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Artifact d1dfecedfb25e122ab513a1e0948b15cb4f0be46:

# Run this Tcl script to generate the formatchng.html file.
set rcsid {$Id: formatchng.tcl,v 1.11 2004/06/16 03:02:04 drh Exp $ }
source common.tcl
header {File Format Changes in SQLite}
puts {
<h2>File Format Changes in SQLite</h2>

From time to time, enhancements or bug fixes require a change to
the underlying file format for SQLite.  When this happens and you
want to upgrade your library, you must convert the contents of your
databases into a portable ASCII representation using the old version
of the library then reload the data using the new version of the

You can tell if you should reload your databases by comparing the
version numbers of the old and new libraries.  If either of the
first two digits in the version number change, then a reload is
either required or recommended.  For example, upgrading from
version 1.0.32 to 2.0.0 requires a reload.  So does going from
version 2.0.8 to 2.1.0.

The following table summarizes the SQLite file format changes that have
occurred since version 1.0.0:

<table border=2 cellpadding=5>
  <th>Version Change</th>
  <th>Approx. Date</th>
  <th>Description Of File Format Change</th>
  <td valign="top">1.0.32 to 2.0.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2001-Sep-20</td>
  <td>Version 1.0.X of SQLite used the GDBM library as its backend
  interface to the disk.  Beginning in version 2.0.0, GDBM was replaced
  by a custom B-Tree library written especially for SQLite.  The new
  B-Tree backend is twice as fast as GDBM, supports atomic commits and
  rollback, and stores an entire database in a single disk file instead
  using a separate file for each table as GDBM does.  The two
  file formats are not even remotely similar.</td>
  <td valign="top">2.0.8 to 2.1.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2001-Nov-12</td>
  <td>The same basic B-Tree format is used but the details of the 
  index keys were changed in order to provide better query 
  optimization opportunities.  Some of the headers were also changed in order
  to increase the maximum size of a row from 64KB to 24MB.</td>
  <td valign="top">2.1.7 to 2.2.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2001-Dec-21</td>
  <td>Beginning with version 2.2.0, SQLite no longer builds an index for
  an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY column.  Instead, it uses that column as the actual
  B-Tree key for the main table.<p>Version 2.2.0 and later of the library
  will automatically detect when it is reading a 2.1.x database and will
  disable the new INTEGER PRIMARY KEY feature.   In other words, version
  2.2.x is backwards compatible to version 2.1.x.  But version 2.1.x is not
  forward compatible with version 2.2.x. If you try to open
  a 2.2.x database with an older 2.1.x library and that database contains
  an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, you will likely get a coredump.  If the database
  schema does not contain any INTEGER PRIMARY KEYs, then the version 2.1.x
  and version 2.2.x database files will be identical and completely
  <td valign="top">2.2.5 to 2.3.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2002-Jan-30</td>
  <td>Beginning with version 2.3.0, SQLite supports some additional syntax
  (the "ON CONFLICT" clause) in the CREATE TABLE and CREATE INDEX statements
  that are stored in the SQLITE_MASTER table.  If you create a database that
  contains this new syntax, then try to read that database using version 2.2.5
  or earlier, the parser will not understand the new syntax and you will get
  an error.  Otherwise, databases for 2.2.x and 2.3.x are interchangeable.</td>
  <td valign="top">2.3.3 to 2.4.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2002-Mar-10</td>
  <td>Beginning with version 2.4.0, SQLite added support for views. 
  Information about views is stored in the SQLITE_MASTER table.  If an older
  version of SQLite attempts to read a database that contains VIEW information
  in the SQLITE_MASTER table, the parser will not understand the new syntax
  and initialization will fail.  Also, the
  way SQLite keeps track of unused disk blocks in the database file
  changed slightly.
  If an older version of SQLite attempts to write a database that
  was previously written by version 2.4.0 or later, then it may leak disk
  <td valign="top">2.4.12 to 2.5.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2002-Jun-17</td>
  <td>Beginning with version 2.5.0, SQLite added support for triggers. 
  Information about triggers is stored in the SQLITE_MASTER table.  If an older
  version of SQLite attempts to read a database that contains a CREATE TRIGGER
  in the SQLITE_MASTER table, the parser will not understand the new syntax
  and initialization will fail.
  <td valign="top">2.5.6 to 2.6.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2002-July-17</td>
  <td>A design flaw in the layout of indices required a file format change
  to correct.  This change appeared in version 2.6.0.<p>

  If you use version 2.6.0 or later of the library to open a database file
  that was originally created by version 2.5.6 or earlier, an attempt to
  rebuild the database into the new format will occur automatically.
  This can take some time for a large database.  (Allow 1 or 2 seconds
  per megabyte of database under Unix - longer under Windows.)  This format
  conversion is irreversible.  It is <strong>strongly</strong> suggested
  that you make a backup copy of older database files prior to opening them
  with version 2.6.0 or later of the library, in case there are errors in
  the format conversion logic.<p>

  Version 2.6.0 or later of the library cannot open read-only database
  files from version 2.5.6 or earlier, since read-only files cannot be
  upgraded to the new format.</p>
  <td valign="top">2.6.3 to 2.7.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2002-Aug-13</td>
  <td><p>Beginning with version 2.7.0, SQLite understands two different
  datatypes: text and numeric.  Text data sorts in memcmp() order.
  Numeric data sorts in numerical order if it looks like a number,
  or in memcmp() order if it does not.</p>

  <p>When SQLite version 2.7.0 or later opens a 2.6.3 or earlier database,
  it assumes all columns of all tables have type "numeric".  For 2.7.0
  and later databases, columns have type "text" if their datatype
  string contains the substrings "char" or "clob" or "blob" or "text".
  Otherwise they are of type "numeric".</p>

  <p>Because "text" columns have a different sort order from numeric,
  indices on "text" columns occur in a different order for version
  2.7.0 and later database.  Hence version 2.6.3 and earlier of SQLite 
  will be unable to read a 2.7.0 or later database.  But version 2.7.0
  and later of SQLite will read earlier databases.</p>
  <td valign="top">2.7.6 to 2.8.0</td>
  <td valign="top">2003-Feb-14</td>
  <td><p>Version 2.8.0 introduces a change to the format of the rollback
  journal file.  The main database file format is unchanged.  Versions
  2.7.6 and earlier can read and write 2.8.0 databases and vice versa.
  Version 2.8.0 can rollback a transation that was started by version
  2.7.6 and earlier.  But version 2.7.6 and earlier cannot rollback a
  transaction started by version 2.8.0 or later.</p>

  <p>The only time this would ever be an issue is when you have a program
  using version 2.8.0 or later that crashes with an incomplete
  transaction, then you try to examine the database using version 2.7.6 or
  earlier.  The 2.7.6 code will not be able to read the journal file
  and thus will not be able to rollback the incomplete transaction
  to restore the database.</p>
  <td valign="top">2.8.14 to 3.0.0</td>
  <td valign="top">(pending)</td>
  <td><p>Version 3.0.0 is a major upgrade for SQLite that incorporates
  support for UTF-16, BLOBs, and a more compact encoding that results
  in database files that are typically 25% to 35% smaller.  The new file
  format is radically different and completely incompatible with the
  version 2 file format.</p>

To perform a database reload, have ready versions of the
<b>sqlite</b> command-line utility for both the old and new
version of SQLite.  Call these two executables "<b>sqlite-old</b>"
and "<b>sqlite-new</b>".  Suppose the name of your old database
is "<b>old.db</b>" and you want to create a new database with
the same information named "<b>new.db</b>".  The command to do
this is as follows:

  echo .dump | sqlite-old old.db | sqlite-new new.db
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