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SQLite training in Houston TX on 2019-11-05 (details)
Part of the 2019 Tcl Conference

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Overview
Comment:Split the code generation for the RHS of IN operators and for SELECT and EXISTS expressions into two separate subroutines, because there is now little commonality between those to functions. This is intended to help make the code easier to read and maintain.
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SHA3-256: 2b6494b1509f0d0189f98aa34c990eee99c775ff57826e79b2c5b0a12b4c97ad
User & Date: drh 2018-12-23 21:27:29
Context
2018-12-24
13:34
Change the way a comparison used to detect corrupt databases in fts3 is done to avoid potential pointer overflow in 32-bit builds. check-in: 95a9a39f user: dan tags: trunk
02:34
Experimental code that tries to put the computation of subqueries inside a subroutine, and reuse that subroutine if the same subquery is evaluated more than once. Current code does not work for CHECK constraints. check-in: 6c44838a user: drh tags: reuse-subqueries
2018-12-23
21:27
Split the code generation for the RHS of IN operators and for SELECT and EXISTS expressions into two separate subroutines, because there is now little commonality between those to functions. This is intended to help make the code easier to read and maintain. check-in: 2b6494b1 user: drh tags: trunk
2018-12-22
20:32
Improve the coverage of wal.c provided by the "coverage-wal" test permutation. check-in: 62314851 user: dan tags: trunk
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Changes to src/expr.c.

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**
** If pExpr is not a TK_SELECT expression, return 0.
*/
static int exprCodeSubselect(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  int reg = 0;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
    reg = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr, 0, 0);
  }
#endif
  return reg;
}

/*
** Argument pVector points to a vector expression - either a TK_VECTOR
................................................................................
      pParse->nQueryLoop = 0;
      if( pX->pLeft->iColumn<0 && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;
      }
    }else if( prRhsHasNull ){
      *prRhsHasNull = rMayHaveNull = ++pParse->nMem;
    }
    sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pX, rMayHaveNull, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);




    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
  }else{
    pX->iTable = iTab;
  }

  if( aiMap && eType!=IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC && eType!=IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC ){
    int i, n;
................................................................................
  }else
#endif
  {
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
  }
}


/*
** Generate code for scalar subqueries used as a subquery expression, EXISTS,
** or IN operators.  Examples:


**
**     (SELECT a FROM b)          -- subquery
**     EXISTS (SELECT a FROM b)   -- EXISTS subquery
**     x IN (4,5,11)              -- IN operator with list on right-hand side
**     x IN (SELECT a FROM b)     -- IN operator with subquery on the right
**
** The pExpr parameter describes the expression that contains the IN
** operator or subquery.
**
** If parameter isRowid is non-zero, then expression pExpr is guaranteed
** to be of the form "<rowid> IN (?, ?, ?)", where <rowid> is a reference
** to some integer key column of a table B-Tree. In this case, use an
** intkey B-Tree to store the set of IN(...) values instead of the usual
** (slower) variable length keys B-Tree.
**
** If rMayHaveNull is non-zero, that means that the operation is an IN
** (not a SELECT or EXISTS) and that the RHS might contains NULLs.
** All this routine does is initialize the register given by rMayHaveNull
** to NULL.  Calling routines will take care of changing this register
** value to non-NULL if the RHS is NULL-free.
**
** For a SELECT or EXISTS operator, return the register that holds the
** result.  For a multi-column SELECT, the result is stored in a contiguous
** array of registers and the return value is the register of the left-most
** result column.  Return 0 for IN operators or if an error occurs.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pExpr,            /* The IN, SELECT, or EXISTS operator */
  int rHasNullFlag,       /* Register that records whether NULLs exist in RHS */
  int isRowid             /* If true, LHS of IN operator is a rowid */
){
  int jmpIfDynamic = -1;                      /* One-time test address */
  int rReg = 0;                           /* Register storing resulting */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
  if( NEVER(v==0) ) return 0;

  /* The evaluation of the IN/EXISTS/SELECT must be repeated every time it
  ** is encountered if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  The right-hand side is a correlated subquery
  **    *  The right-hand side is an expression list containing variables
  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
  */
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect) ){
    jmpIfDynamic = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
  }

  switch( pExpr->op ){
    case TK_IN: {
      int addr;                   /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral instruction */
      Expr *pLeft = pExpr->pLeft; /* the LHS of the IN operator */
      KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = 0;      /* Key information */
      int nVal;                   /* Size of vector pLeft */
      
      nVal = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
      assert( !isRowid || nVal==1 );

      /* Whether this is an 'x IN(SELECT...)' or an 'x IN(<exprlist>)'
      ** expression it is handled the same way.  An ephemeral table is 
      ** filled with index keys representing the results from the 
      ** SELECT or the <exprlist>.
      **
      ** If the 'x' expression is a column value, or the SELECT...
      ** statement returns a column value, then the affinity of that
      ** column is used to build the index keys. If both 'x' and the
      ** SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity is used
      ** if either column has NUMERIC or INTEGER affinity. If neither
      ** 'x' nor the SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity
      ** is used.
      */
      pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
      addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, 
          pExpr->iTable, (isRowid?0:nVal));
      pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, nVal, 1);

      if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
................................................................................
          dest.zAffSdst = exprINAffinity(pParse, pExpr);
          pSelect->iLimit = 0;
          testcase( pSelect->selFlags & SF_Distinct );
          testcase( pKeyInfo==0 ); /* Caused by OOM in sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc() */
          if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest) ){
            sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
            sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(pKeyInfo);
            return 0;
          }
          sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
          assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
          assert( pEList!=0 );
          assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
          assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
          for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
................................................................................
        }
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
      }
      if( pKeyInfo ){
        sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr, (void *)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
      }
      break;

    }

    case TK_EXISTS:
    case TK_SELECT:
    default: {

      /* Case 3:    (SELECT ... FROM ...)
      **     or:    EXISTS(SELECT ... FROM ...)

      **



































      ** For a SELECT, generate code to put the values for all columns of
      ** the first row into an array of registers and return the index of
      ** the first register.
      **
      ** If this is an EXISTS, write an integer 0 (not exists) or 1 (exists)
      ** into a register and return that register number.
      **
      ** In both cases, the query is augmented with "LIMIT 1".  Any 
      ** preexisting limit is discarded in place of the new LIMIT 1.
      */
      Select *pSel;                         /* SELECT statement to encode */
      SelectDest dest;                      /* How to deal with SELECT result */
      int nReg;                             /* Registers to allocate */
      Expr *pLimit;                         /* New limit expression */

      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
      assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

      pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
      ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%sSCALAR SUBQUERY",
................................................................................
      }
      pSel->iLimit = 0;
      if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest) ){
        return 0;
      }
      rReg = dest.iSDParm;
      ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);
      break;
    }
  }

  if( rHasNullFlag ){
    sqlite3SetHasNullFlag(v, pExpr->iTable, rHasNullFlag);
  }

  if( jmpIfDynamic>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmpIfDynamic);
  }

  return rReg;
}
................................................................................
    iResult = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, p, piFreeable);
  }else{
    *piFreeable = 0;
    if( p->op==TK_SELECT ){
#if SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
      iResult = 0;
#else
      iResult = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p, 0, 0);
#endif
    }else{
      int i;
      iResult = pParse->nMem+1;
      pParse->nMem += nResult;
      for(i=0; i<nResult; i++){
        sqlite3ExprCodeFactorable(pParse, p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, i+iResult);
................................................................................
    case TK_SELECT: {
      int nCol;
      testcase( op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( op==TK_SELECT );
      if( op==TK_SELECT && (nCol = pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr)!=1 ){
        sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, nCol, 1);
      }else{
        return sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr, 0, 0);
      }
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
      int n;
      if( pExpr->pLeft->iTable==0 ){
        pExpr->pLeft->iTable = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr->pLeft, 0, 0);
      }
      assert( pExpr->iTable==0 || pExpr->pLeft->op==TK_SELECT );
      if( pExpr->iTable
       && pExpr->iTable!=(n = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft)) 
      ){
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%d columns assigned %d values",
                                pExpr->iTable, n);







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**
** If pExpr is not a TK_SELECT expression, return 0.
*/
static int exprCodeSubselect(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  int reg = 0;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  if( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT ){
    reg = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr);
  }
#endif
  return reg;
}

/*
** Argument pVector points to a vector expression - either a TK_VECTOR
................................................................................
      pParse->nQueryLoop = 0;
      if( pX->pLeft->iColumn<0 && !ExprHasProperty(pX, EP_xIsSelect) ){
        eType = IN_INDEX_ROWID;
      }
    }else if( prRhsHasNull ){
      *prRhsHasNull = rMayHaveNull = ++pParse->nMem;
    }
    assert( pX->op==TK_IN );
    sqlite3CodeRhsOfIN(pParse, pX, eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID);
    if( rMayHaveNull ){
      sqlite3SetHasNullFlag(v, pX->iTable, rMayHaveNull);
    }
    pParse->nQueryLoop = savedNQueryLoop;
  }else{
    pX->iTable = iTab;
  }

  if( aiMap && eType!=IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC && eType!=IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC ){
    int i, n;
................................................................................
  }else
#endif
  {
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "row value misused");
  }
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/*

** Generate code that will construct an ephemeral table containing all terms
** in the RHS of an IN operator.  The IN operator can be in either of two
** forms:
**


**     x IN (4,5,11)              -- IN operator with list on right-hand side
**     x IN (SELECT a FROM b)     -- IN operator with subquery on the right
**
** The pExpr parameter is the IN operator.
**
** If parameter isRowid is non-zero, then LHS of the IN operator is guaranteed
** to be a non-null integer. In this case, the ephemeral table can be an
** table B-Tree that keyed by only integers.  The more general cases uses
** an index B-Tree which can have arbitrary keys, but is slower to both
** read and write.
**
** If the LHS expression ("x" in the examples) is a column value, or
** the SELECT statement returns a column value, then the affinity of that
** column is used to build the index keys. If both 'x' and the
** SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity is used
** if either column has NUMERIC or INTEGER affinity. If neither
** 'x' nor the SELECT... statement are columns, then numeric affinity
** is used.
*/
void sqlite3CodeRhsOfIN(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pExpr,            /* The IN operator */
  int isRowid             /* If true, LHS is a rowid */
){
  int jmpIfDynamic = -1;      /* One-time test address */
  int addr;                   /* Address of OP_OpenEphemeral instruction */
  Expr *pLeft;                /* the LHS of the IN operator */
  KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = 0;      /* Key information */
  int nVal;                   /* Size of vector pLeft */
  Vdbe *v;                    /* The prepared statement under construction */

  v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
  assert( v!=0 );

  /* The evaluation of the RHS of IN operator must be repeated every time it

  ** is encountered if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  The right-hand side is a correlated subquery
  **    *  The right-hand side is an expression list containing variables
  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
  */
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect) ){
    jmpIfDynamic = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
  }

  /* Check to see if this is a vector IN operator */


  pLeft = pExpr->pLeft;



  nVal = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pLeft);
  assert( !isRowid || nVal==1 );

  /* Construct the ephemeral table that will contain the content of
  ** RHS of the IN operator.










  */
  pExpr->iTable = pParse->nTab++;
  addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, 
      pExpr->iTable, (isRowid?0:nVal));
  pKeyInfo = isRowid ? 0 : sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(pParse->db, nVal, 1);

  if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) ){
................................................................................
      dest.zAffSdst = exprINAffinity(pParse, pExpr);
      pSelect->iLimit = 0;
      testcase( pSelect->selFlags & SF_Distinct );
      testcase( pKeyInfo==0 ); /* Caused by OOM in sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc() */
      if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest) ){
        sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
        sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(pKeyInfo);
        return;
      }
      sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, dest.zAffSdst);
      assert( pKeyInfo!=0 ); /* OOM will cause exit after sqlite3Select() */
      assert( pEList!=0 );
      assert( pEList->nExpr>0 );
      assert( sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(pKeyInfo) );
      for(i=0; i<nVal; i++){
................................................................................
    }
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r1);
    sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, r2);
  }
  if( pKeyInfo ){
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, addr, (void *)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
  }
  if( jmpIfDynamic>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmpIfDynamic);
  }
}

#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY */


/*
** Generate code for scalar subqueries used as a subquery expression
** or EXISTS operator:
**
**     (SELECT a FROM b)          -- subquery
**     EXISTS (SELECT a FROM b)   -- EXISTS subquery
**
** The pExpr parameter is the SELECT or EXISTS operator to be coded.
**
** The register that holds the result.  For a multi-column SELECT, 
** the result is stored in a contiguous array of registers and the
** return value is the register of the left-most result column.
** Return 0 if an error occurs.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr){
  int jmpIfDynamic = -1;      /* One-time test address */
  int rReg = 0;               /* Register storing resulting */
  Select *pSel;               /* SELECT statement to encode */
  SelectDest dest;            /* How to deal with SELECT result */
  int nReg;                   /* Registers to allocate */
  Expr *pLimit;               /* New limit expression */
  Vdbe *v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
  assert( v!=0 );

  /* The evaluation of the EXISTS/SELECT must be repeated every time it
  ** is encountered if any of the following is true:
  **
  **    *  The right-hand side is a correlated subquery
  **    *  The right-hand side is an expression list containing variables
  **    *  We are inside a trigger
  **
  ** If all of the above are false, then we can run this code just once
  ** save the results, and reuse the same result on subsequent invocations.
  */
  if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_VarSelect) ){
    jmpIfDynamic = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Once); VdbeCoverage(v);
  }
  
  /* For a SELECT, generate code to put the values for all columns of
  ** the first row into an array of registers and return the index of
  ** the first register.
  **
  ** If this is an EXISTS, write an integer 0 (not exists) or 1 (exists)
  ** into a register and return that register number.
  **
  ** In both cases, the query is augmented with "LIMIT 1".  Any 
  ** preexisting limit is discarded in place of the new LIMIT 1.
  */





  testcase( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS );
  testcase( pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
  assert( pExpr->op==TK_EXISTS || pExpr->op==TK_SELECT );
  assert( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_xIsSelect) );

  pSel = pExpr->x.pSelect;
  ExplainQueryPlan((pParse, 1, "%sSCALAR SUBQUERY",
................................................................................
  }
  pSel->iLimit = 0;
  if( sqlite3Select(pParse, pSel, &dest) ){
    return 0;
  }
  rReg = dest.iSDParm;
  ExprSetVVAProperty(pExpr, EP_NoReduce);








  if( jmpIfDynamic>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmpIfDynamic);
  }

  return rReg;
}
................................................................................
    iResult = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, p, piFreeable);
  }else{
    *piFreeable = 0;
    if( p->op==TK_SELECT ){
#if SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
      iResult = 0;
#else
      iResult = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p);
#endif
    }else{
      int i;
      iResult = pParse->nMem+1;
      pParse->nMem += nResult;
      for(i=0; i<nResult; i++){
        sqlite3ExprCodeFactorable(pParse, p->x.pList->a[i].pExpr, i+iResult);
................................................................................
    case TK_SELECT: {
      int nCol;
      testcase( op==TK_EXISTS );
      testcase( op==TK_SELECT );
      if( op==TK_SELECT && (nCol = pExpr->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr)!=1 ){
        sqlite3SubselectError(pParse, nCol, 1);
      }else{
        return sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr);
      }
      break;
    }
    case TK_SELECT_COLUMN: {
      int n;
      if( pExpr->pLeft->iTable==0 ){
        pExpr->pLeft->iTable = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, pExpr->pLeft);
      }
      assert( pExpr->iTable==0 || pExpr->pLeft->op==TK_SELECT );
      if( pExpr->iTable
       && pExpr->iTable!=(n = sqlite3ExprVectorSize(pExpr->pLeft)) 
      ){
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "%d columns assigned %d values",
                                pExpr->iTable, n);

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterRenameColumn(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*, int);

int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse*, Expr *, int, int);
void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3SelectWrongNumTermsError(Parse *pParse, Select *p);
int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);







>
|







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void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
void sqlite3AlterRenameColumn(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*, int);
void sqlite3CodeRhsOfIN(Parse*, Expr*, int);
int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3SelectWrongNumTermsError(Parse *pParse, Select *p);
int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);

Changes to src/wherecode.c.

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1079
1080
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1085
1086
*/
static void codeExprOrVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int iReg, int nReg){
  assert( nReg>0 );
  if( p && sqlite3ExprIsVector(p) ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    if( (p->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
      Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;


      int iSelect = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p, 0, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Copy, iSelect, iReg, nReg-1);
    }else
#endif
    {
      int i;
      ExprList *pList = p->x.pList;
      assert( nReg<=pList->nExpr );







>
>
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1088
*/
static void codeExprOrVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int iReg, int nReg){
  assert( nReg>0 );
  if( p && sqlite3ExprIsVector(p) ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    if( (p->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
      Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
      int iSelect;
      assert( p->op==TK_SELECT );
      iSelect = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Copy, iSelect, iReg, nReg-1);
    }else
#endif
    {
      int i;
      ExprList *pList = p->x.pList;
      assert( nReg<=pList->nExpr );