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Activate the user authentication logic by including the
ext/userauth/userauth.c source code file in the build and
adding the -DSQLITE_USER_AUTHENTICATION compile-time option.
The ext/userauth/sqlite3userauth.h header file is available to
applications to define the interface.

When using the SQLite amalgamation, it is sufficient to append
the ext/userauth/userauth.c source file onto the end of the
amalgamation.

The following new APIs are available when user authentication is
activated:

   int sqlite3_user_authenticate(
     sqlite3 *db,           /* The database connection */
     const char *zUsername, /* Username */
     const char *aPW,       /* Password or credentials */
     int nPW                /* Number of bytes in aPW[] */
   );
   
   int sqlite3_user_add(
     sqlite3 *db,           /* Database connection */
     const char *zUsername, /* Username to be added */
     const char *aPW,       /* Password or credentials */
     int nPW,               /* Number of bytes in aPW[] */
     int isAdmin            /* True to give new user admin privilege */
   );
   
   int sqlite3_user_change(
     sqlite3 *db,           /* Database connection */
     const char *zUsername, /* Username to change */
     const void *aPW,       /* Modified password or credentials */
     int nPW,               /* Number of bytes in aPW[] */
     int isAdmin            /* Modified admin privilege for the user */
   );
   
   int sqlite3_user_delete(
     sqlite3 *db,           /* Database connection */
     const char *zUsername  /* Username to remove */
   );

With this extension, a database can be marked as requiring authentication.
By default a database does not require authentication.

The sqlite3_open(), sqlite3_open16(), and sqlite3_open_v2() interfaces
work as before: they open a new database connection.  However, if the
database being opened requires authentication, then attempts to read
or write from the database will fail with an SQLITE_AUTH error until 
after sqlite3_user_authenticate() has been called successfully.  The 
sqlite3_user_authenticate() call will return SQLITE_OK if the 
authentication credentials are accepted and SQLITE_ERROR if not.

Calling sqlite3_user_authenticate() on a no-authentication-required
database connection is a harmless no-op.  

If the database is encrypted, then sqlite3_key_v2() must be called first,
with the correct decryption key, prior to invoking sqlite3_user_authenticate().

To recapitulate: When opening an existing unencrypted authentication-
required database, the call sequence is:

    sqlite3_open_v2()
    sqlite3_user_authenticate();
    /* Database is now usable */

To open an existing, encrypted, authentication-required database, the
call sequence is:

    sqlite3_open_v2();
    sqlite3_key_v2();
    sqlite3_user_authenticate();
    /* Database is now usable */

When opening a no-authentication-required database, the database
connection is treated as if it was authenticated as an admin user.

When ATTACH-ing new database files to a connection, each newly attached
database that is an authentication-required database is checked using
the same username and password as supplied to the main database.  If that
check fails, then the ATTACH command fails with an SQLITE_AUTH error.

The sqlite3_user_add() interface can be used (by an admin user only)
to create a new user.  When called on a no-authentication-required
database and when A is true, the sqlite3_user_add(D,U,P,N,A) routine
converts the database into an authentication-required database and
logs in the database connection D as user U with password P,N.
To convert a no-authentication-required database into an authentication-
required database, the isAdmin parameter must be true.  If
sqlite3_user_add(D,U,P,N,A) is called on a no-authentication-required
database and A is false, then the call fails with an SQLITE_AUTH error.

Any call to sqlite3_user_add() by a non-admin user results in an error.

Hence, to create a new, unencrypted, authentication-required database,
the call sequence is:

    sqlite3_open_v2();
    sqlite3_user_add();

And to create a new, encrypted, authentication-required database, the call
sequence is:

    sqlite3_open_v2();
    sqlite3_key_v2();
    sqlite3_user_add();

The sqlite3_user_delete() interface can be used (by an admin user only)
to delete a user.  The currently logged-in user cannot be deleted,
which guarantees that there is always an admin user and hence that
the database cannot be converted into a no-authentication-required
database.

The sqlite3_user_change() interface can be used to change a users
login credentials or admin privilege.  Any user can change their own
password.  Only an admin user can change another users login
credentials or admin privilege setting.  No user may change their own 
admin privilege setting.

The sqlite3_set_authorizer() callback is modified to take a 7th parameter
which is the username of the currently logged in user, or NULL for a
no-authentication-required database.

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Implementation notes:

An authentication-required database is identified by the presence of a
new table:

    CREATE TABLE sqlite_user(
      uname TEXT PRIMARY KEY,
      isAdmin BOOLEAN,
      pw BLOB
    ) WITHOUT ROWID;

The sqlite_user table is inaccessible (unreadable and unwriteable) to
non-admin users and is read-only for admin users.  However, if the same
database file is opened by a version of SQLite that omits
the -DSQLITE_USER_AUTHENTICATION compile-time option, then the sqlite_user
table will be readable by anybody and writeable by anybody if
the "PRAGMA writable_schema=ON" statement is run first.

The sqlite_user.pw field is encoded by a built-in SQL function
"sqlite_crypt(X,Y)".  The two arguments are both BLOBs.  The first argument
is the plaintext password supplied to the sqlite3_user_authenticate()
interface.  The second argument is the sqlite_user.pw value and is supplied
so that the function can extract the "salt" used by the password encoder.
The result of sqlite_crypt(X,Y) is another blob which is the value that
ends up being stored in sqlite_user.pw.  To verify credentials X supplied
by the sqlite3_user_authenticate() routine, SQLite runs:

    sqlite_user.pw == sqlite_crypt(X, sqlite_user.pw)

To compute an appropriate sqlite_user.pw value from a new or modified
password X, sqlite_crypt(X,NULL) is run.  A new random salt is selected
when the second argument is NULL.

The built-in version of of sqlite_crypt() uses a simple Ceasar-cypher
which prevents passwords from being revealed by searching the raw database
for ASCII text, but is otherwise trivally broken.  For better password
security, the database should be encrypted using the SQLite Encryption
Extension or similar technology.  Or, the application can use the
sqlite3_create_function() interface to provide an alternative
implementation of sqlite_crypt() that computes a stronger password hash,
perhaps using a cryptographic hash function like SHA1.