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<title>Query Language Understood by SQLite</title>

<h1 align=center>SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>

<p>SQLite understands most of the standard SQL
language.  But it does <a href="omitted.html">omit some features</a>
while at the same time
adding a few features of its own.  This document attempts to
describe precisely what parts of the SQL language SQLite does
and does not support.  A list of [SQL keywords] is 
also provided.  The SQL language syntax is described by
[syntax diagrams].

<p>The following syntax documentation topics are available:</p>

<table width="100%" cellpadding="5" border="0">
<tr><td valign="top"><ul>

<tcl>
  set i 0
  set lang_section_list {
    {{CREATE TABLE} createtable}
    {{CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE} createvtab}
    {{CREATE INDEX} createindex}
    {VACUUM vacuum}
    {{DROP TABLE} droptable}
    {{DROP INDEX} dropindex}
    {INSERT insert}
    {REPLACE replace}
    {DELETE delete}
    {UPDATE update}
    {SELECT select}
    {comment comment}
    {EXPLAIN explain}
    {expression expr}
    {{BEGIN TRANSACTION} transaction}
    {{COMMIT TRANSACTION} transaction COMMIT}
    {{END TRANSACTION} transaction COMMIT}
    {{ROLLBACK TRANSACTION} transaction ROLLBACK}
    {SAVEPOINT savepoint}
    {{RELEASE SAVEPOINT} savepoint SAVEPOINT}
    {PRAGMA pragma.html}
    {{ON CONFLICT clause} conflict}
    {{CREATE VIEW} createview}
    {{DROP VIEW} dropview}
    {{CREATE TRIGGER} createtrigger}
    {{DROP TRIGGER} droptrigger}
    {{ATTACH DATABASE} attach}
    {{DETACH DATABASE} detach}
      {REINDEX reindex}
    {{ALTER TABLE} altertable}
    {{ANALYZE} analyze}
    {{INDEXED BY} indexedby}
    {{aggregate functions} aggfunc aggfunc}
    {{core functions} corefunc corefunc}
    {{date and time functions} datefunc datefunc}
    {keywords keywords {SQL keywords}}
  }
  set lang_section_break [expr {([llength $lang_section_list]+2)/3}]
  foreach {section} [lsort -index 0 -dictionary $lang_section_list] {
  foreach {s_title s_tag s_kw} $section {}
  if {$s_kw == ""} {
    set s_kw $s_title
  }
  if {$s_tag=="pragma.html"} {
    set url $s_tag
  } else {
    set url lang_$s_tag.html
  }
  hd_resolve "<li>\[$s_kw|$s_title\]</li>"
  incr i
  if {$i==$lang_section_break || $i==2*$lang_section_break} {
    hd_puts "</ul></td><td valign=\"top\"><ul>"
  }
}
</tcl>
</ul></td></tr></table>

<p>^The routines [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_prepare()],
[sqlite3_prepare16()], [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()], 
[sqlite3_exec()], and [sqlite3_get_table()] accept
an SQL statement list (sql-stmt-list) which is a semicolon-separated
list of statements.</p>

<tcl>BubbleDiagram sql-stmt-list</tcl>

<p>Each SQL statement in the statement list is an instance of the
following:</p>

<tcl>BubbleDiagram sql-stmt</tcl>

<tcl>
proc Operator {name} {
  return "<font color=\"#2c2cf0\"><big>$name</big></font>"
}
proc Nonterminal {name} {
  return "<i><font color=\"#ff3434\">$name</font></i>"
}
proc Keyword {name} {
  return "<font color=\"#2c2cf0\">$name</font>"
}
proc Example {text} {
  hd_puts "<blockquote><pre>$text</pre></blockquote>"
}

proc Section {name label keywords} {
  global DOC
  hd_close_main
  hd_open_main lang_$label.html
  hd_header "SQLite Query Language: $name" $DOC/pages/lang.in
  eval hd_keywords $keywords
  if {[lsearch $keywords $name] == -1 && [lsearch $keywords *$name] == -1} {
    eval hd_keywords { $name }
  }
  hd_puts {<h1 align="center">SQL As Understood By SQLite</h1>}
  hd_puts {<p><a href="lang.html">[Top]</a></p>}
  hd_puts "<h2>$name</h2>"
}

###############################################################################
Section {ALTER TABLE} altertable {{ALTER TABLE} {*ALTER}}

BubbleDiagram alter-table-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>SQLite supports a limited subset of ALTER TABLE.
The ALTER TABLE command in SQLite allows the user to rename a table
or to add a new column to an existing table. It is not possible
to rename a column, remove a column, or add or remove constraints from a table.
</p>

<p> ^(The RENAME TO syntax is used to rename the table identified by 
<i>&#91;database-name.&#93;table-name</i> to <i>new-table-name</i>.)^
This command 
cannot be used to move a table between attached databases, only to rename 
a table within the same database.</p>

<p> ^If the table being renamed has triggers or indices, then these remain
attached to the table after it has been renamed.  ^However, if there are
any view definitions, or statements executed by triggers that refer to
the table being renamed, these are not automatically modified to use the new
table name. If this is required, the triggers or view definitions must be
dropped and recreated to use the new table name by hand.
</p>

<p>^If [foreign key constraints] are 
[foreign_keys pragma | enabled] when a table is renamed, then any
[foreign-key-clause | REFERENCES clauses] in any table (either the
table being renamed or some other table)
that refer to the table being renamed are modified to refer 
to the renamed table by its new name.

<p> ^The ADD COLUMN syntax
is used to add a new column to an existing table.
^The new column is always appended to the end of the list of existing columns.
The [column-def] rule defines the characteristics of the new column.
^(The new column may take any of the forms permissible in a [CREATE TABLE]
statement, with the following restrictions:)^
<ul>
<li>^The column may not have a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint.</li>
<li>^The column may not have a default value of CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE, 
    CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, or an expression in parentheses.</li>
<li>^If a NOT NULL constraint is specified, then the column must have a
    default value other than NULL.
<li>^If [foreign key constraints] are [foreign_keys pragma | enabled] and
    a column with a [foreign-key-clause | REFERENCES clause]
    is added, the column must have a default value of NULL.
</ul>

<p>^Note also that when adding a CHECK constraint, the CHECK constraint
is not tested against preexisting rows of the table.
^This can result in a table that contains data that
is in violation of the CHECK constraint.  Future versions of SQLite might
change to validate CHECK constraints as they are added.</p>

<p> The execution time of the ALTER TABLE command is independent of
the amount of data in the table.  The ALTER TABLE command runs as quickly
on a table with 10 million rows as it does on a table with 1 row.
</p>

<p>After ADD COLUMN has been run on a database, that database will not
be readable by SQLite version 3.1.3 and earlier.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {ANALYZE} analyze ANALYZE

BubbleDiagram analyze-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p> ^The ANALYZE command gathers statistics about indices and stores them
in a special tables in the database where the query optimizer can use
them to help make better index choices.
^If no arguments are given, all indices in all attached databases are
analyzed.  ^If a database name is given as the argument, all indices
in that one database are analyzed.  ^If the argument is a table name,
then only indices associated with that one table are analyzed.</p>

<p> ^The default implementation stores all statistics in a single
table named <b>sqlite_stat1</b>.  ^If SQLite is compiled with the
[SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT2] option, then additional histogram data is
collected and stored in <b>sqlite_stat2</b>.
Future enhancements may create
additional tables with the same name pattern except with the "1"
or "2" changed to a different digit.</p>

<p> ^The [DROP TABLE] command does
not work on the <b>sqlite_stat1</b> or <b>sqlite_stat2</b> tables,
but all the content of those tables can be queried using [SELECT]
and can be deleted, augmented, or modified using the [DELETE],
[INSERT], and [UPDATE] commands.
Appropriate care should be used when changing the content of the statistics
tables as invalid content can cause SQLite to select inefficient
query plans.  Generally speaking, one should not modify the content of
the statistics tables by any mechanism other than invoking the
ANALYZE command.</p>

<p> ^Statistics gathered by ANALYZE are <u>not</u> automatically updated as
the content of the database changes.  If the content of the database
changes significantly, or if the database schema changes, then one should
consider rerunning the ANALYZE command in order to update the statistics.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {ATTACH DATABASE} attach *ATTACH

BubbleDiagram attach-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p> ^The ATTACH DATABASE statement adds another database 
file to the current [database connection]. 
^The database-names 'main' and 
'temp' refer to the main database and the database used for 
temporary tables.  ^The main and temp databases cannot be attached or
detached.</p>

<p> ^(Tables in an attached database can be referred to using the syntax 
<i>database-name.table-name</i>.)^  ^If the name of the table is unique
across all attached databases and the main and temp databases, then the
<i>database-name</i> prefix is not required.  ^If two or more tables in
different databases have the same name and the 
<i>database-name</i> prefix is not used on a table reference, then the
table chosen is the one in the database that was least recently attached.</p>

<p>
^Transactions involving multiple attached databases are atomic,
assuming that the main database is not "[:memory:]" and the 
[journal_mode] is not [WAL].  ^(If the main
database is ":memory:" or if the journal_mode is WAL, then 
transactions continue to be atomic within each individual
database file. But if the host computer crashes in the middle
of a [COMMIT] where two or more database files are updated,
some of those files might get the changes where others
might not.)^
</p>

<p> ^There is a limit, set using [sqlite3_limit()] and 
[SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED], to the number of databases that can be
simultaneously attached to a single database connection.</p>

<tcl>
###############################################################################
Section {BEGIN TRANSACTION} transaction {*BEGIN COMMIT ROLLBACK}

BubbleDiagram begin-stmt
BubbleDiagram commit-stmt
BubbleDiagram rollback-stmt
</tcl>

<p>
^No changes can be made to the database except within a transaction.
^Any command that changes the database (basically, any SQL command
other than [SELECT]) will automatically start a transaction if
one is not already in effect.  ^Automatically started transactions
are committed when the last query finishes.
</p>

<p>
^Transactions can be started manually using the BEGIN
command.  ^(Such transactions usually persist until the next
COMMIT or ROLLBACK command.  But a transaction will also 
ROLLBACK if the database is closed or if an error occurs
and the ROLLBACK conflict resolution algorithm is specified.)^
See the documentation on the [ON CONFLICT]
clause for additional information about the ROLLBACK
conflict resolution algorithm.
</p>

<p>
^END TRANSACTION is an alias for COMMIT.
</p>

<p> ^(Transactions created using BEGIN...COMMIT do not nest.)^
^For nested transactions, use the [SAVEPOINT] and [RELEASE] commands.
The "TO SAVEPOINT <i>name</i>" clause of the ROLLBACK command shown
in the syntax diagram above is only applicable to [SAVEPOINT]
transactions.  ^An attempt to invoke the BEGIN command within
a transaction will fail with an error, regardless of whether
the transaction was started by [SAVEPOINT] or a prior BEGIN.
^The COMMIT command and the ROLLBACK command without the TO clause
work the same on [SAVEPOINT] transactions as they do with transactions
started by BEGIN.</p>

<p>
^Transactions can be deferred, immediate, or exclusive.  
^The default transaction behavior is deferred.
^Deferred means that no locks are acquired
on the database until the database is first accessed.  ^Thus with a
deferred transaction, the BEGIN statement itself does nothing to the
filesystem.  ^Locks
are not acquired until the first read or write operation.  ^The first read
operation against a database creates a [SHARED] lock and the first
write operation creates a [RESERVED] lock.   ^Because the acquisition of
locks is deferred until they are needed, it is possible that another
thread or process could create a separate transaction and write to
the database after the BEGIN on the current thread has executed.
^If the transaction is immediate, then [RESERVED] locks
are acquired on all databases as soon as the BEGIN command is
executed, without waiting for the
database to be used.  ^After a BEGIN IMMEDIATE, 
no other [database connection] will be able to write to the database or
do a BEGIN IMMEDIATE or BEGIN EXCLUSIVE.  ^Other processes can continue
to read from the database, however.  ^An exclusive transaction causes
[EXCLUSIVE] locks to be acquired on all databases.  ^After a BEGIN
EXCLUSIVE, no other [database connection] except for [read_uncommitted]
connections will be able to read the database and no other connection without
exception will be able to write the database until the transaction is
complete.
</p>

<p>
^(An implicit transaction (a transaction that is started automatically,
not a transaction started by BEGIN) is committed automatically when
the last active statement finishes.  A statement finishes when its
prepared statement is [sqlite3_reset() | reset] or
[sqlite3_finalize() | finalized].  An open [sqlite3_blob] used for
incremental BLOB I/O counts as an unfinished statement.  The [sqlite3_blob]
finishes when it is [sqlite3_blob_close() | closed].)^
</p>

<p>
^The explicit COMMIT command runs immediately, even if there are
pending [SELECT] statements.  ^However, if there are pending
write operations, the COMMIT command
will fail with a error code [SQLITE_BUSY].
</p>

<p>
^An attempt to execute COMMIT might also result in an [SQLITE_BUSY] return code
if an another thread or process has a [shared lock] on the database
that prevented the database from being updated.  ^When COMMIT fails in this
way, the transaction remains active and the COMMIT can be retried later
after the reader has had a chance to clear.
</p>

<p>
^The ROLLBACK will fail with an error code [SQLITE_BUSY] if there
are any pending queries.  ^Both read-only and read/write queries will
cause a ROLLBACK to fail.  A ROLLBACK must fail if there are pending
read operations (unlike COMMIT which can succeed) because bad things
will happen if the in-memory image of the database is changed out from under
an active query.
</p>

<p>
If [PRAGMA journal_mode] is set to OFF (thus disabling the rollback journal
file) then the behavior of the ROLLBACK command is undefined.
</p>

<h3>Response To Errors Within A Transaction</h3>

<p> ^(If certain kinds of errors occur within a transaction, the
transaction may or may not be rolled back automatically.  The
errors that cause the behavior include:</p>

<ul>
<li> [SQLITE_FULL]: database or disk full
<li> [SQLITE_IOERR]: disk I/O error
<li> [SQLITE_BUSY]: database in use by another process
<li> [SQLITE_NOMEM]: out or memory
<li> [SQLITE_INTERRUPT]: processing [sqlite3_interrupt|interrupted]
     by application request
</ul>)^

<p>
^For all of these errors, SQLite attempts to undo just the one statement
it was working on and leave changes from prior statements within the
same transaction intact and continue with the transaction.  ^However, 
depending on the statement being evaluated and the point at which the
error occurs, it might be necessary for SQLite to rollback and
cancel the entire transaction.  ^An application can tell which
course of action SQLite took by using the
[sqlite3_get_autocommit()] C-language interface.</p>

<p>It is recommended that applications respond to the errors
listed above by explicitly issuing a ROLLBACK command.  ^If the 
transaction has already been rolled back automatically
by the error response, then the ROLLBACK command will fail with an
error, but no harm is caused by this.</p>

<p>Future versions of SQLite may extend the list of errors which
might cause automatic transaction rollback.  Future versions of
SQLite might change the error response.  In particular, we may
choose to simplify the interface in future versions of SQLite by
causing the errors above to force an unconditional rollback.</p>

<tcl>
###############################################################################
Section {SAVEPOINT} savepoint {SAVEPOINT RELEASE}

BubbleDiagram savepoint-stmt
BubbleDiagram release-stmt
BubbleDiagram rollback-stmt
</tcl>

<p> ^SAVEPOINTs are a method of creating transactions, similar to
[BEGIN] and [COMMIT], except that the SAVEPOINT and RELEASE commands
are named and may be nested.</p>

<p> ^The SAVEPOINT command starts a new transaction with a name.
^The transaction names need not be unique.
^(A SAVEPOINT can be started either within or outside of
a [BEGIN]...[COMMIT].)^  ^(When a SAVEPOINT is the outer-most savepoint
and it is not within a [BEGIN]...[COMMIT] then the behavior is the
same as BEGIN DEFERRED TRANSACTION.)^</p>

<p>^The ROLLBACK TO command reverts the state of the database back to what
it was just after the corresponding SAVEPOINT.  ^Note that unlike that
plain [ROLLBACK] command (without the TO keyword) the ROLLBACK TO command
does not cancel the transaction.  ^Instead of cancelling the transaction,
the ROLLBACK TO command restarts the transaction again at the beginning.
^All intervening SAVEPOINTs are canceled, however.</p>

<p>^The RELEASE command is like a [COMMIT] for a SAVEPOINT.
^The RELEASE command causes all savepoints back to and including the 
most recent savepoint with a matching name to be removed from the 
transaction stack.  ^The RELEASE of an inner transaction
does not cause any changes to be written to the database file; it merely
removes savepoints from the transaction stack such that it is
no longer possible to ROLLBACK TO those savepoints.
^If a RELEASE command releases the outermost savepoint, so
that the transaction stack becomes empty, then RELEASE is the same
as [COMMIT].
^The [COMMIT] command may be used to release all savepoints and
commit the transaction even if the transaction was originally started
by a SAVEPOINT command instead of a [BEGIN] command.</p>

<p>^If the savepoint-name in a RELEASE command does not match any
savepoint currently in the transaction stack, then no savepoints are
released, the database is unchanged, and the RELEASE command returns
an error.</p>

<p>^Note that an inner transaction might commit (using the RELEASE command)
but then later have its work undone by a ROLLBACK in an outer transaction.
^A power failure or program crash or OS crash will cause the outer-most
transaction to rollback, undoing all changes that have occurred within
that outer transaction, even changes that have supposedly been "committed"
by the RELEASE command.  ^Content is not actually committed on the disk 
until the outermost transaction commits.</p>

<p>There are several ways of thinking about the RELEASE command:</p>

<ul>
<li><p>
Some people view RELEASE as the equivalent of COMMIT for a SAVEPOINT.
This is an acceptable point of view as long as one remembers that the
changes committed by an inner transaction might later be undone by a
rollback in an outer transaction.</p></li>

<li><p>
Another view of RELEASE is that it merges a named transaction into its
parent transaction, so that the named transaction and its parent become
the same transaction.  After RELEASE, the named transaction and its parent
will commit or rollback together, whatever their fate may be.
</p></li>

<li><p>
One can also think of savepoints as
"marks" in the transaction timeline.  In this view, the SAVEPOINT command
creates a new mark, the ROLLBACK TO command rewinds the timeline back
to a point just after the named mark, and the RELEASE command
erases marks from the timeline without actually making any
changes to the database.
</p></li>
</ul>



<h3>Transaction Nesting Rules</h3>

<p>^The last transaction started will be the first
transaction committed or rolled back.</p>

<p>^The [BEGIN] command only works if the transaction stack is empty, or
in other words if there are no pending transactions.  ^If the transaction
stack is not empty when the [BEGIN] command is invoked, then the command
fails with an error.</p>

<p>^The [COMMIT] command commits all outstanding transactions and leaves
the transaction stack empty.</p>

<p>^The RELEASE command starts with the most recent addition to the
transaction stack and releases savepoints backwards 
in time until it releases a savepoint with a matching savepoint-name.
^Prior savepoints, even savepoints with matching savepoint-names, are
unchanged.
^If the RELEASE command causes the
transaction stack to become empty (if the RELEASE command releases the
outermost transaction from the stack) then the transaction commits.</p>

<p>^The [ROLLBACK] command without a TO clause rolls backs all transactions
and leaves the transaction stack empty.</p>

<p>^The ROLLBACK command with a TO clause rolls back transactions going
backwards in time back to the most recent SAVEPOINT with a matching name.
^The SAVEPOINT with the matching name remains on the transaction stack,
but all database changes that occurred after that SAVEPOINT was created
are rolled back.  ^If the savepoint-name in a ROLLBACK TO command does not
match any SAVEPOINT on the stack, then the ROLLBACK command fails with an
error and leaves the state of the database unchanged.</p>

<tcl>
###############################################################################
Section comment comment {comment *comments}

BubbleDiagram comment-syntax
</tcl>

<p>^Comments are not SQL commands, but can occur within the text of
SQL queries passed to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and related interfaces.
^Comments are treated as whitespace by the parser.
^Comments can begin anywhere whitespace 
can be found, including inside expressions that span multiple lines.
</p>

<p>^SQL comments begin with two consecutive "-" characters (ASCII 0x2d)
and extend up to and including the next newline character (ASCII 0x0a)
or until the end of input, whichever comes first.</p>

<p>^C-style comments begin
with "/*" and extend up to and including the next "*/" character pair
or until the end of input, whichever comes first.  ^C-style comments
can span multiple lines. </p>

<p>^Comments can appear anywhere whitespace can occur,
including inside expressions and in the middle of other SQL statements.
^Comments do not nest.
</p>


<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {CREATE INDEX} createindex {{CREATE INDEX}}

BubbleDiagram create-index-stmt 1
BubbleDiagram indexed-column
</tcl>

<p>^The CREATE INDEX command consists of the keywords "CREATE INDEX" followed
by the name of the new index, the keyword "ON", the name of a previously
created table that is to be indexed, and a parenthesized list of names of
columns in the table that are used for the index key.</p>

<p>^Each column name can be followed by one of the "ASC" or "DESC" keywords
to indicate sort order.  ^The sort order may or may not be ignored depending
on the database file format.  ^The "legacy" file format ignores index
sort order.  ^The descending index file format takes index sort order
into account.  ^(Only copies of SQLite newer than [version 3.3.0] 
(released on 2006-01-10) are able to understand the newer descending
index file format and so for compatibility with older versions of
SQLite, the legacy file format is generated by default.)^  ^Use the
[legacy_file_format] pragma to modify this behavior and generate
databases that use the newer file format.  Future versions of SQLite
may begin to generate the newer file format by default.</p>

<p>^The COLLATE clause optionally following each column name defines a
collating sequence used for text entries in that column.
^The default collating
sequence is the collating sequence defined for that column in the
[CREATE TABLE] statement.  ^Or if no collating sequence is otherwise defined,
the built-in BINARY collating sequence is used.</p>

<p>There are no arbitrary limits on the number of indices that can be
attached to a single table.  ^(The number of columns in an index is 
limited to the value set by
[sqlite3_limit]([SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN],...).)^</p>

<p>^If the UNIQUE keyword appears between CREATE and INDEX then duplicate
index entries are not allowed.  ^Any attempt to insert a duplicate entry
will result in an error.  ^For the purposes of unique indices, all NULL values
are considered to different from all other NULL values and are thus unique.
This is one of the two possible interpretations of the SQL-92 standard
(the language in the standard is ambiguous) and is the interpretation
followed by PostgreSQL, MySQL, Firebird, and Oracle.  Informix and
Microsoft SQL Server follow the other interpretation of the standard.</p>

<p>^If the optional IF NOT EXISTS clause is present and another index
with the same name already exists, then this command becomes a no-op.</p>

<p>^Indexes are removed with the [DROP INDEX] command.</p>


<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {CREATE TABLE} {createtable} {{CREATE TABLE}}

BubbleDiagram create-table-stmt 1
BubbleDiagram column-def
BubbleDiagram type-name
BubbleDiagram column-constraint
BubbleDiagram table-constraint
BubbleDiagram foreign-key-clause
</tcl>

<p>The "CREATE TABLE" command is used to create a new table in an SQLite 
database. A CREATE TABLE command specifies the following attributes of the
new table:

<ul>
  <li><p>The name of the new table.

  <li><p> The database in which the new table is created. Tables may be 
      created in the main database, the temp database, or in any attached
      database.

  <li><p> The name of each column in the table.

  <li><p> The declared type of each column in the table.

  <li><p> A default value or expression for each column in the table.

  <li><p> A default collation sequence to use with each column.

  <li><p> Optionally, a PRIMARY KEY for the table. Both single column and
       composite (multiple column) primary keys are supported.

  <li><p> A set of SQL constraints for each table. SQLite supports UNIQUE, NOT
       NULL, CHECK and FOREIGN KEY constraints.
</ul>

<p>Every CREATE TABLE statement must specify a name for the new table.
  ^(Table names that begin with "sqlite_" are reserved for internal use. It
  is an error to attempt to create a table with a name that starts with
  "sqlite_".)^

<p> ^If a &lt;database-name&gt; is specified, it must be either "main", 
  "temp", or the name of an [ATTACH DATABASE|attached database]. ^In this case
  the new table is created in the named database. ^If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY"
  keyword occurs between the "CREATE" and "TABLE" then the new table is
  created in the temp database. ^It is an error to specify both a 
  &lt;database-name&gt; and the TEMP or TEMPORARY keyword, unless the
  &lt;database-name&gt; is "temp". ^If no database name is specified and the
  TEMP keyword is not present then the table is created in the main
  database.

<p>
  ^It is usually an error to attempt to create a new table in a database that
  already contains a table, index or view of the same name. ^However, if the
  "IF NOT EXISTS" clause is specified as part of the CREATE TABLE statement and
  a table or view of the same name already exists, the CREATE TABLE command
  simply has no effect (and no error message is returned). ^An error is still
  returned if the table cannot be created because of an existing index, even 
  if the "IF NOT EXISTS" clause is specified.

<p>^It is not an error to create a table that has the same name as an 
  existing [CREATE TRIGGER|trigger].

<p>^Tables are removed using the [DROP TABLE] statement.  </p>

<h3>CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT Statements</h3>

<p>^(A "CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT" statement creates and populates a database
table based on the results of a SELECT statement.)^ ^(The table has the same
number of columns as the rows returned by the SELECT statement. The name of
each column is the same as the name of the corresponding column in the result
set of the SELECT statement.)^ ^(The declared type of each column is determined
by the [expression affinity] of the corresponding expression in the result set
of the SELECT statement, as follows:
</p>

<center><table border=1>
  <tr><th>Expression Affinity   <th>Column Declared Type
  <tr><td>TEXT                  <td>"TEXT"
  <tr><td>NUMERIC               <td>"NUM"
  <tr><td>INTEGER               <td>"INT"
  <tr><td>REAL                  <td>"REAL"
  <tr><td>NONE                  <td>"" (empty string)
</table></center>)^

<p>^(A table created using CREATE TABLE AS has no PRIMARY KEY and no
constraints of any kind. The default value of each column is NULL. The default
collation sequence for each column of the new table is BINARY.)^

<p>^Tables created using CREATE TABLE AS are initially populated with the
rows of data returned by the SELECT statement. ^Rows are assigned contiguously
ascending [rowid] values, starting with 1, in the [order by|order] that they
are returned by the SELECT statement.

<tcl>hd_fragment {tablecoldef} {column definition} {column definitions}</tcl>
<h3>Column Definitions</h3>

<p>Unless it is a CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT statement, a CREATE TABLE includes
one or more [column-def|column definitions], optionally followed by a list of
[table-constraint|table constraints].  Each column definition consists of the
name of the column, optionally followed by the declared type of the column,
then one or more optional [column-constraint|column constraints]. Included in
the definition of "column constraints" for the purposes of the previous
statement are the COLLATE and DEFAULT clauses, even though these are not really
constraints in the sense that they do not restrict the data that the table may
contain. The other constraints - NOT NULL, CHECK, UNIQUE, PRIMARY KEY and
FOREIGN KEY constraints - impose restrictions on the tables data, and are are
described under [constraints|SQL Data Constraints] below.

<p>^Unlike most SQL databases, SQLite does not restrict the type of data that
may be inserted into a column based on the columns declared type. Instead,
SQLite uses [dynamic typing]. ^The declared type of a column is used to
determine the [affinity] of the column only.

<p>The DEFAULT clause specifies a default value to use for the column if no
value is explicitly provided by the user when doing an [INSERT]. ^If there
is no explicit DEFAULT clause attached to a column definition, then the 
default value of the column is NULL. ^(An explicit DEFAULT clause may specify
that the default value is NULL, a string constant, a blob constant, a
signed-number, or any constant expression enclosed in parentheses. An explicit
default value may also be one of the special case-independent keywords
CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or CURRENT_TIMESTAMP.)^ ^For the purposes of the
DEFAULT clause, an expression is considered constant provided that it does
not contain any sub-queries or string constants enclosed in double quotes.

<p>^(Each time a row is inserted into the table by an INSERT statement that 
does not provide explicit values for all table columns the values stored in
the new row are determined by their default values)^, as follows:

<ul>
  <li><p>^If the default value of the column is a constant NULL, text, blob or
    signed-number value, then that value is used directly in the new row.

  <li><p>^If the default value of a column is an expression in parentheses, then
    the expression is evaluated once for each row inserted and the results
    used in the new row.

  <li><p>^If the default value of a column is CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_DATE or
    CURRENT_DATETIME, then the value used in the new row is a text
    representation of the current UTC date and/or time. ^For CURRENT_TIME, the
    format of the value is "HH:MM:SS". ^For CURRENT_DATE, "YYYY-MM-DD". ^The
    format for CURRENT_TIMESTAMP is "YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS".
</ul>

<p>^The COLLATE clause specifies the name of a [collating sequence] to use as
the default collation sequence for the column. ^If no COLLATE clause is
specified, the default collation sequence is [BINARY].

<p>^The number of columns in a table is limited by the [SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN]
compile-time parameter. ^A single row of a table cannot store more than
[SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH] bytes of data. ^Both of these limits can be lowered at
runtime using the [sqlite3_limit()] C/C++ interface.</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment {constraints} {constraints}</tcl>
<h3>SQL Data Constraints</h3>

<p>^Each table in SQLite may have at most one <b>PRIMARY KEY</b>. ^If the
  keywords PRIMARY KEY are added to a column definition, then the primary key
  for the table consists of that single column. ^Or, if a PRIMARY KEY clause 
  is specified as a [table-constraint], then the primary key of the table
  consists of the list of columns specified as part of the PRIMARY KEY clause.
  ^If there is more than one PRIMARY KEY clause in a single CREATE TABLE
  statement, it is an error.

<p>If a table has a single column primary key, and the declared type of that
  column is "INTEGER", then the column is known as an [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY].
  See below for a description of the special properties and behaviours
  associated with an [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY].

<p>^Each row in a table with a primary key must feature a unique combination
  of values in its primary key columns. ^For the purposes of determining
  the uniqueness of primary key values, NULL values are considered distinct from
  all other values, including other NULLs. ^If an [INSERT] or [UPDATE]
  statement attempts to modify the table content so that two or more rows
  feature identical primary key values, it is a constraint violation.
  According to the SQL standard, PRIMARY KEY should always imply NOT NULL.
  Unfortunately, due to a long-standing coding oversight, this is not the
  case in SQLite. ^Unless the column is an [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] SQLite
  allows NULL values in a PRIMARY KEY column.  We could change SQLite to
  conform to the standard (and we might do so in the future), but by the time
  the oversight was discovered, SQLite was in such wide use that we feared
  breaking legacy code if we fixed the problem.  So for now we have chosen to
  continue allowing NULLs in PRIMARY KEY columns.  Developers should be
  aware, however, that we may change SQLite to conform to the SQL standard in
  future and should design new programs accordingly.

<p>^A <b>UNIQUE</b> constraint is similar to a PRIMARY KEY constraint, except
  that a single table may have any number of UNIQUE constraints. ^For each
  UNIQUE constraint on the table, each row must feature a unique combination
  of values in the columns identified by the UNIQUE constraint. ^As with
  PRIMARY KEY constraints, for the purposes of UNIQUE constraints NULL values
  are considered distinct from all other values (including other NULLs).
  ^If an [INSERT] or [UPDATE] statement attempts to modify the table content so
  that two or more rows feature identical values in a set of columns that
  are subject to a UNIQUE constraint, it is a constraint violation.

<p>^[INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] columns aside, both UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY
  constraints are implemented by creating an index in the database (in the same
  way as a [CREATE INDEX|"CREATE UNIQUE INDEX"] statement would). ^Such an 
  index is used like any other index in the database to [optimizer|optimize
  queries].  As a result, there often no advantage (but significant overhead)
  in creating an index on a set of columns that are already collectively
  subject to a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint.

<p>^(A <b>CHECK</b> constraint may be attached to a column definition or
  specified as a table constraint. In practice it makes no difference.)^ ^(Each
  time a new row is inserted into the table or an existing row is updated,
  the expression associated with each CHECK constraint is evaluated and
  cast to a NUMERIC value in the same way as a [CAST expression]. If the 
  result is zero (integer value 0 or real value 0.0), then a constraint
  violation has occurred.)^ ^If the CHECK expression evaluates to NULL, or
  any other non-zero value, it is not a constraint violation.

<p>CHECK constraints have been supported since [version 3.3.0]. Prior to
  version 3.3.0, CHECK constraints were parsed but not enforced.

<p>^A <b>NOT NULL</b> constraint may only be attached to a column definition,
  not specified as a table constraint.  Not surprisingly, ^(a NOT NULL
  constraint dictates that the associated column may not contain a NULL value.
  Attempting to set the column value to NULL when inserting a new row or
  updating an existing one causes a constraint violation.)^

<p>Exactly how a constraint violation is dealt with is determined by the
  [conflict clause|constraint conflict resolution algorithm]. Each 
  PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, NOT NULL and CHECK constraint has a default conflict
  resolution algorithm. ^PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE and NOT NULL constraints may be
  explicitly assigned a default conflict resolution algorithm by including
  a [conflict-clause] in their definitions. ^Or, if a constraint definition
  does not include a [conflict-clause] or it is a CHECK constraint, the default
  conflict resolution algorithm is ABORT. ^Different constraints within the
  same table may have different default conflict resolution algorithms. See
  the section titled [ON CONFLICT] for additional information.

<tcl>hd_fragment rowid {INTEGER PRIMARY KEY} ROWID rowid</tcl>
<h3>ROWIDs and the INTEGER PRIMARY KEY</h3>

<p>^Every row of every SQLite table has a 64-bit signed integer key 
that uniquely identifies the row within its table. This integer is usually
called the "rowid". ^The rowid value can be accessed using one of the special
case-independent names "rowid", "oid", or "_rowid_" in place of a column name.
^If a table contains a user defined column named "rowid", "oid" or "_rowid_",
then that name always refers the explicitly declared column and cannot be used
to retrieve the integer rowid value.

<p>The data for each table in SQLite is stored as a B-Tree structure containing
an entry for each table row, using the rowid value as the key. This means that
retrieving or sorting records by rowid is fast. Searching for a record with a
specific rowid, or for all records with rowids within a specified range is
around twice as fast as a similar search made by specifying any other PRIMARY
KEY or indexed value.

<p> ^With one exception, if a table has a primary key that consists of a single
column, and the declared type of that column is "INTEGER" in any mixture of
upper and lower case, then the column becomes an alias for the rowid. Such a
column is usually referred to as an "integer primary key". A PRIMARY KEY column
only becomes an integer primary key if the declared type name is exactly
"INTEGER".  ^Other integer type names like "INT" or "BIGINT" or "SHORT INTEGER"
or "UNSIGNED INTEGER" causes the primary key column to behave as an ordinary
table column with integer [affinity] and a unique index, not as an alias for
the rowid.

<p> The exception mentioned above is that ^if the declaration of a column with
declared type "INTEGER" includes an "PRIMARY KEY DESC" clause, it does not
become an alias for the rowid and is not classified as an integer primary key.
This quirk is not by design. It is due to a bug in early versions of SQLite.
But fixing the bug could result in very serious backwards incompatibilities.
The SQLite developers feel that goofy behavior in an corner case is far better
than a compatibility break, so the original behavior is retained. This means
that ^(the following three table declarations all cause the column "x" to be an
alias for the rowid (an integer primary key):

<ul>
<li><tt>CREATE TABLE t(x INTEGER PRIMARY KEY ASC, y, z);</tt>
<li><tt>CREATE TABLE t(x INTEGER, y, z, PRIMARY KEY(x ASC));</tt>
<li><tt>CREATE TABLE t(x INTEGER, y, z, PRIMARY KEY(x DESC));</tt>
</ul>)^

<p>But ^(the following declaration does not result in "x" being an alias for
the rowid:
<ul>
<li><tt>CREATE TABLE t(x INTEGER PRIMARY KEY DESC, y, z);</tt>
</ul>)^

<p>^Rowid values may be modified using an UPDATE statement in the same
way as any other column value can, either using one of the built-in aliases
("rowid", "oid" or "_rowid_") or by using an alias created by an integer
primary key. ^Similarly, an INSERT statement may provide a value to use as the
rowid for each row inserted. ^(Unlike normal SQLite columns, an integer primary
key or rowid column must contain integer values. Integer primary key or rowid
columns are not able to hold floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULLs.)^

<p>^If an UPDATE statement attempts to set an integer primary key or rowid column
to a NULL or blob value, or to a string or real value that cannot be losslessly
converted to an integer, a "datatype mismatch" error occurs and the statement
is aborted. ^If an INSERT statement attempts to insert a blob value, or a string
or real value that cannot be losslessly converted to an integer into an
integer primary key or rowid column, a "datatype mismatch" error occurs and the
statement is aborted.

<p>^If an INSERT statement attempts to insert a NULL value into a rowid or
integer primary key column, the system chooses an integer value to use as the
rowid automatically. A detailed description of how this is done is provided
<a href="autoinc.html">separately</a>.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {CREATE TRIGGER} createtrigger {{CREATE TRIGGER}}

BubbleDiagram create-trigger-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^The CREATE TRIGGER statement is used to add triggers to the 
database schema. ^Triggers are database operations 
that are automatically performed when a specified database event
occurs.  </p>

<p>^A trigger may be specified to fire whenever a [DELETE], [INSERT],
or [UPDATE] of a
particular database table occurs, or whenever an [UPDATE] occurs on
on one or more specified columns of a table.</p>

<p>^At this time SQLite supports only FOR EACH ROW triggers, not FOR EACH
STATEMENT triggers. ^Hence explicitly specifying FOR EACH ROW is optional.
^FOR EACH ROW implies that the SQL statements specified in the trigger
may be executed (depending on the WHEN clause) for each database row being
inserted, updated or deleted by the statement causing the trigger to fire.</p>

<p>^(Both the WHEN clause and the trigger actions may access elements of 
the row being inserted, deleted or updated using references of the form 
"NEW.<i>column-name</i>" and "OLD.<i>column-name</i>", where
<i>column-name</i> is the name of a column from the table that the trigger
is associated with.)^ ^(OLD and NEW references may only be used in triggers on
events for which they are relevant, as follows:</p>

<table border=0 cellpadding=10>
<tr>
<td valign="top" align="right" width=120><i>INSERT</i></td>
<td valign="top">NEW references are valid</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top" align="right" width=120><i>UPDATE</i></td>
<td valign="top">NEW and OLD references are valid</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td valign="top" align="right" width=120><i>DELETE</i></td>
<td valign="top">OLD references are valid</td>
</tr>
</table>
</p>)^

<p>^If a WHEN clause is supplied, the SQL statements specified
are only executed for rows for which the WHEN
clause is true. ^If no WHEN clause is supplied, the SQL statements
are executed for all rows.</p>

<p>^The BEFORE or AFTER keyword determines when the trigger actions
will be executed relative to the insertion, modification or removal of the
associated row.</p>

<p>^An [ON CONFLICT] clause may be specified as part of an [UPDATE] or [INSERT]
action within the body of the trigger.
^However if an [ON CONFLICT] clause is specified as part of 
the statement causing the trigger to fire, then conflict handling
policy of the outer statement is used instead.</p>

<p>^Triggers are automatically [DROP TRIGGER | dropped]
when the table that they are 
associated with (the <i>table-name</i> table) is 
[DROP TABLE | dropped].  ^However if the trigger actions reference
other tables, the trigger is not dropped or modified if those other
tables are [DROP TABLE | dropped] or [ALTER TABLE | modified].</p>

<p>^Triggers are removed using the [DROP TRIGGER] statement.</p>

<h3>Syntax Restrictions On UPDATE, DELETE, and INSERT Statements Within
    Triggers</h3>

<p>^The [UPDATE], [DELETE], and [INSERT]
statements within triggers do not support
the full syntax for [UPDATE], [DELETE], and [INSERT] statements.  The following
restrictions apply:</p>

<ul>
<li><p>
  ^(The name of the table to be modified in an [UPDATE], [DELETE], or [INSERT]
  statement must be an unqualified table name.  In other words, one must
  use just "<i>tablename</i>" not "<i>database</i><b>.</b><i>tablename</i>"
  when specifying the table.)^  ^The table to be modified must exist in the
  same database as the table or view to which the trigger is attached.
  </p></li>

<li><p>
  ^The "INSERT INTO <i>table</i> DEFAULT VALUES" form of the [INSERT] statement
  is not supported.
  </p></li>

<li><p>
  ^The INDEXED BY and NOT INDEXED clauses are not supported for [UPDATE] and
  [DELETE] statements.
  </p></li>

<li><p>
  ^(The ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses on [UPDATE] and [DELETE] statements are not
  supported.  ORDER BY and LIMIT are not normally supported for [UPDATE] or
  [DELETE] in any context but can be enabled for top-level statements
  using the [SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT] compile-time option.  However,
  that compile-time option only applies to top-level [UPDATE] and [DELETE]
  statements, not [UPDATE] and [DELETE] statements within triggers.)^
  </p></li>
</ul>

<tcl>hd_fragment instead_of_trigger {INSTEAD OF} {INSTEAD OF trigger}</tcl>
<h3>INSTEAD OF trigger</h3>

<p>^Triggers may be created on [views], as well as ordinary tables, by
specifying INSTEAD OF in the CREATE TRIGGER statement. 
^If one or more ON INSERT, ON DELETE
or ON UPDATE triggers are defined on a view, then it is not an
error to execute an INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE statement on the view, 
respectively.  ^Instead,
executing an INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE on the view causes the associated
triggers to fire. ^The real tables underlying the view are not modified
(except possibly explicitly, by a trigger program).</p>

<p>^Note that the [sqlite3_changes()] and [sqlite3_total_changes()] interfaces
do not count INSTEAD OF trigger firings, but the
[count_changes pragma] does count INSTEAD OF trigger firing.</p>

<h3>Examples</h3>

<p>^(Assuming that customer records are stored in the "customers" table, and
that order records are stored in the "orders" table, the following trigger
ensures that all associated orders are redirected when a customer changes
his or her address:</p>

<tcl>Example {
CREATE TRIGGER update_customer_address UPDATE OF address ON customers 
  BEGIN
    UPDATE orders SET address = new.address WHERE customer_name = old.name;
  END;
}</tcl>

<p>With this trigger installed, executing the statement:</p>

<tcl>Example {
UPDATE customers SET address = '1 Main St.' WHERE name = 'Jack Jones';
}</tcl>

<p>causes the following to be automatically executed:</p>

<tcl>Example {
UPDATE orders SET address = '1 Main St.' WHERE customer_name = 'Jack Jones';
}</tcl>)^

<tcl>hd_fragment undef_before {undefined BEFORE trigger behavior}</tcl>
<h3>Cautions On The Use Of BEFORE triggers</h3>

<p>If a BEFORE UPDATE or BEFORE DELETE trigger modifies or deletes a row
that was to have been updated or deleted, then the result of the subsequent
update or delete operation is undefined.  Furthermore, if a BEFORE trigger
modifies or deletes a row, then it is undefined whether or not AFTER triggers
that would have otherwise run on those rows will in fact run.
</p>

<p>The value of NEW.rowid is undefined in a BEFORE INSERT trigger in which
the rowid is not explicitly set to an integer.</p>

<p>Because of the behaviors described above, programmers are encouraged to
prefer AFTER triggers over BEFORE triggers.</p>

<h3>The RAISE() function</h3>

<p>^(A special SQL function RAISE() may be used within a trigger-program,)^
with the following syntax</p> 

<tcl>BubbleDiagram raise-function</tcl>

<p>^When one of the first three forms is called during trigger-program
execution, the specified [ON CONFLICT] processing is performed
(either ABORT, FAIL or ROLLBACK) and the current query terminates.
An error code of [SQLITE_CONSTRAINT] is returned to the application,
along with the specified error message.</p>

<p>^When RAISE(IGNORE) is called, the remainder of the current trigger program,
the statement that caused the trigger program to execute and any subsequent
trigger programs that would of been executed are abandoned. ^No database
changes are rolled back.  ^If the statement that caused the trigger program
to execute is itself part of a trigger program, then that trigger program
resumes execution at the beginning of the next step.
</p>


<tcl>
###############################################################################
Section {CREATE VIEW} {createview} {{CREATE VIEW} view *views}

BubbleDiagram create-view-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^The CREATE VIEW command assigns a name to a pre-packaged 
[SELECT] statement. 
^Once the view is created, it can be used in the FROM clause
of another [SELECT] in place of a table name.
</p>

<p>^If the "TEMP" or "TEMPORARY" keyword occurs in between "CREATE"
and "VIEW" then the view that is created is only visible to the
process that opened the database and is automatically deleted when
the database is closed.</p>

<p> ^If a &lt;database-name&gt; is specified, then the view is created in 
the named database. ^It is an error to specify both a &lt;database-name&gt;
and the TEMP keyword on a VIEW, unless the &lt;database-name&gt; is "temp".
^If no database name is specified, and the TEMP keyword is not present,
the VIEW is created in the main database.</p>

<p>^You cannot [DELETE], [INSERT], or [UPDATE] a view.  ^Views are read-only 
in SQLite.  ^However, in many cases you can use an
[INSTEAD OF trigger] on the view to accomplish 
the same thing.  ^Views are removed 
with the [DROP VIEW] command.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE} {createvtab} {{CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE}}

BubbleDiagram create-virtual-table-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>A [virtual table] is an interface to an external storage or computation
engine that appears to be a table but does not actually store information
in the database file.</p>

<p>In general, you can do anything with a [virtual table] that can be done
with an ordinary table, except that ^you cannot create indices or triggers on a
virtual table.  ^Some virtual table implementations might impose additional
restrictions.  For example, many virtual tables are read-only.</p>

<p>The &lt;module-name&gt; is the name of an object that implements
the virtual table.  ^The &lt;module-name&gt; must be registered with
the SQLite database connection using
[sqlite3_create_module()] or [sqlite3_create_module_v2()]
prior to issuing the CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement.
^The module takes zero or more comma-separated arguments.
^The arguments can be just about any text as long as it has balanced
parentheses.  The argument syntax is sufficiently general that the
arguments can be made to appear as [column definitions] in a traditional
[CREATE TABLE] statement.  
^SQLite passes the module arguments directly
to the [xCreate] and [xConnect] methods of the module implementation
without any interpretation.  It is the responsibility
of the module implementation to parse and interpret its own arguments.</p>

<p>^A virtual table is destroyed using the ordinary
[DROP TABLE] statement.  There is no
DROP VIRTUAL TABLE statement.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section DELETE delete {DELETE *DELETEs}

BubbleDiagram delete-stmt 1
BubbleDiagram qualified-table-name
</tcl>

<p>The DELETE command removes records from the table identified by the
   <i>qualified-table-name</i>. 

<p>^If the WHERE clause is not present, all records in the table are deleted.
   ^If a WHERE clause is supplied, then only those rows for which the
   result of evaluating the WHERE clause as a [boolean expression|
   boolean expression is true] are deleted.

<h3>Restrictions on DELETE Statements Within CREATE TRIGGER</h3>

<p>The following restrictions apply to DELETE statements that occur within the
   body of a [CREATE TRIGGER] statement:

<ul>
  <li><p>^The <i>table-name</i> specified as part of a DELETE statement within
    a trigger body must be unqualified.  ^(In other words, the
    <i>database-name</i><b>.</b> prefix on the table name is not allowed 
    within triggers.)^ ^If the table to which the trigger is attached is
    not in the temp database, then DELETE statements within the trigger
    body must operate on tables within the same database as it. ^If the table
    to which the trigger is attached is in the TEMP database, then the
    unqualified name of the table being deleted is resolved in the same way as
    it is for a top-level statement (by searching first the TEMP database, then
    the main database, then any other databases in the order they were
    attached).
    
  <li><p>^The INDEXED BY and NOT INDEXED clauses are not allowed on DELETE
    statements within triggers.</p>

  <li><p>^The LIMIT and ORDER BY clauses (described below) are unsupported for
    DELETE statements within triggers.</p>
</ul>

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY clauses</h3>

<p>^(If SQLite is compiled with the [SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT]
compile-time option, then the syntax of the DELETE statement is
extended by the addition of optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses:)^</p>

<tcl>BubbleDiagram delete-stmt-limited</tcl>

<p>^If a DELETE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be deleted is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. ^If the result of the evaluating the LIMIT clause
cannot be losslessly converted to an integer value, it is an error. ^A 
negative LIMIT value is interpreted as "no limit". ^(If the DELETE statement 
also has an OFFSET clause, then it is similarly evaluated and cast to an
integer value. Again, it is an error if the value cannot be losslessly
converted to an integer.)^ ^If there is no OFFSET clause, or the calculated
integer value is negative, the effective OFFSET value is zero.

<p>^(If the DELETE statement has an ORDER BY clause, then all rows that would 
be deleted in the absence of the LIMIT clause are sorted according to the 
ORDER BY. The first <i>M</i> rows, where <i>M</i> is the value found by
evaluating the OFFSET clause expression, are skipped, and the following 
<i>N</i>, where <i>N</i> is the value of the LIMIT expression, are deleted.)^
^If there are less than <i>N</i> rows remaining after taking the OFFSET clause
into account, or if the LIMIT clause evaluated to a negative value, then all
remaining rows are deleted.

<p>^If the DELETE statement has no ORDER BY clause, then all rows that
would be deleted in the absence of the LIMIT clause are assembled in an
arbitrary order before applying the LIMIT and OFFSET clauses to determine 
the subset that are actually deleted.

<p>^(The ORDER BY clause on an DELETE statement is used only to determine which
rows fall within the LIMIT. The order in which rows are deleted is arbitrary
and is not influenced by the ORDER BY clause.)^

<tcl>hd_fragment truncateopt {truncate optimization}</tcl>
<h3>The Truncate Optimization</h3>

<p>^When the WHERE is omitted from a DELETE statement and the table
being deleted has no triggers,
SQLite uses an optimization to erase the entire table content
without having to visit each row of the table individually.
This "truncate" optimization makes the delete run much faster.
Prior to SQLite [version 3.6.5], the truncate optimization
also meant that the [sqlite3_changes()] and
[sqlite3_total_changes()] interfaces
and the [count_changes pragma]
will not actually return the number of deleted rows.  
That problem has been fixed as of [version 3.6.5].

<p>^The truncate optimization can be permanently disabled for all queries
by recompiling
SQLite with the [SQLITE_OMIT_TRUNCATE_OPTIMIZATION] compile-time switch.</p>

<p>The truncate optimization can also be disabled at runtime using
the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface.  ^If an authorizer callback
returns [SQLITE_IGNORE] for an [SQLITE_DELETE] action code, then
the DELETE operation will proceed but the truncate optimization will
be bypassed and rows will be deleted one by one.</p>

<tcl>
###############################################################################
Section {DETACH DATABASE} detach *DETACH

BubbleDiagram detach-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^This statement detaches an additional database connection previously 
attached using the [ATTACH] statement.  
^It is possible to have the same database file attached multiple times using 
different names, and detaching one connection to a file will leave the 
others intact.</p>

<p>^This statement will fail if SQLite is in the middle of a transaction.</p>


<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {DROP INDEX} dropindex {{DROP INDEX}}

BubbleDiagram drop-index-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^The DROP INDEX statement removes an index added
with the [CREATE INDEX] statement.  The index is completely removed from
the disk.  The only way to recover the index is to reenter the
appropriate [CREATE INDEX] command.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {DROP TABLE} droptable {{DROP TABLE}}

BubbleDiagram drop-table-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^The DROP TABLE statement removes a table added with the
[CREATE TABLE] statement.  The name specified is the
table name.  ^The dropped table is completely removed from the database 
schema and the disk file.  The table can not be recovered.  
^All indices and triggers
associated with the table are also deleted.</p>

<p>^The optional IF EXISTS clause suppresses the error that would normally
result if the table does not exist.</p>

<p>^If [foreign key constraints] are enabled, a DROP TABLE command performs an
implicit [DELETE | DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt;] command before removing the
table from the database schema. ^Any triggers attached to the table are
dropped from the database schema before the implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; 
is executed, so this cannot cause any triggers to fire. By contrast, ^an
implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; does cause any configured
[foreign key actions] to take place. 
^If the implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; executed
as part of a DROP TABLE command violates any immediate foreign key constraints,
an error is returned and the table is not dropped. ^If 
the implicit DELETE FROM &lt;tbl&gt; causes any 
deferred foreign key constraints to be violated, and the violations still
exist when the transaction is committed, an error is returned at the time
of commit.

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {DROP TRIGGER} droptrigger {{DROP TRIGGER}}

BubbleDiagram drop-trigger-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^The DROP TRIGGER statement removes a trigger created by the 
[CREATE TRIGGER] statement.  ^The trigger is 
deleted from the database schema. ^Note that triggers are automatically 
dropped when the associated table is dropped.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {DROP VIEW} dropview {{DROP VIEW}}

BubbleDiagram drop-view-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^The DROP VIEW statement removes a view created by the
[CREATE VIEW] statement.  ^The name specified is the 
view name.  ^It is removed from the database schema, but no actual data 
in the underlying base tables is modified.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section EXPLAIN explain EXPLAIN

BubbleDiagram sql-stmt
</tcl>

<p>^An SQL statement can be preceded by the keyword "EXPLAIN" or
by the phrase "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN".  ^Either modification causes the
SQL statement to behave as a query and to return information about
how the SQL statement would have operated if the EXPLAIN keyword or
phrase had been omitted.</p>

<p>The output from EXPLAIN and EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN is intended for
interactive analysis and troubleshooting only.  The details of the 
output format are subject to change from one release of SQLite to the next.
Applications should not use EXPLAIN or EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN since
their exact behavior is variable and only partially documented.</p>

<p>^When the EXPLAIN keyword appears by itself it causes the statement
to behave as a query that returns the sequence of 
[virtual machine instructions] it would have used to execute the command had
the EXPLAIN keyword not been present. ^When the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN phrase
appears, the statement returns high-level information regarding the query
plan that would have been used.

<h3>EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN Details</h3>

<p>An EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN command returns zero or more rows of four columns
each. The column names are "selectid", "order", "from", "detail". Each
of the first three column always contains an integer value. The final
column, "detail", which contains most of the useful information, always
contains a text value.

<p>The EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN clause is most useful when used with a SELECT
statement, but may also be used on other statements that read data
from database tables (e.g. UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT INTO ... SELECT).

<h4>Table and Index Scans</h4>

<p>
  When processing a SELECT (or other) statement, SQLite may retrieve data from
  database tables in a variety of ways. It may scan through all the records in
  a table (a full-table scan), scan a contiguous subset of the records in a
  table based on the rowid index, scan a contiguous subset of the entries in a
  database [CREATE TABLE|index], or use a combination of the above strategies
  in a single scan. The various ways in which SQLite may retrieve data from a
  table or index are described in detail [strategies|here].

<p>
  For each table or index scanned, the output of EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN 
  includes a record for which the value in the "detail" column begins
  with the word "SCAN". Each SCAN record includes the following 
  information:

<ul>
  <li> The name of the table data is read from.
  <li> Whether or not an index or [automatic indexing|automatic index] is used.
  <li> Whether or not the [covering index] optimization applies.
  <li> The selectivity of the subset of records scanned.
  <li> The estimated number of rows that SQLite expects the scan to visit.
</ul>

<p>
  For example, the following EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN command operates on a SELECT
  statement that is implemented by performing a full-table scan on table t1:
<pre>
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT a, b FROM t1 WHERE a=1; 
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 (~1000000 rows)
</pre>

<p>
  SQLite estimates that the full-table scan will visit approximately 
  1,000,000 records. If the query were able to use an index, then the SCAN
  record would include the name of the index and a description of how
  it is used by the query. For example:
<pre>
    sqlite> CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a);
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT a, b FROM t1 WHERE a=1;
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY INDEX i1 (a=?) (~10 rows)
</pre>

<p>
  The output above shows that in this case, SQLite uses index "i1" to optimize
  a WHERE clause filter of the form (a=?) - in this case "a=1". SQLite 
  estimates that scanning the subset of index entries that match the "a=1"
  filter means scanning through approximately 10 records. In this case it is
  not possible to use index i1 as a [covering index], but if it were, the
  SCAN record would report that as well. For example:
<pre>
    sqlite> CREATE INDEX i2 ON t1(a, b);
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT a, b FROM t1 WHERE a=1; 
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY COVERING INDEX i2 (a=?) (~10 rows)
</pre>

<p>
  All joins in SQLite are [join order|implemented using nested scans]. When a
  SELECT query that features a join is analyzed using EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN, one
  SCAN record is output for each nested scan. For example:
<pre>
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT t1.*, t2.* FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.a=1 AND t1.b>2;
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY COVERING INDEX i2 (a=? AND b>?) (~3 rows)
    0|1|1|SCAN TABLE t2 (~1000000 rows)
</pre>

<p>
  The second column of output (column "order") indicates the nesting order. In
  this case, the scan of table t1 using index i2 is the outer loop (order=0)
  and the full-table scan of table t2 (order=1) is the inner loop. The third
  column (column "from"), indicates the position in the FROM clause of the
  SELECT statement that the table associated with each scan occurs in. In the
  case above, table t1 occupies the first position in the FROM clause, so the
  value of column "from" is 0 in the first SCAN record. Table t2 is in the
  second position, so the "from" column for the corresponding SCAN record is
  set to 1. In the following example, the positions of t1 and t2 in the FROM 
  clause of the SELECT are reversed. The query strategy remains the same, but
  the values in the "from" column of the output are adjusted accordingly.
<pre>
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT t1.*, t2.* FROM t2, t1 WHERE t1.a=1 AND t1.b>2;
    0|0|1|SCAN TABLE t1 BY COVERING INDEX i2 (a=? AND b>?) (~3 rows)
    0|1|0|SCAN TABLE t2 (~1000000 rows)
</pre>

<p>
  In the example above, SQLite estimates that the outer loop scan will visit
  approximately 3 rows, and the inner loop scan approximately 1,000,000. If
  you observe that SQLite's estimates are wildly inaccurate (and appear to be
  causing it to generate sub-optimal query plans), your queries may benefit
  from running the [ANALYZE] command on the database.

<p>
  If the WHERE clause of a query contains an OR expression, then SQLite might
  use the [or-connected-terms|"OR by union"] strategy (also described 
  [or optimization|here]). In this case there will be two SCAN records, one
  for each index scan, with the same values in both the "order" and "from" 
  columns. For example:
<pre>
    sqlite> CREATE INDEX i3 ON t1(b);
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a=1 OR b=2;
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY INDEX i1 (a=?) (~10 rows)
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY INDEX i3 (b=?) (~10 rows)
</pre>

<h4>Temporary Sorting B-Trees</h4>

<p>
  If a SELECT query contains an ORDER BY, GROUP BY or DISTINCT clause, 
  SQLite may need to use a temporary b-tree structure to perform an 
  <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insertion_sort">insertion sort</a> 
  of the output rows. Or, it may [sorting|use an index]. Using an index is 
  almost always much more efficient than performing an online insertion sort.
  If a temporary b-tree is required, a record is added to the EXPLAIN
  QUERY PLAN output with the "detail" field set to a string value of
  the form "USE TEMP B-TREE FOR xxx", where xxx is one of "ORDER BY",
  "GROUP BY" or "DISTINCT". For example:

<pre>
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT c, d FROM t2 ORDER BY c; 
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t2 (~1000000 rows)
    0|0|0|USE TEMP B-TREE FOR ORDER BY
</pre>

<p>
  In this case using the temporary b-tree can be avoided by creating an index
  on t2(c), as follows:

<pre>
    sqlite> CREATE INDEX i4 ON t2(c);
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT c, d FROM t2 ORDER BY c; 
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t2 BY INDEX i4 (~1000000 rows)
</pre>

<h4>Subqueries</h4>

<p>
  In all the examples above, the first column (column "selectid") is always
  set to 0. If a query contains sub-selects, either as part of the FROM
  clause or as part of SQL expressions, then the output of EXPLAIN QUERY
  PLAN also includes a report for each sub-select. Each sub-select is assigned
  a distinct, non-zero "selectid" value. The top-level SELECT statement is
  always assigned the selectid value 0. For example:

<pre>
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT (SELECT b FROM t1 WHERE a=0), (SELECT a FROM t1 WHERE b=t2.c) FROM t2;
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t2 (~1000000 rows)
    0|0|0|EXECUTE SCALAR SUBQUERY 1
    1|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY COVERING INDEX i2 (a=?) (~10 rows)
    0|0|0|EXECUTE CORRELATED SCALAR SUBQUERY 2
    2|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY INDEX i3 (b=?) (~10 rows)
</pre>

<p>
  The example above contains a pair of scalar subqueries assigned selectid 
  values 1 and 2. As well as a SCAN record, there are also 2 "EXECUTE" 
  records associated with the top level subquery (selectid 0), indicating
  that subqueries 1 and 2 are executed by the top level query in a scalar
  context. The CORRELATED qualifier present in the EXECUTE record associated
  with scalar subquery 2 indicates that the query must be run separately
  for each row visited by the top level query. Its absence in the record
  associated with subquery 1 means that the subquery is only run once and
  the result cached. In other words, subquery 2 may be more performance
  critical, as it may be run many times whereas subquery 1 is only ever run
  once.

<p>
  Unless the [flattening optimization] is applied, if a subquery appears in
  the FROM clause of a SELECT statement, SQLite executes the subquery and
  stores the results in a temporary table. It then uses the contents of the 
  temporary table in place of the subquery to execute the parent query. This
  is shown in the output of EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN by substituting a 
  "SCAN SUBQUERY" record for the "SCAN TABLE" record that normally appears
  for each element in the FROM clause. For example:

<pre>
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT count(*) FROM (SELECT max(b) AS x FROM t1 GROUP BY a) GROUP BY x;
    1|0|0|SCAN TABLE t1 BY COVERING INDEX i2 (~1000000 rows)
    0|0|0|SCAN SUBQUERY 1 (~1000000 rows)
    0|0|0|USE TEMP B-TREE FOR GROUP BY
</pre>

<p>
  If the [flattening optimization] is used on a subquery in the FROM clause
  of a SELECT statement, then the output of EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN reflects this.
  For example, in the following there is no "SCAN SUBQUERY" record even though
  there is a subquery in the FROM clause of the top level SELECT. Instead, since
  the flattening optimization does apply in this case, the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
  report shows that the top level query is implemented using a nested loop join
  of tables t1 and t2.

<pre>
    sqlite> EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT * FROM (SELECT * FROM t2 WHERE c=1), t1;
    0|0|0|SCAN TABLE t2 BY INDEX i4 (c=?) (~10 rows)
    0|1|1|SCAN TABLE t1 (~1000000 rows)
</pre>




<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section expression expr {*expression {expression syntax}}

BubbleDiagram expr 1
BubbleDiagram literal-value
BubbleDiagram signed-number
BubbleDiagram raise-function
</tcl>

<p>This section is different from the others.  Most other sections of
this document talks about a particular SQL command.  This section does
not talk about a standalone command but about "expressions" which are 
subcomponents of most other commands.</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment binaryops {binary operators}</tcl>
<h3>Operators</h3>
<p>^(SQLite understands the following binary operators, in order from
highest to lowest precedence:</p>

<blockquote><pre>
<font color="#2c2cf0"><big>||
*    /    %
+    -
&lt;&lt;   &gt;&gt;   &amp;    |
&lt;    &lt;=   &gt;    &gt;=
=    ==   !=   &lt;&gt;   </big>IS   IS NOT   IN   LIKE   GLOB   MATCH   REGEXP
AND   
OR</font>
</pre></blockquote>)^

<p>^(Supported unary prefix operators are these:</p>

<blockquote><pre>
<font color="#2c2cf0"><big>-    +    ~    NOT</big></font>
</pre></blockquote>)^

<tcl>hd_fragment collateop {COLLATE operator}</tcl>
<p>^The COLLATE operator is a unary postfix
operator that assigns a [collating sequence] to an expression.
^The COLLATE operator has a higher precedence (binds more tightly) than any
prefix unary operator or any binary operator.
^The collating sequence set by the COLLATE operator overrides the
collating sequence determined by the COLLATE clause in a table
[column definition].
See the [collating sequence| detailed discussion on collating sequences]
in the [datatype | Datatype In SQLite3] document for additional information.
</p>

<tcl>hd_puts "
<p>^The unary operator [Operator +] is a no-op.  ^It can be applied
to strings, numbers, blobs or NULL and it always returns a result
with the same value as the operand.</p>"</tcl>

<p>Note that there are two variations of the equals and not equals
operators.  ^Equals can be either

<tcl>
hd_puts "[Operator =] or [Operator ==].
^The non-equals operator can be either
[Operator !=] or [Operator {&lt;&gt;}].
^The [Operator ||] operator is \"concatenate\" - it joins together
the two strings of its operands.
^The operator [Operator %] outputs the value of its left 
operand modulo its right operand.</p>

<p>^The result of any binary operator is either a numeric value or 
NULL, except for the [Operator ||] concatenation operator which always 
evaluates to either NULL or a text value.</p>"

hd_fragment {isisnot} {IS operator} {IS NOT operator}

hd_puts "<p>^The [Operator IS] and [Operator {IS NOT}] operators work
like [Operator =] and [Operator !=] except when one or both of the
operands are NULL. ^In this case, if both operands are NULL, then the
IS operator evaluates to 1 (true) and the IS NOT operator evaluates
to 0 (false). ^If one operand is NULL and the other is not, then the
IS operator evaluates to 0 (false) and the IS NOT operator is 1 (true).
^It is not possible for an IS or IS NOT expression to evaluate to NULL.
^Operators [Operator IS] and [Operator {IS NOT}] have the same 
precedence as [Operator =]."

<tcl>hd_fragment litvalue {literal value}</tcl>
<h3>Literal Values</h3>
<p>
^A literal value is a constant of some kind.
^Literal values may be integers, floating point numbers, strings,
BLOBs, or NULLs.</p>

<p>The syntax for integer and floating point literals (collectively
"numeric literals") is shown by the following diagram:</p>

<tcl>BubbleDiagram numeric-literal</tcl>

<p>
^(If a numeric literal has a decimal point or an exponentiation
clause, then it is a floating point literal.  Otherwise is it is an 
integer literal.)^  ^The "E" character that begins the exponentiation
clause of a floating point literal can be either upper or lower case.
^(The "." character is always used 
as the decimal point even if the locale setting specifies "," for
this role - the use of "," for the decimal point would result in
syntactic ambiguity.)^</p>

<p> ^A string constant is formed by enclosing the
string in single quotes (').  ^A single quote within the string can
be encoded by putting two single quotes in a row - as in Pascal.
C-style escapes using the backslash character are not supported because
they are not standard SQL.
^BLOB literals are string literals containing hexadecimal data and
preceded by a single "x" or "X" character.  ^(For example:</p>

<blockquote><pre>
X'53514C697465'
</pre></blockquote>)^

<p>
^A literal value can also be the token "NULL".
</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment varparam parameter parameters {bound parameter} {bound parameters}</tcl>
<h3>Parameters</h3>
<p>
A "variable" or "parameter" token
specifies a placeholder in the expression for a 
value that is filled in at runtime using the
[sqlite3_bind_blob() | sqlite3_bind()] family of C/C++ interfaces.
Parameters can take several forms:
</p>

<blockquote>
<table>
<tr>
<td align="right" valign="top"><b>?</b><i>NNN</i></td><td width="20"></td>
<td>^(A question mark followed by a number <i>NNN</i> holds a spot for the
NNN-th parameter.  NNN must be between 1 and [SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER].)^
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="right" valign="top"><b>?</b></td><td width="20"></td>
<td>^A question mark that is not followed by a number creates a parameter
with a number one greater than the largest parameter number already assigned.
^If this means the parameter number is greater than
[SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER], it is an error.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="right" valign="top"><b>:</b><i>AAAA</i></td><td width="20"></td>
<td>^A colon followed by an identifier name holds a spot for a 
[sqlite3_bind_parameter_name|named parameter] with the name :AAAA.  
^(Named parameters are also numbered. The number assigned is one greater than
the largest parameter number already assigned.)^ ^If this means the parameter
would be assigned a number greater than [SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER], it is
an error. To avoid confusion, it is best to avoid mixing named and numbered
parameters.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="right" valign="top"><b>@</b><i>AAAA</i></td><td width="20"></td>
<td>^An "at" sign works exactly like a colon, except that the name of
the parameter created is @AAAA.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="right" valign="top"><b>$</b><i>AAAA</i></td><td width="20"></td>
<td>^A dollar-sign followed by an identifier name also holds a spot for a named
parameter with the name $AAAA.  ^(The identifier name in this case can include
one or more occurrences of "::" and a suffix enclosed in "(...)" containing
any text at all.)^  This syntax is the form of a variable name in the
[http://www.tcl.tk/ | Tcl programming language].  The presence
of this syntax results from the fact that SQLite is really a 
[Tcl extension] that has escaped into the wild.</td>
</tr>
</table>
</blockquote>

<p>^Parameters that are not assigned values using
[sqlite3_bind_blob() | sqlite3_bind()] are treated
as NULL.</p>

<p>^The maximum parameter number is set at compile-time by
the [SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER] macro.  ^(An individual [database connections]
D can reduce its maximum parameter number below the compile-time maximum
using the [sqlite3_limit](D, [SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER],...) interface.)^
</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment like LIKE ESCAPE</tcl>
<h3>The LIKE and GLOB operators</h3>
<p>^The LIKE operator does a pattern matching comparison. ^The operand
to the right of the LIKE operator contains the pattern and the left hand
operand contains the string to match against the pattern.

<tcl>hd_puts "^A percent symbol (\"%\") in the LIKE pattern matches any
sequence of zero or more characters in the string.  ^An underscore
(\"_\") in the LIKE pattern matches any single character in the
string.  ^(Any other character matches itself or its lower/upper case
equivalent (i.e. case-insensitive matching).)^  (A bug: ^SQLite only
understands upper/lower case for ASCII characters by default.  ^The
LIKE operator is case sensitive by default for unicode characters that are
beyond the ASCII range.  For example,
^the expression <b>'a'&nbsp;LIKE&nbsp;'A'</b>
is TRUE but <b>'&aelig;'&nbsp;LIKE&nbsp;'&AElig;'</b> is FALSE.)<p>"</tcl>

<p>^If the optional ESCAPE clause is present, then the expression
following the ESCAPE keyword must evaluate to a string consisting of
a single character. ^This character may be used in the LIKE pattern
to include literal percent or underscore characters. ^The escape
character followed by a percent symbol (%), underscore (_), or a second
instance of the escape character itself matches a
literal percent symbol, underscore, or a single escape character,
respectively.

<p>^The infix LIKE operator is implemented by calling the
application-defined SQL functions [like(<i>Y</i>,<i>X</i>)] or
[like(<i>Y</i>,<i>X</i>,<i>Z</i>)]</a>.</p>

<p>^The LIKE operator can be made case sensitive using the
[case_sensitive_like pragma].</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment glob GLOB</tcl>
<p>^The GLOB operator is similar to LIKE but uses the Unix
file globbing syntax for its wildcards.  ^Also, GLOB is case
sensitive, unlike LIKE.  ^Both GLOB and LIKE may be preceded by
the NOT keyword to invert the sense of the test.  ^The infix GLOB 
operator is implemented by calling the function
[glob(<i>Y</i>,<i>X</i>)] and can be modified by overriding
that function.</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment regexp REGEXP</tcl>
<p>^The REGEXP operator is a special syntax for the regexp()
user function.  ^No regexp() user function is defined by default
and so use of the REGEXP operator will normally result in an
error message.  ^If a [application-defined SQL function] named "regexp"
is added at run-time, that function will be called in order
to implement the REGEXP operator.</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment match MATCH</tcl>
<p>^The MATCH operator is a special syntax for the match()
application-defined function.  ^The default match() function implementation
raises an exception and is not really useful for anything.
^But extensions can override the match() function with more
helpful logic.</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment between BETWEEN</tcl>
<h3>The BETWEEN operator</h3>
<p>^(The BETWEEN operator is logically equivalent to a pair of comparisons.
"<i>x</i> <b>BETWEEN</b> <i>y</i> <b>AND</b> <i>z</i>" is 
equivalent to 
"<i>x</i><b>&gt;=</b><i>y</i> <b>AND</b> <i>x</i><b>&lt;=</b><i>z</i>" except
that with BETWEEN, the <i>x</i> expression is only evaluated once.)^
^The precedence of the BETWEEN operator is the same as the precedence
as operators <b>==</b> and <b>!=</b> and <b>LIKE</b> and groups left to right.

<tcl>hd_fragment case {CASE expression}</tcl>
<h3>The CASE expression</h3>
<p>A CASE expression serves a role similar to IF-THEN-ELSE in other
programming languages.  

<p>The optional expression that occurs in between the CASE keyword and the
first WHEN keyword is called the "base" expression. ^There are two basic forms
of the CASE expression: those with a base expression and those without.

<p>^In a CASE without a base expression, each WHEN expression is evaluated
and the result treated as a boolean, starting with the leftmost and continuing
to the right. ^The result of the CASE expression is the evaluation of the THEN
expression that corresponds to the first WHEN expression that evaluates to
true. ^Or, if none of the WHEN expressions evaluate to true, the result of
evaluating the ELSE expression, if any. ^If there is no ELSE expression and
none of the WHEN expressions are true, then the overall result is NULL.

<p>^A NULL result is considered untrue when evaluating WHEN terms.

<p>^In a CASE with a base expression, the base expression is evaluated just
once and the result is compared against the evaluation of each WHEN 
expression from left to right. ^The result of the CASE expression is the 
evaluation of the THEN expression that corresponds to the first WHEN
expression for which the comparison is true. ^Or, if none of the WHEN
expressions evaluate to a value equal to the base expression, the result
of evaluating the ELSE expression, if any. ^If there is no ELSE expression and
none of the WHEN expressions produce a result equal to the base expression,
the overall result is NULL.

<p>^When comparing a base expression against a WHEN expression, the same
collating sequence, affinity, and NULL-handling rules apply as if the
base expression and WHEN expression are respectively the left- and
right-hand operands of an <big><b>=</b></big> operator.</p> ^If the base 
expression is NULL then the result of the CASE is always the result 
of evaluating the ELSE expression if it exists, or NULL if it does not.

<p>^Both forms of the CASE expression use lazy, or short-circuit, 
evaluation.

<p>^(The only difference between the following two CASE expressions is that 
the <i>x</i> expression is evaluated exactly once in the first example but 
might be evaluated multiple times in the second:

<ul><pre>
<li>CASE x WHEN w1 THEN r1 WHEN w2 THEN r2 ELSE r3 END
<li>CASE WHEN x=w1 THEN r1 WHEN x=w2 THEN r2 ELSE r3 END
</pre></ul>)^


<tcl>hd_fragment in_op {IN operator} {NOT IN operator}</tcl>
<h3>The IN and NOT IN operators</h3>
<p>^The IN and NOT IN operators take a single scalar operand on the
left and a vector operand on the right
formed by an explicit list of zero or more scalars or by a 
single subquery.
^When the right operand of an IN or NOT IN operator is a subquery, the
subquery must have a single result column.
^When the right operand is an empty set, the result of IN is false and the
result of NOT IN is true, regardless of the left operand and even if the
left operand is NULL.
^(The result of an IN or NOT IN operator is determined by the following
matrix:

<center>
<table border=1>
<tr>
<th>Left operand <br>is NULL
<th>Right operand <br>contains NULL
<th>Right operand <br>is an empty set
<th>Left operand found <br>within right operand
<th>Result of <br>IN operator
<th>Result of <br>NOT IN operator
<tr>
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">false
<td align="center">true
<tr>
<td align="center">does not matter
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">yes
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">false
<td align="center">true
<tr>
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">does not matter
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">yes
<td align="center">true
<td align="center">false
<tr>
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">yes
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">NULL
<td align="center">NULL
<tr>
<td align="center">yes
<td align="center">does not matter
<td align="center">no
<td align="center">does not matter
<td align="center">NULL
<td align="center">NULL
</table>
</center>)^

<p>^Note that SQLite allows the parenthesized list of scalar values on
the right-hand side of an IN or NOT IN operator to be an empty list but
most other SQL database database engines and the SQL92 standard require
the list to contain at least one element.</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment in_op {EXISTS operator} {NOT EXISTS operator}</tcl>
<h3>The EXISTS operator</h3>

<p>^The EXISTS operator always evaluates to one of the integer values 0 
and 1. ^If executing the SELECT statement specified as the right-hand 
operand of the EXISTS operator would return one or more rows, then the
EXISTS operator evaluates to 1. ^If executing the SELECT would return
no rows at all, then the EXISTS operator evaluates to 0. 

<p>^The number of columns in each row returned by the SELECT statement
(if any) and the specific values returned have no effect on the results
of the EXISTS operator. ^In particular, rows containing NULL values are
not handled any differently from rows without NULL values.

<h3>Scalar Subqueries</h3>

<p>^A [SELECT] statement enclosed in parentheses may appear as a scalar
quantity. ^A [SELECT] used as a scalar quantity must return a result set
with a single column. ^The result of the expression is the value of the
only column in the first row returned by the SELECT statement. ^If the SELECT 
yields more than one result row, all rows after the first are ignored. ^If
the SELECT yields no rows, then the value of the expression is NULL.

<p>^All types of [SELECT] statement, including aggregate and compound SELECT
queries (queries with keywords like UNION or EXCEPT) are allowed as scalar
subqueries.

<h3>Table Column Names</h3>

<p>^A column name can be any of the names defined in the [CREATE TABLE]
statement or one of the following special identifiers: "<b>ROWID</b>",
"<b>OID</b>", or "<b>_ROWID_</b>".
^These special identifiers all describe the
unique integer key (the [rowid]) associated with every 
row of every table.
^The special identifiers only refer to the row key if the [CREATE TABLE]
statement does not define a real column with the same name.
^The rowid can be used anywhere a regular
column can be used.</p>

<p>^A [SELECT] statement used as either a scalar subquery or as the 
right-hand operand of an IN, NOT IN or EXISTS expression may contain 
references to columns in the outer query. Such a subquery is known as
a correlated subquery. ^A correlated subquery is reevaluated each time
its result is required. ^An uncorrelated subquery is evaluated only once
and the result reused as necessary.

<tcl>hd_fragment castexpr {CAST expression}</tcl>
<h3>CAST expressions</h3>

<p>A CAST expression is used to convert the value of &lt;expr&gt; to 
a different [storage class] in a similar way to the conversion that takes
place when a [column affinity] is applied to a value. ^Application of a CAST
expression is different to application of a column affinity, as
with a CAST expression the storage class conversion is forced even 
if it is lossy and irrreversible.

<p>^If the value of &lt;expr&gt; is NULL, then the result of the CAST
expression is also NULL. ^Otherwise, the storage class of the result value
is determined by applying the [rules for determining column affinity] to
the &lt;type-name&gt; specified as part of the CAST expression.

<table border=1>
<tr>
  <th> Affinity of &lt;type-name&gt;
  <th> Conversion Processing
<tr>
  <td> NONE 
  <td> ^Casting a value to a &lt;type-name&gt; with no affinity causes the value to
  be converted into a BLOB.  ^Casting to a BLOB consists of first casting
  the value to TEXT in the [encoding] of the database connection, then
  interpreting the resulting byte sequence as a BLOB instead of as TEXT.

<tr>
  <td> TEXT
  <td> ^To cast a BLOB value to TEXT, the sequence of bytes that make up the
  BLOB is interpreted as text encoded using the database encoding.
  <p>
   ^Casting an INTEGER or REAL value into TEXT renders the value as if via 
    [sqlite3_snprintf()] except that the resulting TEXT uses the [encoding] of
    the database connection.

<tr>
  <td> REAL
  <td> ^When casting a BLOB value to a REAL, the value is first converted to
        TEXT.
       <p>^When casting a TEXT value to REAL, the longest possible prefix of
        the value that can be interpreted as a real number is extracted from
        the TEXT value and the remainder ignored. ^Any leading spaces in the
        TEXT value are ignored when converging from TEXT to REAL. ^(If there is
        no prefix that can be interpreted as a real number, the result of the
        conversion is 0.0.)^

<tr>
  <td> INTEGER
  <td> ^When casting a BLOB value to INTEGER, the value is first converted to
        TEXT.
       <p>^When casting a TEXT value to INTEGER, the longest possible prefix of
        the value that can be interpreted as an integer number is extracted from
        the TEXT value and the remainder ignored. ^Any leading spaces in the
        TEXT value when converting from TEXT to INTEGER are ignored. ^If there
        is no prefix that can be interpreted as an integer number, the result
        of the conversion is 0.

      <p>^A cast of a REAL value into an INTEGER will truncate the fractional
      part of the REAL.  ^If an REAL is too large to be represented as an 
      INTEGER then the result of the cast is the largest negative integer: 
      -9223372036854775808.

<tr>
  <td> NUMERIC
  <td> ^Casting a TEXT or BLOB value into NUMERIC first does a forced
   conversion into REAL but then further converts the result into INTEGER if
   and only if the conversion from REAL to INTEGER is lossless and reversible.
   This is the only context in SQLite where the NUMERIC and INTEGER [affinities]
   behave differently.
   <p> ^Casting a REAL or INTEGER value to NUMERIC is a no-op, even if a real
   value could be losslessly converted to an integer.

</tr>

</table>

<p>^Note that the result from casting any non-BLOB value into a 
BLOB and the result from casting any BLOB value into a non-BLOB value
may be different depending on whether the database [encoding] is UTF-8,
UTF-16be, or UTF-16le.


<tcl>hd_fragment booleanexpr {boolean expression}</tcl>
<h3>Boolean Expressions</h3>

<p>The SQL language features several contexts where an expression is 
evaluated and the result converted to a boolean (true or false) value. These
contexts are:

  <ul>
    <li> the WHERE clause of a SELECT, UPDATE or DELETE statement,
    <li> the ON or USING clause of a join in a SELECT statement,
    <li> the HAVING clause of a SELECT statement,
    <li> the WHEN clause of an SQL trigger, and
    <li> the WHEN clause or clauses of some CASE expressions.
  </ul>

<p>^(To convert the results of an SQL expression to a boolean value, SQLite
first casts the result to a NUMERIC value in the same way as a 
[CAST expression]. A NULL or zero value (integer value 0 or real value 0.0) is
considered to be false. All other values are considered true.)^

<p>^(For example, the values NULL, 0.0, 0, 'english' and '0' are all considered
to be false.)^ ^(Values 1, 1.0, 0.1, -0.1 and '1english' are considered to 
be true.)^

<h3>Functions</h3>
<p>^Both [corefunc|simple] and [aggfunc|aggregate] functions are supported.
(For presentation purposes, simple functions are further subdivided into
[corefunc | core functions] and [datefunc | date-time functions].)
^A simple function can be used in any expression.  ^Simple functions return
a result immediately based on their inputs.  ^Aggregate functions
may only be used in a SELECT statement.  ^Aggregate functions compute
their result across all rows of the result set.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {Core Functions} corefunc {*corefunc}
proc funcdef {syntax keywords desc} {
  hd_puts {<tr>}
  regsub -all {\s+} [string trim $syntax] {<br></br>} syntax
  regsub -all {\(([^*)]+)\)} $syntax {(<i>\1</i>)} syntax
  regsub -all {,} $syntax {</i>,<i>} syntax
  regsub -all {<i>\.\.\.</i>} $syntax {...} syntax
  hd_puts "<td valign=\"top\" align=\"right\" width=\"120\">"
  if {[llength $keywords]==0} {
    regexp {[a-z_]+} $syntax name
    hd_fragment $name *$name "${name}() SQL function"
  } else {
    set fragname [lindex $keywords 0]
    regsub -all {[^a-z]} $fragname {} fragname
    hd_fragment $fragname
    eval hd_keywords [string map {\n { }} $keywords]
  }
  hd_puts "$syntax</td>"
  hd_puts {<td valign="top">}
  hd_resolve $desc
  hd_puts {</td></tr>}
}
</tcl>

<p>The core functions shown below are available by default. 
[datefunc | Date &amp; Time functions] and
[aggfunc | aggregate functions] are documented separately.  An
application may define additional
functions written in C and added to the database engine using
the [sqlite3_create_function()] API.</p>

<table border=0 cellpadding=10>
<tcl>
funcdef {abs(X)} {} {
  ^The abs(X) function returns the absolute value of the numeric
  argument X.  ^Abs(X) returns NULL if X is NULL. 
  ^(Abs(X) return 0.0 if X is a string or blob
  that cannot be converted to a numeric value.)^  ^If X is the 
  integer -9223372036854775807 then abs(X) throws an integer overflow
  error since there is no equivalent positive 64-bit two complement value.
}

funcdef {changes()} {} {
  ^The changes() function returns the number of database rows that were changed
  or inserted or deleted by the most recently completed INSERT, DELETE,
  or UPDATE statement, exclusive of statements in lower-level triggers.
  ^The changes() SQL function is a wrapper around the [sqlite3_changes()]
  C/C++ function and hence follows the same rules for counting changes.
}

funcdef {coalesce(X,Y,...)} {} {
  ^The coalesce() function returns a copy of its first non-NULL argument, or
  NULL if all arguments are NULL.  ^Coalesce() must be at least 
  2 arguments.
}

funcdef {glob(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The glob(X,Y) function is equivalent to the
  expression "<b>Y GLOB X</b>".
  Note that the X and Y arguments are reversed in the glob() function
  relative to the infix [GLOB] operator.
  ^If the [sqlite3_create_function()] interface is used to
  override the glob(X,Y) function with an alternative implementation then
  the [GLOB] operator will invoke the alternative implementation.
}

funcdef {ifnull(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The ifnull() function returns a copy of its first non-NULL argument, or
  NULL if both arguments are NULL.  ^Ifnull() must have exactly 2 arguments.
  ^The ifnull() function is equivalent to [coalesce()] with two arguments.
}

funcdef {hex(X)} {} {
  ^The hex() function interprets its argument as a BLOB and returns
  a string which is the upper-case hexadecimal rendering of the content of
  that blob.
}

funcdef {last_insert_rowid()} {} {
  ^The last_insert_rowid() function returns the [ROWID]
  of the last row insert from the database connection which invoked the
  function.
  ^The last_insert_rowid() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] C/C++ interface function.
}

funcdef {length(X)} {} {
  ^The length(X) function returns the length of X in 
  characters if X is a string, or in bytes if X is a blob.
  ^If X is NULL then length(X) is NULL.
  ^If X is numeric then length(X) returns the length of a string
  representation of X.
}

funcdef {like(X,Y) like(X,Y,Z)} {} {
  ^The like() function is used to implement the
  "<b>Y LIKE X &#91;ESCAPE Z&#93;</b>" expression. 
  ^If the optional ESCAPE clause is present, then the
  like() function is invoked with three arguments.  ^Otherwise, it is
  invoked with two arguments only. Note that the X and Y parameters are
  reversed in the like() function relative to the infix [LIKE] operator.
  ^The [sqlite3_create_function()] interface can be used to override the
  like() function and thereby change the operation of the
  [LIKE] operator.  When overriding the like() function, it may be important
  to override both the two and three argument versions of the like() 
  function. Otherwise, different code may be called to implement the
  [LIKE] operator depending on whether or not an ESCAPE clause was 
  specified.
}

funcdef {load_extension(X) load_extension(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The load_extension(X,Y) function loads SQLite extensions out of the shared
  library file named X using the entry point Y.  ^The result of load_extension()
  is always a NULL.  ^If Y is omitted then the default entry point
  of <b>sqlite3_extension_init</b> is used.  ^The load_extension() function
  raises an exception if the extension fails to load or initialize correctly.

  <p>^The load_extension() function will fail if the extension attempts to 
  modify or delete a SQL function or collating sequence.  ^The
  extension can add new functions or collating sequences, but cannot
  modify or delete existing functions or collating sequences because
  those functions and/or collating sequences might be used elsewhere
  in the currently running SQL statement.  To load an extension that
  changes or deletes functions or collating sequences, use the
  [sqlite3_load_extension()] C-language API.</p>
}

funcdef {lower(X)} {} {
  ^The lower(X) function returns a copy of string X with all ASCII characters
  converted to lower case.  ^The default built-in lower() function works
  for ASCII characters only.  To do case conversions on non-ASCII
  characters, load the ICU extension.
}

funcdef {ltrim(X) ltrim(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The ltrim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from the left side of X.
  ^If the Y argument is omitted, ltrim(X) removes spaces from the left side
  of X.
}

funcdef {max(X,Y,...)} {*maxCoreFunc *max {max() SQL function}} {
  ^The multi-argument max() function returns the argument with the 
  maximum value, or return NULL if any argument is NULL. 
  ^The multi-argument max() function searches its arguments from left to right
  for an argument that defines a collating function and uses that collating
  function for all string comparisons.  ^If none of the arguments to max()
  define a collating function, then the BINARY collating function is used.
  Note that <b>max()</b> is a simple function when
  it has 2 or more arguments but operates as an
  [minAggFunc | aggregate function] if given only a single argument.
}

funcdef {min(X,Y,...)} {*minCoreFunc *min {min() SQL function}} {
  ^The multi-argument min() function returns the argument with the
  minimum value.
  ^The multi-argument min() function searches its arguments from left to right
  for an argument that defines a collating function and uses that collating
  function for all string comparisons.  ^If none of the arguments to min()
  define a collating function, then the BINARY collating function is used.
  Note that <b>min()</b> is a simple function when
  it has 2 or more arguments but operates as an 
  [maxAggFunc | aggregate function] if given
  only a single argument.
}

funcdef {nullif(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The nullif(X,Y) function returns its first argument if the arguments are
  different and NULL if the arguments are the same.  ^The nullif(X,Y) function
  searches its arguments from left to right for an argument that defines a
  collating function and uses that collating function for all string
  comparisons.  ^If neither argument to nullif() defines a collating function
  then the BINARY is used.
}

funcdef {quote(X)} {} {
  ^The quote(X) function returns a string which is the value of
  its argument suitable for inclusion into another SQL statement.
  ^Strings are surrounded by single-quotes with escapes on interior quotes
  as needed.  ^BLOBs are encoded as hexadecimal literals.
}

funcdef {random()} {} {
  ^The random() function returns a pseudo-random integer
  between -9223372036854775808 and +9223372036854775807.
}

funcdef {randomblob(N)} {} {
  ^The randomblob(N) function return an N-byte blob containing pseudo-random
  bytes. ^If N is less than 1 then a 1-byte random blob is returned.

  <p>Hint:  applications can generate globally unique identifiers
  using this function together with [hex()] and/or
  [lower()] like this:</p>

  <blockquote>
  hex(randomblob(16))<br></br>
  lower(hex(randomblob(16)))
  </blockquote>
}

funcdef {replace(X,Y,Z)} {} {
  ^The replace(X,Y,Z) function returns a string formed by substituting
  string Z for every occurrence of string Y in string X.  ^The [BINARY]
  collating sequence is used for comparisons.  ^If Y is an empty
  string then return X unchanged.  ^If Z is not initially
  a string, it is cast to a UTF-8 string prior to processing.
}

funcdef {round(X) round(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The round(X,Y) function returns a string representation of the floating-point
  value X rounded to Y digits to the right of the decimal point.
  ^If the Y argument is omitted, the X value is truncated to an integer.
}

funcdef {rtrim(X) rtrim(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The rtrim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from the right side of X.
  ^If the Y argument is omitted, rtrim(X) removes spaces from the right
  side of X.
}

funcdef {soundex(X)} {} {
  ^The soundex(X) function returns a string that is the soundex encoding 
  of the string X.
  ^The string "?000" is returned if the argument is NULL or contains
  no ASCII alphabetic characters.
  ^(This function is omitted from SQLite by default.
  It is only available if the [SQLITE_SOUNDEX] compile-time option
  is used when SQLite is built.)^
}

funcdef {sqlite_compileoption_get(N)} {} {
  ^The sqlite_compileoption_get() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  [sqlite3_compileoption_get()] C/C++ function.
  ^This routine returns the N-th compile-time option used to build SQLite
  or NULL if N is out of range.  See also the [compile_options pragma].
}

funcdef {sqlite_compileoption_used(X)} {} {
  ^The sqlite_compileoption_used() SQL function is a wrapper around the
  [sqlite3_compileoption_used()] C/C++ function.
  ^When the argument X to sqlite_compileoption_used(X) is a string which
  is the name of a compile-time option, this routine returns true (1) or
  false (0) depending on whether or not that option was used during the
  build.
}

funcdef {sqlite_source_id()} {} {
  ^The sqlite_source_id() function returns a string that identifies the
  specific version of the source code that was used to build the SQLite
  library.  ^The string returned by sqlite_source_id() begins with
  the date and time that the source code was checked in and is follows by
  an SHA1 hash that uniquely identifies the source tree.  ^This function is
  an SQL wrapper around the [sqlite3_sourceid()] C interface.
}

funcdef {sqlite_version()} {} {
  ^The sqlite_version() function returns the version string for the SQLite
  library that is running.  ^This function is an SQL
  wrapper around the [sqlite3_libversion()] C-interface.
}

funcdef {substr(X,Y,Z) substr(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The substr(X,Y,Z) function returns a substring of input string X that begins
  with the Y-th character and which is Z characters long.
  ^If Z is omitted then substr(X,Y) returns all characters through the end
  of the string X beginning with the Y-th.
  ^The left-most character of X is number 1.  ^If Y is negative
  then the first character of the substring is found by counting from the
  right rather than the left.  ^If Z is negative then
  the abs(Z) characters preceding the Y-th character are returned.
  ^If X is a string then characters indices refer to actual UTF-8 
  characters.  ^If X is a BLOB then the indices refer to bytes.
}

funcdef {total_changes()} {} {
  ^The total_changes() function returns the number of row changes
  caused by INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
  statements since the current database connection was opened.
  ^This function is a wrapper around the [sqlite3_total_changes()]
  C/C++ interface.
}

funcdef {trim(X) trim(X,Y)} {} {
  ^The trim(X,Y) function returns a string formed by removing any and all
  characters that appear in Y from both ends of X.
  ^If the Y argument is omitted, trim(X) removes spaces from both ends of X.
}

funcdef {typeof(X)} {} {
  ^The typeof(X) function returns a string that indicates the [datatype] of
  the expression X: "null", "integer", "real", "text", or "blob".
}

funcdef {upper(X)} {} {
  ^The upper(X) function returns a copy of input string X in which all 
  lower-case ASCII characters are converted to their upper-case equivalent.
}

funcdef {zeroblob(N)} {} {
  ^The zeroblob(N) function returns a BLOB consisting of N bytes of 0x00.
  SQLite manages these zeroblobs very efficiently.  Zeroblobs can be used to
  reserve space for a BLOB that is later written using 
  [sqlite3_blob_open() | incremental BLOB I/O].
  ^This SQL function is implemented using the [sqlite3_result_zeroblob()]
  routine from the C/C++ interface.
}
</tcl>
</table>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {Date And Time Functions} datefunc {*datefunc}
hd_keywords {date() SQL function} {time() SQL function}
hd_keywords {datetime() SQL function} {julianday() SQL function}
hd_keywords {strftime() SQL function}
</tcl>

<p>
SQLite supports five date and time functions as follows:
</p>

<p>
<ol>
<li> ^(<b>date(</b><i>timestring, modifier, modifier, ...</i><b>)</b>)^ </li>
<li> ^(<b>time(</b><i>timestring, modifier, modifier, ...</i><b>)</b>)^ </li>
<li> ^(<b>datetime(</b><i>timestring, modifier, modifier, ...</i><b>)</b>)^ </li>
<li> ^(<b>julianday(</b><i>timestring, modifier, modifier, ...</i><b>)</b>)^ </li>
<li> ^(<b>strftime(</b><i>format, timestring, modifier, modifier, ...</i><b>)</b>)^ </li>
</ol>

<p>
^All five date and time functions take a time string as an argument. 
^The time string is followed by zero or more modifiers. 
^The strftime() function also takes a format string as its first argument.
</p>

<p>
The date and time functions use a subset of
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601 | IS0-8601] date and time
formats.
^The date() function returns the date in this format: YYYY-MM-DD. 
^The time() function returns the time as HH:MM:SS. 
^The datetime() function returns "YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS". 
^(The julianday() function returns the 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_day | Julian day] - the
number of days since noon in Greenwich on November 24, 4714 B.C. 
([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proleptic_Gregorian_calendar | Proleptic Gregorian calendar]).)^
^The strftime() routine returns the date formatted according to 
the format string specified as the first argument.
^The format string supports the most common substitutions found in the 
[http://opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007908799/xsh/strftime.html | strftime() function]
from the standard C library plus two new substitutions, %f and %J.
^(The following is a complete list of valid strftime() substitutions:
</p>

<blockquote>
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tr><td><td width="10"><td></tr>

<tr><td> %d <td><td> day of month: 00
<tr><td> %f <td><td> fractional seconds: SS.SSS
<tr><td> %H <td><td> hour: 00-24 
<tr><td> %j <td><td> day of year: 001-366
<tr><td> %J <td><td> Julian day number
<tr><td> %m <td><td> month: 01-12
<tr><td> %M <td><td> minute: 00-59
<tr><td> %s <td><td> seconds since 1970-01-01
<tr><td> %S <td><td> seconds: 00-59
<tr><td> %w <td><td> day of week 0-6 with Sunday==0
<tr><td> %W <td><td> week of year: 00-53
<tr><td> %Y <td><td> year: 0000-9999
<tr><td> %% <td><td> %
</table>
</blockquote>)^

<p>
^(Notice that all other date and time functions can be expressed
in terms of strftime():
</p>

<blockquote>
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
<tr><td><b>Function</b><td width="30"><td><b>Equivalent strftime()</b>
<tr><td>   date(...)      <td><td>  strftime('%Y-%m-%d', ...)
<tr><td>   time(...)      <td><td>  strftime('%H:%M:%S', ...)
<tr><td>   datetime(...)  <td><td>  strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S', ...)
<tr><td>   julianday(...) <td><td>  strftime('%J', ...)
</table>
</blockquote>)^

<p>
The only reasons for providing functions other than strftime() is
for convenience and for efficiency.
</p>

<h3>Time Strings</h3>

<p>^(A time string can be in any of the following formats:</p>

<ol>
<li> <i>YYYY-MM-DD</i>
<li> <i>YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM</i>
<li> <i>YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS</i>
<li> <i>YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.SSS</i>
<li> <i>YYYY-MM-DD</i><b>T</b><i>HH:MM</i>
<li> <i>YYYY-MM-DD</i><b>T</b><i>HH:MM:SS</i>
<li> <i>YYYY-MM-DD</i><b>T</b><i>HH:MM:SS.SSS</i>
<li> <i>HH:MM</i>
<li> <i>HH:MM:SS</i>
<li> <i>HH:MM:SS.SSS</i>
<li> <b>now</b>
<li> <i>DDDDDDDDDD</i>
</ol>)^

<p>
^In formats 5 through 7, the "T" is a literal character separating 
the date and the time, as required by 
[http://www.w3c.org/TR/NOTE-datetime | ISO-8601]. 
^Formats 8 through 10 that specify only a time assume a date of 
2000-01-01. Format 11, the string 'now', is converted into the 
current date and time as obtained from the xCurrentTime method
of the [sqlite3_vfs] object in use.
^[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time | Universal Coordinated Time (UTC)] is used. 
^Format 12 is the 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_day | Julian day number]
expressed as a floating point value.
</p>

<h3>Modifiers</h3>

<p>^The time string can be followed by zero or more modifiers that 
alter the date and time string. ^Each modifier
is a transformation that is applied to the time value to its left.
^Modifiers are applied from left to right; order is important.
^(The available modifiers are as follows.</p>

<ol>
<li> NNN days
<li> NNN hours
<li> NNN minutes
<li> NNN.NNNN seconds
<li> NNN months
<li> NNN years
<li> start of month
<li> start of year
<li> start of day
<li> weekday N
<li> unixepoch
<li> localtime
<li> utc 
</ol>)^

<p>^The first six modifiers (1 through 6) 
simply add the specified amount of time to the date and time 
specified by the preceding timestring and modifiers.
^Note that "&plusmn;NNN months" works by rendering the original date into
the YYYY-MM-DD format, adding the &plusmn;NNN to the MM month value, then
normalizing the result.  ^Thus, for example, the data 2001-03-31 modified
by '+1 month' initially yields 2001-04-31, but April only has 30 days
so the date is normalized to 2001-05-01.  ^A similar effect occurs when
the original date is February 29 of a leapyear and the modifier is
&plusmn;N years where N is not a multiple of four.</p>

<p>^The "start of" modifiers (7 through 9) shift the date backwards 
to the beginning of the current month, year or day.</p>

<p>^The "weekday" modifier advances the date forward to the next date 
where the weekday number is N. Sunday is 0, Monday is 1, and so forth.</p>

<p>^The "unixepoch" modifier (11) only works if it immediately follows 
a timestring in the DDDDDDDDDD format. 
^This modifier causes the DDDDDDDDDD to be interpreted not 
as a Julian day number as it normally would be, but as
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_time | Unix Time] - the 
number of seconds since 1970.  If the "unixepoch" modifier does not
follow a timestring of the form DDDDDDDDDD which expresses the number
of seconds since 1970 or if other modifiers
separate the "unixepoch" modifier from prior DDDDDDDDDD then the
behavior is undefined.
Due to precision limitations imposed by the implementations use
of 64-bit integers, the "unixepoch" modifier only works for
dates between 0000-01-01 00:00:00 and 5352-11-01 10:52:47 (unix times
of -62167219200 through 10675199167).</p>

<p>^The "localtime" modifier (12) assumes the time string to its left is in
Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) and adjusts the time
string so that it displays localtime.  If "localtime"
follows a time that is not UTC, then the behavior is undefined.
^(The "utc" is the opposite of "localtime".  "utc" assumes that the string
to its left is in the local timezone and adjusts that string to be in UTC.)^
If the prior string is not in localtime, then the result of "utc" is
undefined.</p>

<h3>Examples</h3>

^(<p>Compute the current date.<p>

<blockquote>SELECT date('now');</blockquote>)^

^(<p>Compute the last day of the current month.</p>

<blockquote>SELECT date('now','start of month','+1 month','-1 day');
</blockquote>)^

^(<p>Compute the date and time given a unix timestamp 1092941466.</p>

<blockquote>
    SELECT datetime(1092941466, 'unixepoch');
</blockquote>)^

^(<p>Compute the date and time given a unix timestamp 1092941466, and 
compensate for your local timezone.</p>

<blockquote>
  SELECT datetime(1092941466, 'unixepoch', 'localtime');
</blockquote>)^

^(<p>Compute the current unix timestamp.</p>

<blockquote>
  SELECT strftime('%s','now');
</blockquote>)^

^(<p>Compute the number of days since the signing of the US Declaration
of Independence.</p>

<blockquote>
  SELECT julianday('now') - julianday('1776-07-04');
</blockquote>)^

^(<p>Compute the number of seconds since a particular moment in 2004:</p>

<blockquote>
  SELECT strftime('%s','now') - strftime('%s','2004-01-01 02:34:56');
</blockquote>)^

^(<p>
Compute the date of the first Tuesday in October
for the current year.
</p>

<blockquote>
  SELECT date('now','start of year','+9 months','weekday 2');
</blockquote>)^

^(<p>Compute the time since the unix epoch in seconds 
(like strftime('%s','now') except includes fractional part):</p>

<blockquote>
  SELECT (julianday('now') - 2440587.5)*86400.0;
</blockquote>)^

<h3>Caveats And Bugs</h3>

<p>The computation of local time depends heavily on the whim 
of politicians and is thus difficult to get correct for 
all locales. ^In this implementation, the standard C library 
function localtime_r() is used to assist in the calculation of 
local time.  ^(The 
localtime_r() C function normally only works for years
between 1970 and 2037. For dates outside this range, SQLite 
attempts to map the year into an equivalent year within 
this range, do the calculation, then map the year back.)^</p>


<p>^(These functions only work for dates between 0000-01-01 00:00:00
and 9999-12-31 23:59:59 (julidan day numbers 1721059.5 through 5373484.5).)^
For dates outside that range, the results of these
functions are undefined.</p>

<p>Non-Vista Windows platforms only support one set of DST rules. 
Vista only supports two. Therefore, on these platforms, 
historical DST calculations will be incorrect. 
For example, in the US, in 2007 the DST rules changed. 
Non-Vista Windows platforms apply the new 2007 DST rules 
to all previous years as well. Vista does somewhat better
getting results correct back to 1986, when the rules were also changed.</p>

<p>All internal computations assume the 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorian_calendar | Gregorian calendar]
system.  It is also assumed that every
day is exactly 86400 seconds in duration.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {Aggregate Functions} aggfunc {*aggfunc}
</tcl>

<p>
The aggregate functions shown below are available by default.  Additional
aggregate functions written in C may be added using the 
[sqlite3_create_function()]</a>
API.</p>

<p>
^In any aggregate function that takes a single argument, that argument
can be preceded by the keyword DISTINCT.  ^In such cases, duplicate
elements are filtered before being passed into the aggregate function.
^For example, the function "count(distinct X)" will return the number
of distinct values of column X instead of the total number of non-null
values in column X.
</p>

<table border=0 cellpadding=10>
<tcl>
funcdef {avg(X)} {*avg {avg() aggregate function}} {
  ^The avg() function
  returns the average value of all non-NULL <i>X</i> within a
  group.  ^String and BLOB values that do not look like numbers are
  interpreted as 0.
  ^The result of avg() is always a floating point value as long as
  at there is at least one non-NULL input even if all
  inputs are integers.  ^The result of avg() is NULL if and only if
  there are no non-NULL inputs.  
}

funcdef {count(X) count(*)} {*count {count() aggregate function}} {
  ^The count(X) function returns
  a count of the number of times
  that <i>X</i> is not NULL in a group.  ^The count(*) function
  (with no arguments) returns the total number of rows in the group.
}

funcdef {group_concat(X) group_concat(X,Y)} {
  *group_concat {group_concat() aggregate function}
} {
  ^The group_concat() function returns
  a string which is the concatenation of
  all non-NULL values of <i>X</i>.  ^If parameter <i>Y</i> is present then
  it is used as the separator
  between instances of <i>X</i>.  ^A comma (",") is used as the separator
  if <i>Y</i> is omitted.  The order of the concatenated elements is
  arbitrary.
}

funcdef {max(X)} {*maxAggFunc *agg_max {max() aggregate function}} {
  ^The max() aggregate function
  returns the maximum value of all values in the group.
  ^The maximum value is the value that would be returned last in an
  ORDER BY on the same column.  ^Aggregate max() returns NULL 
  if and only if there are no non-NULL values in the group.
}

funcdef {min(X)} {*minAggFunc *agg_min {min() aggregate function}} {
  ^The min() aggregate function
  returns the minimum non-NULL value of all values in the group.
  ^The minimum value is the first non-NULL value that would appear
  in an ORDER BY of the column.
  ^Aggregate min() returns NULL if and only if there are no non-NULL
  values in the group.
}

funcdef {sum(X) total(X)} {
  *sumFunc *sum *total
  {sum() aggregate function}
  {total() aggregate function}
} {
  ^The sum() and total() aggregate functions
  return sum of all non-NULL values in the group.
  ^If there are no non-NULL input rows then sum() returns
  NULL but total() returns 0.0.
  NULL is not normally a helpful result for the sum of no rows
  but the SQL standard requires it and most other
  SQL database engines implement sum() that way so SQLite does it in the
  same way in order to be compatible.   The non-standard total() function
  is provided as a convenient way to work around this design problem
  in the SQL language.</p>

  <p>^The result of total() is always a floating point value.
  ^The result of sum() is an integer value if all non-NULL inputs are integers.
  ^If any input to sum() is neither an integer or a NULL
  then sum() returns a floating point value
  which might be an approximation to the true sum.</p>

  <p>^Sum() will throw an "integer overflow" exception if all inputs
  are integers or NULL
  and an integer overflow occurs at any point during the computation.
  ^Total() never throws an integer overflow.
}
</tcl>
</table>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section INSERT insert {INSERT *INSERTs}

BubbleDiagram insert-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>The INSERT statement comes in three basic forms.  
<ul>
<li><p>^The first form (with the "VALUES" keyword) creates a single new row in
an existing table. ^If no column-list is specified then the number of
values must be the same as the number of columns in the table. ^In this case
the result of evaluting the left-most expression in the VALUES list is 
inserted into the left-most column of the new row, and so on. ^If a
column-list is specified, then the number of values must match the number of
specified columns. ^Each of the named columns of the new row is populated
with the results of evaluating the corresponding VALUES expression. ^Table
columns that do not appear in the column list are populated with the default
column value (specified as part of the CREATE TABLE statement), or with NULL if
no default value is specified.

<li><p>The second form of the INSERT statement contains a SELECT statement
instead of a VALUES clause. ^A new entry is inserted into the table for each
row of data returned by executing the SELECT statement. ^If a column-list is
specified, the number of columns in the result of the SELECT must be the same
as the number of items in the column-list. ^Otherwise, if no column-list is
specified, the number of columns in the result of the SELECT must be the same
as the number of columns in the table. ^Any SELECT statement, including
compound SELECTs and SELECT statements with ORDER BY and/or LIMIT clauses, 
may be used in an INSERT statement of this form.

<li><p>The third form of an INSERT statement is with DEFAULT VALUES.
^(The INSERT ... DEFAULT VALUES statement inserts a single new row into the
named table.)^ ^Each column of the new row is populated with its default value,
or with a NULL if no default value is specified as part of the column
definition in the CREATE TABLE statement.

</ul>

<p>^The optional conflict-clause allows the specification of an alternative
constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one INSERT command.
See the section titled
[ON CONFLICT] for additional information.
For compatibility with MySQL, ^the parser allows the use of the
single keyword <a href="lang_replace.html">REPLACE</a> as an 
alias for "INSERT OR REPLACE".

<p>^(The optional "<i>database-name</i><b>.</b>" prefix on the <i>table-name</i>
is support for top-level INSERT statements only.)^  ^The table name must be
unqualified for INSERT statements that occur within [CREATE TRIGGER] statements.
^Similarly, the "DEFAULT VALUES" form of the INSERT statement is supported for
top-level INSERT statements only and not for INSERT statements within
triggers.
<p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {ON CONFLICT clause} conflict {{conflict clause} {ON CONFLICT}}

BubbleDiagram conflict-clause
</tcl>

<p>The ON CONFLICT clause is not a separate SQL command.  It is a
non-standard clause that can appear in many other SQL commands.
It is given its own section in this document because it is not
part of standard SQL and therefore might not be familiar.</p>

<p>^The syntax for the ON CONFLICT clause is as shown above for
the CREATE TABLE command.  ^For the INSERT and
UPDATE commands, the keywords "ON CONFLICT" are replaced by "OR" so that
the syntax reads more naturally.  For example, instead of
"INSERT ON CONFLICT IGNORE" we have "INSERT OR IGNORE".
The keywords change but the meaning of the clause is the same
either way.</p>

<p>The ON CONFLICT clause applies to UNIQUE, NOT NULL, and CHECK
constraints (and to PRIMARY KEY constraints which for the purposes 
of this section are the same thing as UNIQUE constraints).
The ON CONFLICT algorithm does not
apply to [FOREIGN KEY constraints].
There are five conflict resolution algorithm choices:
ROLLBACK, ABORT, FAIL, IGNORE, and REPLACE.
^The default conflict resolution algorithm is ABORT.  This
is what they mean:</p>

<dl>
<dt><b>ROLLBACK</b></dt>
<dd><p> ^When an applicable constraint violation occurs, the ROLLBACK
resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement with
an SQLITE_CONSTRAINT error and rolls back the current transaction.
^If no transaction is
active (other than the implied transaction that is created on every
command) then the ROLLBACK resolution algorithm works the same as the
ABORT algorithm.</p></dd>

<dt><b>ABORT</b></dt>
<dd><p> ^When an applicable constraint violation occurs, the ABORT
resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement
with an SQLITE_CONSTRAIT error and backs out any changes
made by the current SQL statement; but changes caused
by prior SQL statements within the same transaction are preserved and the
transaction remains active.
This is the default behavior and the behavior proscribed the SQL
standard.</p></dd>

<dt><b>FAIL</b></dt>
<dd><p> ^When an applicable constraint violation occurs, the FAIL
resolution algorithm aborts the current SQL statement with an
SQLITE_CONSTRAINT error.  ^But the FAIL resolution does not
back out prior changes of the SQL statement that failed nor does
it end the transaction.
^For example, if an UPDATE
statement encountered a constraint violation on the 100th row that
it attempts to update, then the first 99 row changes are preserved
but changes to rows 100 and beyond never occur.</p></dd>

(<dt><b>IGNORE</b></dt>
<dd><p> ^When an applicable constraint violation occurs, 
the IGNORE resolution algorithm skips the one row that contains
the constraint violation and continues processing subsequent rows
of the SQL statement as if nothing went wrong.
Other rows before and after the row that
contained the constraint violation are inserted or updated
normally. ^No error is returned when the IGNORE conflict resolution
algorithm is used.</p></dd>

<dt><b>REPLACE</b></dt>
<dd><p> ^When a UNIQUE constraint violation occurs, the REPLACE algorithm
deletes pre-existing rows that are causing the constraint violation
prior to inserting or updating the current row and the command continues 
executing normally.
^If a NOT NULL constraint violation occurs, the REPLACE conflict
resolution replaces the NULL value with
he default value for that column, or if the column has no default
value, then the ABORT algorithm is used.
^If a CHECK constraint violation occurs, the REPLACE conflict resolution
algorithm always works like ABORT.</p>

<p>^When the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy deletes rows in order to
satisfy a constraint, [CREATE TRIGGER | delete triggers] fire if and only if
[recursive_triggers pragma | recursive triggers] are enabled.</p>

<p>^The [sqlite3_update_hook | update hook] is not invoked for rows that
are deleted by the REPLACE conflict resolution strategy.  ^Nor does
REPLACE increment the [sqlite3_changes | change counter].
The exceptional behaviors defined in this paragraph might change 
in a future release.</p>
</dl>

<p>^The algorithm specified in the OR clause of a INSERT or UPDATE
overrides any algorithm specified in a CREATE TABLE.
^If no algorithm is specified anywhere, the ABORT algorithm is used.</p>

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section REINDEX reindex REINDEX

BubbleDiagram reindex-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>^The REINDEX command is used to delete and recreate indices from scratch.
This is useful when the definition of a collation sequence has changed.
</p>

<p>^If the REINDEX keyword is not followed by a collation-sequence or database 
object identifier, then all indices in all attached databases are rebuilt.

<p>^If the REINDEX keyword is followed by a collation-sequence name, then
all indices in all attached databases that use the named collation sequences
are recreated. 

<p>^Or, if the argument attached to the REINDEX identifies a specific 
database table, then all indices attached to the database table are rebuilt. 
^If it identifies a specific database index, then just that index is recreated.

<p>^If no <i>database-name</i> is specified and there exists both a table or
index and a collation sequence of the specified name, SQLite interprets
this as a request to rebuild the indices that use the named collation sequence.
This ambiguity in the syntax may be avoided by always specifying a
<i>database-name</i> when reindexing a specific table or index.

<tcl>
###############################################################################
Section REPLACE replace REPLACE

</tcl>

<p>^The REPLACE command is an alias for the "[ON CONFLICT | INSERT OR REPLACE]"
variant of the [INSERT] command.  
This alias is provided for compatibility other SQL database engines.  See the 
[INSERT] command documentation for additional information.</p>  

<tcl>
###############################################################################
Section SELECT select {SELECT query}

BubbleDiagram select-stmt 1
BubbleDiagram select-core
BubbleDiagram result-column
BubbleDiagram join-source
BubbleDiagram single-source
BubbleDiagram join-op
BubbleDiagram join-constraint
BubbleDiagram ordering-term
BubbleDiagram compound-operator
</tcl>


<p>The SELECT statement is used to query the database.  The
result of a SELECT is zero or more rows of data where each row
has a fixed number of columns.  

<p>The SELECT statement is the most complicated command in the SQL language.
To make the description easier to follow, some of the passages below describe
the way the data returned by a SELECT statement is determined as a series of
steps. It is important to keep in mind that this is purely illustrative -
in practice neither SQLite nor any other SQL engine is required to follow 
this or any other specific process.

<h3>Simple Select Processing</h3>

<p>The syntax for a simple SELECT statement is depicted in the 
[select-core syntax diagram]. Generating the results of a simple SELECT
statement is presented as a four step process in the description below:

<ol>
  <li> <p>[FROM clause] processing: The input data for the simple SELECT is
       determined. The input data is either implicitly a single row with 0
       columns (if there is no FROM clause) or is determined by analyzing the
       [join-source syntax diagram|join-source] specification that follows 
       an explicit FROM clause.
  <li> <p>[WHERE clause] processing: The input data is filtered using the WHERE
       clause expression.  
  <li> <p>[GROUP BY|GROUP BY, HAVING and result-column expression] processing: 
       The set of result rows is computed by aggregating the data according to
       any GROUP BY clause and calculating the result-set expressions for the
       rows of the filtered input dataset.  
  <li> <p>[DISTINCT|DISTINCT/ALL keyword] processing: If the query is a "SELECT
       DISTINCT" query, duplicate rows are removed from the set of result rows.
</ol>

<p>There are two types of simple SELECT statement - aggregate and 
non-aggregate queries. ^A simple SELECT statement is an aggregate query if
it contains either a GROUP BY clause or one or more aggregate functions
in the result-set. ^Otherwise, if a simple SELECT contains no aggregate
functions or a GROUP BY clause, it is a non-aggregate query.

<p><b>1. Determination of input data (FROM clause processing).</b>
<tcl>hd_fragment fromclause</tcl>
<tcl>hd_keywords {FROM clause}</tcl>

<p>The input data used by a simple SELECT query is a set of <i>N</i> rows 
each <i>M</i> columns wide.

<p>^(If the FROM clause is omitted from a simple SELECT statement, then the 
input data is implicitly a single row zero columns wide)^ (i.e. <i>N</i>=1 and
<i>M</i>=0).

<p>If a FROM clause is specified, the data on which a simple SELECT query
operates comes from the one or more tables or subqueries (SELECT statements
in parenthesis) specified following the FROM keyword. ^A sub-select specified
in the join-source following the FROM clause in a simple SELECT statement is
handled as if it was a table containing the data returned by executing the
sub-select statement. ^Each column of the sub-select dataset inherits the
[collation|collation sequence] and [affinity] of the corresponding expression
in the sub-select statement.

<p>^If there is only a single table in the join-source following the FROM
clause, then the input data used by the SELECT statement is the contents of the
named table. ^If there is more than one table specified as part of the
join-source following the FROM keyword, then the contents of each named table
are joined into a single dataset for the simple SELECT statement to operate on.
Exactly how the data is combined depends on the specific [join-op] and
[join-constraint] used to connect the tables or subqueries together.

<p>All joins in SQLite are based on the cartesian product of the left and
right-hand datasets. ^The columns of the cartesian product dataset are, in 
order, all the columns of the left-hand dataset followed by all the columns
of the right-hand dataset. ^There is a row in the cartesian product dataset
formed by combining each unique combination of a row from the left-hand 
and right-hand datasets. ^(In other words, if the left-hand dataset consists of
<i>Nlhs</i> rows of <i>Mlhs</i> columns, and the right-hand dataset of
<i>Nrhs</i> rows of <i>Mrhs</i> columns, then the cartesian product is a
dataset of <i>Nlhs.Nrhs</i> rows, each containing <i>Mlhs+Mrhs</i> columns.)^

<p>^If the join-op is "CROSS JOIN", "INNER JOIN", "JOIN" or a comma
(",") and there is no ON or USING clause, then the result of the join is
simply the cartesian product of the left and right-hand datasets. 
^There is no difference between the "INNER JOIN", "JOIN" and "," join
operators. ^(The "CROSS JOIN" join operator produces the same data as the 
"INNER JOIN", "JOIN" and "," operators)^, but is 
<a href=optoverview.html#manctrl>handled slightly differently by the query
optimizer</a>. Otherwise, it is the cartesian product modified 
according to one or more of the following bullet points: 

<ul>
  <li> <p>^(If there is an ON clause specified, then the ON expression is
       evaluated for each row of the cartesian product as a 
       [boolean expression]. All rows for which the expression evaluates to 
       false are excluded from the dataset.)^

  <li> <p>^If there is a USING clause specified as part of the join-constraint,
       then each of the column names specified must exist in the datasets to 
       both the left and right of the join-op. ^(For each pair of namesake
       columns, the expression "lhs.X = rhs.X" is evaluated for each row of
       the cartesian product as a [boolean expression]. All rows for which one
       or more of the expressions evaluates to false are excluded from the
       result set.)^ ^When comparing values as a result of a USING clause, the
       normal rules for handling affinities, collation sequences and NULL
       values in comparisons apply. ^The column from the dataset on the
       left-hand side of the join operator is considered to be on the left-hand
       side of the comparison operator (=) for the purposes of collation 
       sequence and affinity precedence.

       <p>^For each pair of columns identified by a USING clause, the column
       from the right-hand dataset is omitted from the joined dataset. ^This 
       is the only difference between a USING clause and its equivalent ON
       constraint.

  <li> <p>^(If the NATURAL keyword is added to any of the join-ops, then an
       implicit USING clause is added to the join-constraints. The implicit
       USING clause contains each of the column names that appear in both
       the left and right-hand input datasets.)^ ^If the left and right-hand
       input datasets feature no common column names, then the NATURAL keyword
       has no effect on the results of the join. ^A USING or ON clause may
       not be added to a join that specifies the NATURAL keyword.

  <li> <p>^(If the join-op is a "LEFT JOIN" or "LEFT OUTER JOIN", then after
       the ON or USING filtering clauses have been applied, an extra row is 
       added to the output for each row in the original left-hand input 
       dataset that corresponds to no rows at all in the composite
       dataset (if any).)^ ^The added rows contain NULL values in the columns
       that would normally contain values copied from the right-hand input
       dataset.  
</ul>

<p>^(When more than two tables are joined together as part of a FROM clause,
the join operations are processed in order from left to right. In other 
words, the FROM clause (A join-op-1 B join-op-2 C) is computed as 
((A join-op-1 B) join-op-2 C).)^
       

<p><b>2. WHERE clause filtering.</b>
<tcl>hd_fragment whereclause</tcl>
<tcl>hd_keywords {WHERE clause}</tcl>

<p>^(If a WHERE clause is specified, the WHERE expression is evaluated for 
each row in the input data as a [boolean expression]. All rows for which the
WHERE clause expression evaluates to false are excluded from the dataset before
continuing.)^

<p><b>3. Generation of the set of result rows.</b>
<tcl>hd_fragment resultset</tcl>
<tcl>hd_keywords {result-set expressions} {GROUP BY}</tcl>

<p>Once the input data from the FROM clause has been filtered by the
WHERE clause expression (if any), the set of result rows for the simple 
SELECT are calculated. Exactly how this is done depends on whether the simple 
SELECT is an aggregate or non-aggregate query, and whether or not a GROUP
BY clause was specified.

<p> The list of expressions between the SELECT and FROM keywords is known as
the result expression list.  ^If a result expression is the special expression
"*" then all columns in the input data are substituted for that one expression.
^(If the expression is the alias of a table or subquery in the FROM clause
followed by ".*" then all columns from the named table or subquery are
substituted for the single expression.)^ ^(It is an error to use a "*" or
"alias.*" expression in any context other than than a result expression list.)^
^(It is also an error to use a "*" or "alias.*" expression in a simple SELECT
query that does not have a FROM clause.)^

<p> ^(The number of columns in the rows returned by a simple SELECT statement
is equal to the number of expressions in the result expression list after
substitution of * and alias.* expressions.)^ Each result row is calculated by
evaluating the expressions in the result expression list with respect to a
single row of input data or, for aggregate queries, with respect to a group
of rows.

<ul>
  <li><p>^If the SELECT statement is <b>a non-aggregate query</b>, then 
    each expression in the result expression list is evaluated for each row in
    the dataset filtered by the WHERE clause.

  <li><p>^If the SELECT statement is <b>an aggregate query without a GROUP
    BY</b> clause, then each aggregate expression in the result-set is 
    evaluated once across the entire dataset. ^Each non-aggregate expression
    in the result-set is evaluated once for an arbitrarily selected row of
    the dataset. ^The same arbitrarily selected row is used for each
    non-aggregate expression. ^Or, if the dataset contains zero rows, then 
    each non-aggregate expression is evaluated against a row consisting
    entirely of NULL values.

   <p>^The single row of result-set data created by evaluating the aggregate
    and non-aggregate expressions in the result-set forms the result of an
    aggregate query without a GROUP BY clause. ^An aggregate query without a
    GROUP BY clause always returns exactly one row of data, even if there are
    zero rows of input data.

  <li><p>^(If the SELECT statement is <b>an aggregate query with a GROUP
    BY</b> clause, then each of the expressions specified as part of the
    GROUP BY clause is evaluated for each row of the dataset. Each row
    is then assigned to a "group" based on the results; rows for which
    the results of evaluating the GROUP BY expressions are the same are
    assigned to the same group.)^ ^For the purposes of grouping rows, NULL 
    values are considered equal. ^The usual rules for [collation|selecting a
    collation sequence] with which to compare text values apply when evaluating
    expressions in a GROUP BY clause.  ^The expressions in the GROUP BY clause
    do <em>not</em> have to be expressions that appear in the result. ^The
    expressions in a GROUP BY clause may not be aggregate expressions.

    <p>^(If a HAVING clause is specified, it is evaluated once for each group 
    of rows as a [boolean expression]. If the result of evaluating the
    HAVING clause is false, the group is discarded.)^ ^If the HAVING clause is
    an aggregate expression, it is evaluated across all rows in the group. ^If
    a HAVING clause is a non-aggregate expression, it is evaluated with respect
    to an arbitrarily selected row from the group.  ^The HAVING expression may
    refer to values, even aggregate functions, that are not in the result.</p>

    <p>^Each expression in the result-set is then evaluated once for each
    group of rows. ^If the expression is an aggregate expression, it is 
    evaluated across all rows in the group. ^Otherwise, it is evaluated against
    a single arbitrarily chosen row from within the group. ^If there is more
    than one non-aggregate expression in the result-set, then all such
    expressions are evaluated for the same row.

    <p>^Each group of input dataset rows contributes a single row to the 
    set of result rows. ^Subject to filtering associated with the DISTINCT
    keyword, the number of rows returned by an aggregate query with a GROUP
    BY clause is the same as the number of groups of rows produced by applying
    the GROUP BY and HAVING clauses to the filtered input dataset.
</ul>

<p><b>4. Removal of duplicate rows (DISTINCT processing).</b>
<tcl>hd_fragment distinct</tcl>
<tcl>hd_keywords {DISTINCT}</tcl>

<p>^One of the ALL or DISTINCT keywords may follow the SELECT keyword in a 
simple SELECT statement. ^If the simple SELECT is a SELECT ALL, then the
entire set of result rows are returned by the SELECT. ^If neither ALL or
DISTINCT are present, then the behaviour is as if ALL were specified. 
^If the simple SELECT is a SELECT DISTINCT, then duplicate rows are removed
from the set of result rows before it is returned. ^For the purposes of
detecting duplicate rows, two NULL values are considered to be equal. ^The
normal rules for selecting a collation sequence to compare text values with
apply.

<h3>Compound Select Statements</h3>

<p>Two or more simple SELECT statements may be connected together to form
a compound SELECT using the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT or EXCEPT operator.
^In a compound SELECT, all the constituent SELECTs must return the same 
number of result columns. ^As the components of a compound SELECT must
be simple SELECT statements, they may not contain ORDER BY or LIMIT clauses.
^ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses may only occur at the end of the entire compound
SELECT.  

<p>^A compound SELECT created using UNION ALL operator returns all the rows
from the SELECT to the left of the UNION ALL operator, and all the rows
from the SELECT to the right of it. ^The UNION operator works the same way as
UNION ALL, except that duplicate rows are removed from the final result set.
^The INTERSECT operator returns the intersection of the results of the left and
right SELECTs.  ^The EXCEPT operator returns the subset of rows returned by the
left SELECT that are not also returned by the right-hand SELECT. ^Duplicate
rows are removed from the results of INTERSECT and EXCEPT operators before the
result set is returned.

<p>^For the purposes of determining duplicate rows for the results of compound
SELECT operators, NULL values are considered equal to other NULL values and
distinct from all non-NULL values. ^The collation sequence used to compare 
two text values is determined as if the columns of the left and right-hand
SELECT statements were the left and right-hand operands of the equals (=)
operator, except that greater precedence is not assigned to a collation 
sequence specified with the postfix COLLATE operator. ^No affinity
transformations are applied to any values when comparing rows as part of a
compound SELECT. 

<p>^(When three or more simple SELECTs are connected into a compound SELECT,
they group from left to right. In other words, if "A", "B" and "C" are all
simple SELECT statements, (A op B op C) is processed as ((A op B) op C).)^

</p>

<tcl>hd_fragment orderby {order by}</tcl>
<h3>ORDER BY and LIMIT/OFFSET Clauses</h3>

<p>If a SELECT statement that returns more than one row does not have an
ORDER BY clause, the order in which the rows are returned is undefined.
Or, if a SELECT statement does have an ORDER BY clause, then the list of
expressions attached to the ORDER BY determine the order in which rows
are returned to the user. ^Rows are first sorted based on the results of
evaluating the left-most expression in the ORDER BY list, then ties are broken
by evaluating the second left-most expression and so on. The order in which
two rows for which all ORDER BY expressions evaluate to equal values are
returned is undefined. ^Each ORDER BY expression may be optionally followed
by one of the keywords ASC (smaller values are returned first) or DESC (larger
values are returned first). ^If neither ASC or DESC are specified, rows
are sorted in ascending (smaller values first) order by default.

<p>Each ORDER BY expression is processed as follows:</p>

<ol>
<li><p>^If the ORDER BY expression is a constant integer K then the
expression is considered an alias for the K-th column of the result set
(columns are numbered from left to right starting with 1).

<li><p>^If the ORDER BY expression is an identifier that corresponds to
the alias of one of the output columns, then the expression is considered
an alias for that column.

<li><p>^Otherwise, if the ORDER BY expression is any other expression, it 
is evaluated and the the returned value used to order the output rows. ^If
the SELECT statement is a simple SELECT, then an ORDER BY may contain any
arbitrary expressions. ^However, if the SELECT is a compound SELECT, then
ORDER BY expressions that are not aliases to output columns must be exactly
the same as an expression used as an output column.
</ol>

<p>^For the purposes of sorting rows, values are compared in the same way
as for [comparison expressions]. The collation sequence used to compare
two text values is determined as follows:

<ol>
  <li><p>^If the ORDER BY expression is assigned a collation sequence using
  the postfix [COLLATE operator], then the specified collation sequence is
  used.
  <li><p>^Otherwise, if the ORDER BY expression is an alias to an expression
  that has been assigned a collation sequence using the postfix 
  [COLLATE operator], then the collation sequence assigned to the aliased
  expression is used.
  <li><p>^Otherwise, if the ORDER BY expression is a column or an alias of
  an expression that is a column, then the default collation sequence for
  the column is used. 
  <li><p>^Otherwise, the [BINARY] collation sequence is used.
</ol>

<p>In a compound SELECT statement, all ORDER BY expressions are handled
as aliases for one of the result columns of the compound SELECT.
^(If an ORDER BY expression is not an integer alias, then SQLite searches
the left-most SELECT in the compound for a result column that matches either
the second or third rules above. If a match is found, the search stops and
the expression is handled as an alias for the result column that it has been
matched against. Otherwise, the next SELECT to the right is tried, and so on.)^
^If no matching expression can be found in the result columns of any
constituent SELECT, it is an error. ^Each term of the ORDER BY clause is
processed separately and may be matched against result columns from different
SELECT statements in the compound.</p>

<p>The LIMIT clause is used to place an upper bound on the number of rows
returned by a SELECT statement. ^Any scalar expression may be used in the 
LIMIT clause, so long as it evaluates to an integer or a value that can be
losslessly converted to an integer. ^If the expression evaluates to a NULL 
value or any other value that cannot be losslessly converted to an integer, an
error is returned. ^If the LIMIT expression evaluates to a negative value,
then there is no upper bound on the number of rows returned. ^Otherwise, the
SELECT returns the first N rows of its result set only, where N is the value
that the LIMIT expression evaluates to. ^Or, if the SELECT statement would
return less than N rows without a LIMIT clause, then the entire result set is
returned. 

<p>^The expression attached to the optional OFFSET clause that may follow a
LIMIT clause must also evaluate to an integer, or a value that can be
losslessly converted to an integer. ^If an expression has an OFFSET clause,
then the first M rows are omitted from the result set returned by the SELECT
statement and the next N rows are returned, where M and N are the values that
the OFFSET and LIMIT clauses evaluate to, respectively. ^Or, if the SELECT
would return less than M+N rows if it did not have a LIMIT clause, then the
first M rows are skipped and the remaining rows (if any) are returned. ^If the
OFFSET clause evaluates to a negative value, the results are the same as if it
had evaluated to zero.

<p>^Instead of a separate OFFSET clause, the LIMIT clause may specify two
scalar expressions separated by a comma. ^In this case, the first expression
is used as the OFFSET expression and the second as the LIMIT expression.
This is counter-intuitive, as when using the OFFSET clause the second of
the two expressions is the OFFSET and the first the LIMIT. This is intentional
- it maximizes compatibility with other SQL database systems.

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section UPDATE update {UPDATE *UPDATEs}

BubbleDiagram update-stmt 1
BubbleDiagram qualified-table-name
</tcl>

<p>^An UPDATE statement is used to modify a subset of the values stored in 
zero or more rows of the database table identified by the 
<i>qualified-table-name</i> specified as part of the UPDATE statement.

<p>^If the UPDATE statement does not have a WHERE clause, all rows in the
table are modified by the UPDATE. ^Otherwise, the UPDATE affects only those
rows for which the result of evaluating the WHERE clause expression as a 
[boolean expression|boolean expression is true]. ^It is not an error if the
WHERE clause does not evaluate to true for any row in the table - this just
means that the UPDATE statement affects zero rows.

<p>The modifications made to each row affected by an UPDATE statement are
determined by the list of assignments following the SET keyword. Each
assignment specifies a column name to the left of the equals sign and a
scalar expression to the right. ^For each affected row, the named columns
are set to the values found by evaluating the corresponding scalar 
expressions. ^If a single column-name appears more than once in the list of
assignment expressions, all but the rightmost occurence is ignored. ^Columns
that do not appear in the list of assignments are left unmodified. ^The scalar
expressions may refer to columns of the row being updated. ^In this case all
scalar expressions are evaluated before any assignments are made.

<p>^The optional conflict-clause allows the user to nominate a specific
constraint conflict resolution algorithm to use during this one UPDATE command.
Refer to the section entitled [ON CONFLICT] for additional information.

<h3>Restrictions on UPDATE Statements Within CREATE TRIGGER</h3>

<p>The following additional syntax restrictions apply to UPDATE statements that
occur within the body of a [CREATE TRIGGER] statement.  

<ul>
  <li><p>^The <i>table-name</i> specified as part of an UPDATE statement within
      a trigger body must be unqualified. ^(In other words, the
      <i>database-name</i><b>.</b> prefix on the table name of the UPDATE is
      not allowed within triggers.)^ ^Unless the table to which the trigger
      is attached is in the TEMP database, the table being updated by the
      trigger program must reside in the same database as it. ^If the table
      to which the trigger is attached is in the TEMP database, then the
      unqualified name of the table being updated is resolved in the same way
      as it is for a top-level statement (by searching first the TEMP database,
      then the main database, then any other databases in the order they were
      attached).

  <li><p>^The INDEXED BY and NOT INDEXED clauses are not allowed on UPDATE
      statements within triggers.</p>

  <li><p>^The LIMIT and ORDER BY clauses for UPDATE are unsupported within
      triggers, regardless of the compilation options used to build SQLite.
</ul>

<h3>Optional LIMIT and ORDER BY Clauses</h3>

<p>^(If SQLite is built with the [SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT]
compile-time option then the syntax of the UPDATE statement is extended
with optional ORDER BY and LIMIT clauses)^ as follows:</p>

<tcl>BubbleDiagram update-stmt-limited</tcl>

<p>^If an UPDATE statement has a LIMIT clause, the maximum number of rows that
will be updated is found by evaluating the accompanying expression and casting
it to an integer value. ^A negative value is interpreted as "no limit".

<p>^If the LIMIT expression evaluates to non-negative value <i>N</i> and the
UPDATE statement has an ORDER BY clause, then all rows that would be updated in
the absence of the LIMIT clause are sorted according to the ORDER BY and the
first <i>N</i> updated. ^(If the UPDATE statement also has an OFFSET clause,
then it is similarly evaluated and cast to an integer value. If the OFFSET
expression evaluates to a non-negative value <i>M</i>, then the first <i>M</i>
rows are skipped and the following <i>N</i> rows updated instead.)^

<p>^If the UPDATE statement has no ORDER BY clause, then all rows that
would be updated in the absence of the LIMIT clause are assembled in an
arbitrary order before applying the LIMIT and OFFSET clauses to determine 
which are actually updated.

<p>^(The ORDER BY clause on an UPDATE statement is used only to determine which
rows fall within the LIMIT. The order in which rows are modified is arbitrary
and is not influenced by the ORDER BY clause.)^

<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section VACUUM vacuum VACUUM

BubbleDiagram vacuum-stmt 1
</tcl>

<p>
  The VACUUM command rebuilds the entire database. There are several 
  reasons an application might do this:

<ul>
  <li> <p> ^Unless SQLite is running in "auto_vacuum=FULL" mode, when a large
     amount of data is deleted from the database file it leaves behind empty
     space, or "free" database pages. This means the database file might
     be larger than strictly necessary. ^Running VACUUM to rebuild the 
     database reclaims this space and reduces the size of the database file.

  <li> <p> ^Frequent inserts, updates, and deletes can cause the database file
     to become fragmented - where data for a single table or index is scattered 
     around the database file. ^Running VACUUM ensures that each table and
     index is largely stored contiguously within the database file. ^In some
     cases, VACUUM may also reduce the number of partially filled pages in
     the database, reducing the size of the database file further.

  <li> <p> ^Normally, the database [page_size] and whether or not the database
     supports [auto_vacuum] must be configured before the database file is
     actually created. ^However, when not in [write-ahead log] mode, the 
     [page_size] and/or [auto_vacuum] properties of an existing database may be
     changed by using the [page_size pragma|page_size]  and/or 
     [auto_vacuum|pragma auto_vacuum] pragmas and then immediately VACUUMing
     the database. ^When in [write-ahead log] mode, only the [auto_vacuum]
     support property can be changed using VACUUM.
</ul>

<p>^(VACUUM only works on the main database. It is not possible to VACUUM an
attached database file.)^

<p>^The VACUUM command works by copying the contents of the database into
a temporary database file and then overwriting the original with the 
contents of the temporary file. ^When overwriting the original, a rollback
journal or [write-ahead log] WAL file is used just as it would be for any
other database transaction. ^This means that when VACUUMing a database, 
as much as twice the size of the original database file is required in free
disk space.

<p>^The VACUUM command may change the [ROWID | ROWIDs] of entries in any
tables that do not have an explicit [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY].
</p>

<p>^A VACUUM will fail if there is an open transaction, or if there are one or
more active SQL statements when it is run.

<p>^(As of SQLite version 3.1, an alternative to using the VACUUM command to
reclaim space after data has been deleted is auto-vacuum mode, enabled using
the [auto_vacuum] pragma.)^ ^When [auto_vacuum] is enabled for a database
free pages may be reclaimed after deleting data, causing the file to shrink,
without rebuilding the entire database using VACUUM.  However, using
[auto_vacuum] can lead to extra database file fragmentation.  And [auto_vacuum]
does not compact partially filled pages of the database as VACUUM does.

</p>


<tcl>
##############################################################################
Section {INDEXED BY} indexedby {{INDEXED BY} {NOT INDEXED}}

</tcl>
<p>^The INDEXED BY phrase is a SQL extension found only in SQLite which can
be used to verify that the correct indices are being used on a [DELETE],
[SELECT], or [UPDATE] statement.
^The INDEXED BY phrase always follows the name of a table that SQLite will
be reading.  The INDEXED BY phrase can be seen in the following syntax
diagrams:</p>

<tcl>
BubbleDiagram qualified-table-name
BubbleDiagram single-source
</tcl>

<p>^The "INDEXED BY index-name" clause specifies that the named index
must be used in order to look up values on the preceding table.
^If index-name does not exist or cannot be used for the query, then
the preparation of the SQL statement fails.
^(The "NOT INDEXED" clause specifies that no index shall be used when
accessing the preceding table, including implied indices create by
UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints.  However, the INTEGER PRIMARY KEY
can still be used to look up entries even when "NOT INDEXED" is specified.)^</p>

<p>Some SQL database engines provide non-standard "hint" mechanisms which
can be used to give the query optimizer clues about what indices it should
use for a particular statement.  The INDEX BY clause of SQLite is 
<em>not</em> a hinting mechanism and it should not be used as such.
^The INDEXED BY clause does not give the optimizer hints about which index
to use; it gives the optimizer a requirement of which index to use.
^If the query optimizer is unable to use the index specified by the
INDEX BY clause, then the query will fail with an error.</p>

<p>The INDEXED BY clause is <em>not</em> intended for use in tuning
the performance of a query.  The intent of the INDEXED BY clause is
to raise a run-time error if a schema change, such as dropping or
creating an index, causes the query plan for a time-sensitive query
to change.  The INDEXED BY clause is designed to help detect
undesirable query plan changes during regression testing.
Developers are admonished to omit all use of INDEXED BY during
application design, implementation, testing, and tuning.  If
INDEXED BY is to be used at all, it should be inserted at the very
end of the development process when "locking down" a design.</p>

<h3>See Also:</h3>

<p>The [sqlite3_stmt_status()] C/C++ interface together with the
[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_FULLSCAN_STEP] and [SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_SORT] verbs
can be used to detect at run-time when an SQL statement is not
making effective use of indices.  Many applications may prefer to
use the [sqlite3_stmt_status()] interface to detect index misuse
rather than the INDEXED BY phrase described here.</p>

<tcl>
#############################################################################
# A list of keywords.  A asterisk occurs after the keyword if it is on
# the fallback list.
#
set keyword_list [lsort {
   ABORT
   ACTION
   ADD
   AFTER
   ALL
   ALTER
   ANALYZE
   AND
   AS
   ASC
   ATTACH
   AUTOINCREMENT
   BEFORE
   BEGIN
   BETWEEN
   BY
   CASCADE
   CASE
   CAST
   CHECK
   COLLATE
   COLUMN
   COMMIT
   CONFLICT
   CONSTRAINT
   CREATE
   CROSS
   CURRENT_DATE
   CURRENT_TIME
   CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
   DATABASE
   DEFAULT
   DEFERRED
   DEFERRABLE
   DELETE
   DESC
   DETACH
   DISTINCT
   DROP
   END
   EACH
   ELSE
   ESCAPE
   EXCEPT
   EXCLUSIVE
   EXISTS
   EXPLAIN
   FAIL
   FOR
   FOREIGN
   FROM
   FULL
   GLOB
   GROUP
   HAVING
   IF
   IGNORE
   IMMEDIATE
   IN
   INDEX
   INDEXED
   INITIALLY
   INNER
   INSERT
   INSTEAD
   INTERSECT
   INTO
   IS
   ISNULL
   JOIN
   KEY
   LEFT
   LIKE
   LIMIT
   MATCH
   NATURAL
   NO
   NOT
   NOTNULL
   NULL
   OF
   OFFSET
   ON
   OR
   ORDER
   OUTER
   PLAN
   PRAGMA
   PRIMARY
   QUERY
   RAISE
   REFERENCES
   REGEXP
   REINDEX
   RELEASE
   RENAME
   REPLACE
   RESTRICT
   RIGHT
   ROLLBACK
   ROW
   SAVEPOINT
   SELECT
   SET
   TABLE
   TEMP
   TEMPORARY
   THEN
   TO
   TRANSACTION
   TRIGGER
   UNION
   UNIQUE
   UPDATE
   USING
   VACUUM
   VALUES
   VIEW
   VIRTUAL
   WHEN
   WHERE
}]

hd_puts {<DIV class="pdf_section">}
Section {SQLite Keywords} keywords {{*SQL keyword} {SQL keywords}}
hd_puts {</DIV>}
</tcl>

<p>The SQL standard specifies a huge number of keywords which may not
be used as the names of tables, indices, columns, databases, user-defined
functions, collations, virtual table modules, or any other named object.
The list of keywords is so long that few people can remember them all.
For most SQL code, your safest bet is to never use any English language
word as the name of a user-defined object.</p>

<p>If you want to use a keyword as a name, you need to quote it.  There
are three ways of quoting keywords in SQLite:</p>

<p>
<blockquote>
<table>
<tr>	<td valign="top"><b>'keyword'</b></td><td width="20"></td>
	<td>^A keyword in single quotes is a string literal.</td></tr>

<tr>	<td valign="top"><b>"keyword"</b></td><td></td>
	<td>^A keyword in double-quotes is an identifier.</td></tr>

<tr>	<td valign="top"><b>&#91;keyword&#93;</b></td><td></td>
	<td>^A keyword enclosed in square brackets is 
        an identifier.  This is not standard SQL.  This quoting mechanism
        is used by MS Access and SQL Server and is included in SQLite for
        compatibility.</td></tr>

<tr>	<td valign="top"><b>&#96;keyword&#96;</b></td><td></td>
	<td>^A keyword enclosed in grave accents (ASCII code 96) is 
        an identifier.  This is not standard SQL.  This quoting mechanism
        is used by MySQL and is included in SQLite for
        compatibility.</td></tr>
</table>
</blockquote>
</p>

<p>For resilience when confronted with historical SQL statements, SQLite
will sometimes bend the quoting rules above:</p>

<ul>
<li><p>^If a keyword in single
quotes (ex: <b>'key'</b> or <b>'glob'</b>) is used in a context where
an identifier is allowed but where a string literal is not allowed, then
the token is understood to be an identifier instead of a string literal.
</p></li>

<li><p>^If a keyword in double
quotes (ex: <b>"key"</b> or <b>"glob"</b>) is used in a context where
it cannot be resolved to an identifier but where a string literal
is allowed, then the token is understood to be a string literal instead
of an identifier.</p></li>
</ul>

<p>Programmers are cautioned not to use the two exceptions described in
the previous bullets.  We emphasize that they exist only so that old
and ill-formed SQL statements will run correctly.  Future versions of
SQLite might change to raise errors instead of accepting the malformed
statements covered by the exceptions above.</p>

<p>
SQLite adds new keywords from time to time when it takes on new features.
So to prevent your code from being broken by future enhancements, you should
normally quote any identifier that is an English language word, even if
you do not have to.
</p>

<p>
The list below shows all possible keywords used by any build of
SQLite regardless of [compile-time options].  
Most reasonable configurations use most or all of these keywords,
but some keywords may be omitted when SQL language features are
disabled.
^(Regardless of the compile-time configuration, any identifier that is not on
the following <tcl>hd_puts [llength $keyword_list]</tcl> element
list is not a keyword to the SQL parser in SQLite:
</p>

<blockquote>
<table width="100%"><tr>
<td align="left" valign="top" width="20%">
<tcl>
set n [llength $keyword_list]
set nCol 5
set nRow [expr {($n+$nCol-1)/$nCol}]
set i 0
foreach word $keyword_list {
  if {$i==$nRow} {
    hd_puts "</td><td valign=\"top\" align=\"left\" width=\"20%\">"
    set i 1
  } else {
    incr i
  }
  hd_puts "$word<br>\n"
}
</tcl>
</td></tr></table></blockquote>)^