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# 2010 July 16
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
#
# This file implements tests to verify that the "testable statements" in 
# the lang_select.html document are correct.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl

ifcapable !compound {
  finish_test
  return
}

do_execsql_test e_select-1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES('a', 'one');
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES('b', 'two');
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES('c', 'three');

  CREATE TABLE t2(a, b);
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES('a', 'I');
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES('b', 'II');
  INSERT INTO t2 VALUES('c', 'III');

  CREATE TABLE t3(a, c);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('a', 1);
  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('b', 2);

  CREATE TABLE t4(a, c);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES('a', NULL);
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES('b', 2);
} {}
set t1_cross_t2 [list                \
   a one   a I      a one   b II     \
   a one   c III    b two   a I      \
   b two   b II     b two   c III    \
   c three a I      c three b II     \
   c three c III                     \
]
set t1_cross_t1 [list                  \
   a one   a one      a one   b two    \
   a one   c three    b two   a one    \
   b two   b two      b two   c three  \
   c three a one      c three b two    \
   c three c three                     \
]


# This proc is a specialized version of [do_execsql_test].
#
# The second argument to this proc must be a SELECT statement that 
# features a cross join of some time. Instead of the usual ",", 
# "CROSS JOIN" or "INNER JOIN" join-op, the string %JOIN% must be 
# substituted.
#
# This test runs the SELECT three times - once with:
#
#   * s/%JOIN%/,/
#   * s/%JOIN%/JOIN/
#   * s/%JOIN%/INNER JOIN/
#   * s/%JOIN%/CROSS JOIN/
#
# and checks that each time the results of the SELECT are $res.
#
proc do_join_test {tn select res} {
  foreach {tn2 joinop} [list    1 ,    2 "CROSS JOIN"    3 "INNER JOIN"] {
    set S [string map [list %JOIN% $joinop] $select]
    uplevel do_execsql_test $tn.$tn2 [list $S] [list $res]
  }
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The following tests check that all paths on the syntax diagrams on
# the lang_select.html page may be taken.
#
# -- syntax diagram join-constraint
#
do_join_test e_select-0.1.1 {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (t1.a=t2.a)
} {3}
do_join_test e_select-0.1.2 {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 USING (a)
} {3}
do_join_test e_select-0.1.3 {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t1 %JOIN% t2
} {9}
do_catchsql_test e_select-0.1.4 {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t1, t2 ON (t1.a=t2.a) USING (a)
} {1 {cannot have both ON and USING clauses in the same join}}
do_catchsql_test e_select-0.1.5 {
  SELECT count(*) FROM t1, t2 USING (a) ON (t1.a=t2.a)
} {1 {near "ON": syntax error}}

# -- syntax diagram select-core
#
#   0: SELECT ...
#   1: SELECT DISTINCT ...
#   2: SELECT ALL ...
#
#   0: No FROM clause
#   1: Has FROM clause
#
#   0: No WHERE clause
#   1: Has WHERE clause
#
#   0: No GROUP BY clause
#   1: Has GROUP BY clause
#   2: Has GROUP BY and HAVING clauses
#
do_select_tests e_select-0.2 {
  0000.1  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 " {1 2 3}
  1000.1  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 " {1 2 3}
  2000.1  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 " {1 2 3}
  
  0100.1  "SELECT a, b, a||b FROM t1 " {
    a one aone b two btwo c three cthree
  }
  1100.1  "SELECT DISTINCT a, b, a||b FROM t1 " {
    a one aone b two btwo c three cthree
  }
  1200.1  "SELECT ALL a, b, a||b FROM t1 " {
    a one aone b two btwo c three cthree
  }

  0010.1  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 1 " {1 2 3}
  0010.2  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 0 " {}
  0010.3  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 WHERE NULL " {}

  1010.1  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 1 " {1 2 3}

  2010.1  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 WHERE 1 " {1 2 3}

  0110.1  "SELECT a, b, a||b FROM t1 WHERE a!='x' " {
    a one aone b two btwo c three cthree
  }
  0110.2  "SELECT a, b, a||b FROM t1 WHERE a=='x'" {}

  1110.1  "SELECT DISTINCT a, b, a||b FROM t1 WHERE a!='x' " {
    a one aone b two btwo c three cthree
  }

  2110.0  "SELECT ALL a, b, a||b FROM t1 WHERE a=='x'" {}

  0001.1  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2" {1 2 3}
  0002.1  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)=1" {1 2 3}
  0002.2  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)>1" {}

  1001.1  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2" {1 2 3}
  1002.1  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)=1" {1 2 3}
  1002.2  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)>1" {}

  2001.1  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2" {1 2 3}
  2002.1  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)=1" {1 2 3}
  2002.2  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)>1" {}

  0101.1  "SELECT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 GROUP BY b" {1 a 1 c 1 b}
  0102.1  "SELECT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=1" {
    1 a 1 c 1 b
  }
  0102.2  "SELECT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=2" { }

  1101.1  "SELECT DISTINCT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 GROUP BY b" {1 a 1 c 1 b}
  1102.1  "SELECT DISTINCT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 
           GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=1" {
    1 a 1 c 1 b
  }
  1102.2  "SELECT DISTINCT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 
           GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=2" { 
  }

  2101.1  "SELECT ALL count(*), max(a) FROM t1 GROUP BY b" {1 a 1 c 1 b}
  2102.1  "SELECT ALL count(*), max(a) FROM t1 
           GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=1" {
    1 a 1 c 1 b
  }
  2102.2  "SELECT ALL count(*), max(a) FROM t1 
           GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=2" { 
  }

  0011.1  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 1 GROUP BY 2" {1 2 3}
  0012.1  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 0 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)=1" {}
  0012.2  "SELECT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 0 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)>1" {}

  1011.1  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 0 GROUP BY 2" {}
  1012.1  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 WHERE 1 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)=1" 
          {1 2 3}
  1012.2  "SELECT DISTINCT 1, 2, 3 WHERE NULL GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)>1" {}

  2011.1  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 WHERE 1 GROUP BY 2" {1 2 3}
  2012.1  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 WHERE 0 GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)=1" {}
  2012.2  "SELECT ALL 1, 2, 3 WHERE 'abc' GROUP BY 2 HAVING count(*)>1" {}

  0111.1  "SELECT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 WHERE a='a' GROUP BY b" {1 a}
  0112.1  "SELECT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 
           WHERE a='c' GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=1" {1 c}
  0112.2  "SELECT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 
           WHERE 0 GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=2" { }
  1111.1  "SELECT DISTINCT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 WHERE a<'c' GROUP BY b" 
          {1 a 1 b}
  1112.1  "SELECT DISTINCT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 WHERE a>'a'
           GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=1" {
    1 c 1 b
  }
  1112.2  "SELECT DISTINCT count(*), max(a) FROM t1 WHERE 0
           GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=2" { 
  }

  2111.1  "SELECT ALL count(*), max(a) FROM t1 WHERE b>'one' GROUP BY b" 
          {1 c 1 b}
  2112.1  "SELECT ALL count(*), max(a) FROM t1 WHERE a!='b'
           GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=1" {
    1 a 1 c
  }
  2112.2  "SELECT ALL count(*), max(a) FROM t1 
           WHERE 0 GROUP BY b HAVING count(*)=2" { }
}


# -- syntax diagram result-column
#
do_select_tests e_select-0.3 {
  1  "SELECT * FROM t1" {a one b two c three}
  2  "SELECT t1.* FROM t1" {a one b two c three}
  3  "SELECT 'x'||a||'x' FROM t1" {xax xbx xcx}
  4  "SELECT 'x'||a||'x' alias FROM t1" {xax xbx xcx}
  5  "SELECT 'x'||a||'x' AS alias FROM t1" {xax xbx xcx}
}

# -- syntax diagram join-source
#
# -- syntax diagram join-op
#
do_select_tests e_select-0.4 {
  1  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1" {1 2 3}
  2  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1,t2" {1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3}
  3  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1,t2,t3" {1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3}

  4  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1" {1 2 3}
  5  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 JOIN t2" {1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3}
  6  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 JOIN t2 JOIN t3" 
     {1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3}

  7  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 NATURAL JOIN t3" {1 2}
  8  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 NATURAL LEFT OUTER JOIN t3" {1 2 3}
  9  "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t3" {1 2 3}
  10 "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 NATURAL INNER JOIN t3" {1 2}
  11 "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 NATURAL CROSS JOIN t3" {1 2}

  12 "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 JOIN t3" {1 1 2 2 3 3}
  13 "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN t3" {1 1 2 2 3 3}
  14 "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t3" {1 1 2 2 3 3}
  15 "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 INNER JOIN t3" {1 1 2 2 3 3}
  16 "SELECT t1.rowid FROM t1 CROSS JOIN t3" {1 1 2 2 3 3}
}

# -- syntax diagram compound-operator
#
do_select_tests e_select-0.5 {
  1  "SELECT rowid FROM t1 UNION ALL SELECT rowid+2 FROM t4" {1 2 3 3 4}
  2  "SELECT rowid FROM t1 UNION     SELECT rowid+2 FROM t4" {1 2 3 4}
  3  "SELECT rowid FROM t1 INTERSECT SELECT rowid+2 FROM t4" {3}
  4  "SELECT rowid FROM t1 EXCEPT    SELECT rowid+2 FROM t4" {1 2}
}

# -- syntax diagram ordering-term
#
do_select_tests e_select-0.6 {
  1  "SELECT b||a FROM t1 ORDER BY b||a"                  {onea threec twob}
  2  "SELECT b||a FROM t1 ORDER BY (b||a) COLLATE nocase" {onea threec twob}
  3  "SELECT b||a FROM t1 ORDER BY (b||a) ASC"            {onea threec twob}
  4  "SELECT b||a FROM t1 ORDER BY (b||a) DESC"           {twob threec onea}
}

# -- syntax diagram select-stmt
#
do_select_tests e_select-0.7 {
  1  "SELECT * FROM t1" {a one b two c three}
  2  "SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY b" {a one c three b two}
  3  "SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY b, a" {a one c three b two}

  4  "SELECT * FROM t1 LIMIT 10" {a one b two c three}
  5  "SELECT * FROM t1 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" {}
  6  "SELECT * FROM t1 LIMIT 10, 5" {}

  7  "SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10" {a one b two c three}
  8  "SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY b LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" {}
  9  "SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY a,b LIMIT 10, 5" {}

  10  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1" 
     {a one b two c three one a three c two b}
  11  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 ORDER BY b" 
     {one a two b three c a one c three b two}
  12  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 ORDER BY b, a" 
     {one a two b three c a one c three b two}
  13  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 LIMIT 10" 
     {a one b two c three one a three c two b}
  14  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" 
     {two b}
  15  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 LIMIT 10, 5" 
     {}
  16  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10" 
     {a one b two c three one a three c two b}
  17  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 ORDER BY b LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" 
     {b two}
  18  "SELECT * FROM t1 UNION SELECT b, a FROM t1 ORDER BY a,b LIMIT 10, 5" 
     {}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The following tests focus on FROM clause (join) processing.
#

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-16074-54196 If the FROM clause is omitted from a simple
# SELECT statement, then the input data is implicitly a single row zero
# columns wide
#
do_select_tests e_select-1.1 {
  1 "SELECT 'abc'"            {abc}
  2 "SELECT 'abc' WHERE NULL" {}
  3 "SELECT NULL"             {{}}
  4 "SELECT count(*)"         {1}
  5 "SELECT count(*) WHERE 0" {0}
  6 "SELECT count(*) WHERE 1" {1}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-48114-33255 If there is only a single table in the
# join-source following the FROM clause, then the input data used by the
# SELECT statement is the contents of the named table.
#
#   The results of the SELECT queries suggest that they are operating on the
#   contents of the table 'xx'.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-1.2.0 {
  CREATE TABLE xx(x, y);
  INSERT INTO xx VALUES('IiJlsIPepMuAhU', X'10B00B897A15BAA02E3F98DCE8F2');
  INSERT INTO xx VALUES(NULL, -16.87);
  INSERT INTO xx VALUES(-17.89, 'linguistically');
} {}
do_select_tests e_select-1.2 {
  1  "SELECT quote(x), quote(y) FROM xx" {
     'IiJlsIPepMuAhU' X'10B00B897A15BAA02E3F98DCE8F2' 
     NULL             -16.87                          
     -17.89           'linguistically'                
  }

  2  "SELECT count(*), count(x), count(y) FROM xx" {3 2 3}
  3  "SELECT sum(x), sum(y) FROM xx"               {-17.89 -16.87}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-23593-12456 If there is more than one table specified
# as part of the join-source following the FROM keyword, then the
# contents of each named table are joined into a single dataset for the
# simple SELECT statement to operate on.
#
#   There are more detailed tests for subsequent requirements that add 
#   more detail to this idea. We just add a single test that shows that
#   data is coming from each of the three tables following the FROM clause
#   here to show that the statement, vague as it is, is not incorrect.
#
do_select_tests e_select-1.3 {
  1 "SELECT * FROM t1, t2, t3" {
      a one a I a 1 a one a I b 2 a one b II a 1 
      a one b II b 2 a one c III a 1 a one c III b 2 
      b two a I a 1 b two a I b 2 b two b II a 1 
      b two b II b 2 b two c III a 1 b two c III b 2 
      c three a I a 1 c three a I b 2 c three b II a 1 
      c three b II b 2 c three c III a 1 c three c III b 2
  }
}

#
# The following block of tests - e_select-1.4.* - test that the description
# of cartesian joins in the SELECT documentation is consistent with SQLite.
# In doing so, we test the following three requirements as a side-effect:
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-46122-14930 If the join-op is "CROSS JOIN", "INNER
# JOIN", "JOIN" or a comma (",") and there is no ON or USING clause,
# then the result of the join is simply the cartesian product of the
# left and right-hand datasets.
#
#    The tests are built on this assertion. Really, they test that the output
#    of a CROSS JOIN, JOIN, INNER JOIN or "," join matches the expected result
#    of calculating the cartesian product of the left and right-hand datasets. 
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-46256-57243 There is no difference between the "INNER
# JOIN", "JOIN" and "," join operators.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-25071-21202 The "CROSS JOIN" join operator produces the
# same result as the "INNER JOIN", "JOIN" and "," operators
#
#    All tests are run 4 times, with the only difference in each run being
#    which of the 4 equivalent cartesian product join operators are used.
#    Since the output data is the same in all cases, we consider that this
#    qualifies as testing the two statements above.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-1.4.0 {
  CREATE TABLE x1(a, b);
  CREATE TABLE x2(c, d, e);
  CREATE TABLE x3(f, g, h, i);

  -- x1: 3 rows, 2 columns
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(24, 'converging');
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(NULL, X'CB71');
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES('blonds', 'proprietary');

  -- x2: 2 rows, 3 columns
  INSERT INTO x2 VALUES(-60.06, NULL, NULL);
  INSERT INTO x2 VALUES(-58, NULL, 1.21);

  -- x3: 5 rows, 4 columns
  INSERT INTO x3 VALUES(-39.24, NULL, 'encompass', -1);
  INSERT INTO x3 VALUES('presenting', 51, 'reformation', 'dignified');
  INSERT INTO x3 VALUES('conducting', -87.24, 37.56, NULL);
  INSERT INTO x3 VALUES('coldest', -96, 'dramatists', 82.3);
  INSERT INTO x3 VALUES('alerting', NULL, -93.79, NULL);
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-59089-25828 The columns of the cartesian product
# dataset are, in order, all the columns of the left-hand dataset
# followed by all the columns of the right-hand dataset.
#
do_join_test e_select-1.4.1.1 {
  SELECT * FROM x1 %JOIN% x2 LIMIT 1
} [concat {24 converging} {-60.06 {} {}}]

do_join_test e_select-1.4.1.2 {
  SELECT * FROM x2 %JOIN% x1 LIMIT 1
} [concat {-60.06 {} {}} {24 converging}]

do_join_test e_select-1.4.1.3 {
  SELECT * FROM x3 %JOIN% x2 LIMIT 1
} [concat {-39.24 {} encompass -1} {-60.06 {} {}}]

do_join_test e_select-1.4.1.4 {
  SELECT * FROM x2 %JOIN% x3 LIMIT 1
} [concat {-60.06 {} {}} {-39.24 {} encompass -1}]

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-44414-54710 There is a row in the cartesian product
# dataset formed by combining each unique combination of a row from the
# left-hand and right-hand datasets.
#
do_join_test e_select-1.4.2.1 {
  SELECT * FROM x2 %JOIN% x3
} [list -60.06 {} {}      -39.24 {} encompass -1                 \
        -60.06 {} {}      presenting 51 reformation dignified    \
        -60.06 {} {}      conducting -87.24 37.56 {}             \
        -60.06 {} {}      coldest -96 dramatists 82.3            \
        -60.06 {} {}      alerting {} -93.79 {}                  \
        -58 {} 1.21       -39.24 {} encompass -1                 \
        -58 {} 1.21       presenting 51 reformation dignified    \
        -58 {} 1.21       conducting -87.24 37.56 {}             \
        -58 {} 1.21       coldest -96 dramatists 82.3            \
        -58 {} 1.21       alerting {} -93.79 {}                  \
]
# TODO: Come back and add a few more like the above.

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-20659-43267 In other words, if the left-hand dataset
# consists of Nlhs rows of Mlhs columns, and the right-hand dataset of
# Nrhs rows of Mrhs columns, then the cartesian product is a dataset of
# Nlhs.Nrhs rows, each containing Mlhs+Mrhs columns.
#
# x1, x2    (Nlhs=3, Nrhs=2)   (Mlhs=2, Mrhs=3)
do_join_test e_select-1.4.3.1 { 
  SELECT count(*) FROM x1 %JOIN% x2 
} [expr 3*2]
do_test e_select-1.4.3.2 { 
  expr {[llength [execsql {SELECT * FROM x1, x2}]] / 6}
} [expr 2+3]

# x2, x3    (Nlhs=2, Nrhs=5)   (Mlhs=3, Mrhs=4)
do_join_test e_select-1.4.3.3 { 
  SELECT count(*) FROM x2 %JOIN% x3 
} [expr 2*5]
do_test e_select-1.4.3.4 { 
  expr {[llength [execsql {SELECT * FROM x2 JOIN x3}]] / 10}
} [expr 3+4]

# x3, x1    (Nlhs=5, Nrhs=3)   (Mlhs=4, Mrhs=2)
do_join_test e_select-1.4.3.5 { 
  SELECT count(*) FROM x3 %JOIN% x1 
} [expr 5*3]
do_test e_select-1.4.3.6 { 
  expr {[llength [execsql {SELECT * FROM x3 CROSS JOIN x1}]] / 15}
} [expr 4+2]

# x3, x3    (Nlhs=5, Nrhs=5)   (Mlhs=4, Mrhs=4)
do_join_test e_select-1.4.3.7 { 
  SELECT count(*) FROM x3 %JOIN% x3 
} [expr 5*5]
do_test e_select-1.4.3.8 { 
  expr {[llength [execsql {SELECT * FROM x3 INNER JOIN x3 AS x4}]] / 25}
} [expr 4+4]

# Some extra cartesian product tests using tables t1 and t2.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-1.4.4.1 { SELECT * FROM t1, t2 } $t1_cross_t2
do_execsql_test e_select-1.4.4.2 { SELECT * FROM t1 AS x, t1 AS y} $t1_cross_t1

do_select_tests e_select-1.4.5 [list                                   \
    1 { SELECT * FROM t1 CROSS JOIN t2 }           $t1_cross_t2        \
    2 { SELECT * FROM t1 AS y CROSS JOIN t1 AS x } $t1_cross_t1        \
    3 { SELECT * FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 }           $t1_cross_t2        \
    4 { SELECT * FROM t1 AS y INNER JOIN t1 AS x } $t1_cross_t1        \
]


# EVIDENCE-OF: R-22775-56496 If there is an ON clause specified, then
# the ON expression is evaluated for each row of the cartesian product
# as a boolean expression. All rows for which the expression evaluates
# to false are excluded from the dataset.
#
foreach {tn select res} [list                                              \
    1 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (1) }       $t1_cross_t2             \
    2 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (0) }       [list]                   \
    3 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (NULL) }    [list]                   \
    4 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON ('abc') }   [list]                   \
    5 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON ('1ab') }   $t1_cross_t2             \
    6 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (0.9) }     $t1_cross_t2             \
    7 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON ('0.9') }   $t1_cross_t2             \
    8 { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (0.0) }     [list]                   \
                                                                           \
    9 { SELECT t1.b, t2.b FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (t1.a = t2.a) }             \
      {one I two II three III}                                             \
   10 { SELECT t1.b, t2.b FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (t1.a = 'a') }              \
      {one I one II one III}                                               \
   11 { SELECT t1.b, t2.b 
        FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (CASE WHEN t1.a = 'a' THEN NULL ELSE 1 END) } \
      {two I two II two III three I three II three III}                    \
] {
  do_join_test e_select-1.3.$tn $select $res
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-63358-54862 If there is a USING clause specified as
# part of the join-constraint, then each of the column names specified
# must exist in the datasets to both the left and right of the join-op.
#
do_select_tests e_select-1.4 -error {
  cannot join using column %s - column not present in both tables
} {
  1 { SELECT * FROM t1, t3 USING (b) }   "b"
  2 { SELECT * FROM t3, t1 USING (c) }   "c"
  3 { SELECT * FROM t3, (SELECT a AS b, b AS c FROM t1) USING (a) }   "a"
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-55987-04584 For each pair of namesake columns, the
# expression "lhs.X = rhs.X" is evaluated for each row of the cartesian
# product as a boolean expression. All rows for which one or more of the
# expressions evaluates to false are excluded from the result set.
#
do_select_tests e_select-1.5 {
  1 { SELECT * FROM t1, t3 USING (a)   }  {a one 1 b two 2}
  2 { SELECT * FROM t3, t4 USING (a,c) }  {b 2}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-54046-48600 When comparing values as a result of a
# USING clause, the normal rules for handling affinities, collation
# sequences and NULL values in comparisons apply.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-35466-18578 The column from the dataset on the
# left-hand side of the join operator is considered to be on the
# left-hand side of the comparison operator (=) for the purposes of
# collation sequence and affinity precedence.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-1.6.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t5(a COLLATE nocase, b COLLATE binary);
  INSERT INTO t5 VALUES('AA', 'cc');
  INSERT INTO t5 VALUES('BB', 'dd');
  INSERT INTO t5 VALUES(NULL, NULL);
  CREATE TABLE t6(a COLLATE binary, b COLLATE nocase);
  INSERT INTO t6 VALUES('aa', 'cc');
  INSERT INTO t6 VALUES('bb', 'DD');
  INSERT INTO t6 VALUES(NULL, NULL);
} {}
foreach {tn select res} {
  1 { SELECT * FROM t5 %JOIN% t6 USING (a) } {AA cc cc BB dd DD}
  2 { SELECT * FROM t6 %JOIN% t5 USING (a) } {}
  3 { SELECT * FROM (SELECT a COLLATE nocase, b FROM t6) %JOIN% t5 USING (a) } 
    {aa cc cc bb DD dd}
  4 { SELECT * FROM t5 %JOIN% t6 USING (a,b) } {AA cc}
  5 { SELECT * FROM t6 %JOIN% t5 USING (a,b) } {}
} {
  do_join_test e_select-1.6.$tn $select $res
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-57047-10461 For each pair of columns identified by a
# USING clause, the column from the right-hand dataset is omitted from
# the joined dataset.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-56132-15700 This is the only difference between a USING
# clause and its equivalent ON constraint.
#
foreach {tn select res} {
  1a { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 USING (a)      } 
     {a one I b two II c three III}
  1b { SELECT * FROM t1 %JOIN% t2 ON (t1.a=t2.a) }
     {a one a I b two b II c three c III}

  2a { SELECT * FROM t3 %JOIN% t4 USING (a)      }  
     {a 1 {} b 2 2}
  2b { SELECT * FROM t3 %JOIN% t4 ON (t3.a=t4.a) } 
     {a 1 a {} b 2 b 2}

  3a { SELECT * FROM t3 %JOIN% t4 USING (a,c)                  } {b 2}
  3b { SELECT * FROM t3 %JOIN% t4 ON (t3.a=t4.a AND t3.c=t4.c) } {b 2 b 2}

  4a { SELECT * FROM (SELECT a COLLATE nocase, b FROM t6) AS x 
       %JOIN% t5 USING (a) } 
     {aa cc cc bb DD dd}
  4b { SELECT * FROM (SELECT a COLLATE nocase, b FROM t6) AS x
       %JOIN% t5 ON (x.a=t5.a) } 
     {aa cc AA cc bb DD BB dd}
} {
  do_join_test e_select-1.7.$tn $select $res
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-41434-12448 If the join-op is a "LEFT JOIN" or "LEFT
# OUTER JOIN", then after the ON or USING filtering clauses have been
# applied, an extra row is added to the output for each row in the
# original left-hand input dataset that corresponds to no rows at all in
# the composite dataset (if any).
#
do_execsql_test e_select-1.8.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t7(a, b, c);
  CREATE TABLE t8(a, d, e);

  INSERT INTO t7 VALUES('x', 'ex',  24);
  INSERT INTO t7 VALUES('y', 'why', 25);

  INSERT INTO t8 VALUES('x', 'abc', 24);
  INSERT INTO t8 VALUES('z', 'ghi', 26);
} {}

do_select_tests e_select-1.8 {
  1a "SELECT count(*) FROM t7 JOIN t8 ON (t7.a=t8.a)" {1}
  1b "SELECT count(*) FROM t7 LEFT JOIN t8 ON (t7.a=t8.a)" {2}
  2a "SELECT count(*) FROM t7 JOIN t8 USING (a)" {1}
  2b "SELECT count(*) FROM t7 LEFT JOIN t8 USING (a)" {2}
}


# EVIDENCE-OF: R-15607-52988 The added rows contain NULL values in the
# columns that would normally contain values copied from the right-hand
# input dataset.
#
do_select_tests e_select-1.9 {
  1a "SELECT * FROM t7 JOIN t8 ON (t7.a=t8.a)" {x ex 24 x abc 24}
  1b "SELECT * FROM t7 LEFT JOIN t8 ON (t7.a=t8.a)" 
     {x ex 24 x abc 24 y why 25 {} {} {}}
  2a "SELECT * FROM t7 JOIN t8 USING (a)" {x ex 24 abc 24}
  2b "SELECT * FROM t7 LEFT JOIN t8 USING (a)" {x ex 24 abc 24 y why 25 {} {}}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-01809-52134 If the NATURAL keyword is added to any of
# the join-ops, then an implicit USING clause is added to the
# join-constraints. The implicit USING clause contains each of the
# column names that appear in both the left and right-hand input
# datasets.
#
do_select_tests e_select-1-10 {
  1a "SELECT * FROM t7 JOIN t8 USING (a)"        {x ex 24 abc 24}
  1b "SELECT * FROM t7 NATURAL JOIN t8"          {x ex 24 abc 24}

  2a "SELECT * FROM t8 JOIN t7 USING (a)"        {x abc 24 ex 24}
  2b "SELECT * FROM t8 NATURAL JOIN t7"          {x abc 24 ex 24}

  3a "SELECT * FROM t7 LEFT JOIN t8 USING (a)"   {x ex 24 abc 24 y why 25 {} {}}
  3b "SELECT * FROM t7 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t8"     {x ex 24 abc 24 y why 25 {} {}}

  4a "SELECT * FROM t8 LEFT JOIN t7 USING (a)"   {x abc 24 ex 24 z ghi 26 {} {}}
  4b "SELECT * FROM t8 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t7"     {x abc 24 ex 24 z ghi 26 {} {}}

  5a "SELECT * FROM t3 JOIN t4 USING (a,c)"      {b 2}
  5b "SELECT * FROM t3 NATURAL JOIN t4"          {b 2}

  6a "SELECT * FROM t3 LEFT JOIN t4 USING (a,c)" {a 1 b 2}
  6b "SELECT * FROM t3 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t4"     {a 1 b 2}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-49566-01570 If the left and right-hand input datasets
# feature no common column names, then the NATURAL keyword has no effect
# on the results of the join.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-1.11.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t10(x, y);
  INSERT INTO t10 VALUES(1, 'true');
  INSERT INTO t10 VALUES(0, 'false');
} {}
do_select_tests e_select-1-11 {
  1a "SELECT a, x FROM t1 CROSS JOIN t10" {a 1 a 0 b 1 b 0 c 1 c 0}
  1b "SELECT a, x FROM t1 NATURAL CROSS JOIN t10" {a 1 a 0 b 1 b 0 c 1 c 0}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-39625-59133 A USING or ON clause may not be added to a
# join that specifies the NATURAL keyword.
#
foreach {tn sql} {
  1 {SELECT * FROM t1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t2 USING (a)}
  2 {SELECT * FROM t1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t2 ON (t1.a=t2.a)}
  3 {SELECT * FROM t1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN t2 ON (45)}
} {
  do_catchsql_test e_select-1.12.$tn "
    $sql
  " {1 {a NATURAL join may not have an ON or USING clause}}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The next block of tests - e_select-3.* - concentrate on verifying 
# statements made regarding WHERE clause processing.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-3.0 {
  CREATE TABLE x1(k, x, y, z);
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(1, 'relinquished', 'aphasia', 78.43);
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(2, X'A8E8D66F',    X'07CF',   -81);
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(3, -22,            -27.57,    NULL);
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(4, NULL,           'bygone',  'picky');
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(5, NULL,           96.28,     NULL);
  INSERT INTO x1 VALUES(6, 0,              1,         2);

  CREATE TABLE x2(k, x, y2);
  INSERT INTO x2 VALUES(1, 50, X'B82838');
  INSERT INTO x2 VALUES(5, 84.79, 65.88);
  INSERT INTO x2 VALUES(3, -22, X'0E1BE452A393');
  INSERT INTO x2 VALUES(7, 'mistrusted', 'standardized');
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-06999-14330 If a WHERE clause is specified, the WHERE
# expression is evaluated for each row in the input data as a boolean
# expression. All rows for which the WHERE clause expression evaluates
# to false are excluded from the dataset before continuing.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-3.1.1 { SELECT k FROM x1 WHERE x }         {3}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.1.2 { SELECT k FROM x1 WHERE y }         {3 5 6}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.1.3 { SELECT k FROM x1 WHERE z }         {1 2 6}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.1.4 { SELECT k FROM x1 WHERE '1'||z    } {1 2 4 6}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.1.5 { SELECT k FROM x1 WHERE x IS NULL } {4 5}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.1.6 { SELECT k FROM x1 WHERE z - 78.43 } {2 4 6}

do_execsql_test e_select-3.2.1a {
  SELECT k FROM x1 LEFT JOIN x2 USING(k)
} {1 2 3 4 5 6}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.2.1b {
  SELECT k FROM x1 LEFT JOIN x2 USING(k) WHERE x2.k
} {1 3 5}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.2.2 {
  SELECT k FROM x1 LEFT JOIN x2 USING(k) WHERE x2.k IS NULL
} {2 4 6}

do_execsql_test e_select-3.2.3 {
  SELECT k FROM x1 NATURAL JOIN x2 WHERE x2.k
} {3}
do_execsql_test e_select-3.2.4 {
  SELECT k FROM x1 NATURAL JOIN x2 WHERE x2.k-3
} {}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tests below this point are focused on verifying the testable statements
# related to caculating the result rows of a simple SELECT statement.
#

drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-4.0 {
  CREATE TABLE z1(a, b, c);
  CREATE TABLE z2(d, e);
  CREATE TABLE z3(a, b);

  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES(51.65, -59.58, 'belfries');
  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES(-5, NULL, 75);
  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES(-2.2, -23.18, 'suiters');
  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES(NULL, 67, 'quartets');
  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES(-1.04, -32.3, 'aspen');
  INSERT INTO z1 VALUES(63, 'born', -26);

  INSERT INTO z2 VALUES(NULL, 21);
  INSERT INTO z2 VALUES(36, 6);

  INSERT INTO z3 VALUES('subsistence', 'gauze');
  INSERT INTO z3 VALUES(49.17, -67);
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-36327-17224 If a result expression is the special
# expression "*" then all columns in the input data are substituted for
# that one expression.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-43693-30522 If the expression is the alias of a table
# or subquery in the FROM clause followed by ".*" then all columns from
# the named table or subquery are substituted for the single expression.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.1 {
  1  "SELECT * FROM z1 LIMIT 1"             {51.65 -59.58 belfries}
  2  "SELECT * FROM z1,z2 LIMIT 1"          {51.65 -59.58 belfries {} 21}
  3  "SELECT z1.* FROM z1,z2 LIMIT 1"       {51.65 -59.58 belfries}
  4  "SELECT z2.* FROM z1,z2 LIMIT 1"       {{} 21}
  5  "SELECT z2.*, z1.* FROM z1,z2 LIMIT 1" {{} 21 51.65 -59.58 belfries}

  6  "SELECT count(*), * FROM z1"           {6 63 born -26}
  7  "SELECT max(a), * FROM z1"             {63 63 born -26}
  8  "SELECT *, min(a) FROM z1"             {-5 {} 75 -5}

  9  "SELECT *,* FROM z1,z2 LIMIT 1" {        
     51.65 -59.58 belfries {} 21 51.65 -59.58 belfries {} 21
  }
  10 "SELECT z1.*,z1.* FROM z2,z1 LIMIT 1" {        
     51.65 -59.58 belfries 51.65 -59.58 belfries
  }
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-61869-22578 It is an error to use a "*" or "alias.*"
# expression in any context other than than a result expression list.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-44324-41166 It is also an error to use a "*" or
# "alias.*" expression in a simple SELECT query that does not have a
# FROM clause.
#
foreach {tn select err} {
  1.1  "SELECT a, b, c FROM z1 WHERE *"    {near "*": syntax error}
  1.2  "SELECT a, b, c FROM z1 GROUP BY *" {near "*": syntax error}
  1.3  "SELECT 1 + * FROM z1"              {near "*": syntax error}
  1.4  "SELECT * + 1 FROM z1"              {near "+": syntax error}

  2.1 "SELECT *" {no tables specified}
  2.2 "SELECT * WHERE 1" {no tables specified}
  2.3 "SELECT * WHERE 0" {no tables specified}
  2.4 "SELECT count(*), *" {no tables specified}
} {
  do_catchsql_test e_select-4.2.$tn $select [list 1 $err]
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-08669-22397 The number of columns in the rows returned
# by a simple SELECT statement is equal to the number of expressions in
# the result expression list after substitution of * and alias.*
# expressions.
#
foreach {tn select nCol} {
  1   "SELECT * FROM z1"   3
  2   "SELECT * FROM z1 NATURAL JOIN z3"            3
  3   "SELECT z1.* FROM z1 NATURAL JOIN z3"         3
  4   "SELECT z3.* FROM z1 NATURAL JOIN z3"         2
  5   "SELECT z1.*, z3.* FROM z1 NATURAL JOIN z3"   5
  6   "SELECT 1, 2, z1.* FROM z1"                   5
  7   "SELECT a, *, b, c FROM z1"                   6
} {
  set ::stmt [sqlite3_prepare_v2 db $select -1 DUMMY]
  do_test e_select-4.3.$tn { sqlite3_column_count $::stmt } $nCol
  sqlite3_finalize $::stmt
}



# In lang_select.html, a non-aggregate query is defined as any simple SELECT
# that has no GROUP BY clause and no aggregate expressions in the result
# expression list. Other queries are aggregate queries. Test cases
# e_select-4.4.* through e_select-4.12.*, inclusive, which test the part of
# simple SELECT that is different for aggregate and non-aggregate queries
# verify (in a way) that these definitions are consistent:
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-20637-43463 A simple SELECT statement is an aggregate
# query if it contains either a GROUP BY clause or one or more aggregate
# functions in the result-set.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-23155-55597 Otherwise, if a simple SELECT contains no
# aggregate functions or a GROUP BY clause, it is a non-aggregate query.
#

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-44050-47362 If the SELECT statement is a non-aggregate
# query, then each expression in the result expression list is evaluated
# for each row in the dataset filtered by the WHERE clause.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.4 {
  1 "SELECT a, b FROM z1"
    {51.65 -59.58 -5 {} -2.2 -23.18 {} 67 -1.04 -32.3 63 born}

  2 "SELECT a IS NULL, b+1, * FROM z1" {
        0 -58.58   51.65 -59.58 belfries
        0 {}       -5 {} 75            
        0 -22.18   -2.2 -23.18 suiters
        1 68       {} 67 quartets    
        0 -31.3    -1.04 -32.3 aspen
        0 1        63 born -26
  }

  3 "SELECT 32*32, d||e FROM z2" {1024 {} 1024 366}
}


# Test cases e_select-4.5.* and e_select-4.6.* together show that:
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-51988-01124 The single row of result-set data created
# by evaluating the aggregate and non-aggregate expressions in the
# result-set forms the result of an aggregate query without a GROUP BY
# clause.
#

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-57629-25253 If the SELECT statement is an aggregate
# query without a GROUP BY clause, then each aggregate expression in the
# result-set is evaluated once across the entire dataset.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.5 {
  1 "SELECT count(a), max(a), count(b), max(b) FROM z1"      {5 63 5 born}
  2 "SELECT count(*), max(1)"                                {1 1}

  3 "SELECT sum(b+1) FROM z1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN z3"           {-43.06}
  4 "SELECT sum(b+2) FROM z1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN z3"           {-38.06}
  5 "SELECT sum(b IS NOT NULL) FROM z1 NATURAL LEFT JOIN z3" {5}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-26684-40576 Each non-aggregate expression in the
# result-set is evaluated once for an arbitrarily selected row of the
# dataset.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-27994-60376 The same arbitrarily selected row is used
# for each non-aggregate expression.
#
#   Note: The results of many of the queries in this block of tests are
#   technically undefined, as the documentation does not specify which row
#   SQLite will arbitrarily select to use for the evaluation of the
#   non-aggregate expressions.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-4.6.0 {
  CREATE TABLE a1(one PRIMARY KEY, two);
  INSERT INTO a1 VALUES(1, 1);
  INSERT INTO a1 VALUES(2, 3);
  INSERT INTO a1 VALUES(3, 6);
  INSERT INTO a1 VALUES(4, 10);

  CREATE TABLE a2(one PRIMARY KEY, three);
  INSERT INTO a2 VALUES(1, 1);
  INSERT INTO a2 VALUES(3, 2);
  INSERT INTO a2 VALUES(6, 3);
  INSERT INTO a2 VALUES(10, 4);
} {}
do_select_tests e_select-4.6 {
  1 "SELECT one, two, count(*) FROM a1"                        {4 10 4} 
  2 "SELECT one, two, count(*) FROM a1 WHERE one<3"            {2 3 2} 
  3 "SELECT one, two, count(*) FROM a1 WHERE one>3"            {4 10 1} 
  4 "SELECT *, count(*) FROM a1 JOIN a2"                       {4 10 10 4 16} 
  5 "SELECT *, sum(three) FROM a1 NATURAL JOIN a2"             {3 6 2 3}
  6 "SELECT *, sum(three) FROM a1 NATURAL JOIN a2"             {3 6 2 3}
  7 "SELECT group_concat(three, ''), a1.* FROM a1 NATURAL JOIN a2" {12 3 6}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-04486-07266 Or, if the dataset contains zero rows, then
# each non-aggregate expression is evaluated against a row consisting
# entirely of NULL values.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.7 {
  1  "SELECT one, two, count(*) FROM a1 WHERE 0"           {{} {} 0}
  2  "SELECT sum(two), * FROM a1, a2 WHERE three>5"        {{} {} {} {} {}}
  3  "SELECT max(one) IS NULL, one IS NULL, two IS NULL FROM a1 WHERE two=7" {
    1 1 1
  }
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-64138-28774 An aggregate query without a GROUP BY
# clause always returns exactly one row of data, even if there are zero
# rows of input data.
#
foreach {tn select} {
  8.1  "SELECT count(*) FROM a1"
  8.2  "SELECT count(*) FROM a1 WHERE 0"
  8.3  "SELECT count(*) FROM a1 WHERE 1"
  8.4  "SELECT max(a1.one)+min(two), a1.one, two, * FROM a1, a2 WHERE 1"
  8.5  "SELECT max(a1.one)+min(two), a1.one, two, * FROM a1, a2 WHERE 0"
} {
  # Set $nRow to the number of rows returned by $select:
  set ::stmt [sqlite3_prepare_v2 db $select -1 DUMMY]
  set nRow 0
  while {"SQLITE_ROW" == [sqlite3_step $::stmt]} { incr nRow }
  set rc [sqlite3_finalize $::stmt]

  # Test that $nRow==1 and that statement execution was successful 
  # (rc==SQLITE_OK).
  do_test e_select-4.$tn [list list $rc $nRow] {SQLITE_OK 1}
}

drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-4.9.0 {
  CREATE TABLE b1(one PRIMARY KEY, two);
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(1, 'o');
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(4, 'f');
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(3, 't');
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(2, 't');
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(5, 'f');
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(7, 's');
  INSERT INTO b1 VALUES(6, 's');

  CREATE TABLE b2(x, y);
  INSERT INTO b2 VALUES(NULL, 0);
  INSERT INTO b2 VALUES(NULL, 1);
  INSERT INTO b2 VALUES('xyz', 2);
  INSERT INTO b2 VALUES('abc', 3);
  INSERT INTO b2 VALUES('xyz', 4);

  CREATE TABLE b3(a COLLATE nocase, b COLLATE binary);
  INSERT INTO b3 VALUES('abc', 'abc');
  INSERT INTO b3 VALUES('aBC', 'aBC');
  INSERT INTO b3 VALUES('Def', 'Def');
  INSERT INTO b3 VALUES('dEF', 'dEF');
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-57754-57109 If the SELECT statement is an aggregate
# query with a GROUP BY clause, then each of the expressions specified
# as part of the GROUP BY clause is evaluated for each row of the
# dataset. Each row is then assigned to a "group" based on the results;
# rows for which the results of evaluating the GROUP BY expressions are
# the same are assigned to the same group.
#
#   These tests also show that the following is not untrue:
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-25883-55063 The expressions in the GROUP BY clause do
# not have to be expressions that appear in the result.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.9 {
  1  "SELECT group_concat(one), two FROM b1 GROUP BY two" {
    /#,# f   1 o   #,#   s #,# t/
  }
  2  "SELECT group_concat(one), sum(one) FROM b1 GROUP BY (one>4)" {
    1,2,3,4 10    5,6,7 18
  }
  3  "SELECT group_concat(one) FROM b1 GROUP BY (two>'o'), one%2" {
    4  1,5    2,6   3,7
  }
  4  "SELECT group_concat(one) FROM b1 GROUP BY (one==2 OR two=='o')" {
    4,3,5,7,6    1,2
  }
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-14926-50129 For the purposes of grouping rows, NULL
# values are considered equal.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.10 {
  1  "SELECT group_concat(y) FROM b2 GROUP BY x" {/#,#   3   #,#/}
  2  "SELECT count(*) FROM b2 GROUP BY CASE WHEN y<4 THEN NULL ELSE 0 END" {4 1}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-10470-30318 The usual rules for selecting a collation
# sequence with which to compare text values apply when evaluating
# expressions in a GROUP BY clause.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.11 {
  1  "SELECT count(*) FROM b3 GROUP BY b"      {1 1 1 1}
  2  "SELECT count(*) FROM b3 GROUP BY a"      {2 2}
  3  "SELECT count(*) FROM b3 GROUP BY +b"     {1 1 1 1}
  4  "SELECT count(*) FROM b3 GROUP BY +a"     {2 2}
  5  "SELECT count(*) FROM b3 GROUP BY b||''"  {1 1 1 1}
  6  "SELECT count(*) FROM b3 GROUP BY a||''"  {1 1 1 1}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-63573-50730 The expressions in a GROUP BY clause may
# not be aggregate expressions.
#
foreach {tn select} {
  12.1  "SELECT * FROM b3 GROUP BY count(*)"
  12.2  "SELECT max(a) FROM b3 GROUP BY max(b)"
  12.3  "SELECT group_concat(a) FROM b3 GROUP BY a, max(b)"
} {
  set res {1 {aggregate functions are not allowed in the GROUP BY clause}}
  do_catchsql_test e_select-4.$tn $select $res
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-31537-00101 If a HAVING clause is specified, it is
# evaluated once for each group of rows as a boolean expression. If the
# result of evaluating the HAVING clause is false, the group is
# discarded.
#
#   This requirement is tested by all e_select-4.13.* tests.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-04132-09474 If the HAVING clause is an aggregate
# expression, it is evaluated across all rows in the group.
#
#   Tested by e_select-4.13.1.*
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-28262-47447 If a HAVING clause is a non-aggregate
# expression, it is evaluated with respect to an arbitrarily selected
# row from the group.
#
#   Tested by e_select-4.13.2.*
#
#   Tests in this block also show that this is not untrue:
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-55403-13450 The HAVING expression may refer to values,
# even aggregate functions, that are not in the result.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-4.13.0 {
  CREATE TABLE c1(up, down);
  INSERT INTO c1 VALUES('x', 1);
  INSERT INTO c1 VALUES('x', 2);
  INSERT INTO c1 VALUES('x', 4);
  INSERT INTO c1 VALUES('x', 8);
  INSERT INTO c1 VALUES('y', 16);
  INSERT INTO c1 VALUES('y', 32);

  CREATE TABLE c2(i, j);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(1, 0);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(2, 1);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(3, 3);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(4, 6);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(5, 10);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(6, 15);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(7, 21);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(8, 28);
  INSERT INTO c2 VALUES(9, 36);

  CREATE TABLE c3(i PRIMARY KEY, k TEXT);
  INSERT INTO c3 VALUES(1,  'hydrogen');
  INSERT INTO c3 VALUES(2,  'helium');
  INSERT INTO c3 VALUES(3,  'lithium');
  INSERT INTO c3 VALUES(4,  'beryllium');
  INSERT INTO c3 VALUES(5,  'boron');
  INSERT INTO c3 VALUES(94, 'plutonium');
} {}

do_select_tests e_select-4.13 {
  1.1  "SELECT up FROM c1 GROUP BY up HAVING count(*)>3" {x}
  1.2  "SELECT up FROM c1 GROUP BY up HAVING sum(down)>16" {y}
  1.3  "SELECT up FROM c1 GROUP BY up HAVING sum(down)<16" {x}
  1.4  "SELECT up||down FROM c1 GROUP BY (down<5) HAVING max(down)<10" {x4}

  2.1  "SELECT up FROM c1 GROUP BY up HAVING down>10" {y}
  2.2  "SELECT up FROM c1 GROUP BY up HAVING up='y'"  {y}

  2.3  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i>4 HAVING i>6"  {9 36}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-23927-54081 Each expression in the result-set is then
# evaluated once for each group of rows.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-53735-47017 If the expression is an aggregate
# expression, it is evaluated across all rows in the group.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.15 {
  1  "SELECT sum(down) FROM c1 GROUP BY up" {15 48}
  2  "SELECT sum(j), max(j) FROM c2 GROUP BY (i%3)"     {54 36 27 21 39 28}
  3  "SELECT sum(j), max(j) FROM c2 GROUP BY (j%2)"     {80 36 40 21}
  4  "SELECT 1+sum(j), max(j)+1 FROM c2 GROUP BY (j%2)" {81 37 41 22}
  5  "SELECT count(*), round(avg(i),2) FROM c1, c2 ON (i=down) GROUP BY j%2"
        {3 4.33 1 2.0}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-62913-19830 Otherwise, it is evaluated against a single
# arbitrarily chosen row from within the group.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-53924-08809 If there is more than one non-aggregate
# expression in the result-set, then all such expressions are evaluated
# for the same row.
#
do_select_tests e_select-4.15 {
  1  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i%2"             {8 28   9 36}
  2  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i%2 HAVING j<30" {8 28}
  3  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i%2 HAVING j>30" {9 36}
  4  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i%2 HAVING j>30" {9 36}
  5  "SELECT count(*), i, k FROM c2 NATURAL JOIN c3 GROUP BY substr(k, 1, 1)"
        {2 5 boron   2 2 helium   1 3 lithium}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-19334-12811 Each group of input dataset rows
# contributes a single row to the set of result rows.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-02223-49279 Subject to filtering associated with the
# DISTINCT keyword, the number of rows returned by an aggregate query
# with a GROUP BY clause is the same as the number of groups of rows
# produced by applying the GROUP BY and HAVING clauses to the filtered
# input dataset.
#
do_select_tests e_select.4.16 -count {
  1  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i%2"          2
  2  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i"            9
  3  "SELECT i, j FROM c2 GROUP BY i HAVING i<5" 4
} 

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The following tests attempt to verify statements made regarding the ALL
# and DISTINCT keywords.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-5.1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE h1(a, b);
  INSERT INTO h1 VALUES(1, 'one');
  INSERT INTO h1 VALUES(1, 'I');
  INSERT INTO h1 VALUES(1, 'i');
  INSERT INTO h1 VALUES(4, 'four');
  INSERT INTO h1 VALUES(4, 'IV');
  INSERT INTO h1 VALUES(4, 'iv');

  CREATE TABLE h2(x COLLATE nocase);
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('One');
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('Two');
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('Three');
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('Four');
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('one');
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('two');
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('three');
  INSERT INTO h2 VALUES('four');

  CREATE TABLE h3(c, d);
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(1, NULL);
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(2, NULL);
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(3, NULL);
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(4, '2');
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(5, NULL);
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(6, '2,3');
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(7, NULL);
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(8, '2,4');
  INSERT INTO h3 VALUES(9, '3');
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-60770-10612 One of the ALL or DISTINCT keywords may
# follow the SELECT keyword in a simple SELECT statement.
#
do_select_tests e_select-5.1 {
  1   "SELECT ALL a FROM h1"      {1 1 1 4 4 4}
  2   "SELECT DISTINCT a FROM h1" {1 4}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-08861-34280 If the simple SELECT is a SELECT ALL, then
# the entire set of result rows are returned by the SELECT.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-01256-01950 If neither ALL or DISTINCT are present,
# then the behavior is as if ALL were specified.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-14442-41305 If the simple SELECT is a SELECT DISTINCT,
# then duplicate rows are removed from the set of result rows before it
# is returned.
#
#   The three testable statements above are tested by e_select-5.2.*,
#   5.3.* and 5.4.* respectively.
#
do_select_tests e_select-5 {
  3.1 "SELECT ALL x FROM h2" {One Two Three Four one two three four}
  3.2 "SELECT ALL x FROM h1, h2 ON (x=b)" {One one Four four}

  3.1 "SELECT x FROM h2" {One Two Three Four one two three four}
  3.2 "SELECT x FROM h1, h2 ON (x=b)" {One one Four four}

  4.1 "SELECT DISTINCT x FROM h2" {One Two Three Four}
  4.2 "SELECT DISTINCT x FROM h1, h2 ON (x=b)" {One Four}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-02054-15343 For the purposes of detecting duplicate
# rows, two NULL values are considered to be equal.
#
do_select_tests e_select-5.5 {
  1  "SELECT DISTINCT d FROM h3" {{} 2 2,3 2,4 3}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-58359-52112 The normal rules for selecting a collation
# sequence to compare text values with apply.
#
do_select_tests e_select-5.6 {
  1  "SELECT DISTINCT b FROM h1"                  {one I i four IV iv}
  2  "SELECT DISTINCT b COLLATE nocase FROM h1"   {one I four IV}
  3  "SELECT DISTINCT x FROM h2"                  {One Two Three Four}
  4  "SELECT DISTINCT x COLLATE binary FROM h2"   {
    One Two Three Four one two three four
  }
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The following tests - e_select-7.* - test that statements made to do
# with compound SELECT statements are correct.
#

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-39368-64333 In a compound SELECT, all the constituent
# SELECTs must return the same number of result columns.
#
#   All the other tests in this section use compound SELECTs created
#   using component SELECTs that do return the same number of columns.
#   So the tests here just show that it is an error to attempt otherwise.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-7.1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE j1(a, b, c);
  CREATE TABLE j2(e, f);
  CREATE TABLE j3(g);
} {}
do_select_tests e_select-7.1 -error {
  SELECTs to the left and right of %s do not have the same number of result columns
} {
  1   "SELECT a, b FROM j1    UNION ALL SELECT g FROM j3"    {{UNION ALL}}
  2   "SELECT *    FROM j1    UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j3"    {{UNION ALL}}
  3   "SELECT a, b FROM j1    UNION ALL SELECT g FROM j3"    {{UNION ALL}}
  4   "SELECT a, b FROM j1    UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j3,j2" {{UNION ALL}}
  5   "SELECT *    FROM j3,j2 UNION ALL SELECT a, b FROM j1" {{UNION ALL}}

  6   "SELECT a, b FROM j1    UNION SELECT g FROM j3"        {UNION}
  7   "SELECT *    FROM j1    UNION SELECT * FROM j3"        {UNION}
  8   "SELECT a, b FROM j1    UNION SELECT g FROM j3"        {UNION}
  9   "SELECT a, b FROM j1    UNION SELECT * FROM j3,j2"     {UNION}
  10  "SELECT *    FROM j3,j2 UNION SELECT a, b FROM j1"     {UNION}

  11  "SELECT a, b FROM j1    INTERSECT SELECT g FROM j3"    {INTERSECT}
  12  "SELECT *    FROM j1    INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j3"    {INTERSECT}
  13  "SELECT a, b FROM j1    INTERSECT SELECT g FROM j3"    {INTERSECT}
  14  "SELECT a, b FROM j1    INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j3,j2" {INTERSECT}
  15  "SELECT *    FROM j3,j2 INTERSECT SELECT a, b FROM j1" {INTERSECT}

  16  "SELECT a, b FROM j1    EXCEPT SELECT g FROM j3"       {EXCEPT}
  17  "SELECT *    FROM j1    EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j3"       {EXCEPT}
  18  "SELECT a, b FROM j1    EXCEPT SELECT g FROM j3"       {EXCEPT}
  19  "SELECT a, b FROM j1    EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j3,j2"    {EXCEPT}
  20  "SELECT *    FROM j3,j2 EXCEPT SELECT a, b FROM j1"    {EXCEPT}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-01450-11152 As the components of a compound SELECT must
# be simple SELECT statements, they may not contain ORDER BY or LIMIT
# clauses.
# 
foreach {tn select op1 op2} {
  1   "SELECT * FROM j1 ORDER BY a UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      {ORDER BY} {UNION ALL}
  2   "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 ORDER BY 1 UNION ALL SELECT max(e) FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {UNION ALL}
  3   "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 ORDER BY 1,2,3 UNION ALL SELECT *,* FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {UNION ALL}
  4   "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {UNION ALL}
  5   "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {UNION ALL}
  6   "SELECT a FROM j1 LIMIT (SELECT e FROM j2) UNION ALL SELECT g FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {UNION ALL}

  7   "SELECT * FROM j1 ORDER BY a UNION SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      {ORDER BY} {UNION}
  8   "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 ORDER BY 1 UNION SELECT max(e) FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {UNION}
  9   "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 ORDER BY 1,2,3 UNION SELECT *,* FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {UNION}
  10  "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 UNION SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {UNION}
  11  "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5 UNION SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {UNION}
  12  "SELECT a FROM j1 LIMIT (SELECT e FROM j2) UNION SELECT g FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {UNION}

  13  "SELECT * FROM j1 ORDER BY a EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      {ORDER BY} {EXCEPT}
  14  "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 ORDER BY 1 EXCEPT SELECT max(e) FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {EXCEPT}
  15  "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 ORDER BY 1,2,3 EXCEPT SELECT *,* FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {EXCEPT}
  16  "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {EXCEPT}
  17  "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {EXCEPT}
  18  "SELECT a FROM j1 LIMIT (SELECT e FROM j2) EXCEPT SELECT g FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {EXCEPT}

  19  "SELECT * FROM j1 ORDER BY a INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      {ORDER BY} {INTERSECT}
  20  "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 ORDER BY 1 INTERSECT SELECT max(e) FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {INTERSECT}
  21  "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 ORDER BY 1,2,3 INTERSECT SELECT *,* FROM j2"
      {ORDER BY} {INTERSECT}
  22  "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {INTERSECT}
  23  "SELECT * FROM j1 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {INTERSECT}
  24  "SELECT a FROM j1 LIMIT (SELECT e FROM j2) INTERSECT SELECT g FROM j2,j3" 
      LIMIT {INTERSECT}
} {
  set err "$op1 clause should come after $op2 not before"
  do_catchsql_test e_select-7.2.$tn $select [list 1 $err]
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-22874-32655 ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses may only occur
# at the end of the entire compound SELECT.
#
foreach {tn select} {
  1   "SELECT * FROM j1 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j2,j3 ORDER BY a"
  2   "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 UNION ALL SELECT max(e) FROM j2 ORDER BY 1"
  3   "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 UNION ALL SELECT *,* FROM j2 ORDER BY 1,2,3"
  4   "SELECT * FROM j1 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10" 
  5   "SELECT * FROM j1 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" 
  6   "SELECT a FROM j1 UNION ALL SELECT g FROM j2,j3 LIMIT (SELECT 10)" 

  7   "SELECT * FROM j1 UNION SELECT * FROM j2,j3 ORDER BY a"
  8   "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 UNION SELECT max(e) FROM j2 ORDER BY 1"
  9   "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 UNION SELECT *,* FROM j2 ORDER BY 1,2,3"
  10  "SELECT * FROM j1 UNION SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10" 
  11  "SELECT * FROM j1 UNION SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" 
  12  "SELECT a FROM j1 UNION SELECT g FROM j2,j3 LIMIT (SELECT 10)" 

  13  "SELECT * FROM j1 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j2,j3 ORDER BY a"
  14  "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 EXCEPT SELECT max(e) FROM j2 ORDER BY 1"
  15  "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 EXCEPT SELECT *,* FROM j2 ORDER BY 1,2,3"
  16  "SELECT * FROM j1 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10" 
  17  "SELECT * FROM j1 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" 
  18  "SELECT a FROM j1 EXCEPT SELECT g FROM j2,j3 LIMIT (SELECT 10)" 

  19  "SELECT * FROM j1 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j2,j3 ORDER BY a"
  20  "SELECT count(*) FROM j1 INTERSECT SELECT max(e) FROM j2 ORDER BY 1"
  21  "SELECT count(*), * FROM j1 INTERSECT SELECT *,* FROM j2 ORDER BY 1,2,3"
  22  "SELECT * FROM j1 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10" 
  23  "SELECT * FROM j1 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM j2,j3 LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5" 
  24  "SELECT a FROM j1 INTERSECT SELECT g FROM j2,j3 LIMIT (SELECT 10)" 
} {
  do_test e_select-7.3.$tn { catch {execsql $select} msg } 0
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-08531-36543 A compound SELECT created using UNION ALL
# operator returns all the rows from the SELECT to the left of the UNION
# ALL operator, and all the rows from the SELECT to the right of it.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-7.4.0 {
  CREATE TABLE q1(a TEXT, b INTEGER, c);
  CREATE TABLE q2(d NUMBER, e BLOB);
  CREATE TABLE q3(f REAL, g);

  INSERT INTO q1 VALUES(16, -87.66, NULL);
  INSERT INTO q1 VALUES('legible', 94, -42.47);
  INSERT INTO q1 VALUES('beauty', 36, NULL);

  INSERT INTO q2 VALUES('legible', 1);
  INSERT INTO q2 VALUES('beauty', 2);
  INSERT INTO q2 VALUES(-65.91, 4);
  INSERT INTO q2 VALUES('emanating', -16.56);

  INSERT INTO q3 VALUES('beauty', 2);
  INSERT INTO q3 VALUES('beauty', 2);
} {}
do_select_tests e_select-7.4 {
  1   {SELECT a FROM q1 UNION ALL SELECT d FROM q2}
      {16 legible beauty legible beauty -65.91 emanating}

  2   {SELECT * FROM q1 WHERE a=16 UNION ALL SELECT 'x', * FROM q2 WHERE oid=1}
      {16 -87.66 {} x legible 1}

  3   {SELECT count(*) FROM q1 UNION ALL SELECT min(e) FROM q2} 
      {3 -16.56}

  4   {SELECT * FROM q2 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM q3} 
      {legible 1 beauty 2 -65.91 4 emanating -16.56 beauty 2 beauty 2}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-20560-39162 The UNION operator works the same way as
# UNION ALL, except that duplicate rows are removed from the final
# result set.
#
do_select_tests e_select-7.5 {
  1   {SELECT a FROM q1 UNION SELECT d FROM q2}
      {-65.91 16 beauty emanating legible}

  2   {SELECT * FROM q1 WHERE a=16 UNION SELECT 'x', * FROM q2 WHERE oid=1}
      {16 -87.66 {} x legible 1}

  3   {SELECT count(*) FROM q1 UNION SELECT min(e) FROM q2} 
      {-16.56 3}

  4   {SELECT * FROM q2 UNION SELECT * FROM q3} 
      {-65.91 4 beauty 2 emanating -16.56 legible 1}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-45764-31737 The INTERSECT operator returns the
# intersection of the results of the left and right SELECTs.
#
do_select_tests e_select-7.6 {
  1   {SELECT a FROM q1 INTERSECT SELECT d FROM q2} {beauty legible}
  2   {SELECT * FROM q2 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM q3} {beauty 2}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-25787-28949 The EXCEPT operator returns the subset of
# rows returned by the left SELECT that are not also returned by the
# right-hand SELECT.
#
do_select_tests e_select-7.7 {
  1   {SELECT a FROM q1 EXCEPT SELECT d FROM q2} {16}

  2   {SELECT * FROM q2 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM q3} 
      {-65.91 4 emanating -16.56 legible 1}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-40729-56447 Duplicate rows are removed from the results
# of INTERSECT and EXCEPT operators before the result set is returned.
#
do_select_tests e_select-7.8 {
  0   {SELECT * FROM q3} {beauty 2 beauty 2}

  1   {SELECT * FROM q3 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM q3} {beauty 2}
  2   {SELECT * FROM q3 EXCEPT SELECT a,b FROM q1}  {beauty 2}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-46765-43362 For the purposes of determining duplicate
# rows for the results of compound SELECT operators, NULL values are
# considered equal to other NULL values and distinct from all non-NULL
# values.
#
db nullvalue null
do_select_tests e_select-7.9 {
  1   {SELECT NULL UNION ALL SELECT NULL} {null null}
  2   {SELECT NULL UNION     SELECT NULL} {null}
  3   {SELECT NULL INTERSECT SELECT NULL} {null}
  4   {SELECT NULL EXCEPT    SELECT NULL} {}

  5   {SELECT NULL UNION ALL SELECT 'ab'} {null ab}
  6   {SELECT NULL UNION     SELECT 'ab'} {null ab}
  7   {SELECT NULL INTERSECT SELECT 'ab'} {}
  8   {SELECT NULL EXCEPT    SELECT 'ab'} {null}

  9   {SELECT NULL UNION ALL SELECT 0} {null 0}
  10  {SELECT NULL UNION     SELECT 0} {null 0}
  11  {SELECT NULL INTERSECT SELECT 0} {}
  12  {SELECT NULL EXCEPT    SELECT 0} {null}

  13  {SELECT c FROM q1 UNION ALL SELECT g FROM q3} {null -42.47 null 2 2}
  14  {SELECT c FROM q1 UNION     SELECT g FROM q3} {null -42.47 2}
  15  {SELECT c FROM q1 INTERSECT SELECT g FROM q3} {}
  16  {SELECT c FROM q1 EXCEPT    SELECT g FROM q3} {null -42.47}
}
db nullvalue {} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-51232-50224 The collation sequence used to compare two
# text values is determined as if the columns of the left and right-hand
# SELECT statements were the left and right-hand operands of the equals
# (=) operator, except that greater precedence is not assigned to a
# collation sequence specified with the postfix COLLATE operator.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-7.10.0 {
  CREATE TABLE y1(a COLLATE nocase, b COLLATE binary, c);
  INSERT INTO y1 VALUES('Abc', 'abc', 'aBC');
} {}
do_select_tests e_select-7.10 {
  1   {SELECT 'abc'                UNION SELECT 'ABC'} {ABC abc}
  2   {SELECT 'abc' COLLATE nocase UNION SELECT 'ABC'} {ABC}
  3   {SELECT 'abc'                UNION SELECT 'ABC' COLLATE nocase} {ABC}
  4   {SELECT 'abc' COLLATE binary UNION SELECT 'ABC' COLLATE nocase} {ABC abc}
  5   {SELECT 'abc' COLLATE nocase UNION SELECT 'ABC' COLLATE binary} {ABC}

  6   {SELECT a FROM y1 UNION SELECT b FROM y1}                {abc}
  7   {SELECT b FROM y1 UNION SELECT a FROM y1}                {Abc abc}
  8   {SELECT a FROM y1 UNION SELECT c FROM y1}                {aBC}

  9   {SELECT a FROM y1 UNION SELECT c COLLATE binary FROM y1} {aBC}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-32706-07403 No affinity transformations are applied to
# any values when comparing rows as part of a compound SELECT.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-7.10.0 {
  CREATE TABLE w1(a TEXT, b NUMBER);
  CREATE TABLE w2(a, b TEXT);

  INSERT INTO w1 VALUES('1', 4.1);
  INSERT INTO w2 VALUES(1, 4.1);
} {}

do_select_tests e_select-7.11 {
  1  { SELECT a FROM w1 UNION SELECT a FROM w2 } {1 1}
  2  { SELECT a FROM w2 UNION SELECT a FROM w1 } {1 1}
  3  { SELECT b FROM w1 UNION SELECT b FROM w2 } {4.1 4.1}
  4  { SELECT b FROM w2 UNION SELECT b FROM w1 } {4.1 4.1}

  5  { SELECT a FROM w1 INTERSECT SELECT a FROM w2 } {}
  6  { SELECT a FROM w2 INTERSECT SELECT a FROM w1 } {}
  7  { SELECT b FROM w1 INTERSECT SELECT b FROM w2 } {}
  8  { SELECT b FROM w2 INTERSECT SELECT b FROM w1 } {}

  9  { SELECT a FROM w1 EXCEPT SELECT a FROM w2 } {1}
  10 { SELECT a FROM w2 EXCEPT SELECT a FROM w1 } {1}
  11 { SELECT b FROM w1 EXCEPT SELECT b FROM w2 } {4.1}
  12 { SELECT b FROM w2 EXCEPT SELECT b FROM w1 } {4.1}
}


# EVIDENCE-OF: R-32562-20566 When three or more simple SELECTs are
# connected into a compound SELECT, they group from left to right. In
# other words, if "A", "B" and "C" are all simple SELECT statements, (A
# op B op C) is processed as ((A op B) op C).
#
#   e_select-7.12.1: Precedence of UNION vs. INTERSECT 
#   e_select-7.12.2: Precedence of UNION vs. UNION ALL 
#   e_select-7.12.3: Precedence of UNION vs. EXCEPT
#   e_select-7.12.4: Precedence of INTERSECT vs. UNION ALL 
#   e_select-7.12.5: Precedence of INTERSECT vs. EXCEPT
#   e_select-7.12.6: Precedence of UNION ALL vs. EXCEPT
#   e_select-7.12.7: Check that "a EXCEPT b EXCEPT c" is processed as 
#                   "(a EXCEPT b) EXCEPT c".
#
# The INTERSECT and EXCEPT operations are mutually commutative. So
# the e_select-7.12.5 test cases do not prove very much.
#
drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-7.12.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(x);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(3);
} {}
foreach {tn select res} {
  1a "(1,2) INTERSECT (1)   UNION     (3)"   {1 3}
  1b "(3)   UNION     (1,2) INTERSECT (1)"   {1}

  2a "(1,2) UNION     (3)   UNION ALL (1)"   {1 2 3 1}
  2b "(1)   UNION ALL (3)   UNION     (1,2)" {1 2 3}

  3a "(1,2) UNION     (3)   EXCEPT    (1)"   {2 3}
  3b "(1,2) EXCEPT    (3)   UNION     (1)"   {1 2}

  4a "(1,2) INTERSECT (1)   UNION ALL (3)"   {1 3}
  4b "(3)   UNION     (1,2) INTERSECT (1)"   {1}

  5a "(1,2) INTERSECT (2)   EXCEPT    (2)"   {}
  5b "(2,3) EXCEPT    (2)   INTERSECT (2)"   {}

  6a "(2)   UNION ALL (2)   EXCEPT    (2)"   {}
  6b "(2)   EXCEPT    (2)   UNION ALL (2)"   {2}

  7  "(2,3) EXCEPT    (2)   EXCEPT    (3)"   {}
} {
  set select [string map {( {SELECT x FROM t1 WHERE x IN (}} $select]
  do_execsql_test e_select-7.12.$tn $select [list {*}$res]
}


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# ORDER BY clauses
#

drop_all_tables
do_execsql_test e_select-8.1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE d1(x, y, z);

  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(1, 2, 3);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(2, 5, -1);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(1, 2, 8);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(1, 2, 7);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(2, 4, 93);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(1, 2, -20);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(1, 4, 93);
  INSERT INTO d1 VALUES(1, 5, -1);

  CREATE TABLE d2(a, b);
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('gently', 'failings');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('commercials', 'bathrobe');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('iterate', 'sexton');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('babied', 'charitableness');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('solemnness', 'annexed');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('rejoicing', 'liabilities');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('pragmatist', 'guarded');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('barked', 'interrupted');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('reemphasizes', 'reply');
  INSERT INTO d2 VALUES('lad', 'relenting');
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-44988-41064 Rows are first sorted based on the results
# of evaluating the left-most expression in the ORDER BY list, then ties
# are broken by evaluating the second left-most expression and so on.
#
do_select_tests e_select-8.1 {
  1  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x, y, z" {
     1 2 -20    1 2 3    1 2 7    1 2 8    
     1 4  93    1 5 -1   2 4 93   2 5 -1
  }
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-06617-54588 Each ORDER BY expression may be optionally
# followed by one of the keywords ASC (smaller values are returned
# first) or DESC (larger values are returned first).
#
#   Test cases e_select-8.2.* test the above.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-18705-33393 If neither ASC or DESC are specified, rows
# are sorted in ascending (smaller values first) order by default.
#
#   Test cases e_select-8.3.* test the above. All 8.3 test cases are
#   copies of 8.2 test cases with the explicit "ASC" removed.
#
do_select_tests e_select-8 {
  2.1  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x ASC, y ASC, z ASC" {
     1 2 -20    1 2 3    1 2 7    1 2 8    
     1 4  93    1 5 -1   2 4 93   2 5 -1
  }
  2.2  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x DESC, y DESC, z DESC" {
     2 5 -1     2 4 93   1 5 -1   1 4  93    
     1 2 8      1 2 7    1 2 3    1 2 -20    
  }
  2.3 "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x DESC, y ASC, z DESC" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 8      1 2 7    
     1 2 3    1 2 -20    1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }
  2.4  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x DESC, y ASC, z ASC" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 -20    1 2 3    
     1 2 7    1 2 8      1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }

  3.1  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x, y, z" {
     1 2 -20    1 2 3    1 2 7    1 2 8    
     1 4  93    1 5 -1   2 4 93   2 5 -1
  }
  3.3  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x DESC, y, z DESC" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 8      1 2 7    
     1 2 3    1 2 -20    1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }
  3.4 "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x DESC, y, z" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 -20    1 2 3    
     1 2 7    1 2 8      1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-29779-04281 If the ORDER BY expression is a constant
# integer K then the expression is considered an alias for the K-th
# column of the result set (columns are numbered from left to right
# starting with 1).
#
do_select_tests e_select-8.4 {
  1  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY 1 ASC, 2 ASC, 3 ASC" {
     1 2 -20    1 2 3    1 2 7    1 2 8    
     1 4  93    1 5 -1   2 4 93   2 5 -1
  }
  2  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2 DESC, 3 DESC" {
     2 5 -1     2 4 93   1 5 -1   1 4  93    
     1 2 8      1 2 7    1 2 3    1 2 -20    
  }
  3 "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2 ASC, 3 DESC" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 8      1 2 7    
     1 2 3    1 2 -20    1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }
  4  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2 ASC, 3 ASC" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 -20    1 2 3    
     1 2 7    1 2 8      1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }
  5  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY 1, 2, 3" {
     1 2 -20    1 2 3    1 2 7    1 2 8    
     1 4  93    1 5 -1   2 4 93   2 5 -1
  }
  6  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2, 3 DESC" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 8      1 2 7    
     1 2 3    1 2 -20    1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }
  7  "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2, 3" {
     2 4 93   2 5 -1     1 2 -20    1 2 3    
     1 2 7    1 2 8      1 4  93    1 5 -1   
  }
  8  "SELECT z, x FROM d1 ORDER BY 2" {
     /# 1    # 1    # 1   # 1 
      # 1    # 1    # 2   # 2/
  }
  9  "SELECT z, x FROM d1 ORDER BY 1" {
     /-20 1  -1 #   -1 #   3 1
     7 1     8 1   93 #   93 #/   
  }
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-63286-51977 If the ORDER BY expression is an identifier
# that corresponds to the alias of one of the output columns, then the
# expression is considered an alias for that column.
#
do_select_tests e_select-8.5 {
  1   "SELECT z+1 AS abc FROM d1 ORDER BY abc" {
    -19 0 0 4 8 9 94 94
  }
  2   "SELECT z+1 AS abc FROM d1 ORDER BY abc DESC" {
    94 94 9 8 4 0 0 -19
  }
  3  "SELECT z AS x, x AS z FROM d1 ORDER BY z" {
    /# 1    # 1    # 1    # 1    # 1    # 1    # 2    # 2/
  }
  4  "SELECT z AS x, x AS z FROM d1 ORDER BY x" {
    /-20 1    -1 #    -1 #    3 1    7 1    8 1    93 #    93 #/
  }
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-65068-27207 Otherwise, if the ORDER BY expression is
# any other expression, it is evaluated and the returned value used to
# order the output rows.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-03421-57988 If the SELECT statement is a simple SELECT,
# then an ORDER BY may contain any arbitrary expressions.
#
do_select_tests e_select-8.6 {
  1   "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x+y+z" {
    1 2 -20    1 5 -1    1 2 3    2 5 -1 
    1 2 7      1 2 8     1 4 93   2 4 93
  }
  2   "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY x*z" {
    1 2 -20    2 5 -1    1 5 -1    1 2 3 
    1 2 7      1 2 8     1 4 93    2 4 93
  }
  3   "SELECT * FROM d1 ORDER BY y*z" {
    1 2 -20    2 5 -1    1 5 -1    1 2 3 
    1 2 7      1 2 8     2 4 93    1 4 93
  }
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-28853-08147 However, if the SELECT is a compound
# SELECT, then ORDER BY expressions that are not aliases to output
# columns must be exactly the same as an expression used as an output
# column.
#
do_select_tests e_select-8.7.1 -error {
  %s ORDER BY term does not match any column in the result set
} {
  1   "SELECT x FROM d1 UNION ALL SELECT a FROM d2 ORDER BY x*z"        1st
  2   "SELECT x,z FROM d1 UNION ALL SELECT a,b FROM d2 ORDER BY x, x/z" 2nd
} 

do_select_tests e_select-8.7.2 {
  1   "SELECT x*z FROM d1 UNION ALL SELECT a FROM d2 ORDER BY x*z" {
    -20 -2 -1 3 7 8 93 186 babied barked commercials gently 
    iterate lad pragmatist reemphasizes rejoicing solemnness
  }
  2   "SELECT x, x/z FROM d1 UNION ALL SELECT a,b FROM d2 ORDER BY x, x/z" {
    1 -1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 -2 2 0 
    babied charitableness barked interrupted commercials bathrobe gently
    failings iterate sexton lad relenting pragmatist guarded reemphasizes reply
    rejoicing liabilities solemnness annexed
  }
} 

do_execsql_test e_select-8.8.0 {
  CREATE TABLE d3(a);
  INSERT INTO d3 VALUES('text');
  INSERT INTO d3 VALUES(14.1);
  INSERT INTO d3 VALUES(13);
  INSERT INTO d3 VALUES(X'78787878');
  INSERT INTO d3 VALUES(15);
  INSERT INTO d3 VALUES(12.9);
  INSERT INTO d3 VALUES(null);

  CREATE TABLE d4(x COLLATE nocase);
  INSERT INTO d4 VALUES('abc');
  INSERT INTO d4 VALUES('ghi');
  INSERT INTO d4 VALUES('DEF');
  INSERT INTO d4 VALUES('JKL');
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-10883-17697 For the purposes of sorting rows, values
# are compared in the same way as for comparison expressions.
#
#   The following tests verify that values of different types are sorted
#   correctly, and that mixed real and integer values are compared properly.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-8.8.1 {
  SELECT a FROM d3 ORDER BY a
} {{} 12.9 13 14.1 15 text xxxx}
do_execsql_test e_select-8.8.2 {
  SELECT a FROM d3 ORDER BY a DESC
} {xxxx text 15 14.1 13 12.9 {}}


# EVIDENCE-OF: R-64199-22471 If the ORDER BY expression is assigned a
# collation sequence using the postfix COLLATE operator, then the
# specified collation sequence is used.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-8.9.1 {
  SELECT x FROM d4 ORDER BY 1 COLLATE binary
} {DEF JKL abc ghi}
do_execsql_test e_select-8.9.2 {
  SELECT x COLLATE binary FROM d4 ORDER BY 1 COLLATE nocase
} {abc DEF ghi JKL}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-09398-26102 Otherwise, if the ORDER BY expression is 
# an alias to an expression that has been assigned a collation sequence 
# using the postfix COLLATE operator, then the collation sequence 
# assigned to the aliased expression is used.
#
#   In the test 8.10.2, the only result-column expression has no alias. So the
#   ORDER BY expression is not a reference to it and therefore does not inherit
#   the collation sequence. In test 8.10.3, "x" is the alias (as well as the
#   column name), so the ORDER BY expression is interpreted as an alias and the
#   collation sequence attached to the result column is used for sorting.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-8.10.1 {
  SELECT x COLLATE binary FROM d4 ORDER BY 1
} {DEF JKL abc ghi}
do_execsql_test e_select-8.10.2 {
  SELECT x COLLATE binary FROM d4 ORDER BY x
} {abc DEF ghi JKL}
do_execsql_test e_select-8.10.3 {
  SELECT x COLLATE binary AS x FROM d4 ORDER BY x
} {DEF JKL abc ghi}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-27301-09658 Otherwise, if the ORDER BY expression is a
# column or an alias of an expression that is a column, then the default
# collation sequence for the column is used.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-8.11.1 {
  SELECT x AS y FROM d4 ORDER BY y
} {abc DEF ghi JKL}
do_execsql_test e_select-8.11.2 {
  SELECT x||'' FROM d4 ORDER BY x
} {abc DEF ghi JKL}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-49925-55905 Otherwise, the BINARY collation sequence is
# used.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-8.12.1 {
  SELECT x FROM d4 ORDER BY x||''
} {DEF JKL abc ghi}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-44130-32593 If an ORDER BY expression is not an integer
# alias, then SQLite searches the left-most SELECT in the compound for a
# result column that matches either the second or third rules above. If
# a match is found, the search stops and the expression is handled as an
# alias for the result column that it has been matched against.
# Otherwise, the next SELECT to the right is tried, and so on.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-8.13.0 {
  CREATE TABLE d5(a, b);
  CREATE TABLE d6(c, d);
  CREATE TABLE d7(e, f);
 
  INSERT INTO d5 VALUES(1, 'f');
  INSERT INTO d6 VALUES(2, 'e');
  INSERT INTO d7 VALUES(3, 'd');
  INSERT INTO d5 VALUES(4, 'c');
  INSERT INTO d6 VALUES(5, 'b');
  INSERT INTO d7 VALUES(6, 'a');

  CREATE TABLE d8(x COLLATE nocase);
  CREATE TABLE d9(y COLLATE nocase);

  INSERT INTO d8 VALUES('a');
  INSERT INTO d9 VALUES('B');
  INSERT INTO d8 VALUES('c');
  INSERT INTO d9 VALUES('D');
} {}
do_select_tests e_select-8.13 {
  1   { SELECT a FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT c FROM d6 UNION ALL SELECT e FROM d7
         ORDER BY a
      } {1 2 3 4 5 6}
  2   { SELECT a FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT c FROM d6 UNION ALL SELECT e FROM d7
         ORDER BY c
      } {1 2 3 4 5 6}
  3   { SELECT a FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT c FROM d6 UNION ALL SELECT e FROM d7
         ORDER BY e
      } {1 2 3 4 5 6}
  4   { SELECT a FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT c FROM d6 UNION ALL SELECT e FROM d7
         ORDER BY 1
      } {1 2 3 4 5 6}

  5   { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a FROM d5 ORDER BY b } 
      {f 1   c 4   4 c   1 f}
  6   { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a FROM d5 ORDER BY 2 } 
      {f 1   c 4   4 c   1 f}

  7   { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a FROM d5 ORDER BY a } 
      {1 f   4 c   c 4   f 1}
  8   { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a FROM d5 ORDER BY 1 } 
      {1 f   4 c   c 4   f 1}

  9   { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a+1 FROM d5 ORDER BY a+1 } 
      {f 2   c 5   4 c   1 f}
  10  { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a+1 FROM d5 ORDER BY 2 } 
      {f 2   c 5   4 c   1 f}

  11  { SELECT a+1, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a+1 FROM d5 ORDER BY a+1 } 
      {2 f   5 c   c 5   f 2}
  12  { SELECT a+1, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT b, a+1 FROM d5 ORDER BY 1 } 
      {2 f   5 c   c 5   f 2}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-39265-04070 If no matching expression can be found in
# the result columns of any constituent SELECT, it is an error.
#
do_select_tests e_select-8.14 -error {
  %s ORDER BY term does not match any column in the result set
} {
  1   { SELECT a FROM d5 UNION SELECT c FROM d6 ORDER BY a+1 }          1st
  2   { SELECT a FROM d5 UNION SELECT c FROM d6 ORDER BY a, a+1 }       2nd
  3   { SELECT * FROM d5 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM d6 ORDER BY 'hello' }  1st
  4   { SELECT * FROM d5 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM d6 ORDER BY blah    }  1st
  5   { SELECT * FROM d5 INTERSECT SELECT * FROM d6 ORDER BY c,d,c+d }  3rd
  6   { SELECT * FROM d5 EXCEPT SELECT * FROM d7 ORDER BY 1,2,b,a/b  }  4th
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-03407-11483 Each term of the ORDER BY clause is
# processed separately and may be matched against result columns from
# different SELECT statements in the compound.
# 
do_select_tests e_select-8.15 {
  1  { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT c-1, d FROM d6 ORDER BY a, d }
     {1 e   1 f   4 b   4 c}
  2  { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT c-1, d FROM d6 ORDER BY c-1, b }
     {1 e   1 f   4 b   4 c}
  3  { SELECT a, b FROM d5 UNION ALL SELECT c-1, d FROM d6 ORDER BY 1, 2 }
     {1 e   1 f   4 b   4 c}
} 


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Tests related to statements made about the LIMIT/OFFSET clause.
#
do_execsql_test e_select-9.0 {
  CREATE TABLE f1(a, b);
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(26, 'z');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(25, 'y');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(24, 'x');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(23, 'w');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(22, 'v');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(21, 'u');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(20, 't');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(19, 's');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(18, 'r');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(17, 'q');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(16, 'p');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(15, 'o');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(14, 'n');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(13, 'm');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(12, 'l');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(11, 'k');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(10, 'j');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(9, 'i');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(8, 'h');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(7, 'g');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(6, 'f');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(5, 'e');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(4, 'd');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(3, 'c');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(2, 'b');
  INSERT INTO f1 VALUES(1, 'a');
} {}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-30481-56627 Any scalar expression may be used in the
# LIMIT clause, so long as it evaluates to an integer or a value that
# can be losslessly converted to an integer.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.1 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 5 } {a b c d e}
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 2+3 } {a b c d e}
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT (SELECT a FROM f1 WHERE b = 'e') } 
     {a b c d e}
  4  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 5.0 } {a b c d e}
  5  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT '5' } {a b c d e}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-46155-47219 If the expression evaluates to a NULL value
# or any other value that cannot be losslessly converted to an integer,
# an error is returned.
#

do_select_tests e_select-9.2 -error "datatype mismatch" {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 'hello' } {}
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT NULL } {}
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT X'ABCD' } {}
  4  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 5.1 } {}
  5  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT (SELECT group_concat(b) FROM f1) } {}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-03014-26414 If the LIMIT expression evaluates to a
# negative value, then there is no upper bound on the number of rows
# returned.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.4 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT -1 } 
     {a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z}
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT length('abc')-100 } 
     {a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z}
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT (SELECT count(*) FROM f1)/2 - 14 }
     {a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-33750-29536 Otherwise, the SELECT returns the first N
# rows of its result set only, where N is the value that the LIMIT
# expression evaluates to.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.5 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 0 } {}
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a DESC LIMIT 4 } {z y x w}
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a DESC LIMIT 8 } {z y x w v u t s}
  4  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a DESC LIMIT '12.0' } {z y x w v u t s r q p o}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-54935-19057 Or, if the SELECT statement would return
# less than N rows without a LIMIT clause, then the entire result set is
# returned.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.6 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 WHERE a>21 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10 } {v w x y z}
  2  { SELECT count(*) FROM f1 GROUP BY a/5 ORDER BY 1 LIMIT 10 } {2 4 5 5 5 5}
} 


# EVIDENCE-OF: R-24188-24349 The expression attached to the optional
# OFFSET clause that may follow a LIMIT clause must also evaluate to an
# integer, or a value that can be losslessly converted to an integer.
#
foreach {tn select} {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 2 OFFSET 'hello' } 
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 2 OFFSET NULL } 
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 2 OFFSET X'ABCD' } 
  4  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 2 OFFSET 5.1 } 
  5  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a 
       LIMIT 2 OFFSET (SELECT group_concat(b) FROM f1) 
  } 
} {
  do_catchsql_test e_select-9.7.$tn $select {1 {datatype mismatch}}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-20467-43422 If an expression has an OFFSET clause, then
# the first M rows are omitted from the result set returned by the
# SELECT statement and the next N rows are returned, where M and N are
# the values that the OFFSET and LIMIT clauses evaluate to,
# respectively.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.8 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10 OFFSET 5} {f g h i j k l m n o}
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 2+3 OFFSET 10} {k l m n o}
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a 
       LIMIT  (SELECT a FROM f1 WHERE b='j') 
       OFFSET (SELECT a FROM f1 WHERE b='b') 
     } {c d e f g h i j k l}
  4  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT '5' OFFSET 3.0 } {d e f g h}
  5  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT '5' OFFSET 0 } {a b c d e}
  6  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 0 OFFSET 10 } {}
  7  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 3 OFFSET '1'||'5' } {p q r}
}

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-34648-44875 Or, if the SELECT would return less than
# M+N rows if it did not have a LIMIT clause, then the first M rows are
# skipped and the remaining rows (if any) are returned.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.9 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10 OFFSET 20} {u v w x y z}
  2  { SELECT a FROM f1 ORDER BY a DESC LIMIT 100 OFFSET 18+4} {4 3 2 1}
}


# EVIDENCE-OF: R-23293-62447 If the OFFSET clause evaluates to a
# negative value, the results are the same as if it had evaluated to
# zero.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.10 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 5 OFFSET -1 } {a b c d e}
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 5 OFFSET -500 } {a b c d e}
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 5 OFFSET 0  } {a b c d e}
} 

# EVIDENCE-OF: R-19509-40356 Instead of a separate OFFSET clause, the
# LIMIT clause may specify two scalar expressions separated by a comma.
#
# EVIDENCE-OF: R-33788-46243 In this case, the first expression is used
# as the OFFSET expression and the second as the LIMIT expression.
#
do_select_tests e_select-9.11 {
  1  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 5, 10 } {f g h i j k l m n o}
  2  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10, 2+3 } {k l m n o}
  3  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a 
       LIMIT (SELECT a FROM f1 WHERE b='b'), (SELECT a FROM f1 WHERE b='j') 
     } {c d e f g h i j k l}
  4  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 3.0, '5' } {d e f g h}
  5  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 0, '5' } {a b c d e}
  6  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10, 0 } {}
  7  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT '1'||'5', 3 } {p q r}

  8  { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 20, 10 } {u v w x y z}
  9  { SELECT a FROM f1 ORDER BY a DESC LIMIT 18+4, 100 } {4 3 2 1}

  10 { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT -1, 5 } {a b c d e}
  11 { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT -500, 5 } {a b c d e}
  12 { SELECT b FROM f1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 0, 5 } {a b c d e}
}

finish_test