/ Artifact Content
Login
SQLite training in Houston TX on 2019-11-05 (details)
Part of the 2019 Tcl Conference

Artifact b99afc6940747ec504ac98ce551fc31181c3fcc0:


/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** Utility functions used throughout sqlite.
**
** This file contains functions for allocating memory, comparing
** strings, and stuff like that.
**
** $Id: util.c,v 1.204 2007/05/16 17:28:43 danielk1977 Exp $
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "os.h"
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <ctype.h>


/*
** Set the most recent error code and error string for the sqlite
** handle "db". The error code is set to "err_code".
**
** If it is not NULL, string zFormat specifies the format of the
** error string in the style of the printf functions: The following
** format characters are allowed:
**
**      %s      Insert a string
**      %z      A string that should be freed after use
**      %d      Insert an integer
**      %T      Insert a token
**      %S      Insert the first element of a SrcList
**
** zFormat and any string tokens that follow it are assumed to be
** encoded in UTF-8.
**
** To clear the most recent error for sqlite handle "db", sqlite3Error
** should be called with err_code set to SQLITE_OK and zFormat set
** to NULL.
*/
void sqlite3Error(sqlite3 *db, int err_code, const char *zFormat, ...){
  if( db && (db->pErr || (db->pErr = sqlite3ValueNew())!=0) ){
    db->errCode = err_code;
    if( zFormat ){
      char *z;
      va_list ap;
      va_start(ap, zFormat);
      z = sqlite3VMPrintf(zFormat, ap);
      va_end(ap);
      sqlite3ValueSetStr(db->pErr, -1, z, SQLITE_UTF8, sqlite3FreeX);
    }else{
      sqlite3ValueSetStr(db->pErr, 0, 0, SQLITE_UTF8, SQLITE_STATIC);
    }
  }
}

/*
** Add an error message to pParse->zErrMsg and increment pParse->nErr.
** The following formatting characters are allowed:
**
**      %s      Insert a string
**      %z      A string that should be freed after use
**      %d      Insert an integer
**      %T      Insert a token
**      %S      Insert the first element of a SrcList
**
** This function should be used to report any error that occurs whilst
** compiling an SQL statement (i.e. within sqlite3_prepare()). The
** last thing the sqlite3_prepare() function does is copy the error
** stored by this function into the database handle using sqlite3Error().
** Function sqlite3Error() should be used during statement execution
** (sqlite3_step() etc.).
*/
void sqlite3ErrorMsg(Parse *pParse, const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  pParse->nErr++;
  sqliteFree(pParse->zErrMsg);
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  pParse->zErrMsg = sqlite3VMPrintf(zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  if( pParse->rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pParse->rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
  }
}

/*
** Clear the error message in pParse, if any
*/
void sqlite3ErrorClear(Parse *pParse){
  sqliteFree(pParse->zErrMsg);
  pParse->zErrMsg = 0;
  pParse->nErr = 0;
}

/*
** Convert an SQL-style quoted string into a normal string by removing
** the quote characters.  The conversion is done in-place.  If the
** input does not begin with a quote character, then this routine
** is a no-op.
**
** 2002-Feb-14: This routine is extended to remove MS-Access style
** brackets from around identifers.  For example:  "[a-b-c]" becomes
** "a-b-c".
*/
void sqlite3Dequote(char *z){
  int quote;
  int i, j;
  if( z==0 ) return;
  quote = z[0];
  switch( quote ){
    case '\'':  break;
    case '"':   break;
    case '`':   break;                /* For MySQL compatibility */
    case '[':   quote = ']';  break;  /* For MS SqlServer compatibility */
    default:    return;
  }
  for(i=1, j=0; z[i]; i++){
    if( z[i]==quote ){
      if( z[i+1]==quote ){
        z[j++] = quote;
        i++;
      }else{
        z[j++] = 0;
        break;
      }
    }else{
      z[j++] = z[i];
    }
  }
}

/* An array to map all upper-case characters into their corresponding
** lower-case character. 
*/
const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[] = {
#ifdef SQLITE_ASCII
      0,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
     18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
     36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53,
     54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,
    104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,
    122, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,
    108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,
    126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,
    144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,
    162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,
    180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,
    198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,
    216,217,218,219,220,221,222,223,224,225,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,
    234,235,236,237,238,239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,250,251,
    252,253,254,255
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_EBCDIC
      0,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, /* 0x */
     16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, /* 1x */
     32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, /* 2x */
     48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, /* 3x */
     64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, /* 4x */
     80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, /* 5x */
     96, 97, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,106,107,108,109,110,111, /* 6x */
    112, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89,122,123,124,125,126,127, /* 7x */
    128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143, /* 8x */
    144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,156,159, /* 9x */
    160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,140,141,142,175, /* Ax */
    176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191, /* Bx */
    192,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,202,203,204,205,206,207, /* Cx */
    208,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,218,219,220,221,222,223, /* Dx */
    224,225,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,232,203,204,205,206,207, /* Ex */
    239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,219,220,221,222,255, /* Fx */
#endif
};
#define UpperToLower sqlite3UpperToLower

/*
** Some systems have stricmp().  Others have strcasecmp().  Because
** there is no consistency, we will define our own.
*/
int sqlite3StrICmp(const char *zLeft, const char *zRight){
  register unsigned char *a, *b;
  a = (unsigned char *)zLeft;
  b = (unsigned char *)zRight;
  while( *a!=0 && UpperToLower[*a]==UpperToLower[*b]){ a++; b++; }
  return UpperToLower[*a] - UpperToLower[*b];
}
int sqlite3StrNICmp(const char *zLeft, const char *zRight, int N){
  register unsigned char *a, *b;
  a = (unsigned char *)zLeft;
  b = (unsigned char *)zRight;
  while( N-- > 0 && *a!=0 && UpperToLower[*a]==UpperToLower[*b]){ a++; b++; }
  return N<0 ? 0 : UpperToLower[*a] - UpperToLower[*b];
}

/*
** Return TRUE if z is a pure numeric string.  Return FALSE if the
** string contains any character which is not part of a number. If
** the string is numeric and contains the '.' character, set *realnum
** to TRUE (otherwise FALSE).
**
** An empty string is considered non-numeric.
*/
int sqlite3IsNumber(const char *z, int *realnum, u8 enc){
  int incr = (enc==SQLITE_UTF8?1:2);
  if( enc==SQLITE_UTF16BE ) z++;
  if( *z=='-' || *z=='+' ) z += incr;
  if( !isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){
    return 0;
  }
  z += incr;
  if( realnum ) *realnum = 0;
  while( isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){ z += incr; }
  if( *z=='.' ){
    z += incr;
    if( !isdigit(*(u8*)z) ) return 0;
    while( isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){ z += incr; }
    if( realnum ) *realnum = 1;
  }
  if( *z=='e' || *z=='E' ){
    z += incr;
    if( *z=='+' || *z=='-' ) z += incr;
    if( !isdigit(*(u8*)z) ) return 0;
    while( isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){ z += incr; }
    if( realnum ) *realnum = 1;
  }
  return *z==0;
}

/*
** The string z[] is an ascii representation of a real number.
** Convert this string to a double.
**
** This routine assumes that z[] really is a valid number.  If it
** is not, the result is undefined.
**
** This routine is used instead of the library atof() function because
** the library atof() might want to use "," as the decimal point instead
** of "." depending on how locale is set.  But that would cause problems
** for SQL.  So this routine always uses "." regardless of locale.
*/
int sqlite3AtoF(const char *z, double *pResult){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
  int sign = 1;
  const char *zBegin = z;
  LONGDOUBLE_TYPE v1 = 0.0;
  while( isspace(*z) ) z++;
  if( *z=='-' ){
    sign = -1;
    z++;
  }else if( *z=='+' ){
    z++;
  }
  while( isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){
    v1 = v1*10.0 + (*z - '0');
    z++;
  }
  if( *z=='.' ){
    LONGDOUBLE_TYPE divisor = 1.0;
    z++;
    while( isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){
      v1 = v1*10.0 + (*z - '0');
      divisor *= 10.0;
      z++;
    }
    v1 /= divisor;
  }
  if( *z=='e' || *z=='E' ){
    int esign = 1;
    int eval = 0;
    LONGDOUBLE_TYPE scale = 1.0;
    z++;
    if( *z=='-' ){
      esign = -1;
      z++;
    }else if( *z=='+' ){
      z++;
    }
    while( isdigit(*(u8*)z) ){
      eval = eval*10 + *z - '0';
      z++;
    }
    while( eval>=64 ){ scale *= 1.0e+64; eval -= 64; }
    while( eval>=16 ){ scale *= 1.0e+16; eval -= 16; }
    while( eval>=4 ){ scale *= 1.0e+4; eval -= 4; }
    while( eval>=1 ){ scale *= 1.0e+1; eval -= 1; }
    if( esign<0 ){
      v1 /= scale;
    }else{
      v1 *= scale;
    }
  }
  *pResult = sign<0 ? -v1 : v1;
  return z - zBegin;
#else
  return sqlite3Atoi64(z, pResult);
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT */
}

/*
** Return TRUE if zNum is a 64-bit signed integer and write
** the value of the integer into *pNum.  If zNum is not an integer
** or is an integer that is too large to be expressed with 64 bits,
** then return false.  If n>0 and the integer is string is not
** exactly n bytes long, return false.
**
** When this routine was originally written it dealt with only
** 32-bit numbers.  At that time, it was much faster than the
** atoi() library routine in RedHat 7.2.
*/
int sqlite3Atoi64(const char *zNum, i64 *pNum){
  i64 v = 0;
  int neg;
  int i, c;
  while( isspace(*zNum) ) zNum++;
  if( *zNum=='-' ){
    neg = 1;
    zNum++;
  }else if( *zNum=='+' ){
    neg = 0;
    zNum++;
  }else{
    neg = 0;
  }
  for(i=0; (c=zNum[i])>='0' && c<='9'; i++){
    v = v*10 + c - '0';
  }
  *pNum = neg ? -v : v;
  return c==0 && i>0 && 
      (i<19 || (i==19 && memcmp(zNum,"9223372036854775807",19)<=0));
}

/*
** The string zNum represents an integer.  There might be some other
** information following the integer too, but that part is ignored.
** If the integer that the prefix of zNum represents will fit in a
** 32-bit signed integer, return TRUE.  Otherwise return FALSE.
**
** This routine returns FALSE for the string -2147483648 even that
** that number will in fact fit in a 32-bit integer.  But positive
** 2147483648 will not fit in 32 bits.  So it seems safer to return
** false.
*/
static int sqlite3FitsIn32Bits(const char *zNum){
  int i, c;
  if( *zNum=='-' || *zNum=='+' ) zNum++;
  for(i=0; (c=zNum[i])>='0' && c<='9'; i++){}
  return i<10 || (i==10 && memcmp(zNum,"2147483647",10)<=0);
}

/*
** If zNum represents an integer that will fit in 32-bits, then set
** *pValue to that integer and return true.  Otherwise return false.
*/
int sqlite3GetInt32(const char *zNum, int *pValue){
  if( sqlite3FitsIn32Bits(zNum) ){
    *pValue = atoi(zNum);
    return 1;
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** The string zNum represents an integer.  There might be some other
** information following the integer too, but that part is ignored.
** If the integer that the prefix of zNum represents will fit in a
** 64-bit signed integer, return TRUE.  Otherwise return FALSE.
**
** This routine returns FALSE for the string -9223372036854775808 even that
** that number will, in theory fit in a 64-bit integer.  Positive
** 9223373036854775808 will not fit in 64 bits.  So it seems safer to return
** false.
*/
int sqlite3FitsIn64Bits(const char *zNum){
  int i, c;
  if( *zNum=='-' || *zNum=='+' ) zNum++;
  for(i=0; (c=zNum[i])>='0' && c<='9'; i++){}
  return i<19 || (i==19 && memcmp(zNum,"9223372036854775807",19)<=0);
}


/*
** Check to make sure we have a valid db pointer.  This test is not
** foolproof but it does provide some measure of protection against
** misuse of the interface such as passing in db pointers that are
** NULL or which have been previously closed.  If this routine returns
** TRUE it means that the db pointer is invalid and should not be
** dereferenced for any reason.  The calling function should invoke
** SQLITE_MISUSE immediately.
*/
int sqlite3SafetyCheck(sqlite3 *db){
  int magic;
  if( db==0 ) return 1;
  magic = db->magic;
  if( magic!=SQLITE_MAGIC_CLOSED &&
         magic!=SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN &&
         magic!=SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY ) return 1;
  return 0;
}

/*
** The variable-length integer encoding is as follows:
**
** KEY:
**         A = 0xxxxxxx    7 bits of data and one flag bit
**         B = 1xxxxxxx    7 bits of data and one flag bit
**         C = xxxxxxxx    8 bits of data
**
**  7 bits - A
** 14 bits - BA
** 21 bits - BBA
** 28 bits - BBBA
** 35 bits - BBBBA
** 42 bits - BBBBBA
** 49 bits - BBBBBBA
** 56 bits - BBBBBBBA
** 64 bits - BBBBBBBBC
*/

/*
** Write a 64-bit variable-length integer to memory starting at p[0].
** The length of data write will be between 1 and 9 bytes.  The number
** of bytes written is returned.
**
** A variable-length integer consists of the lower 7 bits of each byte
** for all bytes that have the 8th bit set and one byte with the 8th
** bit clear.  Except, if we get to the 9th byte, it stores the full
** 8 bits and is the last byte.
*/
int sqlite3PutVarint(unsigned char *p, u64 v){
  int i, j, n;
  u8 buf[10];
  if( v & (((u64)0xff000000)<<32) ){
    p[8] = v;
    v >>= 8;
    for(i=7; i>=0; i--){
      p[i] = (v & 0x7f) | 0x80;
      v >>= 7;
    }
    return 9;
  }    
  n = 0;
  do{
    buf[n++] = (v & 0x7f) | 0x80;
    v >>= 7;
  }while( v!=0 );
  buf[0] &= 0x7f;
  assert( n<=9 );
  for(i=0, j=n-1; j>=0; j--, i++){
    p[i] = buf[j];
  }
  return n;
}

/*
** Read a 64-bit variable-length integer from memory starting at p[0].
** Return the number of bytes read.  The value is stored in *v.
*/
int sqlite3GetVarint(const unsigned char *p, u64 *v){
  u32 x;
  u64 x64;
  int n;
  unsigned char c;
  if( ((c = p[0]) & 0x80)==0 ){
    *v = c;
    return 1;
  }
  x = c & 0x7f;
  if( ((c = p[1]) & 0x80)==0 ){
    *v = (x<<7) | c;
    return 2;
  }
  x = (x<<7) | (c&0x7f);
  if( ((c = p[2]) & 0x80)==0 ){
    *v = (x<<7) | c;
    return 3;
  }
  x = (x<<7) | (c&0x7f);
  if( ((c = p[3]) & 0x80)==0 ){
    *v = (x<<7) | c;
    return 4;
  }
  x64 = (x<<7) | (c&0x7f);
  n = 4;
  do{
    c = p[n++];
    if( n==9 ){
      x64 = (x64<<8) | c;
      break;
    }
    x64 = (x64<<7) | (c&0x7f);
  }while( (c & 0x80)!=0 );
  *v = x64;
  return n;
}

/*
** Read a 32-bit variable-length integer from memory starting at p[0].
** Return the number of bytes read.  The value is stored in *v.
*/
int sqlite3GetVarint32(const unsigned char *p, u32 *v){
  u32 x;
  int n;
  unsigned char c;
  if( ((signed char*)p)[0]>=0 ){
    *v = p[0];
    return 1;
  }
  x = p[0] & 0x7f;
  if( ((signed char*)p)[1]>=0 ){
    *v = (x<<7) | p[1];
    return 2;
  }
  x = (x<<7) | (p[1] & 0x7f);
  n = 2;
  do{
    x = (x<<7) | ((c = p[n++])&0x7f);
  }while( (c & 0x80)!=0 && n<9 );
  *v = x;
  return n;
}

/*
** Return the number of bytes that will be needed to store the given
** 64-bit integer.
*/
int sqlite3VarintLen(u64 v){
  int i = 0;
  do{
    i++;
    v >>= 7;
  }while( v!=0 && i<9 );
  return i;
}


/*
** Read or write a four-byte big-endian integer value.
*/
u32 sqlite3Get4byte(const u8 *p){
  return (p[0]<<24) | (p[1]<<16) | (p[2]<<8) | p[3];
}
void sqlite3Put4byte(unsigned char *p, u32 v){
  p[0] = v>>24;
  p[1] = v>>16;
  p[2] = v>>8;
  p[3] = v;
}



#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_BLOB_LITERAL) || defined(SQLITE_HAS_CODEC) \
    || defined(SQLITE_TEST)
/*
** Translate a single byte of Hex into an integer.
*/
static int hexToInt(int h){
  if( h>='0' && h<='9' ){
    return h - '0';
  }else if( h>='a' && h<='f' ){
    return h - 'a' + 10;
  }else{
    assert( h>='A' && h<='F' );
    return h - 'A' + 10;
  }
}
#endif /* !SQLITE_OMIT_BLOB_LITERAL || SQLITE_HAS_CODEC || SQLITE_TEST */

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_BLOB_LITERAL) || defined(SQLITE_HAS_CODEC)
/*
** Convert a BLOB literal of the form "x'hhhhhh'" into its binary
** value.  Return a pointer to its binary value.  Space to hold the
** binary value has been obtained from malloc and must be freed by
** the calling routine.
*/
void *sqlite3HexToBlob(const char *z){
  char *zBlob;
  int i;
  int n = strlen(z);
  if( n%2 ) return 0;

  zBlob = (char *)sqliteMalloc(n/2);
  if( zBlob ){
    for(i=0; i<n; i+=2){
      zBlob[i/2] = (hexToInt(z[i])<<4) | hexToInt(z[i+1]);
    }
  }
  return zBlob;
}
#endif /* !SQLITE_OMIT_BLOB_LITERAL || SQLITE_HAS_CODEC */


/*
** Change the sqlite.magic from SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN to SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY.
** Return an error (non-zero) if the magic was not SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN
** when this routine is called.
**
** This routine is called when entering an SQLite API.  The SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN
** value indicates that the database connection passed into the API is
** open and is not being used by another thread.  By changing the value
** to SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY we indicate that the connection is in use.
** sqlite3SafetyOff() below will change the value back to SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN
** when the API exits. 
**
** This routine is a attempt to detect if two threads use the
** same sqlite* pointer at the same time.  There is a race 
** condition so it is possible that the error is not detected.
** But usually the problem will be seen.  The result will be an
** error which can be used to debug the application that is
** using SQLite incorrectly.
**
** Ticket #202:  If db->magic is not a valid open value, take care not
** to modify the db structure at all.  It could be that db is a stale
** pointer.  In other words, it could be that there has been a prior
** call to sqlite3_close(db) and db has been deallocated.  And we do
** not want to write into deallocated memory.
*/
int sqlite3SafetyOn(sqlite3 *db){
  if( db->magic==SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN ){
    db->magic = SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY;
    return 0;
  }else if( db->magic==SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY ){
    db->magic = SQLITE_MAGIC_ERROR;
    db->u1.isInterrupted = 1;
  }
  return 1;
}

/*
** Change the magic from SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY to SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN.
** Return an error (non-zero) if the magic was not SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY
** when this routine is called.
*/
int sqlite3SafetyOff(sqlite3 *db){
  if( db->magic==SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY ){
    db->magic = SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN;
    return 0;
  }else {
    db->magic = SQLITE_MAGIC_ERROR;
    db->u1.isInterrupted = 1;
    return 1;
  }
}

/*
** Return a pointer to the ThreadData associated with the calling thread.
*/
ThreadData *sqlite3ThreadData(){
  ThreadData *p = (ThreadData*)sqlite3OsThreadSpecificData(1);
  if( !p ){
    sqlite3FailedMalloc();
  }
  return p;
}

/*
** Return a pointer to the ThreadData associated with the calling thread.
** If no ThreadData has been allocated to this thread yet, return a pointer
** to a substitute ThreadData structure that is all zeros. 
*/
const ThreadData *sqlite3ThreadDataReadOnly(){
  static const ThreadData zeroData = {0};  /* Initializer to silence warnings
                                           ** from broken compilers */
  const ThreadData *pTd = sqlite3OsThreadSpecificData(0);
  return pTd ? pTd : &zeroData;
}

/*
** Check to see if the ThreadData for this thread is all zero.  If it
** is, then deallocate it. 
*/
void sqlite3ReleaseThreadData(){
  sqlite3OsThreadSpecificData(-1);
}