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Quality Management

1. Overview

This is the Quality Management Plan for SQLite.

Quality management documents tend to expand into binders full of incomprehensible jargon that nobody reads. This document strives to break that pattern by being concise and useful.

The inspiration for this document is DO-178B. Among quality standards, DO-178B seems to have the highest usefulness to paperwork ratio. Even so, the amount of documentation needed for a full-up DO-178B implementation is vast. SQLite strives to be nimble and low-ceremony, and to that end, much of the required DO-178B documentation is omitted. We retain only those parts that genuinely improve quality for an open-source software project such as SQLite.

The purpose of this document is to brief the reader on how the SQLite development team functions on a daily basis, as they continuously enhance the SQLite software and work to improve its already high reliability. The document achieves its purpose if a competent developer can be assimilated into the development team quickly after perusing this document.

1.1. About This Document

The quality management plan was originally composed by going through the description of outputs in section 11 of DO-178B (pages 48 through 56) and writing down those elements that seemed relevant to SQLite. The text will be subsequent revised to track enhancements to the SQLite quality process.

2. Software Development Plan

This section is a combination of the Plan For Software Aspects Of Certification and the Software Development Plan sections of DO-178B.

See About SQLite for an overview of the SQLite software and what it does and how it is different.

2.1. Software Life Cycle

SQLite uses a continuous integration process. The software is under constant enhancement and refinement. The latest trunk check-ins are frequently used internally for mission-critical operations.

There is no pre-defined release cycle. Releases occur when there is a critical mass of feature enhancements and/or bug fixes. Historically, releases have occurred about 5 or 6 times per year. Users of SQLite pick up new releases from the website on an as-needed basis.

2.1.1. Maintenance Releases

Routine maintenance releases of SQLite contain feature enhancements, performance enhancements, and/or fixes for non-critical issues. The version number for major releases are of the form "3.N.0" for some integer N. See the version numbering conventions document for details.

Upcoming maintenance releases announced on the sqlite-users and sqlite-dev mailing lists about two weeks prior to the anticipated release. Approximately one week prior to release, the lead developer declares "pencils down" after which only bug-fix check-ins are allowed on trunk. A new release checklist is created and updated as needed. As items of the checklist are verified, they are checked off and turn green. The release occurs when all elements of the checklist are green. That process normally takes about a week.

2.1.2. Patch Releases

Occasionally, a serious problem is found and a small "patch" release must be made against a regular maintenance release. Patches are distinct from maintenance releases in that the number of lines of code changed from the previous release is small. Every effort is made to avoid patch releases by making sure that maintenance releases are bug free.

Patch releases may or may not have a release checklist, depending on the issue. This is a judgement call by the project leader.

2.2. Release History

The documentation system automatically maintains a chronology of past releases, as well as a complete list of SQLite releases with change summaries.

2.3. Schedule

SQLite has a long-range vision. Planning is done with the assumption that SQLite will be used and supported through at least the year 2050. All code is written with the idea that it will one day be read and maintained by people not yet born. The code is carefully commented with an eye toward helping those future developers more easily understand the logic and the rationale behind the code.

3. Software Development Environment

SQLite is written in portable C code. Development work occurs on a mix of Linux, Mac, and Windows workstations. The developers use command-line tools and eschew integrated development environments (IDEs) whenever possible. All developers are expected to be fluent with the unix command-line.

A minimum setup for compiling and testing SQLite from canonical sources is as follows:

The Tcl script language is used to help translate canonical source code into the amalgamation and to manage testing. Tcl is not used directly by SQLite itself (unless requested by a compile-time option). End users of the SQLite amalgamation sources do not need Tcl.

When building the CLI, it is helpful, but not required, to have the following third-party libraries on hand:

A complete release-test of SQLite requires additional software,

SQLite is expected to operate the same, and use exactly the same on-disk format, on all modern operating systems, on all modern computer architectures, and using all modern C compilers. The developers are constantly testing SQLite on as many diverse platforms as they can get their hands on.

4. Software Verification Plan

The testing process for SQLite is described in the testing document. Testing objectives include:

The testing process is controlled by the release testing checklists. The checklists succinctly summarize all steps necessary to fully validate SQLite, and they record when and by whom each validation step was performed.

The set of checklist items for release checklist is potentially updated for each release. The content and complete history of each release checklist are retained for the historical record.

5. Software Configuration Management

5.1. Version Control

SQLite source code is managed using the Fossil version control system. Fossil was written specifically to support SQLite development. Fossil provides both distributed version control and issue tracking.

5.2. Survivability

All code is archived on three separate machines:,, These machines are located in different cities (Dallas, Newark, and San Francisco, respectively) and managed by two different hosting companies (Linode for the first two and Digital Ocean for the third). This diversity is intended to avoid a single point of failure.

The main machine in Dallas is the primary server and the one that most people use. The other two are considered backups.

In addition to the official repositories, the developers typically keep complete clones of all software on their personal machines. And there are other clones scattered about the internet.

5.3. Repositories

The SQLite source is broken up into multiple repositories, each described in a separate section below.

5.3.1. SQLite Source Code

The SQLite source code and the TCL test suite are stored together in a single repository. This one repository is all that is required to build the SQLite. The source repository is public and is readable by anonymous passersby on the internet.

5.3.2. SQLite Documentation Sources

The documentation sources include documentation text and images with the scripts and makefile needed to construct the SQLite website documentation. This document is contained within the documentation sources. The document sources are kept in a separate repository distinct from the source code. The documentation sources repository is publicly readable.

The makefiles and scripts used to generate the documentation gather text from baseline documents in the documentation source repository. Additional text is extracted from comments in the SQLite source code. Requirements coverage information is extracted from special comments in the TCL test suite which is part of the source repository, and from comments in the TH3 test suite which is in a separate private repository.

5.3.3. SQL Logic Test

The SQL Logic Tests are a set of test cases designed to show that SQLite behaves the same as other SQL database engines. These tests are hosted in a separate code public repository.

5.3.4. Test Harness #3

The Test Harness #3 or TH3 test suite is a private set of test cases used to test SQLite to 100% MC/DC in an as-delivered configuration. TH3 sources are served on the same servers as the other SQLite repositories, but differ from the others in being proprietary. The TH3 code is only accessible to SQLite developers.

5.3.5. Dbsqlfuzz

The dbsqlfuzz module is a libFuzzer-based fuzzer for SQLite. Dbsqlfuzz fuzzes both the SQL and the database file at the same time. Dbsqlfuzz uses a customized mutator.

Dbsqlfuzz seems to work better at finding problems than any other fuzzer available. For that reason, it is kept private. We do not want hacker gaining access to this technology.

5.4. Software Verification Results

Release testing proceeds by checklist. The current status and complete change history for each checklist is stored in a separate SQLite database file. These files are not version controlled, but separate copies are maintained on private backup servers.

The source code to the software that runs the checklists is stored in its own Fossil repository at

6. Software Requirements Standards And Data

In the SQLite project, the "requirements" are the project documentation. Special markup in the documentation text indentifies individual requirements. The requirement numbers are based on a cryptographic hash of normalized requirement text, so that it is impossible to change the requirement text without also changing the requirement number.

Documentation text (and hence requirement text) is taken from the SQLite Documentation source repository, described above, and also from comments in the implementation. The makefiles to build the documentation are in the documentation source repository.

When the documentation is build, requirements are identified and labeled. The documentation build process also scans for test cases that verify each requirement and constructs a matrix showing which requirements have been testing and identifying the specific test cases that test those requirements.

7. Software Design And Coding Standards

Objective coding standards for SQLite are minimal:

All other design and coding rules are subjective. The goal here is to make the software so that it is readable and maintainable through the year 2050. To that end, we look for succinct yet useful comments (no boilerplate), carefully chosen variable names, and careful explanation of the meaning of each data structure and the role of each code block.

8. Problem Reports

All problems are fixed expeditiously. There are no lingering problems in the sQLite software.

The Fossil version control system utilized by SQLite contains built-in support for tracking trouble-tickets. This built-in ticket system is used to track and document many historical problems.

The SQLite Community Forum is a place where anybody on the internet can go to ask questions about or report bugs against SQLite. Bugs found by third-parties are often reported initially on the Forum. Forum-reported bugs will sometimes be transferred to tickets, though recent practice as been to just deal with the bugs on the Forum. The Forum has an excellent full-text search feature, is mirrored to multiple machines, and is just as searchable and survivable as the ticket system, so it seems unnecessary to duplicate Forum-originated bug reports into the ticket system. The public locations of the Forum are:

As with the source repositories, the Forum is also synced to various private machines. Note that because of the way Fossil works, the "backups" are more than just read-only backups. They can also function as data inputs. All content entered is synced to all repositories, regardless of which repository is used for insertion.