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<title>The DBSTAT Virtual Table</title>
<tcl>hd_keywords dbstat {dbstat virtual table}</tcl>
<fancy_format>


<h1>Overview</h1>

<p>
The DBSTAT virtual tables is a read-only [eponymous virtual table] that returns
information about which pages of the database files are used by which
tables and indexes in the schema.
The the DBSTAT virtual table is used to implement [sqlite3_analyzer.exe]
utility program, and to help compute the 
[https://www.sqlite.org/src/repo-tabsize|table size pie-chart] in
the [https://www.fossil-scm.org/|Fossil-implemented] version control system
for SQLite.
</p>

<p>
^The <b>dbstat</b> virtual table is available on all 
[database connections] when SQLite is built using the
[SQLITE_ENABLE_DBSTAT_VTAB] compile-time option.
^The dbstat virtual table provides low-level information 
about btree and overflow pages in a database file.

<p>
^The dbstat virtual table is an [eponymous virtual table], meaning
that is not necessary to run [CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE] to create an
instance of the dbstat virtual table before using it.  The "dbstat"
module name can be used as if it were a table name to query the
dbstat virtual table directly.  For example:

<codeblock>
SELECT * FROM dbstat;
</codeblock>

<p>
If a named virtual table that uses the dbstat module is desired,
then the recommended way to create an instance of the dbstat
virtual table is as follows:

<codeblock>
CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE temp.stat USING dbstat(main);
</codeblock>

<p>
Note the "temp." qualifier before the virtual table name ("stat").  This
qualifier causes the virtual table to be temporary - to only exist for
the duration of the current database connection.  This is the
recommended approach.

<p>
The "main" argument to dbstat is default schema
for which information is to be provided.  The default is "main", and
so the use of "main" in the example above is redundant.  For any
particular query, the schema can be changed by specifying the
alternative schema as a function argument to the virtual table
name in the FROM clause of the query.  (See further discussion of
[table-valued functions in the FROM clause] for more details.)

<p>
The schema for the dbstat virtual table is this:
<codeblock>
CREATE TABLE dbstat(
  name       TEXT,        -- Name of table or index
  path       TEXT,        -- Path to page from root
  pageno     INTEGER,     -- Page number
  pagetype   TEXT,        -- 'internal', 'leaf' or 'overflow'
  ncell      INTEGER,     -- Cells on page (0 for overflow)
  payload    INTEGER,     -- Bytes of payload on this page
  unused     INTEGER,     -- Bytes of unused space on this page
  mx_payload INTEGER,     -- Largest payload size of all cells on this page
  pgoffset   INTEGER,     -- Offset of page in file
  pgsize     INTEGER,     -- Size of the page
  schema     TEXT HIDDEN  -- Database schema being analyzed
);
</codeblock>

<p>
There is a single row of the dbstat table for each page in the
database file.  Freelist pages, the lock page, and
pointer-map pages of the database file do not appear in the
dbstat virtual table.

<h1>The "path" column of the dbstat virtual table</h1>

<p>
The "path" column describes the path taken from the 
root node of the btree structure to each page.  The
"path" of the root node itself is '/'.

The "path" for the left-most child page of the root of
a btree page is '/000/'. (Btrees store content ordered from left to right
so the pages to the left have smaller keys than the pages to the right.)
The next to left-most child of the root page is '/001', and so on,
each sibling page identified by a 3-digit hex  value.
The children of the 451st left-most sibling have paths such
as '/1c2/000/, '/1c2/001/' etc.

Overflow pages are specified by appending a '+' character and a 
six-digit hexadecimal value to the path to the cell they are linked
from. For example, the three overflow pages in a chain linked from 
the left-most cell of the 450th child of the root page are identified
by the paths:

<codeblock>
'/1c2/000+000000'         // First page in overflow chain
'/1c2/000+000001'         // Second page in overflow chain
'/1c2/000+000002'         // Third page in overflow chain
</codeblock>

<p>
If the paths are sorted using the BINARY collation sequence, then
the overflow pages associated with a cell will appear earlier in the
sort-order than its child page:

<codeblock>
'/1c2/000/'               // Left-most child of 451st child of root
</codeblock>

<h1>Example uses of the dbstat virtual table</h1>

<p>
To find the total number of pages used to store table "xyz" in schema "aux1",
use:

<codeblock>
SELECT count(*) FROM dbstat('aux1') WHERE name='xyz';
</codeblock>

<p>
To see how efficiently the content of a table is stored on disk,
compute the amount of space used to hold actual content divided
by the total amount of disk space used.  The closer this number
is to 100%, the more efficient the packing.  (In this example, the
'xyz' table is assumed to be in the 'main' schema.)

<codeblock>
SELECT sum(pgsize-unused)/sum(pgsize) FROM dbstat WHERE name='xyz';
</codeblock>

<p>
To find the average fan-out for a table, run:

<codeblock>
SELECT avg(ncell) FROM dbstat WHERE name='xyz' AND pagetype='internal';
</codeblock>


<p>
Modern filesystems operate faster when disk accesses are sequential.
Hence, SQLite will run faster if the content of the database file
is on sequential pages.  To find out what fraction of the pages in
a database are sequential (and thus obtain a measurement that might
be useful in determining when to [VACUUM]), run a query like the following:

<codeblock>
CREATE TEMP TABLE s(rowid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, pageno INT);
INSERT INTO s(pageno) SELECT pageno FROM dbstat ORDER BY path;
SELECT sum(s1.pageno+1==s2.pageno)*1.0/count(*)
  FROM s AS s1, s AS s2
 WHERE s1.rowid+1=s2.rowid;
DROP TABLE s;
</codeblock>