iCol=0; iCol<nCol; iCol++){
    char *z; 
    int n = 0;
    z = (char *)sqlite3Fts3NextToken(aCol[iCol], &n);
    memcpy(zCsr, z, n);
    zCsr[n] = '\0';
    sqlite3Fts3Dequote(zCsr);
    p->azColumn[iCol] = zCsr;
    zCsr += n+1;
    assert( zCsr <= &((char *)p)[nByte] );
  }

  if( (zCompress==0)!=(zUncompress==0) ){
    char const *zMiss = (zCompress==0 ? "compress" : "uncompress");
    rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
    *pzErr = sqlite3_mprintf("missing %s parameter in fts4 constructor", zMiss);
  }
  p->zReadExprlist = fts3ReadExprList(p, zUncompress, &rc);
  p->zWriteExprlist = fts3WriteExprList(p, zCompress, &rc);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto fts3_init_out;

  /* If this is an xCreate call, create the underlying tables in the 
  ** database. TODO: For xConnect(), it could verify that said tables exist.
  */
  if( isCreate ){
    rc = fts3CreateTables(p);
  }

  /* Figure out the page-size for the database. This is required in order to
  ** estimate the cost of loading large doclists from the database.  */
  fts3DatabasePageSize(&rc, p);
  p->nNodeSize = p->nPgsz-35;

  /* Declare the table schema to SQLite. */
  fts3DeclareVtab(&rc, p);

fts3_init_out:
  sqlite3_free(zPrefix);
  sqlite3_free(aIndex);
  sqlite3_free(zCompress);
  sqlite3_free(zUncompress);
  sqlite3_free((void *)aCol);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    if( p ){
      fts3DisconnectMethod((sqlite3_vtab *)p);
    }else if( pTokenizer ){
      pTokenizer->pModule->xDestroy(pTokenizer);
    }
  }else{
    assert( p->pSegments==0 );
    *ppVTab = &p->base;
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** The xConnect() and xCreate() methods for the virtual table. All the
** work is done in function fts3InitVtab().
*/
static int fts3ConnectMethod(
  sqlite3 *db,                    /* Database connection */
  void *pAux,                     /* Pointer to tokenizer hash table */
  int argc,                       /* Number of elements in argv array */
  const char * const *argv,       /* xCreate/xConnect argument array */
  sqlite3_vtab **ppVtab,          /* OUT: New sqlite3_vtab object */
  char **pzErr                    /* OUT: sqlite3_malloc'd error message */
){
  return fts3InitVtab(0, db, pAux, argc, argv, ppVtab, pzErr);
}
static int fts3CreateMethod(
  sqlite3 *db,                    /* Database connection */
  void *pAux,                     /* Pointer to tokenizer hash table */
  int argc,                       /* Number of elements in argv array */
  const char * const *argv,       /* xCreate/xConnect argument array */
  sqlite3_vtab **ppVtab,          /* OUT: New sqlite3_vtab object */
  char **pzErr                    /* OUT: sqlite3_malloc'd error message */
){
  return fts3InitVtab(1, db, pAux, argc, argv, ppVtab, pzErr);
}

/* 
** Implementation of the xBestIndex method for FTS3 tables. There
** are three possible strategies, in order of preference:
**
**   1. Direct lookup by rowid or docid. 
**   2. Full-text search using a MATCH operator on a non-docid column.
**   3. Linear scan of %_content table.
*/
static int fts3BestIndexMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_index_info *pInfo){
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table *)pVTab;
  int i;                          /* Iterator variable */
  int iCons = -1;                 /* Index of constraint to use */

  /* By default use a full table scan. This is an expensive option,
  ** so search through the constraints to see if a more efficient 
  ** strategy is possible.
  */
  pInfo->idxNum = FTS3_FULLSCAN_SEARCH;
  pInfo->estimatedCost = 500000;
  for(i=0; i<pInfo->nConstraint; i++){
    struct sqlite3_index_constraint *pCons = &pInfo->aConstraint[i];
    if( pCons->usable==0 ) continue;

    /* A direct lookup on the rowid or docid column. Assign a cost of 1.0. */
    if( pCons->op==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_EQ 
     && (pCons->iColumn<0 || pCons->iColumn==p->nColumn+1 )
    ){
      pInfo->idxNum = FTS3_DOCID_SEARCH;
      pInfo->estimatedCost = 1.0;
      iCons = i;
    }

    /* A MATCH constraint. Use a full-text search.
    **
    ** If there is more than one MATCH constraint available, use the first
    ** one encountered. If there is both a MATCH constraint and a direct
    ** rowid/docid lookup, prefer the MATCH strategy. This is done even 
    ** though the rowid/docid lookup is faster than a MATCH query, selecting
    ** it would lead to an "unable to use function MATCH in the requested 
    ** context" error.
    */
    if( pCons->op==SQLITE_INDEX_CONSTRAINT_MATCH 
     && pCons->iColumn>=0 && pCons->iColumn<=p->nColumn
    ){
      pInfo->idxNum = FTS3_FULLTEXT_SEARCH + pCons->iColumn;
      pInfo->estimatedCost = 2.0;
      iCons = i;
      break;
    }
  }

  if( iCons>=0 ){
    pInfo->aConstraintUsage[iCons].argvIndex = 1;
    pInfo->aConstraintUsage[iCons].omit = 1;
  } 

  /* Regardless of the strategy selected, FTS can deliver rows in rowid (or
  ** docid) order. Both ascending and descending are possible. 
  */
  if( pInfo->nOrderBy==1 ){
    struct sqlite3_index_orderby *pOrder = &pInfo->aOrderBy[0];
    if( pOrder->iColumn<0 || pOrder->iColumn==p->nColumn+1 ){
      if( pOrder->desc ){
        pInfo->idxStr = "DESC";
      }else{
        pInfo->idxStr = "ASC";
      }
      pInfo->orderByConsumed = 1;
    }
  }

  assert( p->pSegments==0 );
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Implementation of xOpen method.
*/
static int fts3OpenMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_vtab_cursor **ppCsr){
  sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pCsr;               /* Allocated cursor */

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVTab);

  /* Allocate a buffer large enough for an Fts3Cursor structure. If the
  ** allocation succeeds, zero it and return SQLITE_OK. Otherwise, 
  ** if the allocation fails, return SQLITE_NOMEM.
  */
  *ppCsr = pCsr = (sqlite3_vtab_cursor *)sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(Fts3Cursor));
  if( !pCsr ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
  memset(pCsr, 0, sizeof(Fts3Cursor));
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Close the cursor.  For additional information see the documentation
** on the xClose method of the virtual table interface.
*/
static int fts3CloseMethod(sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pCursor){
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr = (Fts3Cursor *)pCursor;
  assert( ((Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab)->pSegments==0 );
  sqlite3_finalize(pCsr->pStmt);
  sqlite3Fts3ExprFree(pCsr->pExpr);
  sqlite3Fts3FreeDeferredTokens(pCsr);
  sqlite3_free(pCsr->aDoclist);
  sqlite3_free(pCsr->aMatchinfo);
  assert( ((Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab)->pSegments==0 );
  sqlite3_free(pCsr);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Position the pCsr->pStmt statement so that it is on the row
** of the %_content table that contains the last match.  Return
** SQLITE_OK on success.  
*/
static int fts3CursorSeek(sqlite3_context *pContext, Fts3Cursor *pCsr){
  if( pCsr->isRequireSeek ){
    sqlite3_bind_int64(pCsr->pStmt, 1, pCsr->iPrevId);
    pCsr->isRequireSeek = 0;
    if( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pCsr->pStmt) ){
      return SQLITE_OK;
    }else{
      int rc = sqlite3_reset(pCsr->pStmt);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        /* If no row was found and no error has occured, then the %_content
        ** table is missing a row that is present in the full-text index.
        ** The data structures are corrupt.
        */
        rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_VTAB;
      }
      pCsr->isEof = 1;
      if( pContext ){
        sqlite3_result_error_code(pContext, rc);
      }
      return rc;
    }
  }else{
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }
}

/*
** This function is used to process a single interior node when searching
** a b-tree for a term or term prefix. The node data is passed to this 
** function via the zNode/nNode parameters. The term to search for is
** passed in zTerm/nTerm.
**
** If piFirst is not NULL, then this function sets *piFirst to the blockid
** of the child node that heads the sub-tree that may contain the term.
**
** If piLast is not NULL, then *piLast is set to the right-most child node
** that heads a sub-tree that may contain a term for which zTerm/nTerm is
** a prefix.
**
** If an OOM error occurs, SQLITE_NOMEM is returned. Otherwise, SQLITE_OK.
*/
static int fts3ScanInteriorNode(
  const char *zTerm,              /* Term to select leaves for */
  int nTerm,                      /* Size of term zTerm in bytes */
  const char *zNode,              /* Buffer containing segment interior node */
  int nNode,                      /* Size of buffer at zNode */
  sqlite3_int64 *piFirst,         /* OUT: Selected child node */
  sqlite3_int64 *piLast           /* OUT: Selected child node */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  const char *zCsr = zNode;       /* Cursor to iterate through node */
  const char *zEnd = &zCsr[nNode];/* End of interior node buffer */
  char *zBuffer = 0;              /* Buffer to load terms into */
  int nAlloc = 0;                 /* Size of allocated buffer */
  int isFirstTerm = 1;            /* True when processing first term on page */
  sqlite3_int64 iChild;           /* Block id of child node to descend to */

  /* Skip over the 'height' varint that occurs at the start of every 
  ** interior node. Then load the blockid of the left-child of the b-tree
  ** node into variable iChild.  
  **
  ** Even if the data structure on disk is corrupted, this (reading two
  ** varints from the buffer) does not risk an overread. If zNode is a
  ** root node, then the buffer comes from a SELECT statement. SQLite does
  ** not make this guarantee explicitly, but in practice there are always
  ** either more than 20 bytes of allocated space following the nNode bytes of
  ** contents, or two zero bytes. Or, if the node is read from the %_segments
  ** table, then there are always 20 bytes of zeroed padding following the
  ** nNode bytes of content (see sqlite3Fts3ReadBlock() for details).
  */
  zCsr += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(zCsr, &iChild);
  zCsr += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(zCsr, &iChild);
  if( zCsr>zEnd ){
    return SQLITE_CORRUPT_VTAB;
  }
  
  while( zCsr<zEnd && (piFirst || piLast) ){
    int cmp;                      /* memcmp() result */
    int nSuffix;                  /* Size of term suffix */
    int nPrefix = 0;              /* Size of term prefix */
    int nBuffer;                  /* Total term size */
  
    /* Load the next term on the node into zBuffer. Use realloc() to expand
    ** the size of zBuffer if required.  */
    if( !isFirstTerm ){
      zCsr += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(zCsr, &nPrefix);
    }
    isFirstTerm = 0;
    zCsr += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(zCsr, &nSuffix);
    
    if( nPrefix<0 || nSuffix<0 || &zCsr[nSuffix]>zEnd ){
      rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT_VTAB;
      goto finish_scan;
    }
    if( nPrefix+nSuffix>nAlloc ){
      char *zNew;
      nAlloc = (nPrefix+nSuffix) * 2;
      zNew = (char *)sqlite3_realloc(zBuffer, nAlloc);
      if( !zNew ){
        rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
        goto finish_scan;
      }
      zBuffer = zNew;
    }
    memcpy(&zBuffer[nPrefix], zCsr, nSuffix);
    nBuffer = nPrefix + nSuffix;
    zCsr += nSuffix;

    /* Compare the term we are searching for with the term just loaded from
    ** the interior node. If the specified term is greater than or equal
    ** to the term from the interior node, then all terms on the sub-tree 
    ** headed by node iChild are smaller than zTerm. No need to search 
    ** iChild.
    **
    ** If the interior node term is larger than the specified term, then
    ** the tree headed by iChild may contain the specified term.
    */
    cmp = memcmp(zTerm, zBuffer, (nBuffer>nTerm ? nTerm : nBuffer));
    if( piFirst && (cmp<0 || (cmp==0 && nBuffer>nTerm)) ){
      *piFirst = iChild;
      piFirst = 0;
    }

    if( piLast && cmp<0 ){
      *piLast = iChild;
      piLast = 0;
    }

    iChild++;
  };

  if( piFirst ) *piFirst = iChild;
  if( piLast ) *piLast = iChild;

 finish_scan:
  sqlite3_free(zBuffer);
  return rc;
}


/*
** The buffer pointed to by argument zNode (size nNode bytes) contains an
** interior node of a b-tree segment. The zTerm buffer (size nTerm bytes)
** contains a term. This function searches the sub-tree headed by the zNode
** node for the range of leaf nodes that may contain the specified term
** or terms for which the specified term is a prefix.
**
** If piLeaf is not NULL, then *piLeaf is set to the blockid of the 
** left-most leaf node in the tree that may contain the specified term.
** If piLeaf2 is not NULL, then *piLeaf2 is set to the blockid of the
** right-most leaf node that may contain a term for which the specified
** term is a prefix.
**
** It is possible that the range of returned leaf nodes does not contain 
** the specified term or any terms for which it is a prefix. However, if the 
** segment does contain any such terms, they are stored within the identified
** range. Because this function only inspects interior segment nodes (and
** never loads leaf nodes into memory), it is not possible to be sure.
**
** If an error occurs, an error code other than SQLITE_OK is returned.
*/ 
static int fts3SelectLeaf(
  Fts3Table *p,                   /* Virtual table handle */
  const char *zTerm,              /* Term to select leaves for */
  int nTerm,                      /* Size of term zTerm in bytes */
  const char *zNode,              /* Buffer containing segment interior node */
  int nNode,                      /* Size of buffer at zNode */
  sqlite3_int64 *piLeaf,          /* Selected leaf node */
  sqlite3_int64 *piLeaf2          /* Selected leaf node */
){
  int rc;                         /* Return code */
  int iHeight;                    /* Height of this node in tree */

  assert( piLeaf || piLeaf2 );

  sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(zNode, &iHeight);
  rc = fts3ScanInteriorNode(zTerm, nTerm, zNode, nNode, piLeaf, piLeaf2);
  assert( !piLeaf2 || !piLeaf || rc!=SQLITE_OK || (*piLeaf<=*piLeaf2) );

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && iHeight>1 ){
    char *zBlob = 0;              /* Blob read from %_segments table */
    int nBlob;                    /* Size of zBlob in bytes */

    if( piLeaf && piLeaf2 && (*piLeaf!=*piLeaf2) ){
      rc = sqlite3Fts3ReadBlock(p, *piLeaf, &zBlob, &nBlob, 0);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        rc = fts3SelectLeaf(p, zTerm, nTerm, zBlob, nBlob, piLeaf, 0);
      }
      sqlite3_free(zBlob);
      piLeaf = 0;
      zBlob = 0;
    }

    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = sqlite3Fts3ReadBlock(p, piLeaf?*piLeaf:*piLeaf2, &zBlob, &nBlob, 0);
    }
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = fts3SelectLeaf(p, zTerm, nTerm, zBlob, nBlob, piLeaf, piLeaf2);
    }
    sqlite3_free(zBlob);
  }

  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is used to create delta-encoded serialized lists of FTS3 
** varints. Each call to this function appends a single varint to a list.
*/
static void fts3PutDeltaVarint(
  char **pp,                      /* IN/OUT: Output pointer */
  sqlite3_int64 *piPrev,          /* IN/OUT: Previous value written to list */
  sqlite3_int64 iVal              /* Write this value to the list */
){
  assert( iVal-*piPrev > 0 || (*piPrev==0 && iVal==0) );
  *pp += sqlite3Fts3PutVarint(*pp, iVal-*piPrev);
  *piPrev = iVal;
}

/*
** When this function is called, *ppPoslist is assumed to point to the 
** start of a position-list. After it returns, *ppPoslist points to the
** first byte after the position-list.
**
** A position list is list of positions (delta encoded) and columns for 
** a single document record of a doclist.  So, in other words, this
** routine advances *ppPoslist so that it points to the next docid in
** the doclist, or to the first byte past the end of the doclist.
**
** If pp is not NULL, then the contents of the position list are copied
** to *pp. *pp is set to point to the first byte past the last byte copied
** before this function returns.
*/
static void fts3PoslistCopy(char **pp, char **ppPoslist){
  char *pEnd = *ppPoslist;
  char c = 0;

  /* The end of a position list is marked by a zero encoded as an FTS3 
  ** varint. A single POS_END (0) byte. Except, if the 0 byte is preceded by
  ** a byte with the 0x80 bit set, then it is not a varint 0, but the tail
  ** of some other, multi-byte, value.
  **
  ** The following while-loop moves pEnd to point to the first byte that is not 
  ** immediately preceded by a byte with the 0x80 bit set. Then increments
  ** pEnd once more so that it points to the byte immediately following the
  ** last byte in the position-list.
  */
  while( *pEnd | c ){
    c = *pEnd++ & 0x80;
    testcase( c!=0 && (*pEnd)==0 );
  }
  pEnd++;  /* Advance past the POS_END terminator byte */

  if( pp ){
    int n = (int)(pEnd - *ppPoslist);
    char *p = *pp;
    memcpy(p, *ppPoslist, n);
    p += n;
    *pp = p;
  }
  *ppPoslist = pEnd;
}

/*
** When this function is called, *ppPoslist is assumed to point to the 
** start of a column-list. After it returns, *ppPoslist points to the
** to the terminator (POS_COLUMN or POS_END) byte of the column-list.
**
** A column-list is list of delta-encoded positions for a single column
** within a single document within a doclist.
**
** The column-list is terminated either by a POS_COLUMN varint (1) or
** a POS_END varint (0).  This routine leaves *ppPoslist pointing to
** the POS_COLUMN or POS_END that terminates the column-list.
**
** If pp is not NULL, then the contents of the column-list are copied
** to *pp. *pp is set to point to the first byte past the last byte copied
** before this function returns.  The POS_COLUMN or POS_END terminator
** is not copied into *pp.
*/
static void fts3ColumnlistCopy(char **pp, char **ppPoslist){
  char *pEnd = *ppPoslist;
  char c = 0;

  /* A column-list is terminated by either a 0x01 or 0x00 byte that is
  ** not part of a multi-byte varint.
  */
  while( 0xFE & (*pEnd | c) ){
    c = *pEnd++ & 0x80;
    testcase( c!=0 && ((*pEnd)&0xfe)==0 );
  }
  if( pp ){
    int n = (int)(pEnd - *ppPoslist);
    char *p = *pp;
    memcpy(p, *ppPoslist, n);
    p += n;
    *pp = p;
  }
  *ppPoslist = pEnd;
}

/*
** Value used to signify the end of an position-list. This is safe because
** it is not possible to have a document with 2^31 terms.
*/
#define POSITION_LIST_END 0x7fffffff

/*
** This function is used to help parse position-lists. When this function is
** called, *pp may point to the start of the next varint in the position-list
** being parsed, or it may point to 1 byte past the end of the position-list
** (in which case **pp will be a terminator bytes POS_END (0) or
** (1)).
**
** If *pp points past the end of the current position-list, set *pi to 
** POSITION_LIST_END and return. Otherwise, read the next varint from *pp,
** increment the current value of *pi by the value read, and set *pp to
** point to the next value before returning.
**
** Before calling this routine *pi must be initialized to the value of
** the previous position, or zero if we are reading the first position
** in the position-list.  Because positions are delta-encoded, the value
** of the previous position is needed in order to compute the value of
** the next position.
*/
static void fts3ReadNextPos(
  char **pp,                    /* IN/OUT: Pointer into position-list buffer */
  sqlite3_int64 *pi             /* IN/OUT: Value read from position-list */
){
  if( (**pp)&0xFE ){
    fts3GetDeltaVarint(pp, pi);
    *pi -= 2;
  }else{
    *pi = POSITION_LIST_END;
  }
}

/*
** If parameter iCol is not 0, write an POS_COLUMN (1) byte followed by
** the value of iCol encoded as a varint to *pp.   This will start a new
** column list.
**
** Set *pp to point to the byte just after the last byte written before 
** returning (do not modify it if iCol==0). Return the total number of bytes
** written (0 if iCol==0).
*/
static int fts3PutColNumber(char **pp, int iCol){
  int n = 0;                      /* Number of bytes written */
  if( iCol ){
    char *p = *pp;                /* Output pointer */
    n = 1 + sqlite3Fts3PutVarint(&p[1], iCol);
    *p = 0x01;
    *pp = &p[n];
  }
  return n;
}

/*
** Compute the union of two position lists.  The output written
** into *pp contains all positions of both *pp1 and *pp2 in sorted
** order and with any duplicates removed.  All pointers are
** updated appropriately.   The caller is responsible for insuring
** that there is enough space in *pp to hold the complete output.
*/
static void fts3PoslistMerge(
  char **pp,                      /* Output buffer */
  char **pp1,                     /* Left input list */
  char **pp2                      /* Right input list */
){
  char *p = *pp;
  char *p1 = *pp1;
  char *p2 = *pp2;

  while( *p1 || *p2 ){
    int iCol1;         /* The current column index in pp1 */
    int iCol2;         /* The current column index in pp2 */

    if( *p1==POS_COLUMN ) sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(&p1[1], &iCol1);
    else if( *p1==POS_END ) iCol1 = POSITION_LIST_END;
    else iCol1 = 0;

    if( *p2==POS_COLUMN ) sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(&p2[1], &iCol2);
    else if( *p2==POS_END ) iCol2 = POSITION_LIST_END;
    else iCol2 = 0;

    if( iCol1==iCol2 ){
      sqlite3_int64 i1 = 0;       /* Last position from pp1 */
      sqlite3_int64 i2 = 0;       /* Last position from pp2 */
      sqlite3_int64 iPrev = 0;
      int n = fts3PutColNumber(&p, iCol1);
      p1 += n;
      p2 += n;

      /* At this point, both p1 and p2 point to the start of column-lists
      ** for the same column (the column with index iCol1 and iCol2).
      ** A column-list is a list of non-negative delta-encoded varints, each 
      ** incremented by 2 before being stored. Each list is terminated by a
      ** POS_END (0) or POS_COLUMN (1). The following block merges the two lists
      ** and writes the results to buffer p. p is left pointing to the byte
      ** after the list written. No terminator (POS_END or POS_COLUMN) is
      ** written to the output.
      */
      fts3GetDeltaVarint(&p1, &i1);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint(&p2, &i2);
      do {
        fts3PutDeltaVarint(&p, &iPrev, (i1<i2) ? i1 : i2); 
        iPrev -= 2;
        if( i1==i2 ){
          fts3ReadNextPos(&p1, &i1);
          fts3ReadNextPos(&p2, &i2);
        }else if( i1<i2 ){
          fts3ReadNextPos(&p1, &i1);
        }else{
          fts3ReadNextPos(&p2, &i2);
        }
      }while( i1!=POSITION_LIST_END || i2!=POSITION_LIST_END );
    }else if( iCol1<iCol2 ){
      p1 += fts3PutColNumber(&p, iCol1);
      fts3ColumnlistCopy(&p, &p1);
    }else{
      p2 += fts3PutColNumber(&p, iCol2);
      fts3ColumnlistCopy(&p, &p2);
    }
  }

  *p++ = POS_END;
  *pp = p;
  *pp1 = p1 + 1;
  *pp2 = p2 + 1;
}

/*
** This function is used to merge two position lists into one. When it is
** called, *pp1 and *pp2 must both point to position lists. A position-list is
** the part of a doclist that follows each document id. For example, if a row
** contains:
**
**     'a b c'|'x y z'|'a b b a'
**
** Then the position list for this row for token 'b' would consist of:
**
**     0x02 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x03 0x00
**
** When this function returns, both *pp1 and *pp2 are left pointing to the
** byte following the 0x00 terminator of their respective position lists.
**
** If isSaveLeft is 0, an entry is added to the output position list for 
** each position in *pp2 for which there exists one or more positions in
** *pp1 so that (pos(*pp2)>pos(*pp1) && pos(*pp2)-pos(*pp1)<=nToken). i.e.
** when the *pp1 token appears before the *pp2 token, but not more than nToken
** slots before it.
**
** e.g. nToken==1 searches for adjacent positions.
*/
static int fts3PoslistPhraseMerge(
  char **pp,                      /* IN/OUT: Preallocated output buffer */
  int nToken,                     /* Maximum difference in token positions */
  int isSaveLeft,                 /* Save the left position */
  int isExact,                    /* If *pp1 is exactly nTokens before *pp2 */
  char **pp1,                     /* IN/OUT: Left input list */
  char **pp2                      /* IN/OUT: Right input list */
){
  char *p = (pp ? *pp : 0);
  char *p1 = *pp1;
  char *p2 = *pp2;
  int iCol1 = 0;
  int iCol2 = 0;

  /* Never set both isSaveLeft and isExact for the same invocation. */
  assert( isSaveLeft==0 || isExact==0 );

  assert( *p1!=0 && *p2!=0 );
  if( *p1==POS_COLUMN ){ 
    p1++;
    p1 += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(p1, &iCol1);
  }
  if( *p2==POS_COLUMN ){ 
    p2++;
    p2 += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(p2, &iCol2);
  }

  while( 1 ){
    if( iCol1==iCol2 ){
      char *pSave = p;
      sqlite3_int64 iPrev = 0;
      sqlite3_int64 iPos1 = 0;
      sqlite3_int64 iPos2 = 0;

      if( pp && iCol1 ){
        *p++ = POS_COLUMN;
        p += sqlite3Fts3PutVarint(p, iCol1);
      }

      assert( *p1!=POS_END && *p1!=POS_COLUMN );
      assert( *p2!=POS_END && *p2!=POS_COLUMN );
      fts3GetDeltaVarint(&p1, &iPos1); iPos1 -= 2;
      fts3GetDeltaVarint(&p2, &iPos2); iPos2 -= 2;

      while( 1 ){
        if( iPos2==iPos1+nToken 
         || (isExact==0 && iPos2>iPos1 && iPos2<=iPos1+nToken) 
        ){
          sqlite3_int64 iSave;
          if( !pp ){
            fts3PoslistCopy(0, &p2);
            fts3PoslistCopy(0, &p1);
            *pp1 = p1;
            *pp2 = p2;
            return 1;
          }
          iSave = isSaveLeft ? iPos1 : iPos2;
          fts3PutDeltaVarint(&p, &iPrev, iSave+2); iPrev -= 2;
          pSave = 0;
        }
        if( (!isSaveLeft && iPos2<=(iPos1+nToken)) || iPos2<=iPos1 ){
          if( (*p2&0xFE)==0 ) break;
          fts3GetDeltaVarint(&p2, &iPos2); iPos2 -= 2;
        }else{
          if( (*p1&0xFE)==0 ) break;
          fts3GetDeltaVarint(&p1, &iPos1); iPos1 -= 2;
        }
      }

      if( pSave ){
        assert( pp && p );
        p = pSave;
      }

      fts3ColumnlistCopy(0, &p1);
      fts3ColumnlistCopy(0, &p2);
      assert( (*p1&0xFE)==0 && (*p2&0xFE)==0 );
      if( 0==*p1 || 0==*p2 ) break;

      p1++;
      p1 += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(p1, &iCol1);
      p2++;
      p2 += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(p2, &iCol2);
    }

    /* Advance pointer p1 or p2 (whichever corresponds to the smaller of
    ** iCol1 and iCol2) so that it points to either the 0x00 that marks the
    ** end of the position list, or the 0x01 that precedes the next 
    ** column-number in the position list. 
    */
    else if( iCol1<iCol2 ){
      fts3ColumnlistCopy(0, &p1);
      if( 0==*p1 ) break;
      p1++;
      p1 += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(p1, &iCol1);
    }else{
      fts3ColumnlistCopy(0, &p2);
      if( 0==*p2 ) break;
      p2++;
      p2 += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(p2, &iCol2);
    }
  }

  fts3PoslistCopy(0, &p2);
  fts3PoslistCopy(0, &p1);
  *pp1 = p1;
  *pp2 = p2;
  if( !pp || *pp==p ){
    return 0;
  }
  *p++ = 0x00;
  *pp = p;
  return 1;
}

/*
** Merge two position-lists as required by the NEAR operator. The argument
** position lists correspond to the left and right phrases of an expression 
** like:
**
**     "phrase 1" NEAR "phrase number 2"
**
** Position list *pp1 corresponds to the left-hand side of the NEAR 
** expression and *pp2 to the right. As usual, the indexes in the position 
** lists are the offsets of the last token in each phrase (tokens "1" and "2" 
** in the example above).
**
** The output position list - written to *pp - is a copy of *pp2 with those
** entries that are not sufficiently NEAR entries in *pp1 removed.
*/
static int fts3PoslistNearMerge(
  char **pp,                      /* Output buffer */
  char *aTmp,                     /* Temporary buffer space */
  int nRight,                     /* Maximum difference in token positions */
  int nLeft,                      /* Maximum difference in token positions */
  char **pp1,                     /* IN/OUT: Left input list */
  char **pp2                      /* IN/OUT: Right input list */
){
  char *p1 = *pp1;
  char *p2 = *pp2;

  char *pTmp1 = aTmp;
  char *pTmp2;
  char *aTmp2;
  int res = 1;

  fts3PoslistPhraseMerge(&pTmp1, nRight, 0, 0, pp1, pp2);
  aTmp2 = pTmp2 = pTmp1;
  *pp1 = p1;
  *pp2 = p2;
  fts3PoslistPhraseMerge(&pTmp2, nLeft, 1, 0, pp2, pp1);
  if( pTmp1!=aTmp && pTmp2!=aTmp2 ){
    fts3PoslistMerge(pp, &aTmp, &aTmp2);
  }else if( pTmp1!=aTmp ){
    fts3PoslistCopy(pp, &aTmp);
  }else if( pTmp2!=aTmp2 ){
    fts3PoslistCopy(pp, &aTmp2);
  }else{
    res = 0;
  }

  return res;
}

/* 
** An instance of this function is used to merge together the (potentially
** large number of) doclists for each term that matches a prefix query.
** See function fts3TermSelectMerge() for details.
*/
typedef struct TermSelect TermSelect;
struct TermSelect {
  char *aaOutput[16];             /* Malloc'd output buffers */
  int anOutput[16];               /* Size each output buffer in bytes */
};

/*
** This function is used to read a single varint from a buffer. Parameter
** pEnd points 1 byte past the end of the buffer. When this function is
** called, if *pp points to pEnd or greater, then the end of the buffer
** has been reached. In this case *pp is set to 0 and the function returns.
**
** If *pp does not point to or past pEnd, then a single varint is read
** from *pp. *pp is then set to point 1 byte past the end of the read varint.
**
** If bDescIdx is false, the value read is added to *pVal before returning.
** If it is true, the value read is subtracted from *pVal before this 
** function returns.
*/
static void fts3GetDeltaVarint3(
  char **pp,                      /* IN/OUT: Point to read varint from */
  char *pEnd,                     /* End of buffer */
  int bDescIdx,                   /* True if docids are descending */
  sqlite3_int64 *pVal             /* IN/OUT: Integer value */
){
  if( *pp>=pEnd ){
    *pp = 0;
  }else{
    sqlite3_int64 iVal;
    *pp += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(*pp, &iVal);
    if( bDescIdx ){
      *pVal -= iVal;
    }else{
      *pVal += iVal;
    }
  }
}

/*
** This function is used to write a single varint to a buffer. The varint
** is written to *pp. Before returning, *pp is set to point 1 byte past the
** end of the value written.
**
** If *pbFirst is zero when this function is called, the value written to
** the buffer is that of parameter iVal. 
**
** If *pbFirst is non-zero when this function is called, then the value 
** written is either (iVal-*piPrev) (if bDescIdx is zero) or (*piPrev-iVal)
** (if bDescIdx is non-zero).
**
** Before returning, this function always sets *pbFirst to 1 and *piPrev
** to the value of parameter iVal.
*/
static void fts3PutDeltaVarint3(
  char **pp,                      /* IN/OUT: Output pointer */
  int bDescIdx,                   /* True for descending docids */
  sqlite3_int64 *piPrev,          /* IN/OUT: Previous value written to list */
  int *pbFirst,                   /* IN/OUT: True after first int written */
  sqlite3_int64 iVal              /* Write this value to the list */
){
  sqlite3_int64 iWrite;
  if( bDescIdx==0 || *pbFirst==0 ){
    iWrite = iVal - *piPrev;
  }else{
    iWrite = *piPrev - iVal;
  }
  assert( *pbFirst || *piPrev==0 );
  assert( *pbFirst==0 || iWrite>0 );
  *pp += sqlite3Fts3PutVarint(*pp, iWrite);
  *piPrev = iVal;
  *pbFirst = 1;
}


/*
** This macro is used by various functions that merge doclists. The two
** arguments are 64-bit docid values. If the value of the stack variable
** bDescDoclist is 0 when this macro is invoked, then it returns (i1-i2). 
** Otherwise, (i2-i1).
**
** Using this makes it easier to write code that can merge doclists that are
** sorted in either ascending or descending order.
*/
#define DOCID_CMP(i1, i2) ((bDescDoclist?-1:1) * (i1-i2))

/*
** This function does an "OR" merge of two doclists (output contains all
** positions contained in either argument doclist). If the docids in the 
** input doclists are sorted in ascending order, parameter bDescDoclist
** should be false. If they are sorted in ascending order, it should be
** passed a non-zero value.
**
** If no error occurs, *paOut is set to point at an sqlite3_malloc'd buffer
** containing the output doclist and SQLITE_OK is returned. In this case
** *pnOut is set to the number of bytes in the output doclist.
**
** If an error occurs, an SQLite error code is returned. The output values
** are undefined in this case.
*/
static int fts3DoclistOrMerge(
  int bDescDoclist,               /* True if arguments are desc */
  char *a1, int n1,               /* First doclist */
  char *a2, int n2,               /* Second doclist */
  char **paOut, int *pnOut        /* OUT: Malloc'd doclist */
){
  sqlite3_int64 i1 = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 i2 = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 iPrev = 0;
  char *pEnd1 = &a1[n1];
  char *pEnd2 = &a2[n2];
  char *p1 = a1;
  char *p2 = a2;
  char *p;
  char *aOut;
  int bFirstOut = 0;

  *paOut = 0;
  *pnOut = 0;
  aOut = sqlite3_malloc(n1+n2);
  if( !aOut ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;

  p = aOut;
  fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p1, pEnd1, 0, &i1);
  fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p2, pEnd2, 0, &i2);
  while( p1 || p2 ){
    sqlite3_int64 iDiff = DOCID_CMP(i1, i2);

    if( p2 && p1 && iDiff==0 ){
      fts3PutDeltaVarint3(&p, bDescDoclist, &iPrev, &bFirstOut, i1);
      fts3PoslistMerge(&p, &p1, &p2);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p1, pEnd1, bDescDoclist, &i1);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p2, pEnd2, bDescDoclist, &i2);
    }else if( !p2 || (p1 && iDiff<0) ){
      fts3PutDeltaVarint3(&p, bDescDoclist, &iPrev, &bFirstOut, i1);
      fts3PoslistCopy(&p, &p1);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p1, pEnd1, bDescDoclist, &i1);
    }else{
      fts3PutDeltaVarint3(&p, bDescDoclist, &iPrev, &bFirstOut, i2);
      fts3PoslistCopy(&p, &p2);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p2, pEnd2, bDescDoclist, &i2);
    }
  }

  *paOut = aOut;
  *pnOut = (p-aOut);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This function does a "phrase" merge of two doclists. In a phrase merge,
** the output contains a copy of each position from the right-hand input
** doclist for which there is a position in the left-hand input doclist
** exactly nDist tokens before it.
**
** If the docids in the input doclists are sorted in ascending order,
** parameter bDescDoclist should be false. If they are sorted in ascending 
** order, it should be passed a non-zero value.
**
** The right-hand input doclist is overwritten by this function.
*/
static void fts3DoclistPhraseMerge(
  int bDescDoclist,               /* True if arguments are desc */
  int nDist,                      /* Distance from left to right (1=adjacent) */
  char *aLeft, int nLeft,         /* Left doclist */
  char *aRight, int *pnRight      /* IN/OUT: Right/output doclist */
){
  sqlite3_int64 i1 = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 i2 = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 iPrev = 0;
  char *pEnd1 = &aLeft[nLeft];
  char *pEnd2 = &aRight[*pnRight];
  char *p1 = aLeft;
  char *p2 = aRight;
  char *p;
  int bFirstOut = 0;
  char *aOut = aRight;

  assert( nDist>0 );

  p = aOut;
  fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p1, pEnd1, 0, &i1);
  fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p2, pEnd2, 0, &i2);

  while( p1 && p2 ){
    sqlite3_int64 iDiff = DOCID_CMP(i1, i2);
    if( iDiff==0 ){
      char *pSave = p;
      sqlite3_int64 iPrevSave = iPrev;
      int bFirstOutSave = bFirstOut;

      fts3PutDeltaVarint3(&p, bDescDoclist, &iPrev, &bFirstOut, i1);
      if( 0==fts3PoslistPhraseMerge(&p, nDist, 0, 1, &p1, &p2) ){
        p = pSave;
        iPrev = iPrevSave;
        bFirstOut = bFirstOutSave;
      }
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p1, pEnd1, bDescDoclist, &i1);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p2, pEnd2, bDescDoclist, &i2);
    }else if( iDiff<0 ){
      fts3PoslistCopy(0, &p1);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p1, pEnd1, bDescDoclist, &i1);
    }else{
      fts3PoslistCopy(0, &p2);
      fts3GetDeltaVarint3(&p2, pEnd2, bDescDoclist, &i2);
    }
  }

  *pnRight = p - aOut;
}


/*
** Merge all doclists in the TermSelect.aaOutput[] array into a single
** doclist stored in TermSelect.aaOutput[0]. If successful, delete all
** other doclists (except the aaOutput[0] one) and return SQLITE_OK.
**
** If an OOM error occurs, return SQLITE_NOMEM. In this case it is
** the responsibility of the caller to free any doclists left in the
** TermSelect.aaOutput[] array.
*/
static int fts3TermSelectFinishMerge(Fts3Table *p, TermSelect *pTS){
  char *aOut = 0;
  int nOut = 0;
  int i;

  /* Loop through the doclists in the aaOutput[] array. Merge them all
  ** into a single doclist.
  */
  for(i=0; i<SizeofArray(pTS->aaOutput); i++){
    if( pTS->aaOutput[i] ){
      if( !aOut ){
        aOut = pTS->aaOutput[i];
        nOut = pTS->anOutput[i];
        pTS->aaOutput[i] = 0;
      }else{
        int nNew;
        char *aNew;

        int rc = fts3DoclistOrMerge(p->bDescIdx, 
            pTS->aaOutput[i], pTS->anOutput[i], aOut, nOut, &aNew, &nNew
        );
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
          sqlite3_free(aOut);
          return rc;
        }

        sqlite3_free(pTS->aaOutput[i]);
        sqlite3_free(aOut);
        pTS->aaOutput[i] = 0;
        aOut = aNew;
        nOut = nNew;
      }
    }
  }

  pTS->aaOutput[0] = aOut;
  pTS->anOutput[0] = nOut;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Merge the doclist aDoclist/nDoclist into the TermSelect object passed
** as the first argument. The merge is an "OR" merge (see function
** fts3DoclistOrMerge() for details).
**
** This function is called with the doclist for each term that matches
** a queried prefix. It merges all these doclists into one, the doclist
** for the specified prefix. Since there can be a very large number of
** doclists to merge, the merging is done pair-wise using the TermSelect
** object.
**
** This function returns SQLITE_OK if the merge is successful, or an
** SQLite error code (SQLITE_NOMEM) if an error occurs.
*/
static int fts3TermSelectMerge(
  Fts3Table *p,                   /* FTS table handle */
  TermSelect *pTS,                /* TermSelect object to merge into */
  char *aDoclist,                 /* Pointer to doclist */
  int nDoclist                    /* Size of aDoclist in bytes */
){
  if( pTS->aaOutput[0]==0 ){
    /* If this is the first term selected, copy the doclist to the output
    ** buffer using memcpy(). */
    pTS->aaOutput[0] = sqlite3_malloc(nDoclist);
    pTS->anOutput[0] = nDoclist;
    if( pTS->aaOutput[0] ){
      memcpy(pTS->aaOutput[0], aDoclist, nDoclist);
    }else{
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
  }else{
    char *aMerge = aDoclist;
    int nMerge = nDoclist;
    int iOut;

    for(iOut=0; iOut<SizeofArray(pTS->aaOutput); iOut++){
      if( pTS->aaOutput[iOut]==0 ){
        assert( iOut>0 );
        pTS->aaOutput[iOut] = aMerge;
        pTS->anOutput[iOut] = nMerge;
        break;
      }else{
        char *aNew;
        int nNew;

        int rc = fts3DoclistOrMerge(p->bDescIdx, aMerge, nMerge, 
            pTS->aaOutput[iOut], pTS->anOutput[iOut], &aNew, &nNew
        );
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
          if( aMerge!=aDoclist ) sqlite3_free(aMerge);
          return rc;
        }

        if( aMerge!=aDoclist ) sqlite3_free(aMerge);
        sqlite3_free(pTS->aaOutput[iOut]);
        pTS->aaOutput[iOut] = 0;
  
        aMerge = aNew;
        nMerge = nNew;
        if( (iOut+1)==SizeofArray(pTS->aaOutput) ){
          pTS->aaOutput[iOut] = aMerge;
          pTS->anOutput[iOut] = nMerge;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Append SegReader object pNew to the end of the pCsr->apSegment[] array.
*/
static int fts3SegReaderCursorAppend(
  Fts3MultiSegReader *pCsr, 
  Fts3SegReader *pNew
){
  if( (pCsr->nSegment%16)==0 ){
    Fts3SegReader **apNew;
    int nByte = (pCsr->nSegment + 16)*sizeof(Fts3SegReader*);
    apNew = (Fts3SegReader **)sqlite3_realloc(pCsr->apSegment, nByte);
    if( !apNew ){
      sqlite3Fts3SegReaderFree(pNew);
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
    pCsr->apSegment = apNew;
  }
  pCsr->apSegment[pCsr->nSegment++] = pNew;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Add seg-reader objects to the Fts3MultiSegReader object passed as the
** 8th argument.
**
** This function returns SQLITE_OK if successful, or an SQLite error code
** otherwise.
*/
static int fts3SegReaderCursor(
  Fts3Table *p,                   /* FTS3 table handle */
  int iIndex,                     /* Index to search (from 0 to p->nIndex-1) */
  int iLevel,                     /* Level of segments to scan */
  const char *zTerm,              /* Term to query for */
  int nTerm,                      /* Size of zTerm in bytes */
  int isPrefix,                   /* True for a prefix search */
  int isScan,                     /* True to scan from zTerm to EOF */
  Fts3MultiSegReader *pCsr        /* Cursor object to populate */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Error code */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;        /* Statement to iterate through segments */
  int rc2;                        /* Result of sqlite3_reset() */

  /* If iLevel is less than 0 and this is not a scan, include a seg-reader 
  ** for the pending-terms. If this is a scan, then this call must be being
  ** made by an fts4aux module, not an FTS table. In this case calling
  ** Fts3SegReaderPending might segfault, as the data structures used by 
  ** fts4aux are not completely populated. So it's easiest to filter these
  ** calls out here.  */
  if( iLevel<0 && p->aIndex ){
    Fts3SegReader *pSeg = 0;
    rc = sqlite3Fts3SegReaderPending(p, iIndex, zTerm, nTerm, isPrefix, &pSeg);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && pSeg ){
      rc = fts3SegReaderCursorAppend(pCsr, pSeg);
    }
  }

  if( iLevel!=FTS3_SEGCURSOR_PENDING ){
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = sqlite3Fts3AllSegdirs(p, iIndex, iLevel, &pStmt);
    }

    while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==(rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt)) ){
      Fts3SegReader *pSeg = 0;

      /* Read the values returned by the SELECT into local variables. */
      sqlite3_int64 iStartBlock = sqlite3_column_int64(pStmt, 1);
      sqlite3_int64 iLeavesEndBlock = sqlite3_column_int64(pStmt, 2);
      sqlite3_int64 iEndBlock = sqlite3_column_int64(pStmt, 3);
      int nRoot = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, 4);
      char const *zRoot = sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, 4);

      /* If zTerm is not NULL, and this segment is not stored entirely on its
      ** root node, the range of leaves scanned can be reduced. Do this. */
      if( iStartBlock && zTerm ){
        sqlite3_int64 *pi = (isPrefix ? &iLeavesEndBlock : 0);
        rc = fts3SelectLeaf(p, zTerm, nTerm, zRoot, nRoot, &iStartBlock, pi);
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto finished;
        if( isPrefix==0 && isScan==0 ) iLeavesEndBlock = iStartBlock;
      }
 
      rc = sqlite3Fts3SegReaderNew(pCsr->nSegment+1, 
          iStartBlock, iLeavesEndBlock, iEndBlock, zRoot, nRoot, &pSeg
      );
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto finished;
      rc = fts3SegReaderCursorAppend(pCsr, pSeg);
    }
  }

 finished:
  rc2 = sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
  if( rc==SQLITE_DONE ) rc = rc2;

  return rc;
}

/*
** Set up a cursor object for iterating through a full-text index or a 
** single level therein.
*/
int sqlite3Fts3SegReaderCursor(
  Fts3Table *p,                   /* FTS3 table handle */
  int iIndex,                     /* Index to search (from 0 to p->nIndex-1) */
  int iLevel,                     /* Level of segments to scan */
  const char *zTerm,              /* Term to query for */
  int nTerm,                      /* Size of zTerm in bytes */
  int isPrefix,                   /* True for a prefix search */
  int isScan,                     /* True to scan from zTerm to EOF */
  Fts3MultiSegReader *pCsr       /* Cursor object to populate */
){
  assert( iIndex>=0 && iIndex<p->nIndex );
  assert( iLevel==FTS3_SEGCURSOR_ALL
      ||  iLevel==FTS3_SEGCURSOR_PENDING 
      ||  iLevel>=0
  );
  assert( iLevel<FTS3_SEGDIR_MAXLEVEL );
  assert( FTS3_SEGCURSOR_ALL<0 && FTS3_SEGCURSOR_PENDING<0 );
  assert( isPrefix==0 || isScan==0 );

  /* "isScan" is only set to true by the ft4aux module, an ordinary
  ** full-text tables. */
  assert( isScan==0 || p->aIndex==0 );

  memset(pCsr, 0, sizeof(Fts3MultiSegReader));

  return fts3SegReaderCursor(
      p, iIndex, iLevel, zTerm, nTerm, isPrefix, isScan, pCsr
  );
}

/*
** In addition to its current configuration, have the Fts3MultiSegReader
** passed as the 4th argument also scan the doclist for term zTerm/nTerm.
**
** SQLITE_OK is returned if no error occurs, otherwise an SQLite error code.
*/
static int fts3SegReaderCursorAddZero(
  Fts3Table *p,                   /* FTS virtual table handle */
  const char *zTerm,              /* Term to scan doclist of */
  int nTerm,                      /* Number of bytes in zTerm */
  Fts3MultiSegReader *pCsr        /* Fts3MultiSegReader to modify */
){
  return fts3SegReaderCursor(p, 0, FTS3_SEGCURSOR_ALL, zTerm, nTerm, 0, 0,pCsr);
}

/*
** Open an Fts3MultiSegReader to scan the doclist for term zTerm/nTerm. Or,
** if isPrefix is true, to scan the doclist for all terms for which 
** zTerm/nTerm is a prefix. If successful, return SQLITE_OK and write
** a pointer to the new Fts3MultiSegReader to *ppSegcsr. Otherwise, return
** an SQLite error code.
**
** It is the responsibility of the caller to free this object by eventually
** passing it to fts3SegReaderCursorFree() 
**
** SQLITE_OK is returned if no error occurs, otherwise an SQLite error code.
** Output parameter *ppSegcsr is set to 0 if an error occurs.
*/
static int fts3TermSegReaderCursor(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* Virtual table cursor handle */
  const char *zTerm,              /* Term to query for */
  int nTerm,                      /* Size of zTerm in bytes */
  int isPrefix,                   /* True for a prefix search */
  Fts3MultiSegReader **ppSegcsr   /* OUT: Allocated seg-reader cursor */
){
  Fts3MultiSegReader *pSegcsr;    /* Object to allocate and return */
  int rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;          /* Return code */

  pSegcsr = sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(Fts3MultiSegReader));
  if( pSegcsr ){
    int i;
    int bFound = 0;               /* True once an index has been found */
    Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;

    if( isPrefix ){
      for(i=1; bFound==0 && i<p->nIndex; i++){
        if( p->aIndex[i].nPrefix==nTerm ){
          bFound = 1;
          rc = sqlite3Fts3SegReaderCursor(
              p, i, FTS3_SEGCURSOR_ALL, zTerm, nTerm, 0, 0, pSegcsr);
          pSegcsr->bLookup = 1;
        }
      }

      for(i=1; bFound==0 && i<p->nIndex; i++){
        if( p->aIndex[i].nPrefix==nTerm+1 ){
          bFound = 1;
          rc = sqlite3Fts3SegReaderCursor(
              p, i, FTS3_SEGCURSOR_ALL, zTerm, nTerm, 1, 0, pSegcsr
          );
          if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
            rc = fts3SegReaderCursorAddZero(p, zTerm, nTerm, pSegcsr);
          }
        }
      }
    }

    if( bFound==0 ){
      rc = sqlite3Fts3SegReaderCursor(
          p, 0, FTS3_SEGCURSOR_ALL, zTerm, nTerm, isPrefix, 0, pSegcsr
      );
      pSegcsr->bLookup = !isPrefix;
    }
  }

  *ppSegcsr = pSegcsr;
  return rc;
}

/*
** Free an Fts3MultiSegReader allocated by fts3TermSegReaderCursor().
*/
static void fts3SegReaderCursorFree(Fts3MultiSegReader *pSegcsr){
  sqlite3Fts3SegReaderFinish(pSegcsr);
  sqlite3_free(pSegcsr);
}

/*
** This function retreives the doclist for the specified term (or term
** prefix) from the database.
*/
static int fts3TermSelect(
  Fts3Table *p,                   /* Virtual table handle */
  Fts3PhraseToken *pTok,          /* Token to query for */
  int iColumn,                    /* Column to query (or -ve for all columns) */
  int *pnOut,                     /* OUT: Size of buffer at *ppOut */
  char **ppOut                    /* OUT: Malloced result buffer */
){
  int rc;                         /* Return code */
  Fts3MultiSegReader *pSegcsr;    /* Seg-reader cursor for this term */
  TermSelect tsc;                 /* Object for pair-wise doclist merging */
  Fts3SegFilter filter;           /* Segment term filter configuration */

  pSegcsr = pTok->pSegcsr;
  memset(&tsc, 0, sizeof(TermSelect));

  filter.flags = FTS3_SEGMENT_IGNORE_EMPTY | FTS3_SEGMENT_REQUIRE_POS
        | (pTok->isPrefix ? FTS3_SEGMENT_PREFIX : 0)
        | (iColumn<p->nColumn ? FTS3_SEGMENT_COLUMN_FILTER : 0);
  filter.iCol = iColumn;
  filter.zTerm = pTok->z;
  filter.nTerm = pTok->n;

  rc = sqlite3Fts3SegReaderStart(p, pSegcsr, &filter);
  while( SQLITE_OK==rc
      && SQLITE_ROW==(rc = sqlite3Fts3SegReaderStep(p, pSegcsr)) 
  ){
    rc = fts3TermSelectMerge(p, &tsc, pSegcsr->aDoclist, pSegcsr->nDoclist);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = fts3TermSelectFinishMerge(p, &tsc);
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    *ppOut = tsc.aaOutput[0];
    *pnOut = tsc.anOutput[0];
  }else{
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<SizeofArray(tsc.aaOutput); i++){
      sqlite3_free(tsc.aaOutput[i]);
    }
  }

  fts3SegReaderCursorFree(pSegcsr);
  pTok->pSegcsr = 0;
  return rc;
}

/*
** This function counts the total number of docids in the doclist stored
** in buffer aList[], size nList bytes.
**
** If the isPoslist argument is true, then it is assumed that the doclist
** contains a position-list following each docid. Otherwise, it is assumed
** that the doclist is simply a list of docids stored as delta encoded 
** varints.
*/
static int fts3DoclistCountDocids(char *aList, int nList){
  int nDoc = 0;                   /* Return value */
  if( aList ){
    char *aEnd = &aList[nList];   /* Pointer to one byte after EOF */
    char *p = aList;              /* Cursor */
    while( p<aEnd ){
      nDoc++;
      while( (*p++)&0x80 );     /* Skip docid varint */
      fts3PoslistCopy(0, &p);   /* Skip over position list */
    }
  }

  return nDoc;
}

/*
** Advance the cursor to the next row in the %_content table that
** matches the search criteria.  For a MATCH search, this will be
** the next row that matches. For a full-table scan, this will be
** simply the next row in the %_content table.  For a docid lookup,
** this routine simply sets the EOF flag.
**
** Return SQLITE_OK if nothing goes wrong.  SQLITE_OK is returned
** even if we reach end-of-file.  The fts3EofMethod() will be called
** subsequently to determine whether or not an EOF was hit.
*/
static int fts3NextMethod(sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pCursor){
  int rc;
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr = (Fts3Cursor *)pCursor;
  if( pCsr->eSearch==FTS3_DOCID_SEARCH || pCsr->eSearch==FTS3_FULLSCAN_SEARCH ){
    if( SQLITE_ROW!=sqlite3_step(pCsr->pStmt) ){
      pCsr->isEof = 1;
      rc = sqlite3_reset(pCsr->pStmt);
    }else{
      pCsr->iPrevId = sqlite3_column_int64(pCsr->pStmt, 0);
      rc = SQLITE_OK;
    }
  }else{
    rc = fts3EvalNext((Fts3Cursor *)pCursor);
  }
  assert( ((Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab)->pSegments==0 );
  return rc;
}

/*
** This is the xFilter interface for the virtual table.  See
** the virtual table xFilter method documentation for additional
** information.
**
** If idxNum==FTS3_FULLSCAN_SEARCH then do a full table scan against
** the %_content table.
**
** If idxNum==FTS3_DOCID_SEARCH then do a docid lookup for a single entry
** in the %_content table.
**
** If idxNum>=FTS3_FULLTEXT_SEARCH then use the full text index.  The
** column on the left-hand side of the MATCH operator is column
** number idxNum-FTS3_FULLTEXT_SEARCH, 0 indexed.  argv[0] is the right-hand
** side of the MATCH operator.
*/
static int fts3FilterMethod(
  sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pCursor,   /* The cursor used for this query */
  int idxNum,                     /* Strategy index */
  const char *idxStr,             /* Unused */
  int nVal,                       /* Number of elements in apVal */
  sqlite3_value **apVal           /* Arguments for the indexing scheme */
){
  int rc;
  char *zSql;                     /* SQL statement used to access %_content */
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table *)pCursor->pVtab;
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr = (Fts3Cursor *)pCursor;

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(idxStr);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(nVal);

  assert( idxNum>=0 && idxNum<=(FTS3_FULLTEXT_SEARCH+p->nColumn) );
  assert( nVal==0 || nVal==1 );
  assert( (nVal==0)==(idxNum==FTS3_FULLSCAN_SEARCH) );
  assert( p->pSegments==0 );

  /* In case the cursor has been used before, clear it now. */
  sqlite3_finalize(pCsr->pStmt);
  sqlite3_free(pCsr->aDoclist);
  sqlite3Fts3ExprFree(pCsr->pExpr);
  memset(&pCursor[1], 0, sizeof(Fts3Cursor)-sizeof(sqlite3_vtab_cursor));

  if( idxStr ){
    pCsr->bDesc = (idxStr[0]=='D');
  }else{
    pCsr->bDesc = p->bDescIdx;
  }
  pCsr->eSearch = (i16)idxNum;

  if( idxNum!=FTS3_DOCID_SEARCH && idxNum!=FTS3_FULLSCAN_SEARCH ){
    int iCol = idxNum-FTS3_FULLTEXT_SEARCH;
    const char *zQuery = (const char *)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[0]);

    if( zQuery==0 && sqlite3_value_type(apVal[0])!=SQLITE_NULL ){
      return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }

    rc = sqlite3Fts3ExprParse(p->pTokenizer, p->azColumn, p->nColumn, 
        iCol, zQuery, -1, &pCsr->pExpr
    );
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      if( rc==SQLITE_ERROR ){
        static const char *zErr = "malformed MATCH expression: [%s]";
        p->base.zErrMsg = sqlite3_mprintf(zErr, zQuery);
      }
      return rc;
    }

    rc = sqlite3Fts3ReadLock(p);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;

    rc = fts3EvalStart(pCsr);

    sqlite3Fts3SegmentsClose(p);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
    pCsr->pNextId = pCsr->aDoclist;
    pCsr->iPrevId = 0;
  }

  /* Compile a SELECT statement for this cursor. For a full-table-scan, the
  ** statement loops through all rows of the %_content table. For a
  ** full-text query or docid lookup, the statement retrieves a single
  ** row by docid.
  */
  if( idxNum==FTS3_FULLSCAN_SEARCH ){
    const char *zSort = (pCsr->bDesc ? "DESC" : "ASC");
    const char *zTmpl = "SELECT %s FROM %Q.'%q_content' AS x ORDER BY docid %s";
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(zTmpl, p->zReadExprlist, p->zDb, p->zName, zSort);
  }else{
    const char *zTmpl = "SELECT %s FROM %Q.'%q_content' AS x WHERE docid = ?";
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(zTmpl, p->zReadExprlist, p->zDb, p->zName);
  }
  if( !zSql ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pCsr->pStmt, 0);
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;

  if( idxNum==FTS3_DOCID_SEARCH ){
    rc = sqlite3_bind_value(pCsr->pStmt, 1, apVal[0]);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  }

  return fts3NextMethod(pCursor);
}

/* 
** This is the xEof method of the virtual table. SQLite calls this 
** routine to find out if it has reached the end of a result set.
*/
static int fts3EofMethod(sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pCursor){
  return ((Fts3Cursor *)pCursor)->isEof;
}

/* 
** This is the xRowid method. The SQLite core calls this routine to
** retrieve the rowid for the current row of the result set. fts3
** exposes %_content.docid as the rowid for the virtual table. The
** rowid should be written to *pRowid.
*/
static int fts3RowidMethod(sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pCursor, sqlite_int64 *pRowid){
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr = (Fts3Cursor *) pCursor;
  *pRowid = pCsr->iPrevId;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/* 
** This is the xColumn method, called by SQLite to request a value from
** the row that the supplied cursor currently points to.
*/
static int fts3ColumnMethod(
  sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pCursor,   /* Cursor to retrieve value from */
  sqlite3_context *pContext,      /* Context for sqlite3_result_xxx() calls */
  int iCol                        /* Index of column to read value from */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return Code */
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr = (Fts3Cursor *) pCursor;
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table *)pCursor->pVtab;

  /* The column value supplied by SQLite must be in range. */
  assert( iCol>=0 && iCol<=p->nColumn+1 );

  if( iCol==p->nColumn+1 ){
    /* This call is a request for the "docid" column. Since "docid" is an 
    ** alias for "rowid", use the xRowid() method to obtain the value.
    */
    sqlite3_result_int64(pContext, pCsr->iPrevId);
  }else if( iCol==p->nColumn ){
    /* The extra column whose name is the same as the table.
    ** Return a blob which is a pointer to the cursor.
    */
    sqlite3_result_blob(pContext, &pCsr, sizeof(pCsr), SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
  }else{
    rc = fts3CursorSeek(0, pCsr);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      sqlite3_result_value(pContext, sqlite3_column_value(pCsr->pStmt, iCol+1));
    }
  }

  assert( ((Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab)->pSegments==0 );
  return rc;
}

/* 
** This function is the implementation of the xUpdate callback used by 
** FTS3 virtual tables. It is invoked by SQLite each time a row is to be
** inserted, updated or deleted.
*/
static int fts3UpdateMethod(
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab,            /* Virtual table handle */
  int nArg,                       /* Size of argument array */
  sqlite3_value **apVal,          /* Array of arguments */
  sqlite_int64 *pRowid            /* OUT: The affected (or effected) rowid */
){
  return sqlite3Fts3UpdateMethod(pVtab, nArg, apVal, pRowid);
}

/*
** Implementation of xSync() method. Flush the contents of the pending-terms
** hash-table to the database.
*/
static int fts3SyncMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab){
  int rc = sqlite3Fts3PendingTermsFlush((Fts3Table *)pVtab);
  sqlite3Fts3SegmentsClose((Fts3Table *)pVtab);
  return rc;
}

/*
** Implementation of xBegin() method. This is a no-op.
*/
static int fts3BeginMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab){
  TESTONLY( Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table*)pVtab );
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVtab);
  assert( p->pSegments==0 );
  assert( p->nPendingData==0 );
  assert( p->inTransaction!=1 );
  TESTONLY( p->inTransaction = 1 );
  TESTONLY( p->mxSavepoint = -1; );
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Implementation of xCommit() method. This is a no-op. The contents of
** the pending-terms hash-table have already been flushed into the database
** by fts3SyncMethod().
*/
static int fts3CommitMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab){
  TESTONLY( Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table*)pVtab );
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVtab);
  assert( p->nPendingData==0 );
  assert( p->inTransaction!=0 );
  assert( p->pSegments==0 );
  TESTONLY( p->inTransaction = 0 );
  TESTONLY( p->mxSavepoint = -1; );
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Implementation of xRollback(). Discard the contents of the pending-terms
** hash-table. Any changes made to the database are reverted by SQLite.
*/
static int fts3RollbackMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab){
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table*)pVtab;
  sqlite3Fts3PendingTermsClear(p);
  assert( p->inTransaction!=0 );
  TESTONLY( p->inTransaction = 0 );
  TESTONLY( p->mxSavepoint = -1; );
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** When called, *ppPoslist must point to the byte immediately following the
** end of a position-list. i.e. ( (*ppPoslist)[-1]==POS_END ). This function
** moves *ppPoslist so that it instead points to the first byte of the
** same position list.
*/
static void fts3ReversePoslist(char *pStart, char **ppPoslist){
  char *p = &(*ppPoslist)[-2];
  char c;

  while( p>pStart && (c=*p--)==0 );
  while( p>pStart && (*p & 0x80) | c ){ 
    c = *p--; 
  }
  if( p>pStart ){ p = &p[2]; }
  while( *p++&0x80 );
  *ppPoslist = p;
}

/*
** Helper function used by the implementation of the overloaded snippet(),
** offsets() and optimize() SQL functions.
**
** If the value passed as the third argument is a blob of size
** sizeof(Fts3Cursor*), then the blob contents are copied to the 
** output variable *ppCsr and SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an error
** message is written to context pContext and SQLITE_ERROR returned. The
** string passed via zFunc is used as part of the error message.
*/
static int fts3FunctionArg(
  sqlite3_context *pContext,      /* SQL function call context */
  const char *zFunc,              /* Function name */
  sqlite3_value *pVal,            /* argv[0] passed to function */
  Fts3Cursor **ppCsr              /* OUT: Store cursor handle here */
){
  Fts3Cursor *pRet;
  if( sqlite3_value_type(pVal)!=SQLITE_BLOB 
   || sqlite3_value_bytes(pVal)!=sizeof(Fts3Cursor *)
  ){
    char *zErr = sqlite3_mprintf("illegal first argument to %s", zFunc);
    sqlite3_result_error(pContext, zErr, -1);
    sqlite3_free(zErr);
    return SQLITE_ERROR;
  }
  memcpy(&pRet, sqlite3_value_blob(pVal), sizeof(Fts3Cursor *));
  *ppCsr = pRet;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Implementation of the snippet() function for FTS3
*/
static void fts3SnippetFunc(
  sqlite3_context *pContext,      /* SQLite function call context */
  int nVal,                       /* Size of apVal[] array */
  sqlite3_value **apVal           /* Array of arguments */
){
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr;               /* Cursor handle passed through apVal[0] */
  const char *zStart = "<b>";
  const char *zEnd = "</b>";
  const char *zEllipsis = "<b>...</b>";
  int iCol = -1;
  int nToken = 15;                /* Default number of tokens in snippet */

  /* There must be at least one argument passed to this function (otherwise
  ** the non-overloaded version would have been called instead of this one).
  */
  assert( nVal>=1 );

  if( nVal>6 ){
    sqlite3_result_error(pContext, 
        "wrong number of arguments to function snippet()", -1);
    return;
  }
  if( fts3FunctionArg(pContext, "snippet", apVal[0], &pCsr) ) return;

  switch( nVal ){
    case 6: nToken = sqlite3_value_int(apVal[5]);
    case 5: iCol = sqlite3_value_int(apVal[4]);
    case 4: zEllipsis = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[3]);
    case 3: zEnd = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[2]);
    case 2: zStart = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[1]);
  }
  if( !zEllipsis || !zEnd || !zStart ){
    sqlite3_result_error_nomem(pContext);
  }else if( SQLITE_OK==fts3CursorSeek(pContext, pCsr) ){
    sqlite3Fts3Snippet(pContext, pCsr, zStart, zEnd, zEllipsis, iCol, nToken);
  }
}

/*
** Implementation of the offsets() function for FTS3
*/
static void fts3OffsetsFunc(
  sqlite3_context *pContext,      /* SQLite function call context */
  int nVal,                       /* Size of argument array */
  sqlite3_value **apVal           /* Array of arguments */
){
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr;               /* Cursor handle passed through apVal[0] */

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(nVal);

  assert( nVal==1 );
  if( fts3FunctionArg(pContext, "offsets", apVal[0], &pCsr) ) return;
  assert( pCsr );
  if( SQLITE_OK==fts3CursorSeek(pContext, pCsr) ){
    sqlite3Fts3Offsets(pContext, pCsr);
  }
}

/* 
** Implementation of the special optimize() function for FTS3. This 
** function merges all segments in the database to a single segment.
** Example usage is:
**
**   SELECT optimize(t) FROM t LIMIT 1;
**
** where 't' is the name of an FTS3 table.
*/
static void fts3OptimizeFunc(
  sqlite3_context *pContext,      /* SQLite function call context */
  int nVal,                       /* Size of argument array */
  sqlite3_value **apVal           /* Array of arguments */
){
  int rc;                         /* Return code */
  Fts3Table *p;                   /* Virtual table handle */
  Fts3Cursor *pCursor;            /* Cursor handle passed through apVal[0] */

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(nVal);

  assert( nVal==1 );
  if( fts3FunctionArg(pContext, "optimize", apVal[0], &pCursor) ) return;
  p = (Fts3Table *)pCursor->base.pVtab;
  assert( p );

  rc = sqlite3Fts3Optimize(p);

  switch( rc ){
    case SQLITE_OK:
      sqlite3_result_text(pContext, "Index optimized", -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
      break;
    case SQLITE_DONE:
      sqlite3_result_text(pContext, "Index already optimal", -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
      break;
    default:
      sqlite3_result_error_code(pContext, rc);
      break;
  }
}

/*
** Implementation of the matchinfo() function for FTS3
*/
static void fts3MatchinfoFunc(
  sqlite3_context *pContext,      /* SQLite function call context */
  int nVal,                       /* Size of argument array */
  sqlite3_value **apVal           /* Array of arguments */
){
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr;               /* Cursor handle passed through apVal[0] */
  assert( nVal==1 || nVal==2 );
  if( SQLITE_OK==fts3FunctionArg(pContext, "matchinfo", apVal[0], &pCsr) ){
    const char *zArg = 0;
    if( nVal>1 ){
      zArg = (const char *)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[1]);
    }
    sqlite3Fts3Matchinfo(pContext, pCsr, zArg);
  }
}

/*
** This routine implements the xFindFunction method for the FTS3
** virtual table.
*/
static int fts3FindFunctionMethod(
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab,            /* Virtual table handle */
  int nArg,                       /* Number of SQL function arguments */
  const char *zName,              /* Name of SQL function */
  void (**pxFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**), /* OUT: Result */
  void **ppArg                    /* Unused */
){
  struct Overloaded {
    const char *zName;
    void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
  } aOverload[] = {
    { "snippet", fts3SnippetFunc },
    { "offsets", fts3OffsetsFunc },
    { "optimize", fts3OptimizeFunc },
    { "matchinfo", fts3MatchinfoFunc },
  };
  int i;                          /* Iterator variable */

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVtab);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(nArg);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(ppArg);

  for(i=0; i<SizeofArray(aOverload); i++){
    if( strcmp(zName, aOverload[i].zName)==0 ){
      *pxFunc = aOverload[i].xFunc;
      return 1;
    }
  }

  /* No function of the specified name was found. Return 0. */
  return 0;
}

/*
** Implementation of FTS3 xRename method. Rename an fts3 table.
*/
static int fts3RenameMethod(
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab,            /* Virtual table handle */
  const char *zName               /* New name of table */
){
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table *)pVtab;
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;            /* Database connection */
  int rc;                         /* Return Code */

  rc = sqlite3Fts3PendingTermsFlush(p);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    return rc;
  }

  fts3DbExec(&rc, db,
    "ALTER TABLE %Q.'%q_content'  RENAME TO '%q_content';",
    p->zDb, p->zName, zName
  );
  if( p->bHasDocsize ){
    fts3DbExec(&rc, db,
      "ALTER TABLE %Q.'%q_docsize'  RENAME TO '%q_docsize';",
      p->zDb, p->zName, zName
    );
  }
  if( p->bHasStat ){
    fts3DbExec(&rc, db,
      "ALTER TABLE %Q.'%q_stat'  RENAME TO '%q_stat';",
      p->zDb, p->zName, zName
    );
  }
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db,
    "ALTER TABLE %Q.'%q_segments' RENAME TO '%q_segments';",
    p->zDb, p->zName, zName
  );
  fts3DbExec(&rc, db,
    "ALTER TABLE %Q.'%q_segdir'   RENAME TO '%q_segdir';",
    p->zDb, p->zName, zName
  );
  return rc;
}

/*
** The xSavepoint() method.
**
** Flush the contents of the pending-terms table to disk.
*/
static int fts3SavepointMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int iSavepoint){
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(iSavepoint);
  assert( ((Fts3Table *)pVtab)->inTransaction );
  assert( ((Fts3Table *)pVtab)->mxSavepoint < iSavepoint );
  TESTONLY( ((Fts3Table *)pVtab)->mxSavepoint = iSavepoint );
  return fts3SyncMethod(pVtab);
}

/*
** The xRelease() method.
**
** This is a no-op.
*/
static int fts3ReleaseMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int iSavepoint){
  TESTONLY( Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table*)pVtab );
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(iSavepoint);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pVtab);
  assert( p->inTransaction );
  assert( p->mxSavepoint >= iSavepoint );
  TESTONLY( p->mxSavepoint = iSavepoint-1 );
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** The xRollbackTo() method.
**
** Discard the contents of the pending terms table.
*/
static int fts3RollbackToMethod(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int iSavepoint){
  Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table*)pVtab;
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(iSavepoint);
  assert( p->inTransaction );
  assert( p->mxSavepoint >= iSavepoint );
  TESTONLY( p->mxSavepoint = iSavepoint );
  sqlite3Fts3PendingTermsClear(p);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

static const sqlite3_module fts3Module = {
  /* iVersion      */ 2,
  /* xCreate       */ fts3CreateMethod,
  /* xConnect      */ fts3ConnectMethod,
  /* xBestIndex    */ fts3BestIndexMethod,
  /* xDisconnect   */ fts3DisconnectMethod,
  /* xDestroy      */ fts3DestroyMethod,
  /* xOpen         */ fts3OpenMethod,
  /* xClose        */ fts3CloseMethod,
  /* xFilter       */ fts3FilterMethod,
  /* xNext         */ fts3NextMethod,
  /* xEof          */ fts3EofMethod,
  /* xColumn       */ fts3ColumnMethod,
  /* xRowid        */ fts3RowidMethod,
  /* xUpdate       */ fts3UpdateMethod,
  /* xBegin        */ fts3BeginMethod,
  /* xSync         */ fts3SyncMethod,
  /* xCommit       */ fts3CommitMethod,
  /* xRollback     */ fts3RollbackMethod,
  /* xFindFunction */ fts3FindFunctionMethod,
  /* xRename */       fts3RenameMethod,
  /* xSavepoint    */ fts3SavepointMethod,
  /* xRelease      */ fts3ReleaseMethod,
  /* xRollbackTo   */ fts3RollbackToMethod,
};

/*
** This function is registered as the module destructor (called when an
** FTS3 enabled database connection is closed). It frees the memory
** allocated for the tokenizer hash table.
*/
static void hashDestroy(void *p){
  Fts3Hash *pHash = (Fts3Hash *)p;
  sqlite3Fts3HashClear(pHash);
  sqlite3_free(pHash);
}

/*
** The fts3 built-in tokenizers - "simple", "porter" and "icu"- are 
** implemented in files fts3_tokenizer1.c, fts3_porter.c and fts3_icu.c
** respectively. The following three forward declarations are for functions
** declared in these files used to retrieve the respective implementations.
**
** Calling sqlite3Fts3SimpleTokenizerModule() sets the value pointed
** to by the argument to point to the "simple" tokenizer implementation.
** And so on.
*/
void sqlite3Fts3SimpleTokenizerModule(sqlite3_tokenizer_module const**ppModule);
void sqlite3Fts3PorterTokenizerModule(sqlite3_tokenizer_module const**ppModule);
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_ICU
void sqlite3Fts3IcuTokenizerModule(sqlite3_tokenizer_module const**ppModule);
#endif

/*
** Initialise the fts3 extension. If this extension is built as part
** of the sqlite library, then this function is called directly by
** SQLite. If fts3 is built as a dynamically loadable extension, this
** function is called by the sqlite3_extension_init() entry point.
*/
int sqlite3Fts3Init(sqlite3 *db){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  Fts3Hash *pHash = 0;
  const sqlite3_tokenizer_module *pSimple = 0;
  const sqlite3_tokenizer_module *pPorter = 0;

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_ICU
  const sqlite3_tokenizer_module *pIcu = 0;
  sqlite3Fts3IcuTokenizerModule(&pIcu);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
  rc = sqlite3Fts3InitTerm(db);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
#endif

  rc = sqlite3Fts3InitAux(db);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;

  sqlite3Fts3SimpleTokenizerModule(&pSimple);
  sqlite3Fts3PorterTokenizerModule(&pPorter);

  /* Allocate and initialise the hash-table used to store tokenizers. */
  pHash = sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(Fts3Hash));
  if( !pHash ){
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }else{
    sqlite3Fts3HashInit(pHash, FTS3_HASH_STRING, 1);
  }

  /* Load the built-in tokenizers into the hash table */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    if( sqlite3Fts3HashInsert(pHash, "simple", 7, (void *)pSimple)
     || sqlite3Fts3HashInsert(pHash, "porter", 7, (void *)pPorter) 
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_ICU
     || (pIcu && sqlite3Fts3HashInsert(pHash, "icu", 4, (void *)pIcu))
#endif
    ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
  }

#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3Fts3ExprInitTestInterface(db);
  }
#endif

  /* Create the virtual table wrapper around the hash-table and overload 
  ** the two scalar functions. If this is successful, register the
  ** module with sqlite.
  */
  if( SQLITE_OK==rc 
   && SQLITE_OK==(rc = sqlite3Fts3InitHashTable(db, pHash, "fts3_tokenizer"))
   && SQLITE_OK==(rc = sqlite3_overload_function(db, "snippet", -1))
   && SQLITE_OK==(rc = sqlite3_overload_function(db, "offsets", 1))
   && SQLITE_OK==(rc = sqlite3_overload_function(db, "matchinfo", 1))
   && SQLITE_OK==(rc = sqlite3_overload_function(db, "matchinfo", 2))
   && SQLITE_OK==(rc = sqlite3_overload_function(db, "optimize", 1))
  ){
    rc = sqlite3_create_module_v2(
        db, "fts3", &fts3Module, (void *)pHash, hashDestroy
    );
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = sqlite3_create_module_v2(
          db, "fts4", &fts3Module, (void *)pHash, 0
      );
    }
    return rc;
  }

  /* An error has occurred. Delete the hash table and return the error code. */
  assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK );
  if( pHash ){
    sqlite3Fts3HashClear(pHash);
    sqlite3_free(pHash);
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Allocate an Fts3MultiSegReader for each token in the expression headed
** by pExpr. 
**
** An Fts3SegReader object is a cursor that can seek or scan a range of
** entries within a single segment b-tree. An Fts3MultiSegReader uses multiple
** Fts3SegReader objects internally to provide an interface to seek or scan
** within the union of all segments of a b-tree. Hence the name.
**
** If the allocated Fts3MultiSegReader just seeks to a single entry in a
** segment b-tree (if the term is not a prefix or it is a prefix for which
** there exists prefix b-tree of the right length) then it may be traversed
** and merged incrementally. Otherwise, it has to be merged into an in-memory 
** doclist and then traversed.
*/
static void fts3EvalAllocateReaders(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS cursor handle */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,                /* Allocate readers for this expression */
  int *pnToken,                   /* OUT: Total number of tokens in phrase. */
  int *pnOr,                      /* OUT: Total number of OR nodes in expr. */
  int *pRc                        /* IN/OUT: Error code */
){
  if( pExpr && SQLITE_OK==*pRc ){
    if( pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_PHRASE ){
      int i;
      int nToken = pExpr->pPhrase->nToken;
      *pnToken += nToken;
      for(i=0; i<nToken; i++){
        Fts3PhraseToken *pToken = &pExpr->pPhrase->aToken[i];
        int rc = fts3TermSegReaderCursor(pCsr, 
            pToken->z, pToken->n, pToken->isPrefix, &pToken->pSegcsr
        );
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
          *pRc = rc;
          return;
        }
      }
      assert( pExpr->pPhrase->iDoclistToken==0 );
      pExpr->pPhrase->iDoclistToken = -1;
    }else{
      *pnOr += (pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_OR);
      fts3EvalAllocateReaders(pCsr, pExpr->pLeft, pnToken, pnOr, pRc);
      fts3EvalAllocateReaders(pCsr, pExpr->pRight, pnToken, pnOr, pRc);
    }
  }
}

/*
** Arguments pList/nList contain the doclist for token iToken of phrase p.
** It is merged into the main doclist stored in p->doclist.aAll/nAll.
**
** This function assumes that pList points to a buffer allocated using
** sqlite3_malloc(). This function takes responsibility for eventually
** freeing the buffer.
*/
static void fts3EvalPhraseMergeToken(
  Fts3Table *pTab,                /* FTS Table pointer */
  Fts3Phrase *p,                  /* Phrase to merge pList/nList into */
  int iToken,                     /* Token pList/nList corresponds to */
  char *pList,                    /* Pointer to doclist */
  int nList                       /* Number of bytes in pList */
){
  assert( iToken!=p->iDoclistToken );

  if( pList==0 ){
    sqlite3_free(p->doclist.aAll);
    p->doclist.aAll = 0;
    p->doclist.nAll = 0;
  }

  else if( p->iDoclistToken<0 ){
    p->doclist.aAll = pList;
    p->doclist.nAll = nList;
  }

  else if( p->doclist.aAll==0 ){
    sqlite3_free(pList);
  }

  else {
    char *pLeft;
    char *pRight;
    int nLeft;
    int nRight;
    int nDiff;

    if( p->iDoclistToken<iToken ){
      pLeft = p->doclist.aAll;
      nLeft = p->doclist.nAll;
      pRight = pList;
      nRight = nList;
      nDiff = iToken - p->iDoclistToken;
    }else{
      pRight = p->doclist.aAll;
      nRight = p->doclist.nAll;
      pLeft = pList;
      nLeft = nList;
      nDiff = p->iDoclistToken - iToken;
    }

    fts3DoclistPhraseMerge(pTab->bDescIdx, nDiff, pLeft, nLeft, pRight,&nRight);
    sqlite3_free(pLeft);
    p->doclist.aAll = pRight;
    p->doclist.nAll = nRight;
  }

  if( iToken>p->iDoclistToken ) p->iDoclistToken = iToken;
}

/*
** Load the doclist for phrase p into p->doclist.aAll/nAll. The loaded doclist
** does not take deferred tokens into account.
**
** SQLITE_OK is returned if no error occurs, otherwise an SQLite error code.
*/
static int fts3EvalPhraseLoad(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS Cursor handle */
  Fts3Phrase *p                   /* Phrase object */
){
  Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;
  int iToken;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;

  for(iToken=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && iToken<p->nToken; iToken++){
    Fts3PhraseToken *pToken = &p->aToken[iToken];
    assert( pToken->pDeferred==0 || pToken->pSegcsr==0 );

    if( pToken->pSegcsr ){
      int nThis = 0;
      char *pThis = 0;
      rc = fts3TermSelect(pTab, pToken, p->iColumn, &nThis, &pThis);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        fts3EvalPhraseMergeToken(pTab, p, iToken, pThis, nThis);
      }
    }
    assert( pToken->pSegcsr==0 );
  }

  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is called on each phrase after the position lists for
** any deferred tokens have been loaded into memory. It updates the phrases
** current position list to include only those positions that are really
** instances of the phrase (after considering deferred tokens). If this
** means that the phrase does not appear in the current row, doclist.pList
** and doclist.nList are both zeroed.
**
** SQLITE_OK is returned if no error occurs, otherwise an SQLite error code.
*/
static int fts3EvalDeferredPhrase(Fts3Cursor *pCsr, Fts3Phrase *pPhrase){
  int iToken;                     /* Used to iterate through phrase tokens */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  char *aPoslist = 0;             /* Position list for deferred tokens */
  int nPoslist = 0;               /* Number of bytes in aPoslist */
  int iPrev = -1;                 /* Token number of previous deferred token */

  assert( pPhrase->doclist.bFreeList==0 );

  for(iToken=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && iToken<pPhrase->nToken; iToken++){
    Fts3PhraseToken *pToken = &pPhrase->aToken[iToken];
    Fts3DeferredToken *pDeferred = pToken->pDeferred;

    if( pDeferred ){
      char *pList;
      int nList;
      rc = sqlite3Fts3DeferredTokenList(pDeferred, &pList, &nList);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;

      if( pList==0 ){
        sqlite3_free(aPoslist);
        pPhrase->doclist.pList = 0;
        pPhrase->doclist.nList = 0;
        return SQLITE_OK;

      }else if( aPoslist==0 ){
        aPoslist = pList;
        nPoslist = nList;

      }else{
        char *aOut = pList;
        char *p1 = aPoslist;
        char *p2 = aOut;

        assert( iPrev>=0 );
        fts3PoslistPhraseMerge(&aOut, iToken-iPrev, 0, 1, &p1, &p2);
        sqlite3_free(aPoslist);
        aPoslist = pList;
        nPoslist = aOut - aPoslist;
        if( nPoslist==0 ){
          sqlite3_free(aPoslist);
          pPhrase->doclist.pList = 0;
          pPhrase->doclist.nList = 0;
          return SQLITE_OK;
        }
      }
      iPrev = iToken;
    }
  }

  if( iPrev>=0 ){
    int nMaxUndeferred = pPhrase->iDoclistToken;
    if( nMaxUndeferred<0 ){
      pPhrase->doclist.pList = aPoslist;
      pPhrase->doclist.nList = nPoslist;
      pPhrase->doclist.iDocid = pCsr->iPrevId;
      pPhrase->doclist.bFreeList = 1;
    }else{
      int nDistance;
      char *p1;
      char *p2;
      char *aOut;

      if( nMaxUndeferred>iPrev ){
        p1 = aPoslist;
        p2 = pPhrase->doclist.pList;
        nDistance = nMaxUndeferred - iPrev;
      }else{
        p1 = pPhrase->doclist.pList;
        p2 = aPoslist;
        nDistance = iPrev - nMaxUndeferred;
      }

      aOut = (char *)sqlite3_malloc(nPoslist+8);
      if( !aOut ){
        sqlite3_free(aPoslist);
        return SQLITE_NOMEM;
      }
      
      pPhrase->doclist.pList = aOut;
      if( fts3PoslistPhraseMerge(&aOut, nDistance, 0, 1, &p1, &p2) ){
        pPhrase->doclist.bFreeList = 1;
        pPhrase->doclist.nList = (aOut - pPhrase->doclist.pList);
      }else{
        sqlite3_free(aOut);
        pPhrase->doclist.pList = 0;
        pPhrase->doclist.nList = 0;
      }
      sqlite3_free(aPoslist);
    }
  }

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This function is called for each Fts3Phrase in a full-text query 
** expression to initialize the mechanism for returning rows. Once this
** function has been called successfully on an Fts3Phrase, it may be
** used with fts3EvalPhraseNext() to iterate through the matching docids.
**
** If parameter bOptOk is true, then the phrase may (or may not) use the
** incremental loading strategy. Otherwise, the entire doclist is loaded into
** memory within this call.
**
** SQLITE_OK is returned if no error occurs, otherwise an SQLite error code.
*/
static int fts3EvalPhraseStart(Fts3Cursor *pCsr, int bOptOk, Fts3Phrase *p){
  int rc;                         /* Error code */
  Fts3PhraseToken *pFirst = &p->aToken[0];
  Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;

  if( pCsr->bDesc==pTab->bDescIdx 
   && bOptOk==1 
   && p->nToken==1 
   && pFirst->pSegcsr 
   && pFirst->pSegcsr->bLookup 
  ){
    /* Use the incremental approach. */
    int iCol = (p->iColumn >= pTab->nColumn ? -1 : p->iColumn);
    rc = sqlite3Fts3MsrIncrStart(
        pTab, pFirst->pSegcsr, iCol, pFirst->z, pFirst->n);
    p->bIncr = 1;

  }else{
    /* Load the full doclist for the phrase into memory. */
    rc = fts3EvalPhraseLoad(pCsr, p);
    p->bIncr = 0;
  }

  assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || p->nToken<1 || p->aToken[0].pSegcsr==0 || p->bIncr );
  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is used to iterate backwards (from the end to start) 
** through doclists. It is used by this module to iterate through phrase
** doclists in reverse and by the fts3_write.c module to iterate through
** pending-terms lists when writing to databases with "order=desc".
**
** The doclist may be sorted in ascending (parameter bDescIdx==0) or 
** descending (parameter bDescIdx==1) order of docid. Regardless, this
** function iterates from the end of the doclist to the beginning.
*/
void sqlite3Fts3DoclistPrev(
  int bDescIdx,                   /* True if the doclist is desc */
  char *aDoclist,                 /* Pointer to entire doclist */
  int nDoclist,                   /* Length of aDoclist in bytes */
  char **ppIter,                  /* IN/OUT: Iterator pointer */
  sqlite3_int64 *piDocid,         /* IN/OUT: Docid pointer */
  int *pnList,                    /* IN/OUT: List length pointer */
  u8 *pbEof                       /* OUT: End-of-file flag */
){
  char *p = *ppIter;

  assert( nDoclist>0 );
  assert( *pbEof==0 );
  assert( p || *piDocid==0 );
  assert( !p || (p>aDoclist && p<&aDoclist[nDoclist]) );

  if( p==0 ){
    sqlite3_int64 iDocid = 0;
    char *pNext = 0;
    char *pDocid = aDoclist;
    char *pEnd = &aDoclist[nDoclist];
    int iMul = 1;

    while( pDocid<pEnd ){
      sqlite3_int64 iDelta;
      pDocid += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(pDocid, &iDelta);
      iDocid += (iMul * iDelta);
      pNext = pDocid;
      fts3PoslistCopy(0, &pDocid);
      while( pDocid<pEnd && *pDocid==0 ) pDocid++;
      iMul = (bDescIdx ? -1 : 1);
    }

    *pnList = pEnd - pNext;
    *ppIter = pNext;
    *piDocid = iDocid;
  }else{
    int iMul = (bDescIdx ? -1 : 1);
    sqlite3_int64 iDelta;
    fts3GetReverseVarint(&p, aDoclist, &iDelta);
    *piDocid -= (iMul * iDelta);

    if( p==aDoclist ){
      *pbEof = 1;
    }else{
      char *pSave = p;
      fts3ReversePoslist(aDoclist, &p);
      *pnList = (pSave - p);
    }
    *ppIter = p;
  }
}

/*
** Attempt to move the phrase iterator to point to the next matching docid. 
** If an error occurs, return an SQLite error code. Otherwise, return 
** SQLITE_OK.
**
** If there is no "next" entry and no error occurs, then *pbEof is set to
** 1 before returning. Otherwise, if no error occurs and the iterator is
** successfully advanced, *pbEof is set to 0.
*/
static int fts3EvalPhraseNext(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS Cursor handle */
  Fts3Phrase *p,                  /* Phrase object to advance to next docid */
  u8 *pbEof                       /* OUT: Set to 1 if EOF */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  Fts3Doclist *pDL = &p->doclist;
  Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;

  if( p->bIncr ){
    assert( p->nToken==1 );
    assert( pDL->pNextDocid==0 );
    rc = sqlite3Fts3MsrIncrNext(pTab, p->aToken[0].pSegcsr, 
        &pDL->iDocid, &pDL->pList, &pDL->nList
    );
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && !pDL->pList ){
      *pbEof = 1;
    }
  }else if( pCsr->bDesc!=pTab->bDescIdx && pDL->nAll ){
    sqlite3Fts3DoclistPrev(pTab->bDescIdx, pDL->aAll, pDL->nAll, 
        &pDL->pNextDocid, &pDL->iDocid, &pDL->nList, pbEof
    );
    pDL->pList = pDL->pNextDocid;
  }else{
    char *pIter;                            /* Used to iterate through aAll */
    char *pEnd = &pDL->aAll[pDL->nAll];     /* 1 byte past end of aAll */
    if( pDL->pNextDocid ){
      pIter = pDL->pNextDocid;
    }else{
      pIter = pDL->aAll;
    }

    if( pIter>=pEnd ){
      /* We have already reached the end of this doclist. EOF. */
      *pbEof = 1;
    }else{
      sqlite3_int64 iDelta;
      pIter += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(pIter, &iDelta);
      if( pTab->bDescIdx==0 || pDL->pNextDocid==0 ){
        pDL->iDocid += iDelta;
      }else{
        pDL->iDocid -= iDelta;
      }
      pDL->pList = pIter;
      fts3PoslistCopy(0, &pIter);
      pDL->nList = (pIter - pDL->pList);

      /* pIter now points just past the 0x00 that terminates the position-
      ** list for document pDL->iDocid. However, if this position-list was
      ** edited in place by fts3EvalNearTrim(), then pIter may not actually
      ** point to the start of the next docid value. The following line deals
      ** with this case by advancing pIter past the zero-padding added by
      ** fts3EvalNearTrim().  */
      while( pIter<pEnd && *pIter==0 ) pIter++;

      pDL->pNextDocid = pIter;
      assert( pIter>=&pDL->aAll[pDL->nAll] || *pIter );
      *pbEof = 0;
    }
  }

  return rc;
}

/*
**
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op.
** Otherwise, fts3EvalPhraseStart() is called on all phrases within the
** expression. Also the Fts3Expr.bDeferred variable is set to true for any
** expressions for which all descendent tokens are deferred.
**
** If parameter bOptOk is zero, then it is guaranteed that the
** Fts3Phrase.doclist.aAll/nAll variables contain the entire doclist for
** each phrase in the expression (subject to deferred token processing).
** Or, if bOptOk is non-zero, then one or more tokens within the expression
** may be loaded incrementally, meaning doclist.aAll/nAll is not available.
**
** If an error occurs within this function, *pRc is set to an SQLite error
** code before returning.
*/
static void fts3EvalStartReaders(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS Cursor handle */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,                /* Expression to initialize phrases in */
  int bOptOk,                     /* True to enable incremental loading */
  int *pRc                        /* IN/OUT: Error code */
){
  if( pExpr && SQLITE_OK==*pRc ){
    if( pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_PHRASE ){
      int i;
      int nToken = pExpr->pPhrase->nToken;
      for(i=0; i<nToken; i++){
        if( pExpr->pPhrase->aToken[i].pDeferred==0 ) break;
      }
      pExpr->bDeferred = (i==nToken);
      *pRc = fts3EvalPhraseStart(pCsr, bOptOk, pExpr->pPhrase);
    }else{
      fts3EvalStartReaders(pCsr, pExpr->pLeft, bOptOk, pRc);
      fts3EvalStartReaders(pCsr, pExpr->pRight, bOptOk, pRc);
      pExpr->bDeferred = (pExpr->pLeft->bDeferred && pExpr->pRight->bDeferred);
    }
  }
}

/*
** An array of the following structures is assembled as part of the process
** of selecting tokens to defer before the query starts executing (as part
** of the xFilter() method). There is one element in the array for each
** token in the FTS expression.
**
** Tokens are divided into AND/NEAR clusters. All tokens in a cluster belong
** to phrases that are connected only by AND and NEAR operators (not OR or
** NOT). When determining tokens to defer, each AND/NEAR cluster is considered
** separately. The root of a tokens AND/NEAR cluster is stored in 
** Fts3TokenAndCost.pRoot.
*/
typedef struct Fts3TokenAndCost Fts3TokenAndCost;
struct Fts3TokenAndCost {
  Fts3Phrase *pPhrase;            /* The phrase the token belongs to */
  int iToken;                     /* Position of token in phrase */
  Fts3PhraseToken *pToken;        /* The token itself */
  Fts3Expr *pRoot;                /* Root of NEAR/AND cluster */
  int nOvfl;                      /* Number of overflow pages to load doclist */
  int iCol;                       /* The column the token must match */
};

/*
** This function is used to populate an allocated Fts3TokenAndCost array.
**
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op.
** Otherwise, if an error occurs during execution, *pRc is set to an
** SQLite error code.
*/
static void fts3EvalTokenCosts(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS Cursor handle */
  Fts3Expr *pRoot,                /* Root of current AND/NEAR cluster */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,                /* Expression to consider */
  Fts3TokenAndCost **ppTC,        /* Write new entries to *(*ppTC)++ */
  Fts3Expr ***ppOr,               /* Write new OR root to *(*ppOr)++ */
  int *pRc                        /* IN/OUT: Error code */
){
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK && pExpr ){
    if( pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_PHRASE ){
      Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = pExpr->pPhrase;
      int i;
      for(i=0; *pRc==SQLITE_OK && i<pPhrase->nToken; i++){
        Fts3TokenAndCost *pTC = (*ppTC)++;
        pTC->pPhrase = pPhrase;
        pTC->iToken = i;
        pTC->pRoot = pRoot;
        pTC->pToken = &pPhrase->aToken[i];
        pTC->iCol = pPhrase->iColumn;
        *pRc = sqlite3Fts3MsrOvfl(pCsr, pTC->pToken->pSegcsr, &pTC->nOvfl);
      }
    }else if( pExpr->eType!=FTSQUERY_NOT ){
      if( pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_OR ){
        pRoot = pExpr->pLeft;
        **ppOr = pRoot;
        (*ppOr)++;
      }
      fts3EvalTokenCosts(pCsr, pRoot, pExpr->pLeft, ppTC, ppOr, pRc);
      if( pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_OR ){
        pRoot = pExpr->pRight;
        **ppOr = pRoot;
        (*ppOr)++;
      }
      fts3EvalTokenCosts(pCsr, pRoot, pExpr->pRight, ppTC, ppOr, pRc);
    }
  }
}

/*
** Determine the average document (row) size in pages. If successful,
** write this value to *pnPage and return SQLITE_OK. Otherwise, return
** an SQLite error code.
**
** The average document size in pages is calculated by first calculating 
** determining the average size in bytes, B. If B is less than the amount
** of data that will fit on a single leaf page of an intkey table in
** this database, then the average docsize is 1. Otherwise, it is 1 plus
** the number of overflow pages consumed by a record B bytes in size.
*/
static int fts3EvalAverageDocsize(Fts3Cursor *pCsr, int *pnPage){
  if( pCsr->nRowAvg==0 ){
    /* The average document size, which is required to calculate the cost
    ** of each doclist, has not yet been determined. Read the required 
    ** data from the %_stat table to calculate it.
    **
    ** Entry 0 of the %_stat table is a blob containing (nCol+1) FTS3 
    ** varints, where nCol is the number of columns in the FTS3 table.
    ** The first varint is the number of documents currently stored in
    ** the table. The following nCol varints contain the total amount of
    ** data stored in all rows of each column of the table, from left
    ** to right.
    */
    int rc;
    Fts3Table *p = (Fts3Table*)pCsr->base.pVtab;
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
    sqlite3_int64 nDoc = 0;
    sqlite3_int64 nByte = 0;
    const char *pEnd;
    const char *a;

    rc = sqlite3Fts3SelectDoctotal(p, &pStmt);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
    a = sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, 0);
    assert( a );

    pEnd = &a[sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, 0)];
    a += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(a, &nDoc);
    while( a<pEnd ){
      a += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint(a, &nByte);
    }
    if( nDoc==0 || nByte==0 ){
      sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
      return SQLITE_CORRUPT_VTAB;
    }

    pCsr->nDoc = nDoc;
    pCsr->nRowAvg = (int)(((nByte / nDoc) + p->nPgsz) / p->nPgsz);
    assert( pCsr->nRowAvg>0 ); 
    rc = sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  }

  *pnPage = pCsr->nRowAvg;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This function is called to select the tokens (if any) that will be 
** deferred. The array aTC[] has already been populated when this is
** called.
**
** This function is called once for each AND/NEAR cluster in the 
** expression. Each invocation determines which tokens to defer within
** the cluster with root node pRoot. See comments above the definition
** of struct Fts3TokenAndCost for more details.
**
** If no error occurs, SQLITE_OK is returned and sqlite3Fts3DeferToken()
** called on each token to defer. Otherwise, an SQLite error code is
** returned.
*/
static int fts3EvalSelectDeferred(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS Cursor handle */
  Fts3Expr *pRoot,                /* Consider tokens with this root node */
  Fts3TokenAndCost *aTC,          /* Array of expression tokens and costs */
  int nTC                         /* Number of entries in aTC[] */
){
  Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;
  int nDocSize = 0;               /* Number of pages per doc loaded */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  int ii;                         /* Iterator variable for various purposes */
  int nOvfl = 0;                  /* Total overflow pages used by doclists */
  int nToken = 0;                 /* Total number of tokens in cluster */

  int nMinEst = 0;                /* The minimum count for any phrase so far. */
  int nLoad4 = 1;                 /* (Phrases that will be loaded)^4. */

  /* Count the tokens in this AND/NEAR cluster. If none of the doclists
  ** associated with the tokens spill onto overflow pages, or if there is
  ** only 1 token, exit early. No tokens to defer in this case. */
  for(ii=0; ii<nTC; ii++){
    if( aTC[ii].pRoot==pRoot ){
      nOvfl += aTC[ii].nOvfl;
      nToken++;
    }
  }
  if( nOvfl==0 || nToken<2 ) return SQLITE_OK;

  /* Obtain the average docsize (in pages). */
  rc = fts3EvalAverageDocsize(pCsr, &nDocSize);
  assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || nDocSize>0 );


  /* Iterate through all tokens in this AND/NEAR cluster, in ascending order 
  ** of the number of overflow pages that will be loaded by the pager layer 
  ** to retrieve the entire doclist for the token from the full-text index.
  ** Load the doclists for tokens that are either:
  **
  **   a. The cheapest token in the entire query (i.e. the one visited by the
  **      first iteration of this loop), or
  **
  **   b. Part of a multi-token phrase.
  **
  ** After each token doclist is loaded, merge it with the others from the
  ** same phrase and count the number of documents that the merged doclist
  ** contains. Set variable "nMinEst" to the smallest number of documents in 
  ** any phrase doclist for which 1 or more token doclists have been loaded.
  ** Let nOther be the number of other phrases for which it is certain that
  ** one or more tokens will not be deferred.
  **
  ** Then, for each token, defer it if loading the doclist would result in
  ** loading N or more overflow pages into memory, where N is computed as:
  **
  **    (nMinEst + 4^nOther - 1) / (4^nOther)
  */
  for(ii=0; ii<nToken && rc==SQLITE_OK; ii++){
    int iTC;                      /* Used to iterate through aTC[] array. */
    Fts3TokenAndCost *pTC = 0;    /* Set to cheapest remaining token. */

    /* Set pTC to point to the cheapest remaining token. */
    for(iTC=0; iTC<nTC; iTC++){
      if( aTC[iTC].pToken && aTC[iTC].pRoot==pRoot 
       && (!pTC || aTC[iTC].nOvfl<pTC->nOvfl) 
      ){
        pTC = &aTC[iTC];
      }
    }
    assert( pTC );

    if( ii && pTC->nOvfl>=((nMinEst+(nLoad4/4)-1)/(nLoad4/4))*nDocSize ){
      /* The number of overflow pages to load for this (and therefore all
      ** subsequent) tokens is greater than the estimated number of pages 
      ** that will be loaded if all subsequent tokens are deferred.
      */
      Fts3PhraseToken *pToken = pTC->pToken;
      rc = sqlite3Fts3DeferToken(pCsr, pToken, pTC->iCol);
      fts3SegReaderCursorFree(pToken->pSegcsr);
      pToken->pSegcsr = 0;
    }else{
      nLoad4 = nLoad4*4;
      if( ii==0 || pTC->pPhrase->nToken>1 ){
        /* Either this is the cheapest token in the entire query, or it is
        ** part of a multi-token phrase. Either way, the entire doclist will
        ** (eventually) be loaded into memory. It may as well be now. */
        Fts3PhraseToken *pToken = pTC->pToken;
        int nList = 0;
        char *pList = 0;
        rc = fts3TermSelect(pTab, pToken, pTC->iCol, &nList, &pList);
        assert( rc==SQLITE_OK || pList==0 );
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
          int nCount;
          fts3EvalPhraseMergeToken(pTab, pTC->pPhrase, pTC->iToken,pList,nList);
          nCount = fts3DoclistCountDocids(
              pTC->pPhrase->doclist.aAll, pTC->pPhrase->doclist.nAll
          );
          if( ii==0 || nCount<nMinEst ) nMinEst = nCount;
        }
      }
    }
    pTC->pToken = 0;
  }

  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is called from within the xFilter method. It initializes
** the full-text query currently stored in pCsr->pExpr. To iterate through
** the results of a query, the caller does:
**
**    fts3EvalStart(pCsr);
**    while( 1 ){
**      fts3EvalNext(pCsr);
**      if( pCsr->bEof ) break;
**      ... return row pCsr->iPrevId to the caller ...
**    }
*/
static int fts3EvalStart(Fts3Cursor *pCsr){
  Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int nToken = 0;
  int nOr = 0;

  /* Allocate a MultiSegReader for each token in the expression. */
  fts3EvalAllocateReaders(pCsr, pCsr->pExpr, &nToken, &nOr, &rc);

  /* Determine which, if any, tokens in the expression should be deferred. */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && nToken>1 && pTab->bHasStat ){
    Fts3TokenAndCost *aTC;
    Fts3Expr **apOr;
    aTC = (Fts3TokenAndCost *)sqlite3_malloc(
        sizeof(Fts3TokenAndCost) * nToken
      + sizeof(Fts3Expr *) * nOr * 2
    );
    apOr = (Fts3Expr **)&aTC[nToken];

    if( !aTC ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }else{
      int ii;
      Fts3TokenAndCost *pTC = aTC;
      Fts3Expr **ppOr = apOr;

      fts3EvalTokenCosts(pCsr, 0, pCsr->pExpr, &pTC, &ppOr, &rc);
      nToken = pTC-aTC;
      nOr = ppOr-apOr;

      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        rc = fts3EvalSelectDeferred(pCsr, 0, aTC, nToken);
        for(ii=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && ii<nOr; ii++){
          rc = fts3EvalSelectDeferred(pCsr, apOr[ii], aTC, nToken);
        }
      }

      sqlite3_free(aTC);
    }
  }

  fts3EvalStartReaders(pCsr, pCsr->pExpr, 1, &rc);
  return rc;
}

/*
** Invalidate the current position list for phrase pPhrase.
*/
static void fts3EvalInvalidatePoslist(Fts3Phrase *pPhrase){
  if( pPhrase->doclist.bFreeList ){
    sqlite3_free(pPhrase->doclist.pList);
  }
  pPhrase->doclist.pList = 0;
  pPhrase->doclist.nList = 0;
  pPhrase->doclist.bFreeList = 0;
}

/*
** This function is called to edit the position list associated with
** the phrase object passed as the fifth argument according to a NEAR
** condition. For example:
**
**     abc NEAR/5 "def ghi"
**
** Parameter nNear is passed the NEAR distance of the expression (5 in
** the example above). When this function is called, *paPoslist points to
** the position list, and *pnToken is the number of phrase tokens in, the
** phrase on the other side of the NEAR operator to pPhrase. For example,
** if pPhrase refers to the "def ghi" phrase, then *paPoslist points to
** the position list associated with phrase "abc".
**
** All positions in the pPhrase position list that are not sufficiently
** close to a position in the *paPoslist position list are removed. If this
** leaves 0 positions, zero is returned. Otherwise, non-zero.
**
** Before returning, *paPoslist is set to point to the position lsit 
** associated with pPhrase. And *pnToken is set to the number of tokens in
** pPhrase.
*/
static int fts3EvalNearTrim(
  int nNear,                      /* NEAR distance. As in "NEAR/nNear". */
  char *aTmp,                     /* Temporary space to use */
  char **paPoslist,               /* IN/OUT: Position list */
  int *pnToken,                   /* IN/OUT: Tokens in phrase of *paPoslist */
  Fts3Phrase *pPhrase             /* The phrase object to trim the doclist of */
){
  int nParam1 = nNear + pPhrase->nToken;
  int nParam2 = nNear + *pnToken;
  int nNew;
  char *p2; 
  char *pOut; 
  int res;

  assert( pPhrase->doclist.pList );

  p2 = pOut = pPhrase->doclist.pList;
  res = fts3PoslistNearMerge(
    &pOut, aTmp, nParam1, nParam2, paPoslist, &p2
  );
  if( res ){
    nNew = (pOut - pPhrase->doclist.pList) - 1;
    assert( pPhrase->doclist.pList[nNew]=='\0' );
    assert( nNew<=pPhrase->doclist.nList && nNew>0 );
    memset(&pPhrase->doclist.pList[nNew], 0, pPhrase->doclist.nList - nNew);
    pPhrase->doclist.nList = nNew;
    *paPoslist = pPhrase->doclist.pList;
    *pnToken = pPhrase->nToken;
  }

  return res;
}

/*
** This function is a no-op if *pRc is other than SQLITE_OK when it is called.
** Otherwise, it advances the expression passed as the second argument to
** point to the next matching row in the database. Expressions iterate through
** matching rows in docid order. Ascending order if Fts3Cursor.bDesc is zero,
** or descending if it is non-zero.
**
** If an error occurs, *pRc is set to an SQLite error code. Otherwise, if
** successful, the following variables in pExpr are set:
**
**   Fts3Expr.bEof                (non-zero if EOF - there is no next row)
**   Fts3Expr.iDocid              (valid if bEof==0. The docid of the next row)
**
** If the expression is of type FTSQUERY_PHRASE, and the expression is not
** at EOF, then the following variables are populated with the position list
** for the phrase for the visited row:
**
**   FTs3Expr.pPhrase->doclist.nList        (length of pList in bytes)
**   FTs3Expr.pPhrase->doclist.pList        (pointer to position list)
**
** It says above that this function advances the expression to the next
** matching row. This is usually true, but there are the following exceptions:
**
**   1. Deferred tokens are not taken into account. If a phrase consists
**      entirely of deferred tokens, it is assumed to match every row in
**      the db. In this case the position-list is not populated at all. 
**
**      Or, if a phrase contains one or more deferred tokens and one or
**      more non-deferred tokens, then the expression is advanced to the 
**      next possible match, considering only non-deferred tokens. In other
**      words, if the phrase is "A B C", and "B" is deferred, the expression
**      is advanced to the next row that contains an instance of "A * C", 
**      where "*" may match any single token. The position list in this case
**      is populated as for "A * C" before returning.
**
**   2. NEAR is treated as AND. If the expression is "x NEAR y", it is 
**      advanced to point to the next row that matches "x AND y".
** 
** See fts3EvalTestDeferredAndNear() for details on testing if a row is
** really a match, taking into account deferred tokens and NEAR operators.
*/
static void fts3EvalNextRow(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS Cursor handle */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,                /* Expr. to advance to next matching row */
  int *pRc                        /* IN/OUT: Error code */
){
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int bDescDoclist = pCsr->bDesc;         /* Used by DOCID_CMP() macro */
    assert( pExpr->bEof==0 );
    pExpr->bStart = 1;

    switch( pExpr->eType ){
      case FTSQUERY_NEAR:
      case FTSQUERY_AND: {
        Fts3Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
        Fts3Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
        assert( !pLeft->bDeferred || !pRight->bDeferred );

        if( pLeft->bDeferred ){
          /* LHS is entirely deferred. So we assume it matches every row.
          ** Advance the RHS iterator to find the next row visited. */
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRight, pRc);
          pExpr->iDocid = pRight->iDocid;
          pExpr->bEof = pRight->bEof;
        }else if( pRight->bDeferred ){
          /* RHS is entirely deferred. So we assume it matches every row.
          ** Advance the LHS iterator to find the next row visited. */
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pLeft, pRc);
          pExpr->iDocid = pLeft->iDocid;
          pExpr->bEof = pLeft->bEof;
        }else{
          /* Neither the RHS or LHS are deferred. */
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pLeft, pRc);
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRight, pRc);
          while( !pLeft->bEof && !pRight->bEof && *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
            sqlite3_int64 iDiff = DOCID_CMP(pLeft->iDocid, pRight->iDocid);
            if( iDiff==0 ) break;
            if( iDiff<0 ){
              fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pLeft, pRc);
            }else{
              fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRight, pRc);
            }
          }
          pExpr->iDocid = pLeft->iDocid;
          pExpr->bEof = (pLeft->bEof || pRight->bEof);
        }
        break;
      }
  
      case FTSQUERY_OR: {
        Fts3Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
        Fts3Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;
        sqlite3_int64 iCmp = DOCID_CMP(pLeft->iDocid, pRight->iDocid);

        assert( pLeft->bStart || pLeft->iDocid==pRight->iDocid );
        assert( pRight->bStart || pLeft->iDocid==pRight->iDocid );

        if( pRight->bEof || (pLeft->bEof==0 && iCmp<0) ){
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pLeft, pRc);
        }else if( pLeft->bEof || (pRight->bEof==0 && iCmp>0) ){
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRight, pRc);
        }else{
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pLeft, pRc);
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRight, pRc);
        }

        pExpr->bEof = (pLeft->bEof && pRight->bEof);
        iCmp = DOCID_CMP(pLeft->iDocid, pRight->iDocid);
        if( pRight->bEof || (pLeft->bEof==0 &&  iCmp<0) ){
          pExpr->iDocid = pLeft->iDocid;
        }else{
          pExpr->iDocid = pRight->iDocid;
        }

        break;
      }

      case FTSQUERY_NOT: {
        Fts3Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;
        Fts3Expr *pRight = pExpr->pRight;

        if( pRight->bStart==0 ){
          fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRight, pRc);
          assert( *pRc!=SQLITE_OK || pRight->bStart );
        }

        fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pLeft, pRc);
        if( pLeft->bEof==0 ){
          while( !*pRc 
              && !pRight->bEof 
              && DOCID_CMP(pLeft->iDocid, pRight->iDocid)>0 
          ){
            fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRight, pRc);
          }
        }
        pExpr->iDocid = pLeft->iDocid;
        pExpr->bEof = pLeft->bEof;
        break;
      }

      default: {
        Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = pExpr->pPhrase;
        fts3EvalInvalidatePoslist(pPhrase);
        *pRc = fts3EvalPhraseNext(pCsr, pPhrase, &pExpr->bEof);
        pExpr->iDocid = pPhrase->doclist.iDocid;
        break;
      }
    }
  }
}

/*
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK, or if pExpr is not the root node of a NEAR
** cluster, then this function returns 1 immediately.
**
** Otherwise, it checks if the current row really does match the NEAR 
** expression, using the data currently stored in the position lists 
** (Fts3Expr->pPhrase.doclist.pList/nList) for each phrase in the expression. 
**
** If the current row is a match, the position list associated with each
** phrase in the NEAR expression is edited in place to contain only those
** phrase instances sufficiently close to their peers to satisfy all NEAR
** constraints. In this case it returns 1. If the NEAR expression does not 
** match the current row, 0 is returned. The position lists may or may not
** be edited if 0 is returned.
*/
static int fts3EvalNearTest(Fts3Expr *pExpr, int *pRc){
  int res = 1;

  /* The following block runs if pExpr is the root of a NEAR query.
  ** For example, the query:
  **
  **         "w" NEAR "x" NEAR "y" NEAR "z"
  **
  ** which is represented in tree form as:
  **
  **                               |
  **                          +--NEAR--+      <-- root of NEAR query
  **                          |        |
  **                     +--NEAR--+   "z"
  **                     |        |
  **                +--NEAR--+   "y"
  **                |        |
  **               "w"      "x"
  **
  ** The right-hand child of a NEAR node is always a phrase. The 
  ** left-hand child may be either a phrase or a NEAR node. There are
  ** no exceptions to this - it's the way the parser in fts3_expr.c works.
  */
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK 
   && pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_NEAR 
   && pExpr->bEof==0
   && (pExpr->pParent==0 || pExpr->pParent->eType!=FTSQUERY_NEAR)
  ){
    Fts3Expr *p; 
    int nTmp = 0;                 /* Bytes of temp space */
    char *aTmp;                   /* Temp space for PoslistNearMerge() */

    /* Allocate temporary working space. */
    for(p=pExpr; p->pLeft; p=p->pLeft){
      nTmp += p->pRight->pPhrase->doclist.nList;
    }
    nTmp += p->pPhrase->doclist.nList;
    aTmp = sqlite3_malloc(nTmp*2);
    if( !aTmp ){
      *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
      res = 0;
    }else{
      char *aPoslist = p->pPhrase->doclist.pList;
      int nToken = p->pPhrase->nToken;

      for(p=p->pParent;res && p && p->eType==FTSQUERY_NEAR; p=p->pParent){
        Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = p->pRight->pPhrase;
        int nNear = p->nNear;
        res = fts3EvalNearTrim(nNear, aTmp, &aPoslist, &nToken, pPhrase);
      }
  
      aPoslist = pExpr->pRight->pPhrase->doclist.pList;
      nToken = pExpr->pRight->pPhrase->nToken;
      for(p=pExpr->pLeft; p && res; p=p->pLeft){
        int nNear = p->pParent->nNear;
        Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = (
            p->eType==FTSQUERY_NEAR ? p->pRight->pPhrase : p->pPhrase
        );
        res = fts3EvalNearTrim(nNear, aTmp, &aPoslist, &nToken, pPhrase);
      }
    }

    sqlite3_free(aTmp);
  }

  return res;
}

/*
** This function is a helper function for fts3EvalTestDeferredAndNear().
** Assuming no error occurs or has occurred, It returns non-zero if the
** expression passed as the second argument matches the row that pCsr 
** currently points to, or zero if it does not.
**
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op.
** If an error occurs during execution of this function, *pRc is set to 
** the appropriate SQLite error code. In this case the returned value is 
** undefined.
*/
static int fts3EvalTestExpr(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS cursor handle */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,                /* Expr to test. May or may not be root. */
  int *pRc                        /* IN/OUT: Error code */
){
  int bHit = 1;                   /* Return value */
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    switch( pExpr->eType ){
      case FTSQUERY_NEAR:
      case FTSQUERY_AND:
        bHit = (
            fts3EvalTestExpr(pCsr, pExpr->pLeft, pRc)
         && fts3EvalTestExpr(pCsr, pExpr->pRight, pRc)
         && fts3EvalNearTest(pExpr, pRc)
        );

        /* If the NEAR expression does not match any rows, zero the doclist for 
        ** all phrases involved in the NEAR. This is because the snippet(),
        ** offsets() and matchinfo() functions are not supposed to recognize 
        ** any instances of phrases that are part of unmatched NEAR queries. 
        ** For example if this expression:
        **
        **    ... MATCH 'a OR (b NEAR c)'
        **
        ** is matched against a row containing:
        **
        **        'a b d e'
        **
        ** then any snippet() should ony highlight the "a" term, not the "b"
        ** (as "b" is part of a non-matching NEAR clause).
        */
        if( bHit==0 
         && pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_NEAR 
         && (pExpr->pParent==0 || pExpr->pParent->eType!=FTSQUERY_NEAR)
        ){
          Fts3Expr *p;
          for(p=pExpr; p->pPhrase==0; p=p->pLeft){
            if( p->pRight->iDocid==pCsr->iPrevId ){
              fts3EvalInvalidatePoslist(p->pRight->pPhrase);
            }
          }
          if( p->iDocid==pCsr->iPrevId ){
            fts3EvalInvalidatePoslist(p->pPhrase);
          }
        }

        break;

      case FTSQUERY_OR: {
        int bHit1 = fts3EvalTestExpr(pCsr, pExpr->pLeft, pRc);
        int bHit2 = fts3EvalTestExpr(pCsr, pExpr->pRight, pRc);
        bHit = bHit1 || bHit2;
        break;
      }

      case FTSQUERY_NOT:
        bHit = (
            fts3EvalTestExpr(pCsr, pExpr->pLeft, pRc)
         && !fts3EvalTestExpr(pCsr, pExpr->pRight, pRc)
        );
        break;

      default: {
        if( pCsr->pDeferred 
         && (pExpr->iDocid==pCsr->iPrevId || pExpr->bDeferred)
        ){
          Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = pExpr->pPhrase;
          assert( pExpr->bDeferred || pPhrase->doclist.bFreeList==0 );
          if( pExpr->bDeferred ){
            fts3EvalInvalidatePoslist(pPhrase);
          }
          *pRc = fts3EvalDeferredPhrase(pCsr, pPhrase);
          bHit = (pPhrase->doclist.pList!=0);
          pExpr->iDocid = pCsr->iPrevId;
        }else{
          bHit = (pExpr->bEof==0 && pExpr->iDocid==pCsr->iPrevId);
        }
        break;
      }
    }
  }
  return bHit;
}

/*
** This function is called as the second part of each xNext operation when
** iterating through the results of a full-text query. At this point the
** cursor points to a row that matches the query expression, with the
** following caveats:
**
**   * Up until this point, "NEAR" operators in the expression have been
**     treated as "AND".
**
**   * Deferred tokens have not yet been considered.
**
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it immediately
** returns 0. Otherwise, it tests whether or not after considering NEAR
** operators and deferred tokens the current row is still a match for the
** expression. It returns 1 if both of the following are true:
**
**   1. *pRc is SQLITE_OK when this function returns, and
**
**   2. After scanning the current FTS table row for the deferred tokens,
**      it is determined that the row does *not* match the query.
**
** Or, if no error occurs and it seems the current row does match the FTS
** query, return 0.
*/
static int fts3EvalTestDeferredAndNear(Fts3Cursor *pCsr, int *pRc){
  int rc = *pRc;
  int bMiss = 0;
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){

    /* If there are one or more deferred tokens, load the current row into
    ** memory and scan it to determine the position list for each deferred
    ** token. Then, see if this row is really a match, considering deferred
    ** tokens and NEAR operators (neither of which were taken into account
    ** earlier, by fts3EvalNextRow()). 
    */
    if( pCsr->pDeferred ){
      rc = fts3CursorSeek(0, pCsr);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        rc = sqlite3Fts3CacheDeferredDoclists(pCsr);
      }
    }
    bMiss = (0==fts3EvalTestExpr(pCsr, pCsr->pExpr, &rc));

    /* Free the position-lists accumulated for each deferred token above. */
    sqlite3Fts3FreeDeferredDoclists(pCsr);
    *pRc = rc;
  }
  return (rc==SQLITE_OK && bMiss);
}

/*
** Advance to the next document that matches the FTS expression in
** Fts3Cursor.pExpr.
*/
static int fts3EvalNext(Fts3Cursor *pCsr){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return Code */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr = pCsr->pExpr;
  assert( pCsr->isEof==0 );
  if( pExpr==0 ){
    pCsr->isEof = 1;
  }else{
    do {
      if( pCsr->isRequireSeek==0 ){
        sqlite3_reset(pCsr->pStmt);
      }
      assert( sqlite3_data_count(pCsr->pStmt)==0 );
      fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pExpr, &rc);
      pCsr->isEof = pExpr->bEof;
      pCsr->isRequireSeek = 1;
      pCsr->isMatchinfoNeeded = 1;
      pCsr->iPrevId = pExpr->iDocid;
    }while( pCsr->isEof==0 && fts3EvalTestDeferredAndNear(pCsr, &rc) );
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Restart interation for expression pExpr so that the next call to
** fts3EvalNext() visits the first row. Do not allow incremental 
** loading or merging of phrase doclists for this iteration.
**
** If *pRc is other than SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is
** a no-op. If an error occurs within this function, *pRc is set to an
** SQLite error code before returning.
*/
static void fts3EvalRestart(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,
  int *pRc
){
  if( pExpr && *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = pExpr->pPhrase;

    if( pPhrase ){
      fts3EvalInvalidatePoslist(pPhrase);
      if( pPhrase->bIncr ){
        assert( pPhrase->nToken==1 );
        assert( pPhrase->aToken[0].pSegcsr );
        sqlite3Fts3MsrIncrRestart(pPhrase->aToken[0].pSegcsr);
        *pRc = fts3EvalPhraseStart(pCsr, 0, pPhrase);
      }

      pPhrase->doclist.pNextDocid = 0;
      pPhrase->doclist.iDocid = 0;
    }

    pExpr->iDocid = 0;
    pExpr->bEof = 0;
    pExpr->bStart = 0;

    fts3EvalRestart(pCsr, pExpr->pLeft, pRc);
    fts3EvalRestart(pCsr, pExpr->pRight, pRc);
  }
}

/*
** After allocating the Fts3Expr.aMI[] array for each phrase in the 
** expression rooted at pExpr, the cursor iterates through all rows matched
** by pExpr, calling this function for each row. This function increments
** the values in Fts3Expr.aMI[] according to the position-list currently
** found in Fts3Expr.pPhrase->doclist.pList for each of the phrase 
** expression nodes.
*/
static void fts3EvalUpdateCounts(Fts3Expr *pExpr){
  if( pExpr ){
    Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = pExpr->pPhrase;
    if( pPhrase && pPhrase->doclist.pList ){
      int iCol = 0;
      char *p = pPhrase->doclist.pList;

      assert( *p );
      while( 1 ){
        u8 c = 0;
        int iCnt = 0;
        while( 0xFE & (*p | c) ){
          if( (c&0x80)==0 ) iCnt++;
          c = *p++ & 0x80;
        }

        /* aMI[iCol*3 + 1] = Number of occurrences
        ** aMI[iCol*3 + 2] = Number of rows containing at least one instance
        */
        pExpr->aMI[iCol*3 + 1] += iCnt;
        pExpr->aMI[iCol*3 + 2] += (iCnt>0);
        if( *p==0x00 ) break;
        p++;
        p += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(p, &iCol);
      }
    }

    fts3EvalUpdateCounts(pExpr->pLeft);
    fts3EvalUpdateCounts(pExpr->pRight);
  }
}

/*
** Expression pExpr must be of type FTSQUERY_PHRASE.
**
** If it is not already allocated and populated, this function allocates and
** populates the Fts3Expr.aMI[] array for expression pExpr. If pExpr is part
** of a NEAR expression, then it also allocates and populates the same array
** for all other phrases that are part of the NEAR expression.
**
** SQLITE_OK is returned if the aMI[] array is successfully allocated and
** populated. Otherwise, if an error occurs, an SQLite error code is returned.
*/
static int fts3EvalGatherStats(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* Cursor object */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr                 /* FTSQUERY_PHRASE expression */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */

  assert( pExpr->eType==FTSQUERY_PHRASE );
  if( pExpr->aMI==0 ){
    Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;
    Fts3Expr *pRoot;                /* Root of NEAR expression */
    Fts3Expr *p;                    /* Iterator used for several purposes */

    sqlite3_int64 iPrevId = pCsr->iPrevId;
    sqlite3_int64 iDocid;
    u8 bEof;

    /* Find the root of the NEAR expression */
    pRoot = pExpr;
    while( pRoot->pParent && pRoot->pParent->eType==FTSQUERY_NEAR ){
      pRoot = pRoot->pParent;
    }
    iDocid = pRoot->iDocid;
    bEof = pRoot->bEof;
    assert( pRoot->bStart );

    /* Allocate space for the aMSI[] array of each FTSQUERY_PHRASE node */
    for(p=pRoot; p; p=p->pLeft){
      Fts3Expr *pE = (p->eType==FTSQUERY_PHRASE?p:p->pRight);
      assert( pE->aMI==0 );
      pE->aMI = (u32 *)sqlite3_malloc(pTab->nColumn * 3 * sizeof(u32));
      if( !pE->aMI ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
      memset(pE->aMI, 0, pTab->nColumn * 3 * sizeof(u32));
    }

    fts3EvalRestart(pCsr, pRoot, &rc);

    while( pCsr->isEof==0 && rc==SQLITE_OK ){

      do {
        /* Ensure the %_content statement is reset. */
        if( pCsr->isRequireSeek==0 ) sqlite3_reset(pCsr->pStmt);
        assert( sqlite3_data_count(pCsr->pStmt)==0 );

        /* Advance to the next document */
        fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRoot, &rc);
        pCsr->isEof = pRoot->bEof;
        pCsr->isRequireSeek = 1;
        pCsr->isMatchinfoNeeded = 1;
        pCsr->iPrevId = pRoot->iDocid;
      }while( pCsr->isEof==0 
           && pRoot->eType==FTSQUERY_NEAR 
           && fts3EvalTestDeferredAndNear(pCsr, &rc) 
      );

      if( rc==SQLITE_OK && pCsr->isEof==0 ){
        fts3EvalUpdateCounts(pRoot);
      }
    }

    pCsr->isEof = 0;
    pCsr->iPrevId = iPrevId;

    if( bEof ){
      pRoot->bEof = bEof;
    }else{
      /* Caution: pRoot may iterate through docids in ascending or descending
      ** order. For this reason, even though it seems more defensive, the 
      ** do loop can not be written:
      **
      **   do {...} while( pRoot->iDocid<iDocid && rc==SQLITE_OK );
      */
      fts3EvalRestart(pCsr, pRoot, &rc);
      do {
        fts3EvalNextRow(pCsr, pRoot, &rc);
        assert( pRoot->bEof==0 );
      }while( pRoot->iDocid!=iDocid && rc==SQLITE_OK );
      fts3EvalTestDeferredAndNear(pCsr, &rc);
    }
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is used by the matchinfo() module to query a phrase 
** expression node for the following information:
**
**   1. The total number of occurrences of the phrase in each column of 
**      the FTS table (considering all rows), and
**
**   2. For each column, the number of rows in the table for which the
**      column contains at least one instance of the phrase.
**
** If no error occurs, SQLITE_OK is returned and the values for each column
** written into the array aiOut as follows:
**
**   aiOut[iCol*3 + 1] = Number of occurrences
**   aiOut[iCol*3 + 2] = Number of rows containing at least one instance
**
** Caveats:
**
**   * If a phrase consists entirely of deferred tokens, then all output 
**     values are set to the number of documents in the table. In other
**     words we assume that very common tokens occur exactly once in each 
**     column of each row of the table.
**
**   * If a phrase contains some deferred tokens (and some non-deferred 
**     tokens), count the potential occurrence identified by considering
**     the non-deferred tokens instead of actual phrase occurrences.
**
**   * If the phrase is part of a NEAR expression, then only phrase instances
**     that meet the NEAR constraint are included in the counts.
*/
int sqlite3Fts3EvalPhraseStats(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS cursor handle */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,                /* Phrase expression */
  u32 *aiOut                      /* Array to write results into (see above) */
){
  Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int iCol;

  if( pExpr->bDeferred && pExpr->pParent->eType!=FTSQUERY_NEAR ){
    assert( pCsr->nDoc>0 );
    for(iCol=0; iCol<pTab->nColumn; iCol++){
      aiOut[iCol*3 + 1] = (u32)pCsr->nDoc;
      aiOut[iCol*3 + 2] = (u32)pCsr->nDoc;
    }
  }else{
    rc = fts3EvalGatherStats(pCsr, pExpr);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      assert( pExpr->aMI );
      for(iCol=0; iCol<pTab->nColumn; iCol++){
        aiOut[iCol*3 + 1] = pExpr->aMI[iCol*3 + 1];
        aiOut[iCol*3 + 2] = pExpr->aMI[iCol*3 + 2];
      }
    }
  }

  return rc;
}

/*
** The expression pExpr passed as the second argument to this function
** must be of type FTSQUERY_PHRASE. 
**
** The returned value is either NULL or a pointer to a buffer containing
** a position-list indicating the occurrences of the phrase in column iCol
** of the current row. 
**
** More specifically, the returned buffer contains 1 varint for each 
** occurence of the phrase in the column, stored using the normal (delta+2) 
** compression and is terminated by either an 0x01 or 0x00 byte. For example,
** if the requested column contains "a b X c d X X" and the position-list
** for 'X' is requested, the buffer returned may contain:
**
**     0x04 0x05 0x03 0x01   or   0x04 0x05 0x03 0x00
**
** This function works regardless of whether or not the phrase is deferred,
** incremental, or neither.
*/
char *sqlite3Fts3EvalPhrasePoslist(
  Fts3Cursor *pCsr,               /* FTS3 cursor object */
  Fts3Expr *pExpr,                /* Phrase to return doclist for */
  int iCol                        /* Column to return position list for */
){
  Fts3Phrase *pPhrase = pExpr->pPhrase;
  Fts3Table *pTab = (Fts3Table *)pCsr->base.pVtab;
  char *pIter = pPhrase->doclist.pList;
  int iThis;

  assert( iCol>=0 && iCol<pTab->nColumn );
  if( !pIter 
   || pExpr->bEof 
   || pExpr->iDocid!=pCsr->iPrevId
   || (pPhrase->iColumn<pTab->nColumn && pPhrase->iColumn!=iCol) 
  ){
    return 0;
  }

  assert( pPhrase->doclist.nList>0 );
  if( *pIter==0x01 ){
    pIter++;
    pIter += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(pIter, &iThis);
  }else{
    iThis = 0;
  }
  while( iThis<iCol ){
    fts3ColumnlistCopy(0, &pIter);
    if( *pIter==0x00 ) return 0;
    pIter++;
    pIter += sqlite3Fts3GetVarint32(pIter, &iThis);
  }

  return ((iCol==iThis)?pIter:0);
}

/*
** Free all components of the Fts3Phrase structure that were allocated by
** the eval module. Specifically, this means to free:
**
**   * the contents of pPhrase->doclist, and
**   * any Fts3MultiSegReader objects held by phrase tokens.
*/
void sqlite3Fts3EvalPhraseCleanup(Fts3Phrase *pPhrase){
  if( pPhrase ){
    int i;
    sqlite3_free(pPhrase->doclist.aAll);
    fts3EvalInvalidatePoslist(pPhrase);
    memset(&pPhrase->doclist, 0, sizeof(Fts3Doclist));
    for(i=0; i<pPhrase->nToken; i++){
      fts3SegReaderCursorFree(pPhrase->aToken[i].pSegcsr);
      pPhrase->aToken[i].pSegcsr = 0;
    }
  }
}

#if !SQLITE_CORE
/*
** Initialize API pointer table, if required.
*/
int sqlite3_extension_init(
  sqlite3 *db, 
  char **pzErrMsg,
  const sqlite3_api_routines *pApi
){
  SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT2(pApi)
  return sqlite3Fts3Init(db);
}
#endif

#endif