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#
# Run this script to generated a sharedcache.html output file
#
set rcsid {$Id: }
source common.tcl
header {SQLite Shared-Cache Mode}

proc HEADING {level title} {
  global pnum
  incr pnum($level)
  foreach i [array names pnum] {
    if {$i>$level} {set pnum($i) 0}
  }
  set h [expr {$level+1}]
  if {$h>6} {set h 6}
  set n $pnum(1).$pnum(2)
  for {set i 3} {$i<=$level} {incr i} {
    append n .$pnum($i)
  }
  puts "<h$h>$n $title</h$h>"
}
set pnum(1) 0
set pnum(2) 0
set pnum(3) 0
set pnum(4) 0
set pnum(5) 0
set pnum(6) 0
set pnum(7) 0
set pnum(8) 0

HEADING 1 {SQLite Shared-Cache Mode}

puts {
<p>Starting with version 3.3.0, SQLite includes a special "shared-cache"
mode (disabled by default) intended for use in embedded servers. If
shared-cache mode is enabled and a thread establishes multiple connections
to the same database, the connections share a single data and schema cache.
This can significantly reduce the quantity of memory and IO required by
the system.</p>

<p>Using shared-cache mode imposes some extra restrictions on 
passing database handles between threads and changes the semantics
of the locking model in some cases. These details are described in full by
this document. A basic understanding of the normal SQLite locking model (see
<a href="lockingv3.html">File Locking And Concurrency In SQLite Version 3</a>
for details) is assumed.</p>
}

HEADING 1 {Shared-Cache Locking Model}

puts {
<p>Externally, from the point of view of another process or thread, two
or more database connections using a shared-cache appear as a single 
connection. The locking protocol used to arbitrate between multiple 
shared-caches or regular database users is described elsewhere.
</p>

<table style="margin:auto">
<tr><td>
<img src="shared.gif">
<!-- <pre>
            +--------------+      +--------------+
            | Connection 2 |      | Connection 3 |
            +--------------+      +--------------+
                         |          |
                         V          V
+--------------+       +--------------+
| Connection 1 |       | Shared cache |
+--------------+       +--------------+
            |            |
            V            V
          +----------------+
          |    Database    |
          +----------------+
</pre> -->
</table>
<p style="font-style:italic;text-align:center">Figure 1</p>

<p>Figure 1 depicts an example runtime configuration where three 
database connections have been established. Connection 1 is a normal
SQLite database connection. Connections 2 and 3 share a cache (and so must
have been established by the same process thread). The normal locking
protocol is used to serialize database access between connection 1 and
the shared cache. The internal protocol used to serialize (or not, see
"Read-Uncommitted Isolation Mode" below) access to the shared-cache by
connections 2 and 3 is described in the remainder of this section.
</p>

<p>There are three levels to the shared-cache locking model, 
transaction level locking, table level locking and schema level locking. 
They are described in the following three sub-sections.</p>

}

HEADING 2 {Transaction Level Locking}

puts {
<p>SQLite connections can open two kinds of transactions, read and write
transactions. This is not done explicitly, a transaction is implicitly a
read-transaction until it first writes to a database table, at which point
it becomes a write-transaction.
</p>
<p>At most one connection to a single shared cache may open a 
write transaction at any one time. This may co-exist with any number of read 
transactions. 
</p>
}

HEADING 2 {Table Level Locking}

puts {
<p>When two or more connections use a shared-cache, locks are used to 
serialize concurrent access attempts on a per-table basis. Tables support 
two types of locks, "read-locks" and "write-locks". Locks are granted to
connections - at any one time, each database connection has either a
read-lock, write-lock or no lock on each database table.
</p>

<p>At any one time, a single table may have any number of active read-locks
or a single active write lock. To read data a table, a connection must 
first obtain a read-lock. To write to a table, a connection must obtain a 
write-lock on that table. If a required table lock cannot be obtained,
the query fails and SQLITE_LOCKED is returned to the caller.
</p> 

<p>Once a connection obtains a table lock, it is not released until the
current transaction (read or write) is concluded.
</p>
}

HEADING 3 {Read-Uncommitted Isolation Mode}

puts {
<p>The behaviour described above may be modified slightly by using the 
<i>read_uncommitted</i> pragma to change the isolation level from serialized 
(the default), to read-uncommitted.</p>

<p> A database connection in read-uncommitted mode does not attempt 
to obtain read-locks before reading from database tables as described 
above. This can lead to inconsistent query results if another database
connection modifies a table while it is being read, but it also means that
a read-transaction opened by a connection in read-uncommitted mode can
neither block nor be blocked by any other connection.</p>

<p>Read-uncommitted mode has no effect on the locks required to write to
database tables (i.e. read-uncommitted connections must still obtain 
write-locks and hence database writes may still block or be blocked). 
Also, read-uncommitted mode has no effect on the <i>sqlite_master</i> 
locks required by the rules enumerated below (see section 
"Schema (sqlite_master) Level Locking").
</p>

<pre>
  /* Set the value of the read-uncommitted flag:
  **
  **   True  -> Set the connection to read-uncommitted mode.
  **   False -> Set the connectino to serialized (the default) mode.
  */
  PRAGMA read_uncommitted = &lt;boolean&gt;;

  /* Retrieve the current value of the read-uncommitted flag */
  PRAGMA read_uncommitted;
</pre>
}

HEADING 2 {Schema (sqlite_master) Level Locking}

puts {
<p>The <i>sqlite_master</i> table supports shared-cache read and write 
locks in the same way as all other database tables (see description 
above). The following special rules also apply:
</p>

<ul>
<li>A connection must obtain a read-lock on <i>sqlite_master</i> before 
accessing any database tables or obtaining any other read or write locks.</li>
<li>Before executing a statement that modifies the database schema (i.e. 
a CREATE or DROP TABLE statement), a connection must obtain a write-lock on 
<i>sqlite_master</i>.
</li>
<li>A connection may not compile an SQL statement if any other connection
is holding a write-lock on the <i>sqlite_master</i> table of any attached
database (including the default database, "main"). 
</li>
</ul>
}

HEADING 1 {Thread Related Issues}

puts {
<p>When shared-cache mode is enabled, a database connection may only be
used by the thread that called sqlite3_open() to create it. If another 
thread attempts to use the database connection, in most cases an 
SQLITE_MISUSE error is returned. However this is not guaranteed and 
programs should not depend on this behaviour, in some cases a segfault 
may result.
</p>
}

HEADING 1 {Enabling Shared-Cache Mode}

puts {
<p>Shared-cache mode is enabled on a thread-wide basis. Using the C 
interface, the following API can be used to enable or disable shared-cache
mode for the calling thread:
</p>

<pre>
int sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(int);
</pre>

<p>It is illegal to call sqlite3_enable_shared_cache() if one or more 
open database connections were opened by the calling thread. If the argument
is non-zero, shared-cache mode is enabled. If the argument is zero,
shared-cache mode is disabled. The return value is either SQLITE_OK (if the
operation was successful), SQLITE_NOMEM (if a malloc() failed), or
SQLITE_MISUSE (if the thread has open database connections).
</p>
}

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