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Artifact b8ccd34a919e4b6bab8c4164046330002aa9a27a:

** 2001 September 15
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
#define _SQLITEINT_H_

** Include the header file used to customize the compiler options for MSVC.
** This should be done first so that it can successfully prevent spurious
** compiler warnings due to subsequent content in this file and other files
** that are included by this file.
#include "msvc.h"

** Special setup for VxWorks
#include "vxworks.h"

** These #defines should enable >2GB file support on POSIX if the
** underlying operating system supports it.  If the OS lacks
** large file support, or if the OS is windows, these should be no-ops.
** Ticket #2739:  The _LARGEFILE_SOURCE macro must appear before any
** system #includes.  Hence, this block of code must be the very first
** code in all source files.
** Large file support can be disabled using the -DSQLITE_DISABLE_LFS switch
** on the compiler command line.  This is necessary if you are compiling
** on a recent machine (ex: Red Hat 7.2) but you want your code to work
** on an older machine (ex: Red Hat 6.0).  If you compile on Red Hat 7.2
** without this option, LFS is enable.  But LFS does not exist in the kernel
** in Red Hat 6.0, so the code won't work.  Hence, for maximum binary
** portability you should omit LFS.
** The previous paragraph was written in 2005.  (This paragraph is written
** on 2008-11-28.) These days, all Linux kernels support large files, so
** you should probably leave LFS enabled.  But some embedded platforms might
** lack LFS in which case the SQLITE_DISABLE_LFS macro might still be useful.
** Similar is true for Mac OS X.  LFS is only supported on Mac OS X 9 and later.
# define _LARGE_FILE       1
#   define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
# endif

/* What version of GCC is being used.  0 means GCC is not being used */
#ifdef __GNUC__
# define GCC_VERSION (__GNUC__*1000000+__GNUC_MINOR__*1000+__GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__)
# define GCC_VERSION 0

/* Needed for various definitions... */
#if defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(_GNU_SOURCE)
# define _GNU_SOURCE

#if defined(__OpenBSD__) && !defined(_BSD_SOURCE)
# define _BSD_SOURCE

** For MinGW, check to see if we can include the header file containing its
** version information, among other things.  Normally, this internal MinGW
** header file would [only] be included automatically by other MinGW header
** files; however, the contained version information is now required by this
** header file to work around binary compatibility issues (see below) and
** this is the only known way to reliably obtain it.  This entire #if block
** would be completely unnecessary if there was any other way of detecting
** MinGW via their preprocessor (e.g. if they customized their GCC to define
** some MinGW-specific macros).  When compiling for MinGW, either the
** _HAVE_MINGW_H or _HAVE__MINGW_H (note the extra underscore) macro must be
** defined; otherwise, detection of conditions specific to MinGW will be
** disabled.
#if defined(_HAVE_MINGW_H)
# include "mingw.h"
#elif defined(_HAVE__MINGW_H)
# include "_mingw.h"

** For MinGW version 4.x (and higher), check to see if the _USE_32BIT_TIME_T
** define is required to maintain binary compatibility with the MSVC runtime
** library in use (e.g. for Windows XP).
#if !defined(_USE_32BIT_TIME_T) && !defined(_USE_64BIT_TIME_T) && \
    defined(_WIN32) && !defined(_WIN64) && \
    defined(__MINGW_MAJOR_VERSION) && __MINGW_MAJOR_VERSION >= 4 && \
# define _USE_32BIT_TIME_T

/* The public SQLite interface.  The _FILE_OFFSET_BITS macro must appear
** first in QNX.  Also, the _USE_32BIT_TIME_T macro must appear first for
** MinGW.
#include "sqlite3.h"

** Include the configuration header output by 'configure' if we're using the
** autoconf-based build
#include "config.h"

#include "sqliteLimit.h"

/* Disable nuisance warnings on Borland compilers */
#if defined(__BORLANDC__)
#pragma warn -rch /* unreachable code */
#pragma warn -ccc /* Condition is always true or false */
#pragma warn -aus /* Assigned value is never used */
#pragma warn -csu /* Comparing signed and unsigned */
#pragma warn -spa /* Suspicious pointer arithmetic */

** Include standard header files as necessary
#include <stdint.h>
#include <inttypes.h>

** The following macros are used to cast pointers to integers and
** integers to pointers.  The way you do this varies from one compiler
** to the next, so we have developed the following set of #if statements
** to generate appropriate macros for a wide range of compilers.
** The correct "ANSI" way to do this is to use the intptr_t type. 
** Unfortunately, that typedef is not available on all compilers, or
** if it is available, it requires an #include of specific headers
** that vary from one machine to the next.
** Ticket #3860:  The llvm-gcc-4.2 compiler from Apple chokes on
** the ((void*)&((char*)0)[X]) construct.  But MSVC chokes on ((void*)(X)).
** So we have to define the macros in different ways depending on the
** compiler.
#if defined(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)  /* This case should work for GCC */
# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
#elif !defined(__GNUC__)       /* Works for compilers other than LLVM */
# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)&((char*)0)[X])
# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(((char*)X)-(char*)0))
#elif defined(HAVE_STDINT_H)   /* Use this case if we have ANSI headers */
# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(intptr_t)(X))
# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(intptr_t)(X))
#else                          /* Generates a warning - but it always works */
# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X)  ((void*)(X))
# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X)  ((int)(X))

** The SQLITE_WITHIN(P,S,E) macro checks to see if pointer P points to
** something between S (inclusive) and E (exclusive).
** In other words, S is a buffer and E is a pointer to the first byte after
** the end of buffer S.  This macro returns true if P points to something
** contained within the buffer S.
#if defined(HAVE_STDINT_H)
# define SQLITE_WITHIN(P,S,E) \
    ((uintptr_t)(P)>=(uintptr_t)(S) && (uintptr_t)(P)<(uintptr_t)(E))
# define SQLITE_WITHIN(P,S,E) ((P)>=(S) && (P)<(E))

** A macro to hint to the compiler that a function should not be
** inlined.
#if defined(__GNUC__)
#  define SQLITE_NOINLINE  __attribute__((noinline))
#elif defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1310
#  define SQLITE_NOINLINE  __declspec(noinline)

** Make sure that the compiler intrinsics we desire are enabled when
** compiling with an appropriate version of MSVC unless prevented by
#  if defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1300
#    if !defined(_WIN32_WCE)
#      include <intrin.h>
#      pragma intrinsic(_byteswap_ushort)
#      pragma intrinsic(_byteswap_ulong)
#      pragma intrinsic(_ReadWriteBarrier)
#    else
#      include <cmnintrin.h>
#    endif
#  endif

** The SQLITE_THREADSAFE macro must be defined as 0, 1, or 2.
** 0 means mutexes are permanently disable and the library is never
** threadsafe.  1 means the library is serialized which is the highest
** level of threadsafety.  2 means the library is multithreaded - multiple
** threads can use SQLite as long as no two threads try to use the same
** database connection at the same time.
** Older versions of SQLite used an optional THREADSAFE macro.
** We support that for legacy.
# if defined(THREADSAFE)
# else
#   define SQLITE_THREADSAFE 1 /* IMP: R-07272-22309 */
# endif

** Powersafe overwrite is on by default.  But can be turned off using
** the -DSQLITE_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE=0 command-line option.

** EVIDENCE-OF: R-25715-37072 Memory allocation statistics are enabled by
** default unless SQLite is compiled with SQLITE_DEFAULT_MEMSTATUS=0 in
** which case memory allocation statistics are disabled by default.

** Exactly one of the following macros must be defined in order to
** specify which memory allocation subsystem to use.
**     SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC          // Use normal system malloc()
**     SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC           // Use Win32 native heap API
**     SQLITE_ZERO_MALLOC            // Use a stub allocator that always fails
**     SQLITE_MEMDEBUG               // Debugging version of system malloc()
** On Windows, if the SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC_VALIDATE macro is defined and the
** assert() macro is enabled, each call into the Win32 native heap subsystem
** will cause HeapValidate to be called.  If heap validation should fail, an
** assertion will be triggered.
** If none of the above are defined, then set SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC as
** the default.
  + defined(SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC) \
  + defined(SQLITE_ZERO_MALLOC) \
  + defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)>1
# error "Two or more of the following compile-time configuration options\
 are defined but at most one is allowed:\
  + defined(SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC) \
  + defined(SQLITE_ZERO_MALLOC) \
  + defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)==0

** If SQLITE_MALLOC_SOFT_LIMIT is not zero, then try to keep the
** sizes of memory allocations below this value where possible.

** We need to define _XOPEN_SOURCE as follows in order to enable
** recursive mutexes on most Unix systems and fchmod() on OpenBSD.
** But _XOPEN_SOURCE define causes problems for Mac OS X, so omit
** it.
#if !defined(_XOPEN_SOURCE) && !defined(__DARWIN__) && !defined(__APPLE__)
#  define _XOPEN_SOURCE 600

** NDEBUG and SQLITE_DEBUG are opposites.  It should always be true that
** defined(NDEBUG)==!defined(SQLITE_DEBUG).  If this is not currently true,
** make it true by defining or undefining NDEBUG.
** Setting NDEBUG makes the code smaller and faster by disabling the
** assert() statements in the code.  So we want the default action
** to be for NDEBUG to be set and NDEBUG to be undefined only if SQLITE_DEBUG
** is set.  Thus NDEBUG becomes an opt-in rather than an opt-out
** feature.
#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) 
# define NDEBUG 1
#if defined(NDEBUG) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
# undef NDEBUG


** The testcase() macro is used to aid in coverage testing.  When 
** doing coverage testing, the condition inside the argument to
** testcase() must be evaluated both true and false in order to
** get full branch coverage.  The testcase() macro is inserted
** to help ensure adequate test coverage in places where simple
** condition/decision coverage is inadequate.  For example, testcase()
** can be used to make sure boundary values are tested.  For
** bitmask tests, testcase() can be used to make sure each bit
** is significant and used at least once.  On switch statements
** where multiple cases go to the same block of code, testcase()
** can insure that all cases are evaluated.
  void sqlite3Coverage(int);
# define testcase(X)  if( X ){ sqlite3Coverage(__LINE__); }
# define testcase(X)

** The TESTONLY macro is used to enclose variable declarations or
** other bits of code that are needed to support the arguments
** within testcase() and assert() macros.
#if !defined(NDEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST)
# define TESTONLY(X)  X
# define TESTONLY(X)

** Sometimes we need a small amount of code such as a variable initialization
** to setup for a later assert() statement.  We do not want this code to
** appear when assert() is disabled.  The following macro is therefore
** used to contain that setup code.  The "VVA" acronym stands for
** "Verification, Validation, and Accreditation".  In other words, the
** code within VVA_ONLY() will only run during verification processes.
#ifndef NDEBUG
# define VVA_ONLY(X)  X
# define VVA_ONLY(X)

** The ALWAYS and NEVER macros surround boolean expressions which 
** are intended to always be true or false, respectively.  Such
** expressions could be omitted from the code completely.  But they
** are included in a few cases in order to enhance the resilience
** of SQLite to unexpected behavior - to make the code "self-healing"
** or "ductile" rather than being "brittle" and crashing at the first
** hint of unplanned behavior.
** In other words, ALWAYS and NEVER are added for defensive code.
** When doing coverage testing ALWAYS and NEVER are hard-coded to
** be true and false so that the unreachable code they specify will
** not be counted as untested code.
# define ALWAYS(X)      (1)
# define NEVER(X)       (0)
#elif !defined(NDEBUG)
# define ALWAYS(X)      ((X)?1:(assert(0),0))
# define NEVER(X)       ((X)?(assert(0),1):0)
# define ALWAYS(X)      (X)
# define NEVER(X)       (X)

** Declarations used for tracing the operating system interfaces.
#if defined(SQLITE_FORCE_OS_TRACE) || defined(SQLITE_TEST) || \
    (defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && SQLITE_OS_WIN)
  extern int sqlite3OSTrace;
# define OSTRACE(X)          if( sqlite3OSTrace ) sqlite3DebugPrintf X
# define OSTRACE(X)

** Is the sqlite3ErrName() function needed in the build?  Currently,
** it is needed by "mutex_w32.c" (when debugging), "os_win.c" (when
** OSTRACE is enabled), and by several "test*.c" files (which are
** compiled using SQLITE_TEST).
#if defined(SQLITE_HAVE_OS_TRACE) || defined(SQLITE_TEST) || \
    (defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && SQLITE_OS_WIN)

** Return true (non-zero) if the input is an integer that is too large
** to fit in 32-bits.  This macro is used inside of various testcase()
** macros to verify that we have tested SQLite for large-file support.
#define IS_BIG_INT(X)  (((X)&~(i64)0xffffffff)!=0)

** The macro unlikely() is a hint that surrounds a boolean
** expression that is usually false.  Macro likely() surrounds
** a boolean expression that is usually true.  These hints could,
** in theory, be used by the compiler to generate better code, but
** currently they are just comments for human readers.
#define likely(X)    (X)
#define unlikely(X)  (X)

#include "hash.h"
#include "parse.h"
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <stddef.h>

** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
** substitute integer for floating-point
# define double sqlite_int64
# define float sqlite_int64
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE sqlite_int64
#   define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (((sqlite3_int64)1)<<50)
# endif
# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (1e99)

** OMIT_TEMPDB is set to 1 if SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB is defined, or 0
** afterward. Having this macro allows us to cause the C compiler 
** to omit code used by TEMP tables without messy #ifndef statements.
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 1
#define OMIT_TEMPDB 0

** The "file format" number is an integer that is incremented whenever
** the VDBE-level file format changes.  The following macros define the
** the default file format for new databases and the maximum file format
** that the library can read.

** Determine whether triggers are recursive by default.  This can be
** changed at run-time using a pragma.

** Provide a default value for SQLITE_TEMP_STORE in case it is not specified
** on the command-line
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE_xc 1  /* Exclude from ctime.c */

** If no value has been provided for SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS, or if
** SQLITE_TEMP_STORE is set to 3 (never use temporary files), set it 
** to zero.

** The default initial allocation for the pagecache when using separate
** pagecaches for each database connection.  A positive number is the
** number of pages.  A negative number N translations means that a buffer
** of -1024*N bytes is allocated and used for as many pages as it will hold.

** GCC does not define the offsetof() macro so we'll have to do it
** ourselves.
#ifndef offsetof
#define offsetof(STRUCTURE,FIELD) ((int)((char*)&((STRUCTURE*)0)->FIELD))

** Macros to compute minimum and maximum of two numbers.
#define MIN(A,B) ((A)<(B)?(A):(B))
#define MAX(A,B) ((A)>(B)?(A):(B))

** Swap two objects of type TYPE.
#define SWAP(TYPE,A,B) {TYPE t=A; A=B; B=t;}

** Check to see if this machine uses EBCDIC.  (Yes, believe it or
** not, there are still machines out there that use EBCDIC.)
#if 'A' == '\301'
# define SQLITE_EBCDIC 1
# define SQLITE_ASCII 1

** Integers of known sizes.  These typedefs might change for architectures
** where the sizes very.  Preprocessor macros are available so that the
** types can be conveniently redefined at compile-type.  Like this:
**         cc '-DUINTPTR_TYPE=long long int' ...
#ifndef UINT32_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_UINT32_T
#  define UINT32_TYPE uint32_t
# else
#  define UINT32_TYPE unsigned int
# endif
#ifndef UINT16_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_UINT16_T
#  define UINT16_TYPE uint16_t
# else
#  define UINT16_TYPE unsigned short int
# endif
#ifndef INT16_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_INT16_T
#  define INT16_TYPE int16_t
# else
#  define INT16_TYPE short int
# endif
#ifndef UINT8_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_UINT8_T
#  define UINT8_TYPE uint8_t
# else
#  define UINT8_TYPE unsigned char
# endif
#ifndef INT8_TYPE
# ifdef HAVE_INT8_T
#  define INT8_TYPE int8_t
# else
#  define INT8_TYPE signed char
# endif
# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE long double
typedef sqlite_int64 i64;          /* 8-byte signed integer */
typedef sqlite_uint64 u64;         /* 8-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT32_TYPE u32;           /* 4-byte unsigned integer */
typedef UINT16_TYPE u16;           /* 2-byte unsigned integer */
typedef INT16_TYPE i16;            /* 2-byte signed integer */
typedef UINT8_TYPE u8;             /* 1-byte unsigned integer */
typedef INT8_TYPE i8;              /* 1-byte signed integer */

** SQLITE_MAX_U32 is a u64 constant that is the maximum u64 value
** that can be stored in a u32 without loss of data.  The value
** is 0x00000000ffffffff.  But because of quirks of some compilers, we
** have to specify the value in the less intuitive manner shown:
#define SQLITE_MAX_U32  ((((u64)1)<<32)-1)

** The datatype used to store estimates of the number of rows in a
** table or index.  This is an unsigned integer type.  For 99.9% of
** the world, a 32-bit integer is sufficient.  But a 64-bit integer
** can be used at compile-time if desired.
 typedef u64 tRowcnt;    /* 64-bit only if requested at compile-time */
 typedef u32 tRowcnt;    /* 32-bit is the default */

** Estimated quantities used for query planning are stored as 16-bit
** logarithms.  For quantity X, the value stored is 10*log2(X).  This
** gives a possible range of values of approximately 1.0e986 to 1e-986.
** But the allowed values are "grainy".  Not every value is representable.
** For example, quantities 16 and 17 are both represented by a LogEst
** of 40.  However, since LogEst quantities are suppose to be estimates,
** not exact values, this imprecision is not a problem.
** "LogEst" is short for "Logarithmic Estimate".
** Examples:
**      1 -> 0              20 -> 43          10000 -> 132
**      2 -> 10             25 -> 46          25000 -> 146
**      3 -> 16            100 -> 66        1000000 -> 199
**      4 -> 20           1000 -> 99        1048576 -> 200
**     10 -> 33           1024 -> 100    4294967296 -> 320
** The LogEst can be negative to indicate fractional values. 
** Examples:
**    0.5 -> -10           0.1 -> -33        0.0625 -> -40
typedef INT16_TYPE LogEst;

** Set the SQLITE_PTRSIZE macro to the number of bytes in a pointer
# if defined(__SIZEOF_POINTER__)
# elif defined(i386)     || defined(__i386__)   || defined(_M_IX86) ||    \
       defined(_M_ARM)   || defined(__arm__)    || defined(__x86)
#   define SQLITE_PTRSIZE 4
# else
#   define SQLITE_PTRSIZE 8
# endif

** Macros to determine whether the machine is big or little endian,
** and whether or not that determination is run-time or compile-time.
** For best performance, an attempt is made to guess at the byte-order
** using C-preprocessor macros.  If that is unsuccessful, or if
** -DSQLITE_RUNTIME_BYTEORDER=1 is set, then byte-order is determined
** at run-time.
#if (defined(i386)     || defined(__i386__)   || defined(_M_IX86) ||    \
     defined(__x86_64) || defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_X64)  ||    \
     defined(_M_AMD64) || defined(_M_ARM)     || defined(__x86)   ||    \
     defined(__arm__)) && !defined(SQLITE_RUNTIME_BYTEORDER)
# define SQLITE_BYTEORDER    1234
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    0
#if (defined(sparc)    || defined(__ppc__))  \
# define SQLITE_BYTEORDER    4321
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    1
#if !defined(SQLITE_BYTEORDER)
  const int sqlite3one = 1;
# else
  extern const int sqlite3one;
# endif
# define SQLITE_BYTEORDER    0     /* 0 means "unknown at compile-time" */
# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN    (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==0)
# define SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==1)

** Constants for the largest and smallest possible 64-bit signed integers.
** These macros are designed to work correctly on both 32-bit and 64-bit
** compilers.
#define LARGEST_INT64  (0xffffffff|(((i64)0x7fffffff)<<32))
#define SMALLEST_INT64 (((i64)-1) - LARGEST_INT64)

** Round up a number to the next larger multiple of 8.  This is used
** to force 8-byte alignment on 64-bit architectures.
#define ROUND8(x)     (((x)+7)&~7)

** Round down to the nearest multiple of 8
#define ROUNDDOWN8(x) ((x)&~7)

** Assert that the pointer X is aligned to an 8-byte boundary.  This
** macro is used only within assert() to verify that the code gets
** all alignment restrictions correct.
** Except, if SQLITE_4_BYTE_ALIGNED_MALLOC is defined, then the
** underlying malloc() implementation might return us 4-byte aligned
** pointers.  In that case, only verify 4-byte alignment.
# define EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(X)   ((((char*)(X) - (char*)0)&3)==0)
# define EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(X)   ((((char*)(X) - (char*)0)&7)==0)

** Disable MMAP on platforms where it is known to not work
#if defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__QNXNTO__)

** Default maximum size of memory used by memory-mapped I/O in the VFS
#ifdef __APPLE__
# include <TargetConditionals.h>
# if defined(__linux__) \
  || defined(_WIN32) \
  || (defined(__APPLE__) && defined(__MACH__)) \
  || defined(__sun) \
  || defined(__FreeBSD__) \
  || defined(__DragonFly__)
#   define SQLITE_MAX_MMAP_SIZE 0x7fff0000  /* 2147418112 */
# else
# endif
# define SQLITE_MAX_MMAP_SIZE_xc 1 /* exclude from ctime.c */

** The default MMAP_SIZE is zero on all platforms.  Or, even if a larger
** default MMAP_SIZE is specified at compile-time, make sure that it does
** not exceed the maximum mmap size.
# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_MMAP_SIZE_xc 1  /* Exclude from ctime.c */

** Only one of SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3 or SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4 can be defined.
** Priority is given to SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4.  If either are defined, also

** SELECTTRACE_ENABLED will be either 1 or 0 depending on whether or not
** the Select query generator tracing logic is turned on.

** An instance of the following structure is used to store the busy-handler
** callback for a given sqlite handle. 
** The sqlite.busyHandler member of the sqlite struct contains the busy
** callback for the database handle. Each pager opened via the sqlite
** handle is passed a pointer to sqlite.busyHandler. The busy-handler
** callback is currently invoked only from within pager.c.
typedef struct BusyHandler BusyHandler;
struct BusyHandler {
  int (*xFunc)(void *,int);  /* The busy callback */
  void *pArg;                /* First arg to busy callback */
  int nBusy;                 /* Incremented with each busy call */

** Name of the master database table.  The master database table
** is a special table that holds the names and attributes of all
** user tables and indices.
#define MASTER_NAME       "sqlite_master"
#define TEMP_MASTER_NAME  "sqlite_temp_master"

** The root-page of the master database table.
#define MASTER_ROOT       1

** The name of the schema table.

** A convenience macro that returns the number of elements in
** an array.
#define ArraySize(X)    ((int)(sizeof(X)/sizeof(X[0])))

** Determine if the argument is a power of two
#define IsPowerOfTwo(X) (((X)&((X)-1))==0)

** The following value as a destructor means to use sqlite3DbFree().
** The sqlite3DbFree() routine requires two parameters instead of the 
** one parameter that destructors normally want.  So we have to introduce 
** this magic value that the code knows to handle differently.  Any 
** pointer will work here as long as it is distinct from SQLITE_STATIC
#define SQLITE_DYNAMIC   ((sqlite3_destructor_type)sqlite3MallocSize)

** When SQLITE_OMIT_WSD is defined, it means that the target platform does
** not support Writable Static Data (WSD) such as global and static variables.
** All variables must either be on the stack or dynamically allocated from
** the heap.  When WSD is unsupported, the variable declarations scattered
** throughout the SQLite code must become constants instead.  The SQLITE_WSD
** macro is used for this purpose.  And instead of referencing the variable
** directly, we use its constant as a key to lookup the run-time allocated
** buffer that holds real variable.  The constant is also the initializer
** for the run-time allocated buffer.
** In the usual case where WSD is supported, the SQLITE_WSD and GLOBAL
** macros become no-ops and have zero performance impact.
  #define SQLITE_WSD const
  #define GLOBAL(t,v) (*(t*)sqlite3_wsd_find((void*)&(v), sizeof(v)))
  #define sqlite3GlobalConfig GLOBAL(struct Sqlite3Config, sqlite3Config)
  int sqlite3_wsd_init(int N, int J);
  void *sqlite3_wsd_find(void *K, int L);
  #define SQLITE_WSD 
  #define GLOBAL(t,v) v
  #define sqlite3GlobalConfig sqlite3Config

** The following macros are used to suppress compiler warnings and to
** make it clear to human readers when a function parameter is deliberately 
** left unused within the body of a function. This usually happens when
** a function is called via a function pointer. For example the 
** implementation of an SQL aggregate step callback may not use the
** parameter indicating the number of arguments passed to the aggregate,
** if it knows that this is enforced elsewhere.
** When a function parameter is not used at all within the body of a function,
** it is generally named "NotUsed" or "NotUsed2" to make things even clearer.
** However, these macros may also be used to suppress warnings related to
** parameters that may or may not be used depending on compilation options.
** For example those parameters only used in assert() statements. In these
** cases the parameters are named as per the usual conventions.
#define UNUSED_PARAMETER(x) (void)(x)

** Forward references to structures
typedef struct AggInfo AggInfo;
typedef struct AuthContext AuthContext;
typedef struct AutoincInfo AutoincInfo;
typedef struct Bitvec Bitvec;
typedef struct CollSeq CollSeq;
typedef struct Column Column;
typedef struct Db Db;
typedef struct Schema Schema;
typedef struct Expr Expr;
typedef struct ExprList ExprList;
typedef struct ExprSpan ExprSpan;
typedef struct FKey FKey;
typedef struct FuncDestructor FuncDestructor;
typedef struct FuncDef FuncDef;
typedef struct FuncDefHash FuncDefHash;
typedef struct IdList IdList;
typedef struct Index Index;
typedef struct IndexSample IndexSample;
typedef struct KeyClass KeyClass;
typedef struct KeyInfo KeyInfo;
typedef struct Lookaside Lookaside;
typedef struct LookasideSlot LookasideSlot;
typedef struct Module Module;
typedef struct NameContext NameContext;
typedef struct Parse Parse;
typedef struct PrintfArguments PrintfArguments;
typedef struct RowSet RowSet;
typedef struct Savepoint Savepoint;
typedef struct Select Select;
typedef struct SQLiteThread SQLiteThread;
typedef struct SelectDest SelectDest;
typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
typedef struct StrAccum StrAccum;
typedef struct Table Table;
typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
typedef struct Token Token;
typedef struct TreeView TreeView;
typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
typedef struct TriggerPrg TriggerPrg;
typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
typedef struct UnpackedRecord UnpackedRecord;
typedef struct VTable VTable;
typedef struct VtabCtx VtabCtx;
typedef struct Walker Walker;
typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
typedef struct With With;

** Defer sourcing vdbe.h and btree.h until after the "u8" and 
** "BusyHandler" typedefs. vdbe.h also requires a few of the opaque
** pointer types (i.e. FuncDef) defined above.
#include "btree.h"
#include "vdbe.h"
#include "pager.h"
#include "pcache.h"

#include "os.h"
#include "mutex.h"

** Each database file to be accessed by the system is an instance
** of the following structure.  There are normally two of these structures
** in the sqlite.aDb[] array.  aDb[0] is the main database file and
** aDb[1] is the database file used to hold temporary tables.  Additional
** databases may be attached.
struct Db {
  char *zName;         /* Name of this database */
  Btree *pBt;          /* The B*Tree structure for this database file */
  u8 safety_level;     /* How aggressive at syncing data to disk */
  Schema *pSchema;     /* Pointer to database schema (possibly shared) */

** An instance of the following structure stores a database schema.
** Most Schema objects are associated with a Btree.  The exception is
** the Schema for the TEMP databaes (sqlite3.aDb[1]) which is free-standing.
** In shared cache mode, a single Schema object can be shared by multiple
** Btrees that refer to the same underlying BtShared object.
** Schema objects are automatically deallocated when the last Btree that
** references them is destroyed.   The TEMP Schema is manually freed by
** sqlite3_close().
** A thread must be holding a mutex on the corresponding Btree in order
** to access Schema content.  This implies that the thread must also be
** holding a mutex on the sqlite3 connection pointer that owns the Btree.
** For a TEMP Schema, only the connection mutex is required.
struct Schema {
  int schema_cookie;   /* Database schema version number for this file */
  int iGeneration;     /* Generation counter.  Incremented with each change */
  Hash tblHash;        /* All tables indexed by name */
  Hash idxHash;        /* All (named) indices indexed by name */
  Hash trigHash;       /* All triggers indexed by name */
  Hash fkeyHash;       /* All foreign keys by referenced table name */
  Table *pSeqTab;      /* The sqlite_sequence table used by AUTOINCREMENT */
  u8 file_format;      /* Schema format version for this file */
  u8 enc;              /* Text encoding used by this database */
  u16 schemaFlags;     /* Flags associated with this schema */
  int cache_size;      /* Number of pages to use in the cache */

** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Db.pSchema->flags field.
#define DbHasProperty(D,I,P)     (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))==(P))
#define DbHasAnyProperty(D,I,P)  (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))!=0)
#define DbSetProperty(D,I,P)     (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags|=(P)
#define DbClearProperty(D,I,P)   (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&=~(P)

** Allowed values for the DB.pSchema->flags field.
** The DB_SchemaLoaded flag is set after the database schema has been
** read into internal hash tables.
** DB_UnresetViews means that one or more views have column names that
** have been filled out.  If the schema changes, these column names might
** changes and so the view will need to be reset.
#define DB_SchemaLoaded    0x0001  /* The schema has been loaded */
#define DB_UnresetViews    0x0002  /* Some views have defined column names */
#define DB_Empty           0x0004  /* The file is empty (length 0 bytes) */

** The number of different kinds of things that can be limited
** using the sqlite3_limit() interface.

** Lookaside malloc is a set of fixed-size buffers that can be used
** to satisfy small transient memory allocation requests for objects
** associated with a particular database connection.  The use of
** lookaside malloc provides a significant performance enhancement
** (approx 10%) by avoiding numerous malloc/free requests while parsing
** SQL statements.
** The Lookaside structure holds configuration information about the
** lookaside malloc subsystem.  Each available memory allocation in
** the lookaside subsystem is stored on a linked list of LookasideSlot
** objects.
** Lookaside allocations are only allowed for objects that are associated
** with a particular database connection.  Hence, schema information cannot
** be stored in lookaside because in shared cache mode the schema information
** is shared by multiple database connections.  Therefore, while parsing
** schema information, the Lookaside.bEnabled flag is cleared so that
** lookaside allocations are not used to construct the schema objects.
struct Lookaside {
  u16 sz;                 /* Size of each buffer in bytes */
  u8 bEnabled;            /* False to disable new lookaside allocations */
  u8 bMalloced;           /* True if pStart obtained from sqlite3_malloc() */
  int nOut;               /* Number of buffers currently checked out */
  int mxOut;              /* Highwater mark for nOut */
  int anStat[3];          /* 0: hits.  1: size misses.  2: full misses */
  LookasideSlot *pFree;   /* List of available buffers */
  void *pStart;           /* First byte of available memory space */
  void *pEnd;             /* First byte past end of available space */
struct LookasideSlot {
  LookasideSlot *pNext;    /* Next buffer in the list of free buffers */

** A hash table for function definitions.
** Hash each FuncDef structure into one of the FuncDefHash.a[] slots.
** Collisions are on the FuncDef.pHash chain.
struct FuncDefHash {
  FuncDef *a[23];       /* Hash table for functions */

** Information held in the "sqlite3" database connection object and used
** to manage user authentication.
typedef struct sqlite3_userauth sqlite3_userauth;
struct sqlite3_userauth {
  u8 authLevel;                 /* Current authentication level */
  int nAuthPW;                  /* Size of the zAuthPW in bytes */
  char *zAuthPW;                /* Password used to authenticate */
  char *zAuthUser;              /* User name used to authenticate */

/* Allowed values for sqlite3_userauth.authLevel */
#define UAUTH_Unknown     0     /* Authentication not yet checked */
#define UAUTH_Fail        1     /* User authentication failed */
#define UAUTH_User        2     /* Authenticated as a normal user */
#define UAUTH_Admin       3     /* Authenticated as an administrator */

/* Functions used only by user authorization logic */
int sqlite3UserAuthTable(const char*);
int sqlite3UserAuthCheckLogin(sqlite3*,const char*,u8*);
void sqlite3UserAuthInit(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3CryptFunc(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);


** typedef for the authorization callback function.
  typedef int (*sqlite3_xauth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,
                               const char*, const char*);
  typedef int (*sqlite3_xauth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,
                               const char*);

** Each database connection is an instance of the following structure.
struct sqlite3 {
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs;            /* OS Interface */
  struct Vdbe *pVdbe;           /* List of active virtual machines */
  CollSeq *pDfltColl;           /* The default collating sequence (BINARY) */
  sqlite3_mutex *mutex;         /* Connection mutex */
  Db *aDb;                      /* All backends */
  int nDb;                      /* Number of backends currently in use */
  int flags;                    /* Miscellaneous flags. See below */
  i64 lastRowid;                /* ROWID of most recent insert (see above) */
  i64 szMmap;                   /* Default mmap_size setting */
  unsigned int openFlags;       /* Flags passed to sqlite3_vfs.xOpen() */
  int errCode;                  /* Most recent error code (SQLITE_*) */
  int errMask;                  /* & result codes with this before returning */
  u16 dbOptFlags;               /* Flags to enable/disable optimizations */
  u8 enc;                       /* Text encoding */
  u8 autoCommit;                /* The auto-commit flag. */
  u8 temp_store;                /* 1: file 2: memory 0: default */
  u8 mallocFailed;              /* True if we have seen a malloc failure */
  u8 dfltLockMode;              /* Default locking-mode for attached dbs */
  signed char nextAutovac;      /* Autovac setting after VACUUM if >=0 */
  u8 suppressErr;               /* Do not issue error messages if true */
  u8 vtabOnConflict;            /* Value to return for s3_vtab_on_conflict() */
  u8 isTransactionSavepoint;    /* True if the outermost savepoint is a TS */
  int nextPagesize;             /* Pagesize after VACUUM if >0 */
  u32 magic;                    /* Magic number for detect library misuse */
  int nChange;                  /* Value returned by sqlite3_changes() */
  int nTotalChange;             /* Value returned by sqlite3_total_changes() */
  int aLimit[SQLITE_N_LIMIT];   /* Limits */
  int nMaxSorterMmap;           /* Maximum size of regions mapped by sorter */
  struct sqlite3InitInfo {      /* Information used during initialization */
    int newTnum;                /* Rootpage of table being initialized */
    u8 iDb;                     /* Which db file is being initialized */
    u8 busy;                    /* TRUE if currently initializing */
    u8 orphanTrigger;           /* Last statement is orphaned TEMP trigger */
    u8 imposterTable;           /* Building an imposter table */
  } init;
  int nVdbeActive;              /* Number of VDBEs currently running */
  int nVdbeRead;                /* Number of active VDBEs that read or write */
  int nVdbeWrite;               /* Number of active VDBEs that read and write */
  int nVdbeExec;                /* Number of nested calls to VdbeExec() */
  int nVDestroy;                /* Number of active OP_VDestroy operations */
  int nExtension;               /* Number of loaded extensions */
  void **aExtension;            /* Array of shared library handles */
  void (*xTrace)(void*,const char*);        /* Trace function */
  void *pTraceArg;                          /* Argument to the trace function */
  void (*xProfile)(void*,const char*,u64);  /* Profiling function */
  void *pProfileArg;                        /* Argument to profile function */
  void *pCommitArg;                 /* Argument to xCommitCallback() */   
  int (*xCommitCallback)(void*);    /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pRollbackArg;               /* Argument to xRollbackCallback() */   
  void (*xRollbackCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
  void *pUpdateArg;
  void (*xUpdateCallback)(void*,int, const char*,const char*,sqlite_int64);
  int (*xWalCallback)(void *, sqlite3 *, const char *, int);
  void *pWalArg;
  void(*xCollNeeded)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*);
  void(*xCollNeeded16)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*);
  void *pCollNeededArg;
  sqlite3_value *pErr;          /* Most recent error message */
  union {
    volatile int isInterrupted; /* True if sqlite3_interrupt has been called */
    double notUsed1;            /* Spacer */
  } u1;
  Lookaside lookaside;          /* Lookaside malloc configuration */
  sqlite3_xauth xAuth;          /* Access authorization function */
  void *pAuthArg;               /* 1st argument to the access auth function */
  int (*xProgress)(void *);     /* The progress callback */
  void *pProgressArg;           /* Argument to the progress callback */
  unsigned nProgressOps;        /* Number of opcodes for progress callback */
  int nVTrans;                  /* Allocated size of aVTrans */
  Hash aModule;                 /* populated by sqlite3_create_module() */
  VtabCtx *pVtabCtx;            /* Context for active vtab connect/create */
  VTable **aVTrans;             /* Virtual tables with open transactions */
  VTable *pDisconnect;    /* Disconnect these in next sqlite3_prepare() */
  FuncDefHash aFunc;            /* Hash table of connection functions */
  Hash aCollSeq;                /* All collating sequences */
  BusyHandler busyHandler;      /* Busy callback */
  Db aDbStatic[2];              /* Static space for the 2 default backends */
  Savepoint *pSavepoint;        /* List of active savepoints */
  int busyTimeout;              /* Busy handler timeout, in msec */
  int nSavepoint;               /* Number of non-transaction savepoints */
  int nStatement;               /* Number of nested statement-transactions  */
  i64 nDeferredCons;            /* Net deferred constraints this transaction. */
  i64 nDeferredImmCons;         /* Net deferred immediate constraints */
  int *pnBytesFreed;            /* If not NULL, increment this in DbFree() */
  /* The following variables are all protected by the STATIC_MASTER 
  ** mutex, not by sqlite3.mutex. They are used by code in notify.c. 
  ** When X.pUnlockConnection==Y, that means that X is waiting for Y to
  ** unlock so that it can proceed.
  ** When X.pBlockingConnection==Y, that means that something that X tried
  ** tried to do recently failed with an SQLITE_LOCKED error due to locks
  ** held by Y.
  sqlite3 *pBlockingConnection; /* Connection that caused SQLITE_LOCKED */
  sqlite3 *pUnlockConnection;           /* Connection to watch for unlock */
  void *pUnlockArg;                     /* Argument to xUnlockNotify */
  void (*xUnlockNotify)(void **, int);  /* Unlock notify callback */
  sqlite3 *pNextBlocked;        /* Next in list of all blocked connections */
  sqlite3_userauth auth;        /* User authentication information */

** A macro to discover the encoding of a database.
#define SCHEMA_ENC(db) ((db)->aDb[0].pSchema->enc)
#define ENC(db)        ((db)->enc)

** Possible values for the sqlite3.flags.
#define SQLITE_VdbeTrace      0x00000001  /* True to trace VDBE execution */
#define SQLITE_InternChanges  0x00000002  /* Uncommitted Hash table changes */
#define SQLITE_FullFSync      0x00000004  /* Use full fsync on the backend */
#define SQLITE_CkptFullFSync  0x00000008  /* Use full fsync for checkpoint */
#define SQLITE_CacheSpill     0x00000010  /* OK to spill pager cache */
#define SQLITE_FullColNames   0x00000020  /* Show full column names on SELECT */
#define SQLITE_ShortColNames  0x00000040  /* Show short columns names */
#define SQLITE_CountRows      0x00000080  /* Count rows changed by INSERT, */
                                          /*   DELETE, or UPDATE and return */
                                          /*   the count using a callback. */
#define SQLITE_NullCallback   0x00000100  /* Invoke the callback once if the */
                                          /*   result set is empty */
#define SQLITE_SqlTrace       0x00000200  /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
#define SQLITE_VdbeListing    0x00000400  /* Debug listings of VDBE programs */
#define SQLITE_WriteSchema    0x00000800  /* OK to update SQLITE_MASTER */
#define SQLITE_VdbeAddopTrace 0x00001000  /* Trace sqlite3VdbeAddOp() calls */
#define SQLITE_IgnoreChecks   0x00002000  /* Do not enforce check constraints */
#define SQLITE_ReadUncommitted 0x0004000  /* For shared-cache mode */
#define SQLITE_LegacyFileFmt  0x00008000  /* Create new databases in format 1 */
#define SQLITE_RecoveryMode   0x00010000  /* Ignore schema errors */
#define SQLITE_ReverseOrder   0x00020000  /* Reverse unordered SELECTs */
#define SQLITE_RecTriggers    0x00040000  /* Enable recursive triggers */
#define SQLITE_ForeignKeys    0x00080000  /* Enforce foreign key constraints  */
#define SQLITE_AutoIndex      0x00100000  /* Enable automatic indexes */
#define SQLITE_PreferBuiltin  0x00200000  /* Preference to built-in funcs */
#define SQLITE_LoadExtension  0x00400000  /* Enable load_extension */
#define SQLITE_EnableTrigger  0x00800000  /* True to enable triggers */
#define SQLITE_DeferFKs       0x01000000  /* Defer all FK constraints */
#define SQLITE_QueryOnly      0x02000000  /* Disable database changes */
#define SQLITE_VdbeEQP        0x04000000  /* Debug EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN */
#define SQLITE_Vacuum         0x08000000  /* Currently in a VACUUM */
#define SQLITE_CellSizeCk     0x10000000  /* Check btree cell sizes on load */

** Bits of the sqlite3.dbOptFlags field that are used by the
** sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_OPTIMIZATIONS,...) interface to
** selectively disable various optimizations.
#define SQLITE_QueryFlattener 0x0001   /* Query flattening */
#define SQLITE_ColumnCache    0x0002   /* Column cache */
#define SQLITE_GroupByOrder   0x0004   /* GROUPBY cover of ORDERBY */
#define SQLITE_FactorOutConst 0x0008   /* Constant factoring */
/*                not used    0x0010   // Was: SQLITE_IdxRealAsInt */
#define SQLITE_DistinctOpt    0x0020   /* DISTINCT using indexes */
#define SQLITE_CoverIdxScan   0x0040   /* Covering index scans */
#define SQLITE_OrderByIdxJoin 0x0080   /* ORDER BY of joins via index */
#define SQLITE_SubqCoroutine  0x0100   /* Evaluate subqueries as coroutines */
#define SQLITE_Transitive     0x0200   /* Transitive constraints */
#define SQLITE_OmitNoopJoin   0x0400   /* Omit unused tables in joins */
#define SQLITE_Stat34         0x0800   /* Use STAT3 or STAT4 data */
#define SQLITE_CursorHints    0x2000   /* Add OP_CursorHint opcodes */
#define SQLITE_AllOpts        0xffff   /* All optimizations */

** Macros for testing whether or not optimizations are enabled or disabled.
#define OptimizationDisabled(db, mask)  (((db)->dbOptFlags&(mask))!=0)
#define OptimizationEnabled(db, mask)   (((db)->dbOptFlags&(mask))==0)
#define OptimizationDisabled(db, mask)  0
#define OptimizationEnabled(db, mask)   1

** Return true if it OK to factor constant expressions into the initialization
** code. The argument is a Parse object for the code generator.
#define ConstFactorOk(P) ((P)->okConstFactor)

** Possible values for the sqlite.magic field.
** The numbers are obtained at random and have no special meaning, other
** than being distinct from one another.
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN     0xa029a697  /* Database is open */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_CLOSED   0x9f3c2d33  /* Database is closed */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_SICK     0x4b771290  /* Error and awaiting close */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY     0xf03b7906  /* Database currently in use */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_ERROR    0xb5357930  /* An SQLITE_MISUSE error occurred */
#define SQLITE_MAGIC_ZOMBIE   0x64cffc7f  /* Close with last statement close */

** Each SQL function is defined by an instance of the following
** structure.  A pointer to this structure is stored in the sqlite.aFunc
** hash table.  When multiple functions have the same name, the hash table
** points to a linked list of these structures.
struct FuncDef {
  i16 nArg;            /* Number of arguments.  -1 means unlimited */
  u16 funcFlags;       /* Some combination of SQLITE_FUNC_* */
  void *pUserData;     /* User data parameter */
  FuncDef *pNext;      /* Next function with same name */
  void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Regular function */
  void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* Aggregate step */
  void (*xFinalize)(sqlite3_context*);                /* Aggregate finalizer */
  char *zName;         /* SQL name of the function. */
  FuncDef *pHash;      /* Next with a different name but the same hash */
  FuncDestructor *pDestructor;   /* Reference counted destructor function */

** This structure encapsulates a user-function destructor callback (as
** configured using create_function_v2()) and a reference counter. When
** create_function_v2() is called to create a function with a destructor,
** a single object of this type is allocated. FuncDestructor.nRef is set to 
** the number of FuncDef objects created (either 1 or 3, depending on whether
** or not the specified encoding is SQLITE_ANY). The FuncDef.pDestructor
** member of each of the new FuncDef objects is set to point to the allocated
** FuncDestructor.
** Thereafter, when one of the FuncDef objects is deleted, the reference
** count on this object is decremented. When it reaches 0, the destructor
** is invoked and the FuncDestructor structure freed.
struct FuncDestructor {
  int nRef;
  void (*xDestroy)(void *);
  void *pUserData;

** Possible values for FuncDef.flags.  Note that the _LENGTH and _TYPEOF
** values must correspond to OPFLAG_LENGTHARG and OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG.  And
** are assert() statements in the code to verify this.
#define SQLITE_FUNC_LIKE     0x0004 /* Candidate for the LIKE optimization */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_CASE     0x0008 /* Case-sensitive LIKE-type function */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_EPHEM    0x0010 /* Ephemeral.  Delete with VDBE */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL 0x0020 /* sqlite3GetFuncCollSeq() might be called*/
#define SQLITE_FUNC_LENGTH   0x0040 /* Built-in length() function */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_TYPEOF   0x0080 /* Built-in typeof() function */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_COUNT    0x0100 /* Built-in count(*) aggregate */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_COALESCE 0x0200 /* Built-in coalesce() or ifnull() */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_UNLIKELY 0x0400 /* Built-in unlikely() function */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT 0x0800 /* Constant inputs give a constant output */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX   0x1000 /* True for min() and max() aggregates */
#define SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG  0x2000 /* "Slow Change". Value constant during a
                                    ** single query - might change over time */

** The following three macros, FUNCTION(), LIKEFUNC() and AGGREGATE() are
** used to create the initializers for the FuncDef structures.
**   FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName 
**     implemented by C function xFunc that accepts nArg arguments. The
**     value passed as iArg is cast to a (void*) and made available
**     as the user-data (sqlite3_user_data()) for the function. If 
**     argument bNC is true, then the SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL flag is set.
**   VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag.
**   DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
**     Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag and
**     adds the SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG flag.  Used for date & time functions
**     and functions like sqlite_version() that can change, but not during
**     a single query.
**   AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xStep, xFinal)
**     Used to create an aggregate function definition implemented by
**     the C functions xStep and xFinal. The first four parameters
**     are interpreted in the same way as the first 4 parameters to
**     FUNCTION().
**   LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, pArg, flags)
**     Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName 
**     that accepts nArg arguments and is implemented by a call to C 
**     function likeFunc. Argument pArg is cast to a (void *) and made
**     available as the function user-data (sqlite3_user_data()). The
**     FuncDef.flags variable is set to the value passed as the flags
**     parameter.
#define FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
#define VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
#define DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
#define FUNCTION2(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc, extraFlags) \
   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
#define STR_FUNCTION(zName, nArg, pArg, bNC, xFunc) \
   pArg, 0, xFunc, 0, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
#define LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, arg, flags) \
   (void *)arg, 0, likeFunc, 0, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
#define AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal) \
   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, 0, xStep,xFinal,#zName,0,0}
#define AGGREGATE2(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal, extraFlags) \
  {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|(nc*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL)|extraFlags, \
   SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, 0, xStep,xFinal,#zName,0,0}

** All current savepoints are stored in a linked list starting at
** sqlite3.pSavepoint. The first element in the list is the most recently
** opened savepoint. Savepoints are added to the list by the vdbe
** OP_Savepoint instruction.
struct Savepoint {
  char *zName;                        /* Savepoint name (nul-terminated) */
  i64 nDeferredCons;                  /* Number of deferred fk violations */
  i64 nDeferredImmCons;               /* Number of deferred imm fk. */
  Savepoint *pNext;                   /* Parent savepoint (if any) */

** The following are used as the second parameter to sqlite3Savepoint(),
** and as the P1 argument to the OP_Savepoint instruction.
#define SAVEPOINT_BEGIN      0

** Each SQLite module (virtual table definition) is defined by an
** instance of the following structure, stored in the sqlite3.aModule
** hash table.
struct Module {
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;       /* Callback pointers */
  const char *zName;                   /* Name passed to create_module() */
  void *pAux;                          /* pAux passed to create_module() */
  void (*xDestroy)(void *);            /* Module destructor function */
  Table *pEpoTab;                      /* Eponymous table for this module */

** information about each column of an SQL table is held in an instance
** of this structure.
struct Column {
  char *zName;     /* Name of this column */
  Expr *pDflt;     /* Default value of this column */
  char *zDflt;     /* Original text of the default value */
  char *zType;     /* Data type for this column */
  char *zColl;     /* Collating sequence.  If NULL, use the default */
  u8 notNull;      /* An OE_ code for handling a NOT NULL constraint */
  char affinity;   /* One of the SQLITE_AFF_... values */
  u8 szEst;        /* Estimated size of value in this column. sizeof(INT)==1 */
  u8 colFlags;     /* Boolean properties.  See COLFLAG_ defines below */

/* Allowed values for Column.colFlags:
#define COLFLAG_PRIMKEY  0x0001    /* Column is part of the primary key */
#define COLFLAG_HIDDEN   0x0002    /* A hidden column in a virtual table */

** A "Collating Sequence" is defined by an instance of the following
** structure. Conceptually, a collating sequence consists of a name and
** a comparison routine that defines the order of that sequence.
** If CollSeq.xCmp is NULL, it means that the
** collating sequence is undefined.  Indices built on an undefined
** collating sequence may not be read or written.
struct CollSeq {
  char *zName;          /* Name of the collating sequence, UTF-8 encoded */
  u8 enc;               /* Text encoding handled by xCmp() */
  void *pUser;          /* First argument to xCmp() */
  int (*xCmp)(void*,int, const void*, int, const void*);
  void (*xDel)(void*);  /* Destructor for pUser */

** A sort order can be either ASC or DESC.
#define SQLITE_SO_ASC       0  /* Sort in ascending order */
#define SQLITE_SO_DESC      1  /* Sort in ascending order */
#define SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED -1 /* No sort order specified */

** Column affinity types.
** These used to have mnemonic name like 'i' for SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER and
** 't' for SQLITE_AFF_TEXT.  But we can save a little space and improve
** the speed a little by numbering the values consecutively.  
** But rather than start with 0 or 1, we begin with 'A'.  That way,
** when multiple affinity types are concatenated into a string and
** used as the P4 operand, they will be more readable.
** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
** for a numeric type is a single comparison.  And the BLOB type is first.
#define SQLITE_AFF_BLOB     'A'
#define SQLITE_AFF_TEXT     'B'
#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL     'E'

#define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X)  ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)

** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK values masks off the significant bits of an
** affinity value. 
#define SQLITE_AFF_MASK     0x47

** Additional bit values that can be ORed with an affinity without
** changing the affinity.
** The SQLITE_NOTNULL flag is a combination of NULLEQ and JUMPIFNULL.
** It causes an assert() to fire if either operand to a comparison
** operator is NULL.  It is added to certain comparison operators to
** prove that the operands are always NOT NULL.
#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL   0x10  /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
#define SQLITE_STOREP2      0x20  /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */
#define SQLITE_NULLEQ       0x80  /* NULL=NULL */
#define SQLITE_NOTNULL      0x90  /* Assert that operands are never NULL */

** An object of this type is created for each virtual table present in
** the database schema. 
** If the database schema is shared, then there is one instance of this
** structure for each database connection (sqlite3*) that uses the shared
** schema. This is because each database connection requires its own unique
** instance of the sqlite3_vtab* handle used to access the virtual table 
** implementation. sqlite3_vtab* handles can not be shared between 
** database connections, even when the rest of the in-memory database 
** schema is shared, as the implementation often stores the database
** connection handle passed to it via the xConnect() or xCreate() method
** during initialization internally. This database connection handle may
** then be used by the virtual table implementation to access real tables 
** within the database. So that they appear as part of the callers 
** transaction, these accesses need to be made via the same database 
** connection as that used to execute SQL operations on the virtual table.
** All VTable objects that correspond to a single table in a shared
** database schema are initially stored in a linked-list pointed to by
** the Table.pVTable member variable of the corresponding Table object.
** When an sqlite3_prepare() operation is required to access the virtual
** table, it searches the list for the VTable that corresponds to the
** database connection doing the preparing so as to use the correct
** sqlite3_vtab* handle in the compiled query.
** When an in-memory Table object is deleted (for example when the
** schema is being reloaded for some reason), the VTable objects are not 
** deleted and the sqlite3_vtab* handles are not xDisconnect()ed 
** immediately. Instead, they are moved from the Table.pVTable list to
** another linked list headed by the sqlite3.pDisconnect member of the
** corresponding sqlite3 structure. They are then deleted/xDisconnected 
** next time a statement is prepared using said sqlite3*. This is done
** to avoid deadlock issues involving multiple sqlite3.mutex mutexes.
** Refer to comments above function sqlite3VtabUnlockList() for an
** explanation as to why it is safe to add an entry to an sqlite3.pDisconnect
** list without holding the corresponding sqlite3.mutex mutex.
** The memory for objects of this type is always allocated by 
** sqlite3DbMalloc(), using the connection handle stored in VTable.db as 
** the first argument.
struct VTable {
  sqlite3 *db;              /* Database connection associated with this table */
  Module *pMod;             /* Pointer to module implementation */
  sqlite3_vtab *pVtab;      /* Pointer to vtab instance */
  int nRef;                 /* Number of pointers to this structure */
  u8 bConstraint;           /* True if constraints are supported */
  int iSavepoint;           /* Depth of the SAVEPOINT stack */
  VTable *pNext;            /* Next in linked list (see above) */

** The schema for each SQL table and view is represented in memory
** by an instance of the following structure.
struct Table {
  char *zName;         /* Name of the table or view */
  Column *aCol;        /* Information about each column */
  Index *pIndex;       /* List of SQL indexes on this table. */
  Select *pSelect;     /* NULL for tables.  Points to definition if a view. */
  FKey *pFKey;         /* Linked list of all foreign keys in this table */
  char *zColAff;       /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  ExprList *pCheck;    /* All CHECK constraints */
                       /*   ... also used as column name list in a VIEW */
  int tnum;            /* Root BTree page for this table */
  i16 iPKey;           /* If not negative, use aCol[iPKey] as the rowid */
  i16 nCol;            /* Number of columns in this table */
  u16 nRef;            /* Number of pointers to this Table */
  LogEst nRowLogEst;   /* Estimated rows in table - from sqlite_stat1 table */
  LogEst szTabRow;     /* Estimated size of each table row in bytes */
  LogEst costMult;     /* Cost multiplier for using this table */
  u8 tabFlags;         /* Mask of TF_* values */
  u8 keyConf;          /* What to do in case of uniqueness conflict on iPKey */
  int addColOffset;    /* Offset in CREATE TABLE stmt to add a new column */
  int nModuleArg;      /* Number of arguments to the module */
  char **azModuleArg;  /* 0: module 1: schema 2: vtab name 3...: args */
  VTable *pVTable;     /* List of VTable objects. */
  Trigger *pTrigger;   /* List of triggers stored in pSchema */
  Schema *pSchema;     /* Schema that contains this table */
  Table *pNextZombie;  /* Next on the Parse.pZombieTab list */

** Allowed values for Table.tabFlags.
** TF_OOOHidden applies to tables or view that have hidden columns that are
** followed by non-hidden columns.  Example:  "CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE x USING
** vtab1(a HIDDEN, b);".  Since "b" is a non-hidden column but "a" is hidden,
** the TF_OOOHidden attribute would apply in this case.  Such tables require
** special handling during INSERT processing.
#define TF_Readonly        0x01    /* Read-only system table */
#define TF_Ephemeral       0x02    /* An ephemeral table */
#define TF_HasPrimaryKey   0x04    /* Table has a primary key */
#define TF_Autoincrement   0x08    /* Integer primary key is autoincrement */
#define TF_Virtual         0x10    /* Is a virtual table */
#define TF_WithoutRowid    0x20    /* No rowid.  PRIMARY KEY is the key */
#define TF_NoVisibleRowid  0x40    /* No user-visible "rowid" column */
#define TF_OOOHidden       0x80    /* Out-of-Order hidden columns */

** Test to see whether or not a table is a virtual table.  This is
** done as a macro so that it will be optimized out when virtual
** table support is omitted from the build.
#  define IsVirtual(X)      (((X)->tabFlags & TF_Virtual)!=0)
#  define IsVirtual(X)      0

** Macros to determine if a column is hidden.  IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn()
** only works for non-virtual tables (ordinary tables and views) and is
** always false unless SQLITE_ENABLE_HIDDEN_COLUMNS is defined.  The
** IsHiddenColumn() macro is general purpose.
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X)         (((X)->colFlags & COLFLAG_HIDDEN)!=0)
#  define IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn(X) (((X)->colFlags & COLFLAG_HIDDEN)!=0)
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X)         (((X)->colFlags & COLFLAG_HIDDEN)!=0)
#  define IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn(X) 0
#  define IsHiddenColumn(X)         0
#  define IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn(X) 0

/* Does the table have a rowid */
#define HasRowid(X)     (((X)->tabFlags & TF_WithoutRowid)==0)
#define VisibleRowid(X) (((X)->tabFlags & TF_NoVisibleRowid)==0)

** Each foreign key constraint is an instance of the following structure.
** A foreign key is associated with two tables.  The "from" table is
** the table that contains the REFERENCES clause that creates the foreign
** key.  The "to" table is the table that is named in the REFERENCES clause.
** Consider this example:
**     CREATE TABLE ex1(
**     );
** For foreign key "fk1", the from-table is "ex1" and the to-table is "ex2".
** Equivalent names:
**     from-table == child-table
**       to-table == parent-table
** Each REFERENCES clause generates an instance of the following structure
** which is attached to the from-table.  The to-table need not exist when
** the from-table is created.  The existence of the to-table is not checked.
** The list of all parents for child Table X is held at X.pFKey.
** A list of all children for a table named Z (which might not even exist)
** is held in Schema.fkeyHash with a hash key of Z.
struct FKey {
  Table *pFrom;     /* Table containing the REFERENCES clause (aka: Child) */
  FKey *pNextFrom;  /* Next FKey with the same in pFrom. Next parent of pFrom */
  char *zTo;        /* Name of table that the key points to (aka: Parent) */
  FKey *pNextTo;    /* Next with the same zTo. Next child of zTo. */
  FKey *pPrevTo;    /* Previous with the same zTo */
  int nCol;         /* Number of columns in this key */
  /* EV: R-30323-21917 */
  u8 isDeferred;       /* True if constraint checking is deferred till COMMIT */
  u8 aAction[2];        /* ON DELETE and ON UPDATE actions, respectively */
  Trigger *apTrigger[2];/* Triggers for aAction[] actions */
  struct sColMap {      /* Mapping of columns in pFrom to columns in zTo */
    int iFrom;            /* Index of column in pFrom */
    char *zCol;           /* Name of column in zTo.  If NULL use PRIMARY KEY */
  } aCol[1];            /* One entry for each of nCol columns */

** SQLite supports many different ways to resolve a constraint
** error.  ROLLBACK processing means that a constraint violation
** causes the operation in process to fail and for the current transaction
** to be rolled back.  ABORT processing means the operation in process
** fails and any prior changes from that one operation are backed out,
** but the transaction is not rolled back.  FAIL processing means that
** the operation in progress stops and returns an error code.  But prior
** changes due to the same operation are not backed out and no rollback
** occurs.  IGNORE means that the particular row that caused the constraint
** error is not inserted or updated.  Processing continues and no error
** is returned.  REPLACE means that preexisting database rows that caused
** a UNIQUE constraint violation are removed so that the new insert or
** update can proceed.  Processing continues and no error is reported.
** RESTRICT, SETNULL, and CASCADE actions apply only to foreign keys.
** RESTRICT is the same as ABORT for IMMEDIATE foreign keys and the
** same as ROLLBACK for DEFERRED keys.  SETNULL means that the foreign
** key is set to NULL.  CASCADE means that a DELETE or UPDATE of the
** referenced table row is propagated into the row that holds the
** foreign key.
** The following symbolic values are used to record which type
** of action to take.
#define OE_None     0   /* There is no constraint to check */
#define OE_Rollback 1   /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
#define OE_Abort    2   /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
#define OE_Fail     3   /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
#define OE_Ignore   4   /* Ignore the error. Do not do the INSERT or UPDATE */
#define OE_Replace  5   /* Delete existing record, then do INSERT or UPDATE */

#define OE_Restrict 6   /* OE_Abort for IMMEDIATE, OE_Rollback for DEFERRED */
#define OE_SetNull  7   /* Set the foreign key value to NULL */
#define OE_SetDflt  8   /* Set the foreign key value to its default */
#define OE_Cascade  9   /* Cascade the changes */

#define OE_Default  10  /* Do whatever the default action is */

** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the 
** comparison of the two index keys.
** Note that aSortOrder[] and aColl[] have nField+1 slots.  There
** are nField slots for the columns of an index then one extra slot
** for the rowid at the end.
struct KeyInfo {
  u32 nRef;           /* Number of references to this KeyInfo object */
  u8 enc;             /* Text encoding - one of the SQLITE_UTF* values */
  u16 nField;         /* Number of key columns in the index */
  u16 nXField;        /* Number of columns beyond the key columns */
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database connection */
  u8 *aSortOrder;     /* Sort order for each column. */
  CollSeq *aColl[1];  /* Collating sequence for each term of the key */

** This object holds a record which has been parsed out into individual
** fields, for the purposes of doing a comparison.
** A record is an object that contains one or more fields of data.
** Records are used to store the content of a table row and to store
** the key of an index.  A blob encoding of a record is created by
** the OP_MakeRecord opcode of the VDBE and is disassembled by the
** OP_Column opcode.
** An instance of this object serves as a "key" for doing a search on
** an index b+tree. The goal of the search is to find the entry that
** is closed to the key described by this object.  This object might hold
** just a prefix of the key.  The number of fields is given by
** pKeyInfo->nField.
** The r1 and r2 fields are the values to return if this key is less than
** or greater than a key in the btree, respectively.  These are normally
** -1 and +1 respectively, but might be inverted to +1 and -1 if the b-tree
** is in DESC order.
** The key comparison functions actually return default_rc when they find
** an equals comparison.  default_rc can be -1, 0, or +1.  If there are
** multiple entries in the b-tree with the same key (when only looking
** at the first pKeyInfo->nFields,) then default_rc can be set to -1 to 
** cause the search to find the last match, or +1 to cause the search to
** find the first match.
** The key comparison functions will set eqSeen to true if they ever
** get and equal results when comparing this structure to a b-tree record.
** When default_rc!=0, the search might end up on the record immediately
** before the first match or immediately after the last match.  The
** eqSeen field will indicate whether or not an exact match exists in the
** b-tree.
struct UnpackedRecord {
  KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;  /* Collation and sort-order information */
  Mem *aMem;          /* Values */
  u16 nField;         /* Number of entries in apMem[] */
  i8 default_rc;      /* Comparison result if keys are equal */
  u8 errCode;         /* Error detected by xRecordCompare (CORRUPT or NOMEM) */
  i8 r1;              /* Value to return if (lhs > rhs) */
  i8 r2;              /* Value to return if (rhs < lhs) */
  u8 eqSeen;          /* True if an equality comparison has been seen */

** Each SQL index is represented in memory by an
** instance of the following structure.
** The columns of the table that are to be indexed are described
** by the aiColumn[] field of this structure.  For example, suppose
** we have the following table and index:
**     CREATE TABLE Ex1(c1 int, c2 int, c3 text);
**     CREATE INDEX Ex2 ON Ex1(c3,c1);
** In the Table structure describing Ex1, nCol==3 because there are
** three columns in the table.  In the Index structure describing
** Ex2, nColumn==2 since 2 of the 3 columns of Ex1 are indexed.
** The value of aiColumn is {2, 0}.  aiColumn[0]==2 because the 
** first column to be indexed (c3) has an index of 2 in Ex1.aCol[].
** The second column to be indexed (c1) has an index of 0 in
** Ex1.aCol[], hence Ex2.aiColumn[1]==0.
** The Index.onError field determines whether or not the indexed columns
** must be unique and what to do if they are not.  When Index.onError=OE_None,
** it means this is not a unique index.  Otherwise it is a unique index
** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution 
** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
** element.
** While parsing a CREATE TABLE or CREATE INDEX statement in order to
** generate VDBE code (as opposed to parsing one read from an sqlite_master
** table as part of parsing an existing database schema), transient instances
** of this structure may be created. In this case the Index.tnum variable is
** used to store the address of a VDBE instruction, not a database page
** number (it cannot - the database page is not allocated until the VDBE
** program is executed). See convertToWithoutRowidTable() for details.
struct Index {
  char *zName;             /* Name of this index */
  i16 *aiColumn;           /* Which columns are used by this index.  1st is 0 */
  LogEst *aiRowLogEst;     /* From ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
  Table *pTable;           /* The SQL table being indexed */
  char *zColAff;           /* String defining the affinity of each column */
  Index *pNext;            /* The next index associated with the same table */
  Schema *pSchema;         /* Schema containing this index */
  u8 *aSortOrder;          /* for each column: True==DESC, False==ASC */
  const char **azColl;     /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
  Expr *pPartIdxWhere;     /* WHERE clause for partial indices */
  ExprList *aColExpr;      /* Column expressions */
  int tnum;                /* DB Page containing root of this index */
  LogEst szIdxRow;         /* Estimated average row size in bytes */
  u16 nKeyCol;             /* Number of columns forming the key */
  u16 nColumn;             /* Number of columns stored in the index */
  u8 onError;              /* OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, OE_Replace, or OE_None */
  unsigned idxType:2;      /* 1==UNIQUE, 2==PRIMARY KEY, 0==CREATE INDEX */
  unsigned bUnordered:1;   /* Use this index for == or IN queries only */
  unsigned uniqNotNull:1;  /* True if UNIQUE and NOT NULL for all columns */
  unsigned isResized:1;    /* True if resizeIndexObject() has been called */
  unsigned isCovering:1;   /* True if this is a covering index */
  unsigned noSkipScan:1;   /* Do not try to use skip-scan if true */
  int nSample;             /* Number of elements in aSample[] */
  int nSampleCol;          /* Size of IndexSample.anEq[] and so on */
  tRowcnt *aAvgEq;         /* Average nEq values for keys not in aSample */
  IndexSample *aSample;    /* Samples of the left-most key */
  tRowcnt *aiRowEst;       /* Non-logarithmic stat1 data for this index */
  tRowcnt nRowEst0;        /* Non-logarithmic number of rows in the index */

** Allowed values for Index.idxType
#define SQLITE_IDXTYPE_APPDEF      0   /* Created using CREATE INDEX */
#define SQLITE_IDXTYPE_UNIQUE      1   /* Implements a UNIQUE constraint */
#define SQLITE_IDXTYPE_PRIMARYKEY  2   /* Is the PRIMARY KEY for the table */

/* Return true if index X is a PRIMARY KEY index */
#define IsPrimaryKeyIndex(X)  ((X)->idxType==SQLITE_IDXTYPE_PRIMARYKEY)

/* Return true if index X is a UNIQUE index */
#define IsUniqueIndex(X)      ((X)->onError!=OE_None)

/* The Index.aiColumn[] values are normally positive integer.  But
** there are some negative values that have special meaning:
#define XN_ROWID     (-1)     /* Indexed column is the rowid */
#define XN_EXPR      (-2)     /* Indexed column is an expression */

** Each sample stored in the sqlite_stat3 table is represented in memory 
** using a structure of this type.  See documentation at the top of the
** analyze.c source file for additional information.
struct IndexSample {
  void *p;          /* Pointer to sampled record */
  int n;            /* Size of record in bytes */
  tRowcnt *anEq;    /* Est. number of rows where the key equals this sample */
  tRowcnt *anLt;    /* Est. number of rows where key is less than this sample */
  tRowcnt *anDLt;   /* Est. number of distinct keys less than this sample */

** Each token coming out of the lexer is an instance of
** this structure.  Tokens are also used as part of an expression.
** Note if Token.z==0 then Token.dyn and Token.n are undefined and
** may contain random values.  Do not make any assumptions about Token.dyn
** and Token.n when Token.z==0.
struct Token {
  const char *z;     /* Text of the token.  Not NULL-terminated! */
  unsigned int n;    /* Number of characters in this token */

** An instance of this structure contains information needed to generate
** code for a SELECT that contains aggregate functions.
** If Expr.op==TK_AGG_COLUMN or TK_AGG_FUNCTION then Expr.pAggInfo is a
** pointer to this structure.  The Expr.iColumn field is the index in
** AggInfo.aCol[] or AggInfo.aFunc[] of information needed to generate
** code for that node.
** AggInfo.pGroupBy and AggInfo.aFunc.pExpr point to fields within the
** original Select structure that describes the SELECT statement.  These
** fields do not need to be freed when deallocating the AggInfo structure.
struct AggInfo {
  u8 directMode;          /* Direct rendering mode means take data directly
                          ** from source tables rather than from accumulators */
  u8 useSortingIdx;       /* In direct mode, reference the sorting index rather
                          ** than the source table */
  int sortingIdx;         /* Cursor number of the sorting index */
  int sortingIdxPTab;     /* Cursor number of pseudo-table */
  int nSortingColumn;     /* Number of columns in the sorting index */
  int mnReg, mxReg;       /* Range of registers allocated for aCol and aFunc */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;     /* The group by clause */
  struct AggInfo_col {    /* For each column used in source tables */
    Table *pTab;             /* Source table */
    int iTable;              /* Cursor number of the source table */
    int iColumn;             /* Column number within the source table */
    int iSorterColumn;       /* Column number in the sorting index */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* The original expression */
  } *aCol;
  int nColumn;            /* Number of used entries in aCol[] */
  int nAccumulator;       /* Number of columns that show through to the output.
                          ** Additional columns are used only as parameters to
                          ** aggregate functions */
  struct AggInfo_func {   /* For each aggregate function */
    Expr *pExpr;             /* Expression encoding the function */
    FuncDef *pFunc;          /* The aggregate function implementation */
    int iMem;                /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
    int iDistinct;           /* Ephemeral table used to enforce DISTINCT */
  } *aFunc;
  int nFunc;              /* Number of entries in aFunc[] */

** The datatype ynVar is a signed integer, either 16-bit or 32-bit.
** Usually it is 16-bits.  But if SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER is greater
** than 32767 we have to make it 32-bit.  16-bit is preferred because
** it uses less memory in the Expr object, which is a big memory user
** in systems with lots of prepared statements.  And few applications
** need more than about 10 or 20 variables.  But some extreme users want
** to have prepared statements with over 32767 variables, and for them
** the option is available (at compile-time).
typedef i16 ynVar;
typedef int ynVar;

** Each node of an expression in the parse tree is an instance
** of this structure.
** Expr.op is the opcode. The integer parser token codes are reused
** as opcodes here. For example, the parser defines TK_GE to be an integer
** code representing the ">=" operator. This same integer code is reused
** to represent the greater-than-or-equal-to operator in the expression
** tree.
** If the expression is an SQL literal (TK_INTEGER, TK_FLOAT, TK_BLOB, 
** or TK_STRING), then Expr.token contains the text of the SQL literal. If
** the expression is a variable (TK_VARIABLE), then Expr.token contains the 
** variable name. Finally, if the expression is an SQL function (TK_FUNCTION),
** then Expr.token contains the name of the function.
** Expr.pRight and Expr.pLeft are the left and right subexpressions of a
** binary operator. Either or both may be NULL.
** Expr.x.pList is a list of arguments if the expression is an SQL function,
** a CASE expression or an IN expression of the form "<lhs> IN (<y>, <z>...)".
** Expr.x.pSelect is used if the expression is a sub-select or an expression of
** the form "<lhs> IN (SELECT ...)". If the EP_xIsSelect bit is set in the
** Expr.flags mask, then Expr.x.pSelect is valid. Otherwise, Expr.x.pList is 
** valid.
** An expression of the form ID or ID.ID refers to a column in a table.
** For such expressions, Expr.op is set to TK_COLUMN and Expr.iTable is
** the integer cursor number of a VDBE cursor pointing to that table and
** Expr.iColumn is the column number for the specific column.  If the
** expression is used as a result in an aggregate SELECT, then the
** value is also stored in the Expr.iAgg column in the aggregate so that
** it can be accessed after all aggregates are computed.
** If the expression is an unbound variable marker (a question mark 
** character '?' in the original SQL) then the Expr.iTable holds the index 
** number for that variable.
** If the expression is a subquery then Expr.iColumn holds an integer
** register number containing the result of the subquery.  If the
** subquery gives a constant result, then iTable is -1.  If the subquery
** gives a different answer at different times during statement processing
** then iTable is the address of a subroutine that computes the subquery.
** If the Expr is of type OP_Column, and the table it is selecting from
** is a disk table or the "old.*" pseudo-table, then pTab points to the
** corresponding table definition.
** Expr objects can use a lot of memory space in database schema.  To
** help reduce memory requirements, sometimes an Expr object will be
** truncated.  And to reduce the number of memory allocations, sometimes
** two or more Expr objects will be stored in a single memory allocation,
** together with Expr.zToken strings.
** If the EP_Reduced and EP_TokenOnly flags are set when
** an Expr object is truncated.  When EP_Reduced is set, then all
** the child Expr objects in the Expr.pLeft and Expr.pRight subtrees
** are contained within the same memory allocation.  Note, however, that
** the subtrees in Expr.x.pList or Expr.x.pSelect are always separately
** allocated, regardless of whether or not EP_Reduced is set.
struct Expr {
  u8 op;                 /* Operation performed by this node */
  char affinity;         /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */
  u32 flags;             /* Various flags.  EP_* See below */
  union {
    char *zToken;          /* Token value. Zero terminated and dequoted */
    int iValue;            /* Non-negative integer value if EP_IntValue */
  } u;

  /* If the EP_TokenOnly flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction. 

  Expr *pLeft;           /* Left subnode */
  Expr *pRight;          /* Right subnode */
  union {
    ExprList *pList;     /* op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT, CASE, FUNCTION, BETWEEN */
    Select *pSelect;     /* EP_xIsSelect and op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT */
  } x;

  /* If the EP_Reduced flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
  ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
  ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.

  int nHeight;           /* Height of the tree headed by this node */
  int iTable;            /* TK_COLUMN: cursor number of table holding column
                         ** TK_REGISTER: register number
                         ** TK_TRIGGER: 1 -> new, 0 -> old
                         ** EP_Unlikely:  134217728 times likelihood */
  ynVar iColumn;         /* TK_COLUMN: column index.  -1 for rowid.
                         ** TK_VARIABLE: variable number (always >= 1). */
  i16 iAgg;              /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
  i16 iRightJoinTable;   /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
  u8 op2;                /* TK_REGISTER: original value of Expr.op
                         ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
                         ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;     /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
  Table *pTab;           /* Table for TK_COLUMN expressions. */

** The following are the meanings of bits in the Expr.flags field.
#define EP_FromJoin  0x000001 /* Originates in ON/USING clause of outer join */
#define EP_Agg       0x000002 /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
#define EP_Resolved  0x000004 /* IDs have been resolved to COLUMNs */
#define EP_Error     0x000008 /* Expression contains one or more errors */
#define EP_Distinct  0x000010 /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
#define EP_VarSelect 0x000020 /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
#define EP_DblQuoted 0x000040 /* token.z was originally in "..." */
#define EP_InfixFunc 0x000080 /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
#define EP_Collate   0x000100 /* Tree contains a TK_COLLATE operator */
#define EP_Generic   0x000200 /* Ignore COLLATE or affinity on this tree */
#define EP_IntValue  0x000400 /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
#define EP_xIsSelect 0x000800 /* x.pSelect is valid (otherwise x.pList is) */
#define EP_Skip      0x001000 /* COLLATE, AS, or UNLIKELY */
#define EP_Reduced   0x002000 /* Expr struct EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_TokenOnly 0x004000 /* Expr struct EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
#define EP_Static    0x008000 /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
#define EP_MemToken  0x010000 /* Need to sqlite3DbFree() Expr.zToken */
#define EP_NoReduce  0x020000 /* Cannot EXPRDUP_REDUCE this Expr */
#define EP_Unlikely  0x040000 /* unlikely() or likelihood() function */
#define EP_ConstFunc 0x080000 /* A SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT or _SLOCHNG function */
#define EP_CanBeNull 0x100000 /* Can be null despite NOT NULL constraint */
#define EP_Subquery  0x200000 /* Tree contains a TK_SELECT operator */
#define EP_Alias     0x400000 /* Is an alias for a result set column */

** Combinations of two or more EP_* flags
#define EP_Propagate (EP_Collate|EP_Subquery) /* Propagate these bits up tree */

** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the 
** Expr.flags field.
#define ExprHasProperty(E,P)     (((E)->flags&(P))!=0)
#define ExprHasAllProperty(E,P)  (((E)->flags&(P))==(P))
#define ExprSetProperty(E,P)     (E)->flags|=(P)
#define ExprClearProperty(E,P)   (E)->flags&=~(P)

/* The ExprSetVVAProperty() macro is used for Verification, Validation,
** and Accreditation only.  It works like ExprSetProperty() during VVA
** processes but is a no-op for delivery.
# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P)  (E)->flags|=(P)
# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P)

** Macros to determine the number of bytes required by a normal Expr 
** struct, an Expr struct with the EP_Reduced flag set in Expr.flags 
** and an Expr struct with the EP_TokenOnly flag set.
#define EXPR_FULLSIZE           sizeof(Expr)           /* Full size */
#define EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE        offsetof(Expr,iTable)  /* Common features */
#define EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE      offsetof(Expr,pLeft)   /* Fewer features */

** Flags passed to the sqlite3ExprDup() function. See the header comment 
** above sqlite3ExprDup() for details.
#define EXPRDUP_REDUCE         0x0001  /* Used reduced-size Expr nodes */

** A list of expressions.  Each expression may optionally have a
** name.  An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
** as the list of "expr AS ID" fields following a "SELECT" or in the
** list of "ID = expr" items in an UPDATE.  A list of expressions can
** also be used as the argument to a function, in which case the a.zName
** field is not used.
** By default the Expr.zSpan field holds a human-readable description of
** the expression that is used in the generation of error messages and
** column labels.  In this case, Expr.zSpan is typically the text of a
** column expression as it exists in a SELECT statement.  However, if
** the bSpanIsTab flag is set, then zSpan is overloaded to mean the name
** of the result column in the form: DATABASE.TABLE.COLUMN.  This later
** form is used for name resolution with nested FROM clauses.
struct ExprList {
  int nExpr;             /* Number of expressions on the list */
  struct ExprList_item { /* For each expression in the list */
    Expr *pExpr;            /* The list of expressions */
    char *zName;            /* Token associated with this expression */
    char *zSpan;            /* Original text of the expression */
    u8 sortOrder;           /* 1 for DESC or 0 for ASC */
    unsigned done :1;       /* A flag to indicate when processing is finished */
    unsigned bSpanIsTab :1; /* zSpan holds DB.TABLE.COLUMN */
    unsigned reusable :1;   /* Constant expression is reusable */
    union {
      struct {
        u16 iOrderByCol;      /* For ORDER BY, column number in result set */
        u16 iAlias;           /* Index into Parse.aAlias[] for zName */
      } x;
      int iConstExprReg;      /* Register in which Expr value is cached */
    } u;
  } *a;                  /* Alloc a power of two greater or equal to nExpr */

** An instance of this structure is used by the parser to record both
** the parse tree for an expression and the span of input text for an
** expression.
struct ExprSpan {
  Expr *pExpr;          /* The expression parse tree */
  const char *zStart;   /* First character of input text */
  const char *zEnd;     /* One character past the end of input text */

** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
**      INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) VALUES ...;
**      CREATE INDEX idx ON t(a,b,c);
**      CREATE TRIGGER trig BEFORE UPDATE ON t(a,b,c) ...;
** The IdList.a.idx field is used when the IdList represents the list of
** column names after a table name in an INSERT statement.  In the statement
**     INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) ...
** If "a" is the k-th column of table "t", then IdList.a[0].idx==k.
struct IdList {
  struct IdList_item {
    char *zName;      /* Name of the identifier */
    int idx;          /* Index in some Table.aCol[] of a column named zName */
  } *a;
  int nId;         /* Number of identifiers on the list */

** The bitmask datatype defined below is used for various optimizations.
** Changing this from a 64-bit to a 32-bit type limits the number of
** tables in a join to 32 instead of 64.  But it also reduces the size
** of the library by 738 bytes on ix86.
typedef u64 Bitmask;

** The number of bits in a Bitmask.  "BMS" means "BitMask Size".
#define BMS  ((int)(sizeof(Bitmask)*8))

** A bit in a Bitmask
#define MASKBIT(n)   (((Bitmask)1)<<(n))
#define MASKBIT32(n) (((unsigned int)1)<<(n))

** The following structure describes the FROM clause of a SELECT statement.
** Each table or subquery in the FROM clause is a separate element of
** the SrcList.a[] array.
** With the addition of multiple database support, the following structure
** can also be used to describe a particular table such as the table that
** is modified by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement.  In standard SQL,
** such a table must be a simple name: ID.  But in SQLite, the table can
** now be identified by a database name, a dot, then the table name: ID.ID.
** The jointype starts out showing the join type between the current table
** and the next table on the list.  The parser builds the list this way.
** But sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType() later shifts the jointypes so that each
** jointype expresses the join between the table and the previous table.
** In the colUsed field, the high-order bit (bit 63) is set if the table
** contains more than 63 columns and the 64-th or later column is used.
struct SrcList {
  int nSrc;        /* Number of tables or subqueries in the FROM clause */
  u32 nAlloc;      /* Number of entries allocated in a[] below */
  struct SrcList_item {
    Schema *pSchema;  /* Schema to which this item is fixed */
    char *zDatabase;  /* Name of database holding this table */
    char *zName;      /* Name of the table */
    char *zAlias;     /* The "B" part of a "A AS B" phrase.  zName is the "A" */
    Table *pTab;      /* An SQL table corresponding to zName */
    Select *pSelect;  /* A SELECT statement used in place of a table name */
    int addrFillSub;  /* Address of subroutine to manifest a subquery */
    int regReturn;    /* Register holding return address of addrFillSub */
    int regResult;    /* Registers holding results of a co-routine */
    struct {
      u8 jointype;      /* Type of join between this able and the previous */
      unsigned notIndexed :1;    /* True if there is a NOT INDEXED clause */
      unsigned isIndexedBy :1;   /* True if there is an INDEXED BY clause */
      unsigned isTabFunc :1;     /* True if table-valued-function syntax */
      unsigned isCorrelated :1;  /* True if sub-query is correlated */
      unsigned viaCoroutine :1;  /* Implemented as a co-routine */
      unsigned isRecursive :1;   /* True for recursive reference in WITH */
    } fg;
    u8 iSelectId;     /* If pSelect!=0, the id of the sub-select in EQP */
    int iCursor;      /* The VDBE cursor number used to access this table */
    Expr *pOn;        /* The ON clause of a join */
    IdList *pUsing;   /* The USING clause of a join */
    Bitmask colUsed;  /* Bit N (1<<N) set if column N of pTab is used */
    union {
      char *zIndexedBy;    /* Identifier from "INDEXED BY <zIndex>" clause */
      ExprList *pFuncArg;  /* Arguments to table-valued-function */
    } u1;
    Index *pIBIndex;  /* Index structure corresponding to u1.zIndexedBy */
  } a[1];             /* One entry for each identifier on the list */

** Permitted values of the SrcList.a.jointype field
#define JT_INNER     0x0001    /* Any kind of inner or cross join */
#define JT_CROSS     0x0002    /* Explicit use of the CROSS keyword */
#define JT_NATURAL   0x0004    /* True for a "natural" join */
#define JT_LEFT      0x0008    /* Left outer join */
#define JT_RIGHT     0x0010    /* Right outer join */
#define JT_OUTER     0x0020    /* The "OUTER" keyword is present */
#define JT_ERROR     0x0040    /* unknown or unsupported join type */

** Flags appropriate for the wctrlFlags parameter of sqlite3WhereBegin()
** and the WhereInfo.wctrlFlags member.
#define WHERE_ORDERBY_NORMAL   0x0000 /* No-op */
#define WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN      0x0001 /* ORDER BY processing for min() func */
#define WHERE_ORDERBY_MAX      0x0002 /* ORDER BY processing for max() func */
#define WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED  0x0004 /* Want to do one-pass UPDATE/DELETE */
#define WHERE_DUPLICATES_OK    0x0008 /* Ok to return a row more than once */
#define WHERE_OMIT_OPEN_CLOSE  0x0010 /* Table cursors are already open */
#define WHERE_FORCE_TABLE      0x0020 /* Do not use an index-only search */
#define WHERE_ONETABLE_ONLY    0x0040 /* Only code the 1st table in pTabList */
#define WHERE_NO_AUTOINDEX     0x0080 /* Disallow automatic indexes */
#define WHERE_GROUPBY          0x0100 /* pOrderBy is really a GROUP BY */
#define WHERE_DISTINCTBY       0x0200 /* pOrderby is really a DISTINCT clause */
#define WHERE_WANT_DISTINCT    0x0400 /* All output needs to be distinct */
#define WHERE_SORTBYGROUP      0x0800 /* Support sqlite3WhereIsSorted() */
#define WHERE_REOPEN_IDX       0x1000 /* Try to use OP_ReopenIdx */
#define WHERE_ONEPASS_MULTIROW 0x2000 /* ONEPASS is ok with multiple rows */

/* Allowed return values from sqlite3WhereIsDistinct()
#define WHERE_DISTINCT_NOOP      0  /* DISTINCT keyword not used */
#define WHERE_DISTINCT_UNIQUE    1  /* No duplicates */
#define WHERE_DISTINCT_ORDERED   2  /* All duplicates are adjacent */
#define WHERE_DISTINCT_UNORDERED 3  /* Duplicates are scattered */

** A NameContext defines a context in which to resolve table and column
** names.  The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
** a list of named expression (pEList).  The named expression list may
** be NULL.  The pSrc corresponds to the FROM clause of a SELECT or
** to the table being operated on by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.  The
** pEList corresponds to the result set of a SELECT and is NULL for
** other statements.
** NameContexts can be nested.  When resolving names, the inner-most 
** context is searched first.  If no match is found, the next outer
** context is checked.  If there is still no match, the next context
** is checked.  This process continues until either a match is found
** or all contexts are check.  When a match is found, the nRef member of
** the context containing the match is incremented. 
** Each subquery gets a new NameContext.  The pNext field points to the
** NameContext in the parent query.  Thus the process of scanning the
** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
** subqueries looking for a match.
struct NameContext {
  Parse *pParse;       /* The parser */
  SrcList *pSrcList;   /* One or more tables used to resolve names */
  ExprList *pEList;    /* Optional list of result-set columns */
  AggInfo *pAggInfo;   /* Information about aggregates at this level */
  NameContext *pNext;  /* Next outer name context.  NULL for outermost */
  int nRef;            /* Number of names resolved by this context */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors encountered while resolving names */
  u16 ncFlags;         /* Zero or more NC_* flags defined below */

** Allowed values for the NameContext, ncFlags field.
** Note:  NC_MinMaxAgg must have the same value as SF_MinMaxAgg and
#define NC_AllowAgg  0x0001  /* Aggregate functions are allowed here */
#define NC_HasAgg    0x0002  /* One or more aggregate functions seen */
#define NC_IsCheck   0x0004  /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
#define NC_InAggFunc 0x0008  /* True if analyzing arguments to an agg func */
#define NC_PartIdx   0x0010  /* True if resolving a partial index WHERE */
#define NC_IdxExpr   0x0020  /* True if resolving columns of CREATE INDEX */
#define NC_MinMaxAgg 0x1000  /* min/max aggregates seen.  See note above */

** An instance of the following structure contains all information
** needed to generate code for a single SELECT statement.
** nLimit is set to -1 if there is no LIMIT clause.  nOffset is set to 0.
** If there is a LIMIT clause, the parser sets nLimit to the value of the
** limit and nOffset to the value of the offset (or 0 if there is not
** offset).  But later on, nLimit and nOffset become the memory locations
** in the VDBE that record the limit and offset counters.
** addrOpenEphm[] entries contain the address of OP_OpenEphemeral opcodes.
** These addresses must be stored so that we can go back and fill in
** the P4_KEYINFO and P2 parameters later.  Neither the KeyInfo nor
** the number of columns in P2 can be computed at the same time
** as the OP_OpenEphm instruction is coded because not
** enough information about the compound query is known at that point.
** The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[0] and [1] contains collating sequences
** for the result set.  The KeyInfo for addrOpenEphm[2] contains collating
** sequences for the ORDER BY clause.
struct Select {
  ExprList *pEList;      /* The fields of the result */
  u8 op;                 /* One of: TK_UNION TK_ALL TK_INTERSECT TK_EXCEPT */
  u16 selFlags;          /* Various SF_* values */
  int iLimit, iOffset;   /* Memory registers holding LIMIT & OFFSET counters */
  char zSelName[12];     /* Symbolic name of this SELECT use for debugging */
  int addrOpenEphm[2];   /* OP_OpenEphem opcodes related to this select */
  u64 nSelectRow;        /* Estimated number of result rows */
  SrcList *pSrc;         /* The FROM clause */
  Expr *pWhere;          /* The WHERE clause */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;    /* The GROUP BY clause */
  Expr *pHaving;         /* The HAVING clause */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;    /* The ORDER BY clause */
  Select *pPrior;        /* Prior select in a compound select statement */
  Select *pNext;         /* Next select to the left in a compound */
  Expr *pLimit;          /* LIMIT expression. NULL means not used. */
  Expr *pOffset;         /* OFFSET expression. NULL means not used. */
  With *pWith;           /* WITH clause attached to this select. Or NULL. */

** Allowed values for Select.selFlags.  The "SF" prefix stands for
** "Select Flag".
#define SF_Distinct        0x0001  /* Output should be DISTINCT */
#define SF_All             0x0002  /* Includes the ALL keyword */
#define SF_Resolved        0x0004  /* Identifiers have been resolved */
#define SF_Aggregate       0x0008  /* Contains aggregate functions */
#define SF_UsesEphemeral   0x0010  /* Uses the OpenEphemeral opcode */
#define SF_Expanded        0x0020  /* sqlite3SelectExpand() called on this */
#define SF_HasTypeInfo     0x0040  /* FROM subqueries have Table metadata */
#define SF_Compound        0x0080  /* Part of a compound query */
#define SF_Values          0x0100  /* Synthesized from VALUES clause */
#define SF_MultiValue      0x0200  /* Single VALUES term with multiple rows */
#define SF_NestedFrom      0x0400  /* Part of a parenthesized FROM clause */
#define SF_MaybeConvert    0x0800  /* Need convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
#define SF_MinMaxAgg       0x1000  /* Aggregate containing min() or max() */
#define SF_Recursive       0x2000  /* The recursive part of a recursive CTE */
#define SF_Converted       0x4000  /* By convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
#define SF_IncludeHidden   0x8000  /* Include hidden columns in output */

** The results of a SELECT can be distributed in several ways, as defined
** by one of the following macros.  The "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result
** Type".
**     SRT_Union       Store results as a key in a temporary index 
**                     identified by pDest->iSDParm.
**     SRT_Except      Remove results from the temporary index pDest->iSDParm.
**     SRT_Exists      Store a 1 in memory cell pDest->iSDParm if the result
**                     set is not empty.
**     SRT_Discard     Throw the results away.  This is used by SELECT
**                     statements within triggers whose only purpose is
**                     the side-effects of functions.
** All of the above are free to ignore their ORDER BY clause. Those that
** follow must honor the ORDER BY clause.
**     SRT_Output      Generate a row of output (using the OP_ResultRow
**                     opcode) for each row in the result set.
**     SRT_Mem         Only valid if the result is a single column.
**                     Store the first column of the first result row
**                     in register pDest->iSDParm then abandon the rest
**                     of the query.  This destination implies "LIMIT 1".
**     SRT_Set         The result must be a single column.  Store each
**                     row of result as the key in table pDest->iSDParm. 
**                     Apply the affinity pDest->affSdst before storing
**                     results.  Used to implement "IN (SELECT ...)".
**     SRT_EphemTab    Create an temporary table pDest->iSDParm and store
**                     the result there. The cursor is left open after
**                     returning.  This is like SRT_Table except that
**                     this destination uses OP_OpenEphemeral to create
**                     the table first.
**     SRT_Coroutine   Generate a co-routine that returns a new row of
**                     results each time it is invoked.  The entry point
**                     of the co-routine is stored in register pDest->iSDParm
**                     and the result row is stored in pDest->nDest registers
**                     starting with pDest->iSdst.
**     SRT_Table       Store results in temporary table pDest->iSDParm.
**     SRT_Fifo        This is like SRT_EphemTab except that the table
**                     is assumed to already be open.  SRT_Fifo has
**                     the additional property of being able to ignore
**                     the ORDER BY clause.
**     SRT_DistFifo    Store results in a temporary table pDest->iSDParm.
**                     But also use temporary table pDest->iSDParm+1 as
**                     a record of all prior results and ignore any duplicate
**                     rows.  Name means:  "Distinct Fifo".
**     SRT_Queue       Store results in priority queue pDest->iSDParm (really
**                     an index).  Append a sequence number so that all entries
**                     are distinct.
**     SRT_DistQueue   Store results in priority queue pDest->iSDParm only if
**                     the same record has never been stored before.  The
**                     index at pDest->iSDParm+1 hold all prior stores.
#define SRT_Union        1  /* Store result as keys in an index */
#define SRT_Except       2  /* Remove result from a UNION index */
#define SRT_Exists       3  /* Store 1 if the result is not empty */
#define SRT_Discard      4  /* Do not save the results anywhere */
#define SRT_Fifo         5  /* Store result as data with an automatic rowid */
#define SRT_DistFifo     6  /* Like SRT_Fifo, but unique results only */
#define SRT_Queue        7  /* Store result in an queue */
#define SRT_DistQueue    8  /* Like SRT_Queue, but unique results only */

/* The ORDER BY clause is ignored for all of the above */
#define IgnorableOrderby(X) ((X->eDest)<=SRT_DistQueue)

#define SRT_Output       9  /* Output each row of result */
#define SRT_Mem         10  /* Store result in a memory cell */
#define SRT_Set         11  /* Store results as keys in an index */
#define SRT_EphemTab    12  /* Create transient tab and store like SRT_Table */
#define SRT_Coroutine   13  /* Generate a single row of result */
#define SRT_Table       14  /* Store result as data with an automatic rowid */

** An instance of this object describes where to put of the results of
** a SELECT statement.
struct SelectDest {
  u8 eDest;            /* How to dispose of the results.  On of SRT_* above. */
  char affSdst;        /* Affinity used when eDest==SRT_Set */
  int iSDParm;         /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
  int iSdst;           /* Base register where results are written */
  int nSdst;           /* Number of registers allocated */
  ExprList *pOrderBy;  /* Key columns for SRT_Queue and SRT_DistQueue */

** During code generation of statements that do inserts into AUTOINCREMENT 
** tables, the following information is attached to the Table.u.autoInc.p
** pointer of each autoincrement table to record some side information that
** the code generator needs.  We have to keep per-table autoincrement
** information in case inserts are down within triggers.  Triggers do not
** normally coordinate their activities, but we do need to coordinate the
** loading and saving of autoincrement information.
struct AutoincInfo {
  AutoincInfo *pNext;   /* Next info block in a list of them all */
  Table *pTab;          /* Table this info block refers to */
  int iDb;              /* Index in sqlite3.aDb[] of database holding pTab */
  int regCtr;           /* Memory register holding the rowid counter */

** Size of the column cache

** At least one instance of the following structure is created for each 
** trigger that may be fired while parsing an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
** statement. All such objects are stored in the linked list headed at
** Parse.pTriggerPrg and deleted once statement compilation has been
** completed.
** A Vdbe sub-program that implements the body and WHEN clause of trigger
** TriggerPrg.pTrigger, assuming a default ON CONFLICT clause of
** TriggerPrg.orconf, is stored in the TriggerPrg.pProgram variable.
** The Parse.pTriggerPrg list never contains two entries with the same
** values for both pTrigger and orconf.
** The TriggerPrg.aColmask[0] variable is set to a mask of old.* columns
** accessed (or set to 0 for triggers fired as a result of INSERT 
** statements). Similarly, the TriggerPrg.aColmask[1] variable is set to
** a mask of new.* columns used by the program.
struct TriggerPrg {
  Trigger *pTrigger;      /* Trigger this program was coded from */
  TriggerPrg *pNext;      /* Next entry in Parse.pTriggerPrg list */
  SubProgram *pProgram;   /* Program implementing pTrigger/orconf */
  int orconf;             /* Default ON CONFLICT policy */
  u32 aColmask[2];        /* Masks of old.*, new.* columns accessed */

** The yDbMask datatype for the bitmask of all attached databases.
  typedef unsigned char yDbMask[(SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+9)/8];
# define DbMaskTest(M,I)    (((M)[(I)/8]&(1<<((I)&7)))!=0)
# define DbMaskZero(M)      memset((M),0,sizeof(M))
# define DbMaskSet(M,I)     (M)[(I)/8]|=(1<<((I)&7))
# define DbMaskAllZero(M)   sqlite3DbMaskAllZero(M)
# define DbMaskNonZero(M)   (sqlite3DbMaskAllZero(M)==0)
  typedef unsigned int yDbMask;
# define DbMaskTest(M,I)    (((M)&(((yDbMask)1)<<(I)))!=0)
# define DbMaskZero(M)      (M)=0
# define DbMaskSet(M,I)     (M)|=(((yDbMask)1)<<(I))
# define DbMaskAllZero(M)   (M)==0
# define DbMaskNonZero(M)   (M)!=0

** An SQL parser context.  A copy of this structure is passed through
** the parser and down into all the parser action routine in order to
** carry around information that is global to the entire parse.
** The structure is divided into two parts.  When the parser and code
** generate call themselves recursively, the first part of the structure
** is constant but the second part is reset at the beginning and end of
** each recursion.
** The nTableLock and aTableLock variables are only used if the shared-cache 
** feature is enabled (if sqlite3Tsd()->useSharedData is true). They are
** used to store the set of table-locks required by the statement being
** compiled. Function sqlite3TableLock() is used to add entries to the
** list.
struct Parse {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* The main database structure */
  char *zErrMsg;       /* An error message */
  Vdbe *pVdbe;         /* An engine for executing database bytecode */
  int rc;              /* Return code from execution */
  u8 colNamesSet;      /* TRUE after OP_ColumnName has been issued to pVdbe */
  u8 checkSchema;      /* Causes schema cookie check after an error */
  u8 nested;           /* Number of nested calls to the parser/code generator */
  u8 nTempReg;         /* Number of temporary registers in aTempReg[] */
  u8 isMultiWrite;     /* True if statement may modify/insert multiple rows */
  u8 mayAbort;         /* True if statement may throw an ABORT exception */
  u8 hasCompound;      /* Need to invoke convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
  u8 okConstFactor;    /* OK to factor out constants */
  int aTempReg[8];     /* Holding area for temporary registers */
  int nRangeReg;       /* Size of the temporary register block */
  int iRangeReg;       /* First register in temporary register block */
  int nErr;            /* Number of errors seen */
  int nTab;            /* Number of previously allocated VDBE cursors */
  int nMem;            /* Number of memory cells used so far */
  int nSet;            /* Number of sets used so far */
  int nOnce;           /* Number of OP_Once instructions so far */
  int nOpAlloc;        /* Number of slots allocated for Vdbe.aOp[] */
  int szOpAlloc;       /* Bytes of memory space allocated for Vdbe.aOp[] */
  int iFixedOp;        /* Never back out opcodes iFixedOp-1 or earlier */
  int ckBase;          /* Base register of data during check constraints */
  int iSelfTab;        /* Table of an index whose exprs are being coded */
  int iCacheLevel;     /* ColCache valid when aColCache[].iLevel<=iCacheLevel */
  int iCacheCnt;       /* Counter used to generate aColCache[].lru values */
  int nLabel;          /* Number of labels used */
  int *aLabel;         /* Space to hold the labels */
  struct yColCache {
    int iTable;           /* Table cursor number */
    i16 iColumn;          /* Table column number */
    u8 tempReg;           /* iReg is a temp register that needs to be freed */
    int iLevel;           /* Nesting level */
    int iReg;             /* Reg with value of this column. 0 means none. */
    int lru;              /* Least recently used entry has the smallest value */
  } aColCache[SQLITE_N_COLCACHE];  /* One for each column cache entry */
  ExprList *pConstExpr;/* Constant expressions */
  Token constraintName;/* Name of the constraint currently being parsed */
  yDbMask writeMask;   /* Start a write transaction on these databases */
  yDbMask cookieMask;  /* Bitmask of schema verified databases */
  int cookieValue[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+2];  /* Values of cookies to verify */
  int regRowid;        /* Register holding rowid of CREATE TABLE entry */
  int regRoot;         /* Register holding root page number for new objects */
  int nMaxArg;         /* Max args passed to user function by sub-program */
  int nSelect;         /* Number of SELECT statements seen */
  int nSelectIndent;   /* How far to indent SELECTTRACE() output */
  int nTableLock;        /* Number of locks in aTableLock */
  TableLock *aTableLock; /* Required table locks for shared-cache mode */
  AutoincInfo *pAinc;  /* Information about AUTOINCREMENT counters */

  /* Information used while coding trigger programs. */
  Parse *pToplevel;    /* Parse structure for main program (or NULL) */
  Table *pTriggerTab;  /* Table triggers are being coded for */
  int addrCrTab;       /* Address of OP_CreateTable opcode on CREATE TABLE */
  u32 nQueryLoop;      /* Est number of iterations of a query (10*log2(N)) */
  u32 oldmask;         /* Mask of old.* columns referenced */
  u32 newmask;         /* Mask of new.* columns referenced */
  u8 eTriggerOp;       /* TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT or TK_DELETE */
  u8 eOrconf;          /* Default ON CONFLICT policy for trigger steps */
  u8 disableTriggers;  /* True to disable triggers */

  ** Above is constant between recursions.  Below is reset before and after
  ** each recursion.  The boundary between these two regions is determined
  ** using offsetof(Parse,nVar) so the nVar field must be the first field
  ** in the recursive region.

  int nVar;                 /* Number of '?' variables seen in the SQL so far */
  int nzVar;                /* Number of available slots in azVar[] */
  u8 iPkSortOrder;          /* ASC or DESC for INTEGER PRIMARY KEY */
  u8 explain;               /* True if the EXPLAIN flag is found on the query */
  u8 declareVtab;           /* True if inside sqlite3_declare_vtab() */
  int nVtabLock;            /* Number of virtual tables to lock */
  int nAlias;               /* Number of aliased result set columns */
  int nHeight;              /* Expression tree height of current sub-select */
  int iSelectId;            /* ID of current select for EXPLAIN output */
  int iNextSelectId;        /* Next available select ID for EXPLAIN output */
  char **azVar;             /* Pointers to names of parameters */
  Vdbe *pReprepare;         /* VM being reprepared (sqlite3Reprepare()) */
  const char *zTail;        /* All SQL text past the last semicolon parsed */
  Table *pNewTable;         /* A table being constructed by CREATE TABLE */
  Trigger *pNewTrigger;     /* Trigger under construct by a CREATE TRIGGER */
  const char *zAuthContext; /* The 6th parameter to db->xAuth callbacks */
  Token sNameToken;         /* Token with unqualified schema object name */
  Token sLastToken;         /* The last token parsed */
  Token sArg;               /* Complete text of a module argument */
  Table **apVtabLock;       /* Pointer to virtual tables needing locking */
  Table *pZombieTab;        /* List of Table objects to delete after code gen */
  TriggerPrg *pTriggerPrg;  /* Linked list of coded triggers */
  With *pWith;              /* Current WITH clause, or NULL */
  With *pWithToFree;        /* Free this WITH object at the end of the parse */

** Return true if currently inside an sqlite3_declare_vtab() call.
  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB 0
  #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB (pParse->declareVtab)

** An instance of the following structure can be declared on a stack and used
** to save the Parse.zAuthContext value so that it can be restored later.
struct AuthContext {
  const char *zAuthContext;   /* Put saved Parse.zAuthContext here */
  Parse *pParse;              /* The Parse structure */

** Bitfield flags for P5 value in various opcodes.
#define OPFLAG_NCHANGE       0x01    /* Set to update db->nChange */
#define OPFLAG_EPHEM         0x01    /* OP_Column: Ephemeral output is ok */
#define OPFLAG_LASTROWID     0x02    /* Set to update db->lastRowid */
#define OPFLAG_ISUPDATE      0x04    /* This OP_Insert is an sql UPDATE */
#define OPFLAG_APPEND        0x08    /* This is likely to be an append */
#define OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT 0x10    /* Try to avoid a seek in BtreeInsert() */
#define OPFLAG_LENGTHARG     0x40    /* OP_Column only used for length() */
#define OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG     0x80    /* OP_Column only used for typeof() */
#define OPFLAG_BULKCSR       0x01    /* OP_Open** used to open bulk cursor */
#define OPFLAG_SEEKEQ        0x02    /* OP_Open** cursor uses EQ seek only */
#define OPFLAG_FORDELETE     0x08    /* OP_Open is opening for-delete csr */
#define OPFLAG_P2ISREG       0x10    /* P2 to OP_Open** is a register number */
#define OPFLAG_PERMUTE       0x01    /* OP_Compare: use the permutation */

 * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
 * struct Trigger. 
 * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
 * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the 
 *    database). This allows Trigger structures to be retrieved by name.
 * 2. All triggers associated with a single table form a linked list, using the
 *    pNext member of struct Trigger. A pointer to the first element of the
 *    linked list is stored as the "pTrigger" member of the associated
 *    struct Table.
 * The "step_list" member points to the first element of a linked list
 * containing the SQL statements specified as the trigger program.
struct Trigger {
  char *zName;            /* The name of the trigger                        */
  char *table;            /* The table or view to which the trigger applies */
  u8 op;                  /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT         */
  u8 tr_tm;               /* One of TRIGGER_BEFORE, TRIGGER_AFTER */
  Expr *pWhen;            /* The WHEN clause of the expression (may be NULL) */
  IdList *pColumns;       /* If this is an UPDATE OF <column-list> trigger,
                             the <column-list> is stored here */
  Schema *pSchema;        /* Schema containing the trigger */
  Schema *pTabSchema;     /* Schema containing the table */
  TriggerStep *step_list; /* Link list of trigger program steps             */
  Trigger *pNext;         /* Next trigger associated with the table */

** A trigger is either a BEFORE or an AFTER trigger.  The following constants
** determine which. 
** If there are multiple triggers, you might of some BEFORE and some AFTER.
** In that cases, the constants below can be ORed together.
#define TRIGGER_AFTER   2

 * An instance of struct TriggerStep is used to store a single SQL statement
 * that is a part of a trigger-program. 
 * Instances of struct TriggerStep are stored in a singly linked list (linked
 * using the "pNext" member) referenced by the "step_list" member of the 
 * associated struct Trigger instance. The first element of the linked list is
 * the first step of the trigger-program.
 * The "op" member indicates whether this is a "DELETE", "INSERT", "UPDATE" or
 * "SELECT" statement. The meanings of the other members is determined by the 
 * value of "op" as follows:
 * (op == TK_INSERT)
 * orconf    -> stores the ON CONFLICT algorithm
 * pSelect   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... SELECT ... statement, then
 *              this stores a pointer to the SELECT statement. Otherwise NULL.
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to insert into.
 * pExprList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... VALUES ... statement, then
 *              this stores values to be inserted. Otherwise NULL.
 * pIdList   -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... (<column-names>) VALUES ... 
 *              statement, then this stores the column-names to be
 *              inserted into.
 * (op == TK_DELETE)
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to delete from.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the DELETE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * (op == TK_UPDATE)
 * zTarget   -> Dequoted name of the table to update.
 * pWhere    -> The WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement if one is specified.
 *              Otherwise NULL.
 * pExprList -> A list of the columns to update and the expressions to update
 *              them to. See sqlite3Update() documentation of "pChanges"
 *              argument.
struct TriggerStep {
  u8 op;               /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT, TK_SELECT */
  u8 orconf;           /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */
  Select *pSelect;     /* SELECT statement or RHS of INSERT INTO SELECT ... */
  char *zTarget;       /* Target table for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT */
  Expr *pWhere;        /* The WHERE clause for DELETE or UPDATE steps */
  ExprList *pExprList; /* SET clause for UPDATE. */
  IdList *pIdList;     /* Column names for INSERT */
  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */

** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
** explicit.  
typedef struct DbFixer DbFixer;
struct DbFixer {
  Parse *pParse;      /* The parsing context.  Error messages written here */
  Schema *pSchema;    /* Fix items to this schema */
  int bVarOnly;       /* Check for variable references only */
  const char *zDb;    /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
  const char *zType;  /* Type of the container - used for error messages */
  const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */

** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
struct StrAccum {
  sqlite3 *db;         /* Optional database for lookaside.  Can be NULL */
  char *zBase;         /* A base allocation.  Not from malloc. */
  char *zText;         /* The string collected so far */
  u32  nChar;          /* Length of the string so far */
  u32  nAlloc;         /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
  u32  mxAlloc;        /* Maximum allowed allocation.  0 for no malloc usage */
  u8   accError;       /* STRACCUM_NOMEM or STRACCUM_TOOBIG */
  u8   bMalloced;      /* zText points to allocated space */
#define STRACCUM_NOMEM   1

** A pointer to this structure is used to communicate information
** from sqlite3Init and OP_ParseSchema into the sqlite3InitCallback.
typedef struct {
  sqlite3 *db;        /* The database being initialized */
  char **pzErrMsg;    /* Error message stored here */
  int iDb;            /* 0 for main database.  1 for TEMP, 2.. for ATTACHed */
  int rc;             /* Result code stored here */
} InitData;

** Structure containing global configuration data for the SQLite library.
** This structure also contains some state information.
struct Sqlite3Config {
  int bMemstat;                     /* True to enable memory status */
  int bCoreMutex;                   /* True to enable core mutexing */
  int bFullMutex;                   /* True to enable full mutexing */
  int bOpenUri;                     /* True to interpret filenames as URIs */
  int bUseCis;                      /* Use covering indices for full-scans */
  int mxStrlen;                     /* Maximum string length */
  int neverCorrupt;                 /* Database is always well-formed */
  int szLookaside;                  /* Default lookaside buffer size */
  int nLookaside;                   /* Default lookaside buffer count */
  sqlite3_mem_methods m;            /* Low-level memory allocation interface */
  sqlite3_mutex_methods mutex;      /* Low-level mutex interface */
  sqlite3_pcache_methods2 pcache2;  /* Low-level page-cache interface */
  void *pHeap;                      /* Heap storage space */
  int nHeap;                        /* Size of pHeap[] */
  int mnReq, mxReq;                 /* Min and max heap requests sizes */
  sqlite3_int64 szMmap;             /* mmap() space per open file */
  sqlite3_int64 mxMmap;             /* Maximum value for szMmap */
  void *pScratch;                   /* Scratch memory */
  int szScratch;                    /* Size of each scratch buffer */
  int nScratch;                     /* Number of scratch buffers */
  void *pPage;                      /* Page cache memory */
  int szPage;                       /* Size of each page in pPage[] */
  int nPage;                        /* Number of pages in pPage[] */
  int mxParserStack;                /* maximum depth of the parser stack */
  int sharedCacheEnabled;           /* true if shared-cache mode enabled */
  u32 szPma;                        /* Maximum Sorter PMA size */
  /* The above might be initialized to non-zero.  The following need to always
  ** initially be zero, however. */
  int isInit;                       /* True after initialization has finished */
  int inProgress;                   /* True while initialization in progress */
  int isMutexInit;                  /* True after mutexes are initialized */
  int isMallocInit;                 /* True after malloc is initialized */
  int isPCacheInit;                 /* True after malloc is initialized */
  int nRefInitMutex;                /* Number of users of pInitMutex */
  sqlite3_mutex *pInitMutex;        /* Mutex used by sqlite3_initialize() */
  void (*xLog)(void*,int,const char*); /* Function for logging */
  void *pLogArg;                       /* First argument to xLog() */
  void(*xSqllog)(void*,sqlite3*,const char*, int);
  void *pSqllogArg;
  /* The following callback (if not NULL) is invoked on every VDBE branch
  ** operation.  Set the callback using SQLITE_TESTCTRL_VDBE_COVERAGE.
  void (*xVdbeBranch)(void*,int iSrcLine,u8 eThis,u8 eMx);  /* Callback */
  void *pVdbeBranchArg;                                     /* 1st argument */
  int (*xTestCallback)(int);        /* Invoked by sqlite3FaultSim() */
  int bLocaltimeFault;              /* True to fail localtime() calls */

** This macro is used inside of assert() statements to indicate that
** the assert is only valid on a well-formed database.  Instead of:
**     assert( X );
** One writes:
**     assert( X || CORRUPT_DB );
** CORRUPT_DB is true during normal operation.  CORRUPT_DB does not indicate
** that the database is definitely corrupt, only that it might be corrupt.
** For most test cases, CORRUPT_DB is set to false using a special
** sqlite3_test_control().  This enables assert() statements to prove
** things that are always true for well-formed databases.
#define CORRUPT_DB  (sqlite3Config.neverCorrupt==0)

** Context pointer passed down through the tree-walk.
struct Walker {
  int (*xExprCallback)(Walker*, Expr*);     /* Callback for expressions */
  int (*xSelectCallback)(Walker*,Select*);  /* Callback for SELECTs */
  void (*xSelectCallback2)(Walker*,Select*);/* Second callback for SELECTs */
  Parse *pParse;                            /* Parser context.  */
  int walkerDepth;                          /* Number of subqueries */
  u8 eCode;                                 /* A small processing code */
  union {                                   /* Extra data for callback */
    NameContext *pNC;                          /* Naming context */
    int n;                                     /* A counter */
    int iCur;                                  /* A cursor number */
    SrcList *pSrcList;                         /* FROM clause */
    struct SrcCount *pSrcCount;                /* Counting column references */
    struct CCurHint *pCCurHint;                /* Used by codeCursorHint() */
  } u;

/* Forward declarations */
int sqlite3WalkExpr(Walker*, Expr*);
int sqlite3WalkExprList(Walker*, ExprList*);
int sqlite3WalkSelect(Walker*, Select*);
int sqlite3WalkSelectExpr(Walker*, Select*);
int sqlite3WalkSelectFrom(Walker*, Select*);
int sqlite3ExprWalkNoop(Walker*, Expr*);

** Return code from the parse-tree walking primitives and their
** callbacks.
#define WRC_Continue    0   /* Continue down into children */
#define WRC_Prune       1   /* Omit children but continue walking siblings */
#define WRC_Abort       2   /* Abandon the tree walk */

** An instance of this structure represents a set of one or more CTEs
** (common table expressions) created by a single WITH clause.
struct With {
  int nCte;                       /* Number of CTEs in the WITH clause */
  With *pOuter;                   /* Containing WITH clause, or NULL */
  struct Cte {                    /* For each CTE in the WITH clause.... */
    char *zName;                    /* Name of this CTE */
    ExprList *pCols;                /* List of explicit column names, or NULL */
    Select *pSelect;                /* The definition of this CTE */
    const char *zCteErr;            /* Error message for circular references */
  } a[1];

** An instance of the TreeView object is used for printing the content of
** data structures on sqlite3DebugPrintf() using a tree-like view.
struct TreeView {
  int iLevel;             /* Which level of the tree we are on */
  u8  bLine[100];         /* Draw vertical in column i if bLine[i] is true */
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */

** Assuming zIn points to the first byte of a UTF-8 character,
** advance zIn to point to the first byte of the next UTF-8 character.
#define SQLITE_SKIP_UTF8(zIn) {                        \
  if( (*(zIn++))>=0xc0 ){                              \
    while( (*zIn & 0xc0)==0x80 ){ zIn++; }             \
  }                                                    \

** The SQLITE_*_BKPT macros are substitutes for the error codes with
** the same name but without the _BKPT suffix.  These macros invoke
** routines that report the line-number on which the error originated
** using sqlite3_log().  The routines also provide a convenient place
** to set a debugger breakpoint.
int sqlite3CorruptError(int);
int sqlite3MisuseError(int);
int sqlite3CantopenError(int);
#define SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT sqlite3CorruptError(__LINE__)
#define SQLITE_MISUSE_BKPT sqlite3MisuseError(__LINE__)
#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_BKPT sqlite3CantopenError(__LINE__)

** FTS4 is really an extension for FTS3.  It is enabled using the
** SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3 macro.  But to avoid confusion we also call
** the SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS4 macro to serve as an alias for SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3.
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS4) && !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3)

** The ctype.h header is needed for non-ASCII systems.  It is also
** needed by FTS3 when FTS3 is included in the amalgamation.
#if !defined(SQLITE_ASCII) || \
# include <ctype.h>

** The following macros mimic the standard library functions toupper(),
** isspace(), isalnum(), isdigit() and isxdigit(), respectively. The
** sqlite versions only work for ASCII characters, regardless of locale.
# define sqlite3Toupper(x)  ((x)&~(sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x20))
# define sqlite3Isspace(x)   (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x01)
# define sqlite3Isalnum(x)   (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x06)
# define sqlite3Isalpha(x)   (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x02)
# define sqlite3Isdigit(x)   (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x04)
# define sqlite3Isxdigit(x)  (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x08)
# define sqlite3Tolower(x)   (sqlite3UpperToLower[(unsigned char)(x)])
# define sqlite3Toupper(x)   toupper((unsigned char)(x))
# define sqlite3Isspace(x)   isspace((unsigned char)(x))
# define sqlite3Isalnum(x)   isalnum((unsigned char)(x))
# define sqlite3Isalpha(x)   isalpha((unsigned char)(x))
# define sqlite3Isdigit(x)   isdigit((unsigned char)(x))
# define sqlite3Isxdigit(x)  isxdigit((unsigned char)(x))
# define sqlite3Tolower(x)   tolower((unsigned char)(x))
int sqlite3IsIdChar(u8);

** Internal function prototypes
#define sqlite3StrICmp sqlite3_stricmp
int sqlite3Strlen30(const char*);
#define sqlite3StrNICmp sqlite3_strnicmp

int sqlite3MallocInit(void);
void sqlite3MallocEnd(void);
void *sqlite3Malloc(u64);
void *sqlite3MallocZero(u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3*, u64);
char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3*,const char*);
char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3*,const char*, u64);
void *sqlite3Realloc(void*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
void sqlite3DbFree(sqlite3*, void*);
int sqlite3MallocSize(void*);
int sqlite3DbMallocSize(sqlite3*, void*);
void *sqlite3ScratchMalloc(int);
void sqlite3ScratchFree(void*);
void *sqlite3PageMalloc(int);
void sqlite3PageFree(void*);
void sqlite3MemSetDefault(void);
void sqlite3BenignMallocHooks(void (*)(void), void (*)(void));
int sqlite3HeapNearlyFull(void);

** On systems with ample stack space and that support alloca(), make
** use of alloca() to obtain space for large automatic objects.  By default,
** obtain space from malloc().
** The alloca() routine never returns NULL.  This will cause code paths
** that deal with sqlite3StackAlloc() failures to be unreachable.
# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N)   alloca(N)
# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N)  memset(alloca(N), 0, N)
# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P)       
# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N)   sqlite3DbMallocRaw(D,N)
# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N)  sqlite3DbMallocZero(D,N)
# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P)       sqlite3DbFree(D,P)

const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys3(void);
const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys5(void);

  sqlite3_mutex_methods const *sqlite3DefaultMutex(void);
  sqlite3_mutex_methods const *sqlite3NoopMutex(void);
  sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3MutexAlloc(int);
  int sqlite3MutexInit(void);
  int sqlite3MutexEnd(void);
#if !defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT) && !defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP)
  void sqlite3MemoryBarrier(void);
# define sqlite3MemoryBarrier()

sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StatusValue(int);
void sqlite3StatusUp(int, int);
void sqlite3StatusDown(int, int);
void sqlite3StatusHighwater(int, int);

/* Access to mutexes used by sqlite3_status() */
sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3Pcache1Mutex(void);
sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3MallocMutex(void);

  int sqlite3IsNaN(double);
# define sqlite3IsNaN(X)  0

** An instance of the following structure holds information about SQL
** functions arguments that are the parameters to the printf() function.
struct PrintfArguments {
  int nArg;                /* Total number of arguments */
  int nUsed;               /* Number of arguments used so far */
  sqlite3_value **apArg;   /* The argument values */

void sqlite3VXPrintf(StrAccum*, u32, const char*, va_list);
void sqlite3XPrintf(StrAccum*, u32, const char*, ...);
char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_HAVE_OS_TRACE)
  void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
  void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);

#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
  void sqlite3TreeViewExpr(TreeView*, const Expr*, u8);
  void sqlite3TreeViewExprList(TreeView*, const ExprList*, u8, const char*);
  void sqlite3TreeViewSelect(TreeView*, const Select*, u8);
  void sqlite3TreeViewWith(TreeView*, const With*, u8);

void sqlite3SetString(char **, sqlite3*, const char*);
void sqlite3ErrorMsg(Parse*, const char*, ...);
int sqlite3Dequote(char*);
int sqlite3KeywordCode(const unsigned char*, int);
int sqlite3RunParser(Parse*, const char*, char **);
void sqlite3FinishCoding(Parse*);
int sqlite3GetTempReg(Parse*);
void sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(Parse*,int);
int sqlite3GetTempRange(Parse*,int);
void sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(Parse*,int,int);
void sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(Parse*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprAlloc(sqlite3*,int,const Token*,int);
Expr *sqlite3Expr(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
void sqlite3ExprAttachSubtrees(sqlite3*,Expr*,Expr*,Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
void sqlite3Pragma(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ResetAllSchemasOfConnection(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3ResetOneSchema(sqlite3*,int);
void sqlite3CollapseDatabaseArray(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3DeleteColumnNames(sqlite3*,Table*);
int sqlite3ColumnsFromExprList(Parse*,ExprList*,i16*,Column**);
Table *sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(Parse*,Select*);
void sqlite3OpenMasterTable(Parse *, int);
Index *sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(Table*);
i16 sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(Index*, i16);
void sqlite3StartTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,int,int,int,int);
  void sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(Table*, Column*);
# define sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(T,C) /* no-op */
void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3AddColumnType(Parse*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,u8,Select*);
int sqlite3ParseUri(const char*,const char*,unsigned int*,
                    sqlite3_vfs**,char**,char **);
Btree *sqlite3DbNameToBtree(sqlite3*,const char*);
int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *);

# define sqlite3FaultSim(X) SQLITE_OK
  int sqlite3FaultSim(int);

Bitvec *sqlite3BitvecCreate(u32);
int sqlite3BitvecTest(Bitvec*, u32);
int sqlite3BitvecTestNotNull(Bitvec*, u32);
int sqlite3BitvecSet(Bitvec*, u32);
void sqlite3BitvecClear(Bitvec*, u32, void*);
void sqlite3BitvecDestroy(Bitvec*);
u32 sqlite3BitvecSize(Bitvec*);
int sqlite3BitvecBuiltinTest(int,int*);

RowSet *sqlite3RowSetInit(sqlite3*, void*, unsigned int);
void sqlite3RowSetClear(RowSet*);
void sqlite3RowSetInsert(RowSet*, i64);
int sqlite3RowSetTest(RowSet*, int iBatch, i64);
int sqlite3RowSetNext(RowSet*, i64*);

void sqlite3CreateView(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,ExprList*,Select*,int,int);

  int sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(Parse*,Table*);
# define sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(A,B) 0

  int sqlite3DbMaskAllZero(yDbMask);
void sqlite3DropTable(Parse*, SrcList*, int, int);
void sqlite3CodeDropTable(Parse*, Table*, int, int);
void sqlite3DeleteTable(sqlite3*, Table*);
  void sqlite3AutoincrementBegin(Parse *pParse);
  void sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(Parse *pParse);
# define sqlite3AutoincrementBegin(X)
# define sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(X)
void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, Select*, IdList*, int);
void *sqlite3ArrayAllocate(sqlite3*,void*,int,int*,int*);
IdList *sqlite3IdListAppend(sqlite3*, IdList*, Token*);
int sqlite3IdListIndex(IdList*,const char*);
SrcList *sqlite3SrcListEnlarge(sqlite3*, SrcList*, int, int);
SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppend(sqlite3*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*,
                                      Token*, Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
void sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(Parse *, SrcList *, Token *);
void sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*);
int sqlite3IndexedByLookup(Parse *, struct SrcList_item *);
void sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(SrcList*);
void sqlite3SrcListAssignCursors(Parse*, SrcList*);
void sqlite3IdListDelete(sqlite3*, IdList*);
void sqlite3SrcListDelete(sqlite3*, SrcList*);
Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(sqlite3*,i16,int,char**);
Index *sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
                          Expr*, int, int);
void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*);
Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);
Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
Expr *sqlite3LimitWhere(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,Expr*,Expr*,char*);
void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*);
void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Expr*, int);
WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,ExprList*,u16,int);
void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
u64 sqlite3WhereOutputRowCount(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsDistinct(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsOrdered(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereIsSorted(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereContinueLabel(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereBreakLabel(WhereInfo*);
int sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(WhereInfo*, int*);
#define ONEPASS_OFF      0        /* Use of ONEPASS not allowed */
#define ONEPASS_SINGLE   1        /* ONEPASS valid for a single row update */
#define ONEPASS_MULTI    2        /* ONEPASS is valid for multiple rows */
void sqlite3ExprCodeLoadIndexColumn(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int);
int sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int, u8);
void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnToReg(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(Vdbe*, Table*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprCodeMove(Parse*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprCacheStore(Parse*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprCachePush(Parse*);
void sqlite3ExprCachePop(Parse*);
void sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(Parse*, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprCacheClear(Parse*);
void sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(Parse*, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprCode(Parse*, Expr*, int);
void sqlite3ExprCodeCopy(Parse*, Expr*, int);
void sqlite3ExprCodeFactorable(Parse*, Expr*, int);
void sqlite3ExprCodeAtInit(Parse*, Expr*, int, u8);
int sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(Parse*, Expr*, int*);
int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(Parse*, Expr*, int);
void sqlite3ExprCodeAndCache(Parse*, Expr*, int);
int sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, u8);
#define SQLITE_ECEL_DUP      0x01  /* Deep, not shallow copies */
#define SQLITE_ECEL_FACTOR   0x02  /* Factor out constant terms */
#define SQLITE_ECEL_REF      0x04  /* Use ExprList.u.x.iOrderByCol */
void sqlite3ExprIfTrue(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprIfFalse(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
void sqlite3ExprIfFalseDup(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
Table *sqlite3FindTable(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
Table *sqlite3LocateTable(Parse*,int isView,const char*, const char*);
Table *sqlite3LocateTableItem(Parse*,int isView,struct SrcList_item *);
Index *sqlite3FindIndex(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTable(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteIndex(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
void sqlite3Vacuum(Parse*);
int sqlite3RunVacuum(char**, sqlite3*);
char *sqlite3NameFromToken(sqlite3*, Token*);
int sqlite3ExprCompare(Expr*, Expr*, int);
int sqlite3ExprListCompare(ExprList*, ExprList*, int);
int sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(Expr*, Expr*, int);
void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates(NameContext*, Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(NameContext*,ExprList*);
int sqlite3FunctionUsesThisSrc(Expr*, SrcList*);
Vdbe *sqlite3GetVdbe(Parse*);
void sqlite3PrngSaveState(void);
void sqlite3PrngRestoreState(void);
void sqlite3RollbackAll(sqlite3*,int);
void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(Parse*, int);
void sqlite3CodeVerifyNamedSchema(Parse*, const char *zDb);
void sqlite3BeginTransaction(Parse*, int);
void sqlite3CommitTransaction(Parse*);
void sqlite3RollbackTransaction(Parse*);
void sqlite3Savepoint(Parse*, int, Token*);
void sqlite3CloseSavepoints(sqlite3 *);
void sqlite3LeaveMutexAndCloseZombie(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3ExprIsConstant(Expr*);
int sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(Expr*);
int sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction(Expr*, u8);
int sqlite3ExprIsTableConstant(Expr*,int);
int sqlite3ExprContainsSubquery(Expr*);
int sqlite3ExprIsInteger(Expr*, int*);
int sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(const Expr*);
int sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(const Expr*, char);
int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(
void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int);
int sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int, int*,Index*,int);
void sqlite3ResolvePartIdxLabel(Parse*,int);
void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int*,int,int,int,int,
void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*,Table*,int,int,int,int*,int,int,int);
int sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, u8, int, u8*, int*, int*);
void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
void sqlite3MultiWrite(Parse*);
void sqlite3MayAbort(Parse*);
void sqlite3HaltConstraint(Parse*, int, int, char*, i8, u8);
void sqlite3UniqueConstraint(Parse*, int, Index*);
void sqlite3RowidConstraint(Parse*, int, Table*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprDup(sqlite3*,Expr*,int);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListDup(sqlite3*,ExprList*,int);
SrcList *sqlite3SrcListDup(sqlite3*,SrcList*,int);
IdList *sqlite3IdListDup(sqlite3*,IdList*);
Select *sqlite3SelectDup(sqlite3*,Select*,int);
void sqlite3SelectSetName(Select*,const char*);
# define sqlite3SelectSetName(A,B)
void sqlite3FuncDefInsert(FuncDefHash*, FuncDef*);
FuncDef *sqlite3FindFunction(sqlite3*,const char*,int,int,u8,u8);
void sqlite3RegisterBuiltinFunctions(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(void);
void sqlite3RegisterGlobalFunctions(void);
int sqlite3SafetyCheckOk(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3SafetyCheckSickOrOk(sqlite3*);
void sqlite3ChangeCookie(Parse*, int);

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
void sqlite3MaterializeView(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int);

  void sqlite3BeginTrigger(Parse*, Token*,Token*,int,int,IdList*,SrcList*,
                           Expr*,int, int);
  void sqlite3FinishTrigger(Parse*, TriggerStep*, Token*);
  void sqlite3DropTrigger(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
  void sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(Parse*, Trigger*);
  Trigger *sqlite3TriggersExist(Parse *, Table*, int, ExprList*, int *pMask);
  Trigger *sqlite3TriggerList(Parse *, Table *);
  void sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, Trigger *, int, ExprList*, int, Table *,
                            int, int, int);
  void sqlite3CodeRowTriggerDirect(Parse *, Trigger *, Table *, int, int, int);
  void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
  void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(sqlite3*, TriggerStep*);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, u8);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*);
  void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(sqlite3*, Trigger*);
  void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
  u32 sqlite3TriggerColmask(Parse*,Trigger*,ExprList*,int,int,Table*,int);
# define sqlite3ParseToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel ? (p)->pToplevel : (p))
# define sqlite3IsToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel==0)
# define sqlite3TriggersExist(B,C,D,E,F) 0
# define sqlite3DeleteTrigger(A,B)
# define sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(A,B)
# define sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(A,B,C)
# define sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I)
# define sqlite3CodeRowTriggerDirect(A,B,C,D,E,F)
# define sqlite3TriggerList(X, Y) 0
# define sqlite3ParseToplevel(p) p
# define sqlite3IsToplevel(p) 1
# define sqlite3TriggerColmask(A,B,C,D,E,F,G) 0

int sqlite3JoinType(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3CreateForeignKey(Parse*, ExprList*, Token*, ExprList*, int);
void sqlite3DeferForeignKey(Parse*, int);
  void sqlite3AuthRead(Parse*,Expr*,Schema*,SrcList*);
  int sqlite3AuthCheck(Parse*,int, const char*, const char*, const char*);
  void sqlite3AuthContextPush(Parse*, AuthContext*, const char*);
  void sqlite3AuthContextPop(AuthContext*);
  int sqlite3AuthReadCol(Parse*, const char *, const char *, int);
# define sqlite3AuthRead(a,b,c,d)
# define sqlite3AuthCheck(a,b,c,d,e)    SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3AuthContextPush(a,b,c)
# define sqlite3AuthContextPop(a)  ((void)(a))
void sqlite3Attach(Parse*, Expr*, Expr*, Expr*);
void sqlite3Detach(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3FixInit(DbFixer*, Parse*, int, const char*, const Token*);
int sqlite3FixSrcList(DbFixer*, SrcList*);
int sqlite3FixSelect(DbFixer*, Select*);
int sqlite3FixExpr(DbFixer*, Expr*);
int sqlite3FixExprList(DbFixer*, ExprList*);
int sqlite3FixTriggerStep(DbFixer*, TriggerStep*);
int sqlite3AtoF(const char *z, double*, int, u8);
int sqlite3GetInt32(const char *, int*);
int sqlite3Atoi(const char*);
int sqlite3Utf16ByteLen(const void *pData, int nChar);
int sqlite3Utf8CharLen(const char *pData, int nByte);
u32 sqlite3Utf8Read(const u8**);
LogEst sqlite3LogEst(u64);
LogEst sqlite3LogEstAdd(LogEst,LogEst);
LogEst sqlite3LogEstFromDouble(double);
u64 sqlite3LogEstToInt(LogEst);

** Routines to read and write variable-length integers.  These used to
** be defined locally, but now we use the varint routines in the util.c
** file.
int sqlite3PutVarint(unsigned char*, u64);
u8 sqlite3GetVarint(const unsigned char *, u64 *);
u8 sqlite3GetVarint32(const unsigned char *, u32 *);
int sqlite3VarintLen(u64 v);

** The common case is for a varint to be a single byte.  They following
** macros handle the common case without a procedure call, but then call
** the procedure for larger varints.
#define getVarint32(A,B)  \
  (u8)((*(A)<(u8)0x80)?((B)=(u32)*(A)),1:sqlite3GetVarint32((A),(u32 *)&(B)))
#define putVarint32(A,B)  \
  (u8)(((u32)(B)<(u32)0x80)?(*(A)=(unsigned char)(B)),1:\
#define getVarint    sqlite3GetVarint
#define putVarint    sqlite3PutVarint

const char *sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(sqlite3*, Index*);
void sqlite3TableAffinity(Vdbe*, Table*, int);
char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2);
int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity);
char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr);
int sqlite3Atoi64(const char*, i64*, int, u8);
int sqlite3DecOrHexToI64(const char*, i64*);
void sqlite3ErrorWithMsg(sqlite3*, int, const char*,...);
void sqlite3Error(sqlite3*,int);
void *sqlite3HexToBlob(sqlite3*, const char *z, int n);
u8 sqlite3HexToInt(int h);
int sqlite3TwoPartName(Parse *, Token *, Token *, Token **);

const char *sqlite3ErrName(int);

const char *sqlite3ErrStr(int);
int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse);
CollSeq *sqlite3FindCollSeq(sqlite3*,u8 enc, const char*,int);
CollSeq *sqlite3LocateCollSeq(Parse *pParse, const char*zName);
CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr);
Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(Parse *pParse, Expr*, const Token*, int);
Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(Parse*,Expr*,const char*);
Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr*);
int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);
int sqlite3AddInt64(i64*,i64);
int sqlite3SubInt64(i64*,i64);
int sqlite3MulInt64(i64*,i64);
int sqlite3AbsInt32(int);
void sqlite3FileSuffix3(const char*, char*);
# define sqlite3FileSuffix3(X,Y)
u8 sqlite3GetBoolean(const char *z,u8);

const void *sqlite3ValueText(sqlite3_value*, u8);
int sqlite3ValueBytes(sqlite3_value*, u8);
void sqlite3ValueSetStr(sqlite3_value*, int, const void *,u8, 
void sqlite3ValueSetNull(sqlite3_value*);
void sqlite3ValueFree(sqlite3_value*);
sqlite3_value *sqlite3ValueNew(sqlite3 *);
char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *, const void*, int, u8);
int sqlite3ValueFromExpr(sqlite3 *, Expr *, u8, u8, sqlite3_value **);
void sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(sqlite3_value *, u8, u8);
extern const unsigned char sqlite3OpcodeProperty[];
extern const char sqlite3StrBINARY[];
extern const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[];
extern const unsigned char sqlite3CtypeMap[];
extern const Token sqlite3IntTokens[];
extern SQLITE_WSD struct Sqlite3Config sqlite3Config;
extern SQLITE_WSD FuncDefHash sqlite3GlobalFunctions;
extern int sqlite3PendingByte;
void sqlite3RootPageMoved(sqlite3*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *, Expr *, int, int);
void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3SelectWrongNumTermsError(Parse *pParse, Select *p);
int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);
int sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy(Parse*, Select*, ExprList*, const char*);
void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int, int);
void sqlite3AlterFinishAddColumn(Parse *, Token *);
void sqlite3AlterBeginAddColumn(Parse *, SrcList *);
CollSeq *sqlite3GetCollSeq(Parse*, u8, CollSeq *, const char*);
char sqlite3AffinityType(const char*, u8*);
void sqlite3Analyze(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
int sqlite3InvokeBusyHandler(BusyHandler*);
int sqlite3FindDb(sqlite3*, Token*);
int sqlite3FindDbName(sqlite3 *, const char *);
int sqlite3AnalysisLoad(sqlite3*,int iDB);
void sqlite3DeleteIndexSamples(sqlite3*,Index*);
void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index*);
void sqlite3RegisterLikeFunctions(sqlite3*, int);
int sqlite3IsLikeFunction(sqlite3*,Expr*,int*,char*);
void sqlite3MinimumFileFormat(Parse*, int, int);
void sqlite3SchemaClear(void *);
Schema *sqlite3SchemaGet(sqlite3 *, Btree *);
int sqlite3SchemaToIndex(sqlite3 *db, Schema *);
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(sqlite3*,int,int);
void sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(KeyInfo*);
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoRef(KeyInfo*);
KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoOfIndex(Parse*, Index*);
int sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(KeyInfo*);
int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *, 
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
  void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*),
  FuncDestructor *pDestructor
int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);

void sqlite3StrAccumInit(StrAccum*, sqlite3*, char*, int, int);
void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum*,const char*,int);
void sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(StrAccum*,const char*);
void sqlite3AppendChar(StrAccum*,int,char);
char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);
Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *, SrcList *, int, int);

void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);

void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void);
int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(Parse*,Index*,UnpackedRecord**,Expr*,u8,int,int*);
int sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(Parse*, Expr*, u8, sqlite3_value**);
void sqlite3Stat4ProbeFree(UnpackedRecord*);
int sqlite3Stat4Column(sqlite3*, const void*, int, int, sqlite3_value**);

** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(u64));
void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
void sqlite3Parser(void*, int, Token, Parse*);
  int sqlite3ParserStackPeak(void*);

void sqlite3AutoLoadExtensions(sqlite3*);
  void sqlite3CloseExtensions(sqlite3*);
# define sqlite3CloseExtensions(X)

  void sqlite3TableLock(Parse *, int, int, u8, const char *);
  #define sqlite3TableLock(v,w,x,y,z)

  int sqlite3Utf8To8(unsigned char*);

#  define sqlite3VtabClear(Y)
#  define sqlite3VtabSync(X,Y) SQLITE_OK
#  define sqlite3VtabRollback(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabCommit(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) 0
#  define sqlite3VtabLock(X) 
#  define sqlite3VtabUnlock(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabUnlockList(X)
#  define sqlite3VtabSavepoint(X, Y, Z) SQLITE_OK
#  define sqlite3GetVTable(X,Y)  ((VTable*)0)
   void sqlite3VtabClear(sqlite3 *db, Table*);
   void sqlite3VtabDisconnect(sqlite3 *db, Table *p);
   int sqlite3VtabSync(sqlite3 *db, Vdbe*);
   int sqlite3VtabRollback(sqlite3 *db);
   int sqlite3VtabCommit(sqlite3 *db);
   void sqlite3VtabLock(VTable *);
   void sqlite3VtabUnlock(VTable *);
   void sqlite3VtabUnlockList(sqlite3*);
   int sqlite3VtabSavepoint(sqlite3 *, int, int);
   void sqlite3VtabImportErrmsg(Vdbe*, sqlite3_vtab*);
   VTable *sqlite3GetVTable(sqlite3*, Table*);
#  define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) ((db)->nVTrans>0 && (db)->aVTrans==0)
int sqlite3VtabEponymousTableInit(Parse*,Module*);
void sqlite3VtabEponymousTableClear(sqlite3*,Module*);
void sqlite3VtabMakeWritable(Parse*,Table*);
void sqlite3VtabBeginParse(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*, int);
void sqlite3VtabFinishParse(Parse*, Token*);
void sqlite3VtabArgInit(Parse*);
void sqlite3VtabArgExtend(Parse*, Token*);
int sqlite3VtabCallCreate(sqlite3*, int, const char *, char **);
int sqlite3VtabCallConnect(Parse*, Table*);
int sqlite3VtabCallDestroy(sqlite3*, int, const char *);
int sqlite3VtabBegin(sqlite3 *, VTable *);
FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverloadFunction(sqlite3 *,FuncDef*, int nArg, Expr*);
void sqlite3InvalidFunction(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StmtCurrentTime(sqlite3_context*);
int sqlite3VdbeParameterIndex(Vdbe*, const char*, int);
int sqlite3TransferBindings(sqlite3_stmt *, sqlite3_stmt *);
void sqlite3ParserReset(Parse*);
int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, const char*);
CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(Parse *, Expr *, Expr *);
int sqlite3TempInMemory(const sqlite3*);
const char *sqlite3JournalModename(int);
  int sqlite3Checkpoint(sqlite3*, int, int, int*, int*);
  int sqlite3WalDefaultHook(void*,sqlite3*,const char*,int);
  With *sqlite3WithAdd(Parse*,With*,Token*,ExprList*,Select*);
  void sqlite3WithDelete(sqlite3*,With*);
  void sqlite3WithPush(Parse*, With*, u8);
#define sqlite3WithPush(x,y,z)
#define sqlite3WithDelete(x,y)

/* Declarations for functions in fkey.c. All of these are replaced by
** no-op macros if OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is defined. In this case no foreign
** key functionality is available. If OMIT_TRIGGER is defined but
** OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is not, only some of the functions are no-oped. In
** this case foreign keys are parsed, but no other functionality is 
** provided (enforcement of FK constraints requires the triggers sub-system).
  void sqlite3FkCheck(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int);
  void sqlite3FkDropTable(Parse*, SrcList *, Table*);
  void sqlite3FkActions(Parse*, Table*, ExprList*, int, int*, int);
  int sqlite3FkRequired(Parse*, Table*, int*, int);
  u32 sqlite3FkOldmask(Parse*, Table*);
  FKey *sqlite3FkReferences(Table *);
  #define sqlite3FkActions(a,b,c,d,e,f)
  #define sqlite3FkCheck(a,b,c,d,e,f)
  #define sqlite3FkDropTable(a,b,c)
  #define sqlite3FkOldmask(a,b)         0
  #define sqlite3FkRequired(a,b,c,d)    0
  void sqlite3FkDelete(sqlite3 *, Table*);
  int sqlite3FkLocateIndex(Parse*,Table*,FKey*,Index**,int**);
  #define sqlite3FkDelete(a,b)
  #define sqlite3FkLocateIndex(a,b,c,d,e)

** Available fault injectors.  Should be numbered beginning with 0.

** The interface to the code in fault.c used for identifying "benign"
** malloc failures. This is only present if SQLITE_OMIT_BUILTIN_TEST
** is not defined.
  void sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc(void);
  void sqlite3EndBenignMalloc(void);
  #define sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc()
  #define sqlite3EndBenignMalloc()

** Allowed return values from sqlite3FindInIndex()
#define IN_INDEX_ROWID        1   /* Search the rowid of the table */
#define IN_INDEX_EPH          2   /* Search an ephemeral b-tree */
#define IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC    3   /* Existing index ASCENDING */
#define IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC   4   /* Existing index DESCENDING */
#define IN_INDEX_NOOP         5   /* No table available. Use comparisons */
** Allowed flags for the 3rd parameter to sqlite3FindInIndex().
#define IN_INDEX_NOOP_OK     0x0001  /* OK to return IN_INDEX_NOOP */
#define IN_INDEX_MEMBERSHIP  0x0002  /* IN operator used for membership test */
#define IN_INDEX_LOOP        0x0004  /* IN operator used as a loop */
int sqlite3FindInIndex(Parse *, Expr *, u32, int*);

  int sqlite3JournalOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file *, int, int);
  int sqlite3JournalSize(sqlite3_vfs *);
  int sqlite3JournalCreate(sqlite3_file *);
  int sqlite3JournalExists(sqlite3_file *p);
  #define sqlite3JournalSize(pVfs) ((pVfs)->szOsFile)
  #define sqlite3JournalExists(p) 1

void sqlite3MemJournalOpen(sqlite3_file *);
int sqlite3MemJournalSize(void);
int sqlite3IsMemJournal(sqlite3_file *);

void sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(Parse *pParse, Expr *p);
  int sqlite3SelectExprHeight(Select *);
  int sqlite3ExprCheckHeight(Parse*, int);
  #define sqlite3SelectExprHeight(x) 0
  #define sqlite3ExprCheckHeight(x,y)

u32 sqlite3Get4byte(const u8*);
void sqlite3Put4byte(u8*, u32);

  void sqlite3ConnectionBlocked(sqlite3 *, sqlite3 *);
  void sqlite3ConnectionUnlocked(sqlite3 *db);
  void sqlite3ConnectionClosed(sqlite3 *db);
  #define sqlite3ConnectionBlocked(x,y)
  #define sqlite3ConnectionUnlocked(x)
  #define sqlite3ConnectionClosed(x)

  void sqlite3ParserTrace(FILE*, char *);

** If the SQLITE_ENABLE IOTRACE exists then the global variable
** sqlite3IoTrace is a pointer to a printf-like routine used to
** print I/O tracing messages. 
# define IOTRACE(A)  if( sqlite3IoTrace ){ sqlite3IoTrace A; }
  void sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(Vdbe*);
SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXTERN void (SQLITE_CDECL *sqlite3IoTrace)(const char*,...);
# define IOTRACE(A)
# define sqlite3VdbeIOTraceSql(X)

** These routines are available for the mem2.c debugging memory allocator
** only.  They are used to verify that different "types" of memory
** allocations are properly tracked by the system.
** sqlite3MemdebugSetType() sets the "type" of an allocation to one of
** the MEMTYPE_* macros defined below.  The type must be a bitmask with
** a single bit set.
** sqlite3MemdebugHasType() returns true if any of the bits in its second
** argument match the type set by the previous sqlite3MemdebugSetType().
** sqlite3MemdebugHasType() is intended for use inside assert() statements.
** sqlite3MemdebugNoType() returns true if none of the bits in its second
** argument match the type set by the previous sqlite3MemdebugSetType().
** Perhaps the most important point is the difference between MEMTYPE_HEAP
** and MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE.  If an allocation is MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE, that means
** it might have been allocated by lookaside, except the allocation was
** too large or lookaside was already full.  It is important to verify
** that allocations that might have been satisfied by lookaside are not
** passed back to non-lookaside free() routines.  Asserts such as the
** example above are placed on the non-lookaside free() routines to verify
** this constraint. 
** All of this is no-op for a production build.  It only comes into
** play when the SQLITE_MEMDEBUG compile-time option is used.
  void sqlite3MemdebugSetType(void*,u8);
  int sqlite3MemdebugHasType(void*,u8);
  int sqlite3MemdebugNoType(void*,u8);
# define sqlite3MemdebugSetType(X,Y)  /* no-op */
# define sqlite3MemdebugHasType(X,Y)  1
# define sqlite3MemdebugNoType(X,Y)   1
#define MEMTYPE_HEAP       0x01  /* General heap allocations */
#define MEMTYPE_LOOKASIDE  0x02  /* Heap that might have been lookaside */
#define MEMTYPE_SCRATCH    0x04  /* Scratch allocations */
#define MEMTYPE_PCACHE     0x08  /* Page cache allocations */

** Threading interface
int sqlite3ThreadCreate(SQLiteThread**,void*(*)(void*),void*);
int sqlite3ThreadJoin(SQLiteThread*, void**);

int sqlite3DbstatRegister(sqlite3*);

#endif /* _SQLITEINT_H_ */